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Genichi Taguchi 7. Shigeo Shingo 8. Philip B. Crosby 9. Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt 10. Taiichi Ohno
1. Dr. Walter Shewhart
Walter Andrew Shewhart (pronounced like "shoe-heart", March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967) was an American physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control. W. Edwards Deming said of him: As a statistician, he was, like so many of the rest of us, self-taught, on a good background of physics and mathematics.
Early life and education Born in New Canton, Illinois to Anton and Esta Barney Shewhart, he attended the University of Illinois before being awarded his doctorate in physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1917. Work on industrial quality Bell Telephone’s engineers had been working to improve the reliability of their transmission systems. Because amplifiers and other equipment had to be buried underground, there was a business need to reduce the frequency of failures and repairs. When Dr. Shewhart joined the Western Electric Company Inspection Engineering Department at the Hawthorne Works in 1918, industrial quality was limited to inspecting finished products and removing defective items. That all changed on May 16, 1924. Dr. Shewhart's boss, George D. Edwards, recalled: "Dr. Shewhart prepared a little memorandum only about a page in length. About a third of that page was given over to a simple diagram which we would all recognize today as a schematic control chart. That diagram, and the short text which preceded and followed it, set forth all of the essential principles and considerations which are involved in what we know today as process quality control." Shewhart's work pointed out the importance of reducing variation in a manufacturing process and the understanding that continual process-adjustment in reaction to non-conformance actually increased variation and degraded quality. Shewhart framed the problem in terms of assignable-cause and chance-cause variation and introduced the control chart as a tool for distinguishing between the two. Shewhart stressed that bringing a production process into a state of statistical control, where there is only chance-cause variation, and keeping it in control, is necessary to predict future output and to manage a process economically. Dr.
Shewhart created the basis for the control chart and the concept of a state of statistical control by carefully designed experiments. While Dr. Shewhart drew from pure mathematical statistical theories, he understood data from physical processes never produce a "normal distribution curve" (a Gaussian distribution, also commonly referred to as a "bell curve"). He discovered that observed variation in manufacturing data did not always behave the same way as data in nature (Brownian motion of particles). Dr. Shewhart concluded that while every process displays variation, some processes display controlled variation that is natural to the process, while others display uncontrolled variation that is not present in the process causal system at all times. Shewhart worked to advance the thinking at Bell Telephone Laboratories from their foundation in 1925 until his retirement in 1956, publishing a series of papers in the Bell System Technical Journal. His work was summarized in his book Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product (1931). Shewhart’s charts were adopted by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in 1933 and advocated to improve production during World War II in American War Standards Z1.1-1941, Z1.2-1941 and Z1.3-1942. Later work From the late 1930s onwards, Shewhart's interests expanded out from industrial quality to wider concerns in science and statistical inference. The title of his second book Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality Control (1939) asks the audacious question: What can statistical practice, and science in general, learn from the experience of industrial quality control? Shewhart's approach to statistics was radically different from that of many of his contemporaries. He possessed a strong operationalist outlook, largely absorbed from the writings of pragmatist philosopher C. I. Lewis, and this influenced his statistical practice. In particular, he had read Lewis's Mind and the World Order many times. Though he lectured in England in 1932 under the sponsorship of Karl Pearson (another committed operationalist) his ideas attracted little enthusiasm within the English statistical tradition. The British Standards nominally based on his work, in fact, diverge on serious philosophical and methodological issues from his practice. His more conventional work led him to formulate the statistical idea of tolerance intervals and to propose his data presentation rules, which are listed below: Data have no meaning apart from their context. Data contain both signal and noise. To be able to extract information, one must separate the signal from the noise within the data. Walter Shewhart visited India in 1947-48 under the sponsorship of P. C. Mahalanobis of the Indian Statistical Institute. Shewhart toured the country, held conferences and stimulated interest in statistical quality control among Indian industrialists. He died at Troy Hills, New Jersey in 1967. Influence
In 1938 his work came to the attention of physicists W. Edwards Deming and Raymond T. Birge. The two had been deeply intrigued by the issue of measurement error in science and had published a landmark paper in Reviews of Modern Physics in 1934. On reading of Shewhart's insights, they wrote to the journal to wholly recast their approach in the terms that Shewhart advocated. The encounter began a long collaboration between Shewhart and Deming that involved work on productivity during World War II and Deming's championing of Shewhart's ideas in Japan from 1950 onwards. Deming developed some of Shewhart's methodological proposals around scientific inference and named his synthesis the Shewhart cycle. Achievements and honours In his obituary for the American Statistical Association, Deming wrote of Shewhart: As a man, he was gentle, genteel, never ruffled, never off his dignity. He knew disappointment and frustration, through failure of many writers in mathematical statistics to understand his point of view. He was founding editor of the Wiley Series in Mathematical Statistics, a role that he maintained for twenty years, always championing freedom of speech and confident to publish views at variance with his own. His honours included: Founding member, fellow and president of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics; Founding member, first honorary member and first Shewhart Medalist of the American Society for Quality; Fellow and President of the American Statistical Association; Fellow of the International Statistical Institute; Honorary fellow of the Royal Statistical Society; Holley medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Honorary Doctor of Science, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta.
and much closer to the nominal values for the parts . He is perhaps best known for his work in Japan. Deming's teachings and philosophy can be seen through the results they produced when they were adopted by Japanese industry. at the time of his death. W. he taught top management how to improve design (and thus service). Soon after the car model was on the market. Engineers at Ford could not understand how this was done. Overview: Dr. There. .S. The American-made car parts were all within specified tolerance levels. Ford customers were requesting the model with Japanese transmission over the USA-made transmission. author. 1900 – December 20. 1993) was an American statistician. as the following example shows: Ford Motor Company was simultaneously manufacturing a car model with transmissions made in Japan and the United States. lecturer. As both transmissions were made to the same specifications. he was only just beginning to win widespread recognition in the U. including the application of statistical methods. plus or minus 1/8 of an inch .e. testing and sales (the last through global markets) through various methods. product quality. and they were willing to wait for the Japanese model. Ford engineers decided to take apart the two different transmissions. from 1950 onward. until they met Deming. if a part were supposed to be one foot long.2.. Edwards Deming William Edwards Deming (October 14. Deming made a significant contribution to Japan's later reputation for innovative high-quality products and its economic power.then the Japanese parts were within 1/16 of an inch. Finally. professor. the Japanese car parts were virtually identical to each other. and consultant. On the other hand. Despite being considered something of a hero in Japan. Ford engineers could not understand the customer preference for the model with Japanese transmission. He is regarded as having had more impact upon Japanese manufacturing and business than any other individual not of Japanese heritage. This made the Japanese cars run more smoothly and customers experienced fewer problems.g. Dr.
000 m2) farm purchased by his father in Powell. Her death came a little more than a year after they had adopted a daughter.S. William Albert had studied mathematics and law. including sacred choral compositions and an arrangement of The Star Spangled Banner. .C. His parents were well educated and emphasized the importance of education to their children. Iowa on his grandfather Henry Coffin Edwards's chicken farm. Later. and together they survived the difficult college years. he became a professor at New York University while engaged as an independent consultant in Washington. Deming made use of various private homes to help raise the infant and following his marriage to Lola Elizabeth Shupe (with whom he co-authored several papers) in 1932. Wyoming. then later on a 40-acre (160. Iowa.C. where the Deming Collection at the U. Douglas MacArthur as a census consultant to the Japanese government. Deming married Agnes Bell in 1922. Both graduate degrees were in mathematics and physics. brought her back home to stay. (1615–1705) an early Puritan settler and original patentee of the Connecticut Colony and Honor Treat. Edwards Deming Institute is to foster understanding of The Deming System of Profound Knowledge to advance commerce. He was the son of William Albert Deming and Pluma Irene Edwards. the daughter of Henry Coffin Edwards and Elizabeth Jane Grant.S. from the University of Colorado (1925). Deming played flute & drums and composed music throughout his life. Family Born in Sioux City. The aim of the W. He and Lola had two more children. In 1993. He later worked at the U. Library of Congress includes an extensive audiotape and videotape archive.. Department of Agriculture and the Census Department. Education (1993). Deming was the author of Out of the Crisis (1982–1986) and The New Economics for Industry. so Deming went by his middle name Edwards (the maiden name of his mother).Deming received a BSc in electrical engineering from the University of Wyoming at Laramie (1921). Deming had an internship at Bell Telephone Laboratories while studying at Yale.S. While working under Gen. Dorothy. an M. Deming founded the W. Diana and Linda survive along with seven grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. Edwards Deming Institute in Washington.D. prosperity. D. which includes his System of Profound Knowledge and the 14 Points for Management (described below). and peace. the daughter of Richard Treat (1584–1669) an early New England settler. Deming married twice: first to Agnes Bell (died 1930) in 1922. returning to Japan for many years to consult and to witness economic growth that he had predicted would come as a result of application of techniques learned from Walter Shewhart at Bell Laboratories. Deputy to the Connecticut Legislature and also a Patentee of the Royal Charter of Connecticut. Dorothy died in 1984 and Lola in 1986. she died. But in 1930. William Edwards Deming was raised in Polk City. He was a direct descendant of John Deming. and a Ph. Diana and Linda. His father's name was also William. second to Lola Shupe (died 1986) in 1932. D. Pluma had studied in San Francisco and was a musician. Government. 1662. from Yale University (1928). he famously taught statistical process control methods to Japanese business leaders.
This key insight made possible his enormous influence on the economics of the industrialized world after 1950. In 1927. Leslie E. Deming was introduced to Walter A. . but faded into disuse a few years later in the face of huge overseas demand for American mass-produced products. England. Deming found great inspiration in the work of Shewhart. In 1936 he studied under Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher and Jerzy Neyman at University College. One reason he learned so much from Shewhart. R. and John Gaillard in the compilation of the American War Standards (American Standards Association Z1.H. London.E. Shewhart's idea of common and special causes of variation led directly to Deming's theory of management. Deming was involved in early planning for the 1951 Japanese Census.G. he enrolled in the University of Wyoming at Laramie. a Ph. Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality Control. Ashcroft. led to his receiving an invitation from the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). Deming saw that these ideas could be applied not only to manufacturing processes but also to the processes by which enterprises are led and managed. Deming's expertise in quality control techniques. C. he received an M. and in 1928. He worked with H.D. as Deming began to move toward the application of statistical methods to industrial production and management. and was a statistical adviser for the United States Census Bureau (1939–45). Deming developed the sampling techniques that were used for the first time during the 1940 U. into a book published in 1939. graduating in 1921 with a BSc in electrical engineering.1-3 published in 1942)  and taught statistical process control (SPC) techniques to workers engaged in wartime production. Dodge. Statistical methods were widely applied during World War II. Deming remarked in a videotaped interview. from Yale University. from the University of Colorado. The Allied powers were occupying Japan. Kunsman of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)." Deming thus spent a great deal of time both copying Shewhart's ideas and devising ways to present them with his own twist. Deming worked as a mathematical physicist at the United States Department of Agriculture (1927–39). and he taught at Columbia University's graduate School of business (1988–1993). During World War II.S. He also was a consultant for private business. Work in Japan In 1947. Census. the originator of the concepts of statistical control of processes and the related technical tool of the control chart. Simon. In 1925. combined with his involvement in Japanese society. Deming edited a series of lectures delivered by Shewhart at USDA. While in Japan. while brilliant. Shewhart of the Bell Telephone Laboratories by Dr. A. Wareham.Early life and work In 1917. was that. Both graduate degrees were in mathematics and mathematical physics. and he was asked by the United States Department of the Army to assist with the census. He was a professor of statistics at New York University's graduate school of business administration (1946–1993). Deming was a member of the five-man Emergency Technical Committee. Shewhart had an "uncanny ability to make things difficult.S.F.
Deming's contributions and his famous Red Bead Experiment is on display outside the board room of the American Society for Quality. and as part of Japan's reconstruction efforts. Perhaps the best known of these management lectures was delivered at the Mt. Deming declined to receive royalties from the transcripts of his 1950 lectures. played drums and flute. Deming Japan’s Order of the Sacred Treasure. Second Class. so JUSE's board of directors established the Deming Prize (December 1950) to repay him for his friendship and kindness. Deming continued running his own consultancy business in the United States. such as quality control and market survey techniques. The improved quality combined with the lowered cost created new international demand for Japanese products. acting on behalf of Emperor Hirohito. Deming trained hundreds of engineers. He sang in a choir. the Deming Prize continues to exert considerable influence on the disciplines of quality control and quality management. if very subtle.. and for his interest in music. Honors In 1960. Why can't we? about the increasing industrial competition the United States was facing from Japan. Rice Statistics Mission member 1950. he was featured prominently in an NBC documentary titled If Japan can. A number of Japanese manufacturers applied his techniques widely and experienced theretofore unheard-of levels of quality and productivity.  Within Japan. largely unknown and unrecognized in his country of origin and work. Hakone Conference Center in August 1950. for his robust. from his home in Washington. The first section of the meritorious service record describes his work in Japan: 1947. The citation on the medal recognizes Deming's contributions to Japan’s industrial rebirth and its worldwide success.C. D. they sought an expert to teach statistical control. humor.(The list includes top japanese industrialists such as the likes of Akio Morita the co-founder of Sony Corp) Deming's message to Japan's chief executives: improving quality will reduce expenses while increasing productivity and market share. an exhibit memorializing Dr. Among his many honors. Dr. Later work in the U. David Salsburg wrote: "He was known for his kindness to and consideration for those he worked with. . and scholars in statistical process control (SPC) and concepts of quality. awarded Dr. As a result of the broadcast. managers. In 1980. the Prime Minister of Japan (Nobusuke Kishi).. and published several original pieces of sacred music.." Later.S. During June–August 1950. assistant to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers instructor in sample survey methods in government statistics The second half of the record lists his service to private enterprise through the introduction of epochal ideas. He also conducted at least one session for top management.JUSE members had studied Shewhart's techniques.
To Ford's surprise. due to "natural causes. "Long-term commitment to new learning and new philosophy is required of any management that seeks transformation.D. Deming received dozens of academic awards. from Oregon State University. "We are moving toward building a quality culture at Ford and the many changes that have been taking place here have their roots directly in Dr. The timid and the fainthearted. Management must be judged not only by the quarterly dividend. He told Ford that management actions were responsible for 85% of all problems in developing better cars. said. had his book published by the MIT Center for Advanced Engineering as Quality.m. Ph. Productivity. Deming. In 1986 Ford came out with a profitable line of cars. Deming offers a theory of management based on his famous 14 Points for Management. and Deming continued consulting for industry throughout the world until his death at the age of 93.demand for his services increased dramatically. For the first time since the 1920s. a Harvard Case Study. and "Free Perfect and Now". Dr. 1984-1999) CEO. Ford's sales were falling. Management's failure to plan for the future brings about loss of market. . Between 1979 and 1982. Education. Robert Rodin." Over the course of his career. are doomed to disappointment. as author. In a letter to Autoweek Magazine. Edwards Deming died in his sleep at the age of 93 in his Washington home at about 3 a. as well as management without individual merit or performance reviews. but by innovative plans to stay in business. In 1987 he was awarded the National Medal of Technology: "For his forceful promotion of statistical methodology. Ford had become the most profitable American auto company. which brings about loss of jobs. he received the Distinguished Career in Science award from the National Academy of Sciences." His family was by his side when he died. trained with the then 90 year old Deming and his colleague Nida Backaitus. for his contributions to sampling theory. Manoogian was charged with recruiting Dr. and the people that expect quick results.8 Billion was chronicled in Deming's last book "The New Economics". which was renamed Out of the Crisis in 1986. Ford had come to lead the American automobile industry in improvements. for its earnings continued to exceed GM and Chrysler's. including another. Deming to help jump-start a quality movement at Ford. Deming questioned the company's culture and the way its managers operated. In December 1993." In 1988. Ford's newly appointed Division Quality Manager John A. Ford had incurred $3 billion in losses. It also contained educational concepts involving group-based teaching without grades. In 1981. ensure future dividends. Deming's teachings. Ford Motor Company was one of the first American corporations to seek help from Deming. Dr. Ford's following years' earnings confirmed that its success was not a fluke. Government. then Ford Chairman. In 1993. protect investment. In 1990 Marshall Industries (NYSE:MI. which included the System of Profound Knowledge and the 14 Points for Management. Deming published his final book. its earnings had exceeded those of arch rival General Motors (GM). and for his advocacy to corporations and nations of a general management philosophy that has resulted in improved product quality." By 1986. Deming talked not about quality but about management. and provide more jobs through improved products and services. the Taurus-Sable line. honorary. Marshall Industries' dramatic transformation and growth from $400 Million to $1. The New Economics for Industry. In 1982. Donald Petersen. and Competitive Position. W.
Deming philosophy synopsis The philosophy of W. rework. (b) However. Edwards Deming has been summarized as follows: "Dr. but will not compromise. Edwards Deming taught that by adopting appropriate principles of management." Deming advocated that all managers need to have what he called a System of Profound Knowledge. The transformation requires a view from outside. It comes from understanding of the system of profound knowledge. This transformation is discontinuous. to numbers. transformed. defined by the following ratio. Continually teach other people. once transformed. he will apply its principles in every kind of relationship with other people. The key is to practice continual improvement and think of manufacturing as a system. to interactions between people." In the 1970s. It provides a map of theory by which to understand the organizations that we work in. The individual. The Deming System of Profound Knowledge "The prevailing style of management must undergo transformation. Deming's philosophy was summarized by some of his Japanese proponents with the following 'a'-versus-'b' comparison: (a) When people and organizations focus primarily on quality. when people and organizations focus primarily on costs. and Help people to pull away from their current practices and beliefs and move into the new philosophy without a feeling of guilt about the past. quality tends to increase and costs fall over time. W. costs tend to rise and quality declines over time. The individual. staff attrition and litigation while increasing customer loyalty). "Once the individual understands the system of profound knowledge. will perceive new meaning to his life. not as bits and pieces. organizations can increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs (by reducing waste. to events. A system cannot understand itself. consisting of four parts: . The aim of this chapter is to provide an outside view—a lens—that I call a system of profound knowledge. Be a good listener. Dr. will: Set an example. "The first step is transformation of the individual. He will have a basis for judgment of his own decisions and for transformation of the organizations that he belongs to.
for transformation from the present style of Western management to one of optimization.Appreciation of a system: understanding the overall processes involving suppliers." "The various segments of the system of profound knowledge proposed here cannot be separated. and government follow naturally as application of this outside knowledge. "One need not be eminent in any part nor in all four parts in order to understand it and to apply it. Thus it is the structure of the organization rather than the employees. 7) could no longer participate in refinement of a plan for ranking people. education. The 14 points for management in industry.e. feedback) between the elements of a system can result in internal restrictions that force the system to behave as a single organism that automatically seeks a steady state. (p. 23-24) Although Deming does not use the term in his book. . alone. described below. Knowledge of psychology: concepts of human nature. it is credited with launching the Total Quality Management movement . This is not ranking people. which holds the key to improving the quality of output. A psychologist that possesses even a crude understanding of variation as will be learned in the experiment with the Red Beads (Ch. the responsibility of management. Key principles Deming offered fourteen key principles for management for transforming business effectiveness. Thus. Deming explained. Theory of knowledge: the concepts explaining knowledge and the limits of what can be known (see also: epistemology). The points were first presented in his book Out of the Crisis. producers.. He needs to understand that the performance of anyone is governed largely by the system that he works in. Knowledge of variation: the range and causes of variation in quality. knowledge of psychology is incomplete without knowledge of variation. It is this steady state that determines the output of the system rather than the individual elements. Quality involves recognizing the difference to eliminate "special causes" while controlling normal variation. The System of Profound Knowledge is the basis for application of Deming's famous 14 Points for Management. and use of statistical sampling in measurements. Deming taught that making changes in response to "normal" variation would only make the system perform worse. "A manager of people needs to understand that all people are different. Understanding variation includes the mathematical certainty that variation will normally occur within six standard deviations of the mean. They interact with each other. The Knowledge of variation involves understanding that everything measured consists of both "normal" variation due to the flexibility of the system and of "special causes" that create defects." The Appreciation of a system involves understanding how interactions (i. and customers (or recipients) of goods and services (explained below).
to improve quality and productivity. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. Eliminate management by objective. and production must work as a team. sales. so that everyone may work effectively for the company. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. b. Adopt the new philosophy. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service. Every activity and every job is a part of the process. and take on leadership for change. minimize total cost. exhortations." abolishment of the annual or merit rating and of management by objective. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. must learn their responsibilities. Drive out fear. design. Institute training on the job. inter alia. Western management must awaken to the challenge. Instead. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force. Eliminate management by numbers. and thus constantly decrease costs. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships. with the aim to become competitive and stay in business. Institute leadership. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. Substitute leadership.Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul. as well as supervision of production workers. and to provide jobs. to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service. Substitute leadership. b. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. a. People in research. Eliminate the need for massive inspection by building quality into the product in the first place. Break down barriers between departments. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. The transformation is everybody's job. This means. a. We are in a new economic age. Move towards a single supplier for any one item."  . numerical goals. "Massive training is required to instill the courage to break with tradition. Eliminate slogans.
" This statement emphasizes the need to know more. such as "our problems are different" Obsolescence in school that management skill can be taught in classes Reliance on quality control departments rather than management. such as in the relatively new field of sales process engineering. fuelled by lawyers who work for contingency fees "A Lesser Category of Obstacles" includes Neglecting long-range planning Relying on technology to solve problems Seeking examples to follow rather than developing solutions Excuses. merit rating. about everything in the system. over time. It is considered as a contrast to the old statement. managers of purchasing. "There is no substitute for . Quotations and concepts In his later years. A number of these quotes have been recorded. and production workers Placing blame on workforces who are only responsible for 15% of mistakes where the system desired by management is responsible for 85% of the unintended consequences Relying on quality inspection rather than improving product quality Deming's advocacy of the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle.Seven Deadly Diseases The "Seven Deadly Diseases" include Lack of constancy of purpose Emphasis on short-term profits Evaluation by performance. supervisors. "There is no substitute for knowledge. or annual review of performance Mobility of management Running a company on visible figures alone Excessive medical costs Excessive costs of warranty. Deming taught many concepts. and Seven Deadly Diseases have had tremendous influence outside of manufacturing and have been applied in other arenas. Dr. his 14 Points. the student is given each concept to ponder its meaning in the whole system. however. Some of the concepts might seem to be oxymoron’s or contradictory to each other. which he emphasized by key sayings or quotations that he repeated.
and what is to be done with it. "Experience is the best teacher" (Dr.hard work" by Thomas Alva Edison (1847–1931). cannot be measured in advance. That does not mean just giving the explanation without an operational definition. Only the method counts. the method. or process used to gather information. long term. It leads to action without direction and without constancy of purpose. knowledge is best taught by a master who explains the overall system through which experience is judged. just not understood as most important at the time. "The most important things cannot be measured. Deming emphasized the importance of measuring and testing to predict typical results. "You can expect what you inspect." The factors that have the greatest impact. they cannot do the job properly (will the table be used for chopping food or potting plants?). greatly affects the results. such as in a statistical sample of the whole. experience. not just isolated complaints: survey the entire group about their likes and dislikes (see Sampling (statistics)). "Experience by itself teaches nothing. . To Dr. Aim and method are essential. For example. since some people felt better just being asked for their opinion. Deming's view of experience is related to Shewhart's concept. However. long term. Changing the method changes the results. The information about why the table needs to be washed. "The most important things are unknown or unknowable. other "earth-shattering" events that most affect an organization will be unknown or unknowable. By inspecting the inputs and the process more." Dr. Deming disagreed with that). It is considered as a contrast to the old statement. the "Hawthorne effect" showed that people just asking frequently for opinions seemed to affect the resulting outcome. Deming. Similarly. all 3 are inspected to some extent. but not the reason for washing it. Other examples of important things would be: a drastic change in technology. Dr. makes it possible to do the job intelligently. A method without an aim is dangerous. Instead. An aim without a method is useless. without understanding the underlying system. but the process using those inputs can also have problems." The issues that are most important. the outputs can be better predicted. Rather than use mass inspection of every output product. Analogous to an earthquake that disrupts service.. "Data has no meaning apart from its context". If you tell someone to wash a table. is just raw data that can be misinterpreted against a flawed theory of reality. and inspected less. they might be among the factors that an organization is measuring. in advance. Deming warned that basing judgments on customer complaints alone ignored the general population of other opinions." When information is obtained. Problems with inputs are a major source of trouble.." This statement emphasizes the need to interpret and apply information against a theory or framework of concepts that is the basis for knowledge about a system. If a phase consists of inputs + process + outputs. or new investment capital. can be quite surprising. the output can be statistically sampled in a cause-effect relationship through the process. which should be judged together. Deming used an illustration of washing a table to teach a lesson about the relationship between purpose and method. The extreme complaints might not represent the attitudes of the whole group. measuring or counting data depends on the instrument or method used. or data is measured. "By what method?. a small amount of knowledge could save many hours of hard work.
Deming emphasized that the top-level management had to change to produce significant differences. continuous manner. Without an aim. not Fully Automated: Dr. The Deming Cycle (or Shewhart Cycle): As a repetitive process to determine the next action. Anybody can produce quality if he lowers his production rate. or anomalies. Deming lamented the problem of automation gone awry ("robots painting robots"): instead. which allows people to change the semi-automated or computer-assisted processes. there is no system. transformation into a new style of management is required. in a continuous manner. The first step is clarification: everyone in the organization must understand the aim of the system. if asked repeatedly. profit centre. competitive. A system must have an aim. The aim must include plans for the future." "The worker is not the problem. he advocated human-assisted semi-automation."Special Causes and Common Causes": Dr. Left to themselves in the Western world. without new people. Acceptable Defects: Rather than waste efforts on zero-defect goals." Dr. Such variations could be attributed to one-time events called "special causes" or to repeated events called "common causes" that hinder quality. We can not afford the destructive effect of competition. some defects are quite acceptable. acceptable to the recipient (or customer) in the next phase of a process. such as running an experiment: PLAN (design) the experiment. in a long-term. Deming called the cycle the Shewhart Cycle. DO the experiment by performing the steps.)" "A system must be managed. The problem is at the top! Management!" Management’s job. Statistical thinking and statistical methods are to Japanese production workers. Everyone must understand the damage and loss to the whole organization from a team that seeks to become a selfish. Compare to Japanese term 'jidoka' (which can be loosely translated as "automation with a human touch"). "What is a system? A system is a network of interdependent components that work together to try to accomplish the aim of the system. That is not what I am talking about. As a consultant. Dr. The route to take is what I call profound knowledge—knowledge for leadership of transformation. Deming considered anomalies in quality to be variations outside the control limits of a process. (We are of course talking here about a man-made system. The aim of the system must be clear to everyone in the system." "They realized that the gains that you get by statistical methods are gains that you get without new machinery. after Walter A. The 4 steps in the Deming Cycle are: Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA). and ACT on the decisions based on those results. Shewhart. It will not manage itself. components become selfish. Semi-Automated. Often. and how to direct his efforts toward it. management is the problem. based on new knowledge. independent. and efforts to remove all defects would be an excessive waste of time and money. also known as Plan-Do-Study-Act or PDSA. The aim is a value judgment." "To successfully respond to the myriad of changes that shake the world. Deming stressed the importance of establishing a level of variation. CHECK the results by testing information. Dr. Deming would offer advice to top-level managers. the Deming Cycle describes a simple method to test information before making a major decision. . The cycle can be used in various ways. "The problem is at the top. It is management’s job to direct the efforts of all components toward the aim of the system.
day after day. some processes display controlled variation that is natural to the process. what would happen? And that's what management by results is. (Deming on Quality Circles) "That's all window dressing. do something about it.000 training 10 people in a special skill. The world is drowning in information but is slow in acquisition of knowledge. overreacting. workers. What's the benefit? "You'll never know. without theory of variation. That's not getting at change and the transformation that must take place. Shewhart drew from pure mathematical statistical theories. Knowledge has temporal spread." answered Deming." "I think that people here expect miracles. they know what their costs are going to be. in effect. without knowledge about a system. but successful management must nevertheless take account of them. One. Shewhart concluded that while every process displays variation. And see how comforting that is to management. a second language. the effect is to make things worse. they now know what they can produce. That's not fundamental. Sure we have to solve problems. Both points are important. keeping your eye on the rear view mirror. Dr. while others display uncontrolled variation that is not present in the process causal system at all times. keeping your eye on results. also commonly referred to as a "bell curve"). Taking action on the basis of results without theory of knowledge. Certainly stamp out the fire." "Knowledge is theory." Dr. exactly the same. Shewhart cycle. supervisors or middle managers that have direct knowledge of the assignable cause best address this type of specific intervention. Theory. acting without knowledge. Why did you do it? Because you believed it would pay off. While Dr. I. not everything of importance to management can be measured. C. and all the way through the company. Deming renamed these distinctions "common cause" for chance causes and "special cause" for assignable causes. "You'll never be able to measure it. Because "special cause" variation is assignable. he understood that data from physical processes never produce a "normal distribution curve" (a Gaussian distribution. Anything goes wrong. He did this so the focus would be placed on those responsible for doing something about the variation. With the best of intentions and best efforts. you must still manage those important things. There is no substitute for knowledge." This statement emphasizes the need for theory of knowledge (see: epistemology. Stamp out the fires puts us back to where we were in the first place." Deming realized that many important things that must be managed couldn’t be measured. managing by results is. about the people in the process?" Dr. And two. you have a reproducible product hour after hour.foremen. rather than the source of the variation. He discovered that observed variation in manufacturing data did not always behave the same way as data in nature (Brownian motion of particles). Information is not knowledge. Spend $20. "The most important figures that one needs for management are unknown or unknowable (Lloyd S. Nelson. We should be thankful if action of management is based on theory. Stamp out the fire and get nowhere. Deming is often . Shewhart created the basis for the control chart and the concept of a state of statistical control by carefully designed experiments. It is top management’s responsibility to address "common cause" variation. American management thinks that they can just copy from Japan—but they don't know what to copy!" "What is the variation trying to tell us about a process. In statistical control. while driving your automobile. and therefore it is management’s responsibility to make improvements to the whole system. Myron Tribus put it. Dr. Lewis). as Dr. director of statistical methods for the Nashua corporation).
incorrectly quoted as saying. . he stated that one of the seven deadly diseases of management is running a company on visible figures alone." In fact. "You can't manage what you can't measure.
Minnesota. Bell Labs proposed that Hawthorne Works personnel be trained in its newlydeveloped statistical sampling and control chart techniques. In 1924. He was a chess champion at an early age. Just before war's end. Juran joined Western Electric's Hawthorne Works. intending to become a freelance consultant. Juran. Juran graduated from Minneapolis South High School in 1920.Dr. He was the brother of Academy Award winner Nathan H. They had been married for over 81 years when he died in 2008. Charles and Donald. he married Sadie Shapiro. Romania. through an arrangement with his employer. he immigrated to America with his family. In 1925. During the Second World War. Early life Juran was born to a Jewish family in 1904 in Brăila. 1904 – February 28. He joined the faculty of New York University as an adjunct Professor in the Department of Industrial Engineering. His first job was troubleshooting in the Complaint Department. with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota. and later lived in Gura Humorului. This highly-visible position fueled Juran's rapid ascent in the organization and the course of his later career. As a hedge against the uncertainties of the Great Depression. 2008) was a 20th century management consultant who is principally remembered as an evangelist for quality and quality management. In 1937. Sylvia. he resigned from Western Electric. Juran was promoted to department chief in 1928. he enrolled in Loyola University Chicago School of Law in 1931. In 1912. though he never practiced Law. and dominated chess at Western Electric. Juran excelled in school. a small group of engineers charged with applying and disseminating Bell Labs' statistical quality control innovations. especially in mathematics. Juran Joseph Moses Juran (December 24. writing several influential books on those subjects. Joseph M. and they subsequently had four children: Robert. Juran served in the LendLease Administration and Foreign Economic Administration. He graduated in 1935 and was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1936. . He published his first quality related article in Mechanical Engineering in 1935. In 1926. and the following year became a division chief. Juran was chosen to join the Inspection Statistical Department. settling in Minneapolis. and his government post. he moved to Western Electric/AT&T's headquarters in New York City.
Juran credits Margaret Mead's book Cultural Patterns and Technical Change for illuminating the core problem in reforming business quality. He pushed for the education and training of managers. Despite Japan's ability to compete on price. 80% of a problem is caused by 20% of the causes). Nippon Kōgaku. the last in 1990. and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company. its consumer goods manufacturers suffered from a long-established reputation of poor quality. Hamilton Watch Company and Borg-Warner. The first edition of Juran's Quality Control Handbook in 1951 attracted the attention of the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) which invited him to Japan in 1952. . Juran is widely credited for adding the human dimension to quality management. human relations problems were the ones to isolate. Management theory When he began his career in the 1920s the principal focus in quality management was on the quality of the end. Resistance to change—or. cultural resistance—was the root cause of quality issues. outlining the issue. He also lectured at Hakone. from which he made a comfortable living until his retirement in the late 1990s. For Juran. product. During his life he made ten visits to Japan. it would take some 20 years for the training to pay off.where he taught courses in quality control and ran round table seminars for executives. Bausch & Lomb and General Foods. His early clients included the now defunct Bigelow-Sanford Carpet Company. Juran—who focused on managing for quality—went to Japan and started courses (1954) in Quality Management. Edwards Deming (who focused on the use of statistical process control). Juran began his own independent practice. He also worked through a small management consulting firm on projects for Gilette. Ōsaka. Noritake. the Koppers Company. For Japan. This sparked a crisis in the United States due to quality issues in the 1980s. which was published in 1964. In later years Juran preferred "the vital few and the useful many" to signal that the remaining 80% of the causes should not be totally ignored. and control charts. The idea that top and middle management need training had found resistance in the United States. In the 1970s. Japan The end of World War II compelled Japan to change its focus from becoming a military power to becoming an economic one. After the firm's owner's sudden death. The tools used were from the Bell system of acceptance sampling. Japanese products began to be seen as the leaders in quality. Contributions Pareto principle In 1941 Juran stumbled across the work of Vilfredo Pareto and began to apply the Pareto principle to quality issues (for example. The training started with top and middle management. or finished. This is also known as "the vital few and the trivial many". He wrote Managerial Breakthrough. in his terms. The ideas of Frederick Winslow Taylor dominated. and Kōyasan. notably Showa Denko. inspection plans. the International Latex Company. When he finally arrived in Japan in 1954 Juran met with ten manufacturing companies. Working independently of W. Waseda University.
1951. 1999 . in an interview published in 1997 he observed: The key issues facing managers in sales are no different than those faced by managers in other disciplines. Later life and death Juran was active well into his 90s and only gave up international travel at age 86.Juran's vision of quality management extended well outside the walls of the factory to encompass nonmanufacturing processes. Philips. 3rd edition.S. and the United States Navy Fleet Ballistic Missile System. Yugoslavia) Founding the Juran Institute and the Juran Foundation. quality control and quality improvement.S. For example. Volkswagen. Czechoslovakia. Juran's Trilogy He also developed the "Juran's trilogy. New York. New York: McGraw-Hill. especially those that might be thought of as service related. and Japanese companies looking for introductions to each other.. OCLC 1220529 Eventually published in five editions: 2nd edition. Royal Dutch Shell and Toyota Motor Company Pro-bono consulting for Soviet-Bloc countries (Hungary. Russia.we need to reduce the error rate. "How do customers perceive us?" These issues are no different than those facing managers trying to improve in other fields.. . 4th edition. 1974.. Juran died of a stroke at age 103 in Rye. 1962. Consulting for Western European and Japanese companies such as Rolls-Royce Motors. Books Quality Control Handbook.. Romania. Otis Elevator Company. Sales managers say they face problems such as "It takes us too long. Xerox." They want to know. 1988. Merck. Sharp & Dohme. Poland. Juran learned about the Japanese concept of Quality Circles which he enthusiastically evangelized in the West. The systematic approaches to improvement are identical. Juran also acted as a matchmaker between U." an approach to cross-functional management that is composed of three managerial processes: quality planning. New York. Transferring quality knowledge between East and West During his 1966 visit to Japan. Dennison Manufacturing Company. companies such as Armour and Company. he became honorary doctor at Luleå University of Technology in Sweden. In 2004. His accomplishments during the second half of his life include: Consulting for U. There should be no reason our familiar principles of quality and process engineering would not work in the sales process. 5th edition.
Quality Progress (New York. New York: American Society for Quality Control). New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 8103276 Juran on Planning for Quality. May. New York: American Society for Quality Control). New York: Society of Quality Control Engineers). Management Review (New York. 1967 "Mobilizing for the 1970s". Quality Progress (New York. January. New York. New York. New York: American Management Association). OCLC 16468905 Published papers "Directions for ASQC". 1970 Upper Management and Quality. Industrial Quality Control (Buffalo. New York: Joseph M. August. May. January. March. New York: American Society for Quality Control). OCLC 66818686 Quality Planning and Analysis.Managerial Breakthrough. 1976 "Japanese and Western Quality—a Contrast". Juran. 1975 "Khrushchev's Venture into Quality Improvement". Industrial Quality Control (Buffalo. New York: American Society for Quality Control). 1968 "The QC Circle Phenomenon". New York: American Management Association). December. Quality Progress (New York. 1964 Management of Quality Control. June. ASQC Journal (New York. New York: American Management Association): 748–761. 1969 "Consumerism and Product Quality". 1954 "Improving the Relationship between Staff and Line". New York: McGraw-Hill. 1978 In Japanese . Juran. New York: The Free Press. Management Review (New York. New York. New York. New York. 1980. New York: American Society for Quality Control). 1951 "Universals in Management Planning and Control". New York: American Society for Quality Control). Quality Progress (New York. February. 1975 "The Non-Pareto Principle: Mea Culpa". July. 1988. November. Personnel (New York. November. 1957 "Operator Errors—Time for a New Look". New York: American Society for Quality Control). Quality Progress (New York. New York: Society of Quality Control Engineers). New York: Joseph M. 1956 "Industrial Diagnostics". Quality Progress (New York. 1967. 1970 "And One Makes Fifty".
1956 a collection of Juran's 1954 lectures Lectures in Quality Control.Planning and Practices in Quality Control. 1956 Lectures in General Management. Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers. 1960 .
He was Director of Manufacturing Operations at General Electric (1958-1968). an engineering firm that designs and installs operational systems. Massachusetts." The concept of a "hidden" plant—the idea that so much extra work is performed in correcting mistakes that there is effectively a hidden plant within any factory.D. later known as Total Quality Management (TQM). and is now President and CEO of General Systems Company of Pittsfield. from MIT. Accountability for quality: Because quality is everybody's job.S. it may become nobody's job—the idea that quality must be actively managed and have visibility at the highest levels of management. Feigenbaum received a bachelor's degree from Union College. and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction. His contributions to the quality body of knowledge include: "Total quality control is an effective system for integrating the quality development. Army Chairman of a system-wide evaluation of quality assurance activities of the Army Materiel Command . Feigenbaum wrote several books and served as President of the American Society for Quality (1961-1963). He devised the concept of Total Quality Control. and his master's degree and Ph.Armand V. quality maintenance. The concept of quality costs Awards and honors First recipient of ASQ's Lancaster Award ASQ 1965 Edwards Medal in recognition of "his origination and implementation of basic foundations for modern quality control" National Security Industrial Association Award of Merit Member of the Advisory Group of the U. Feigenbaum Born Occupation 1922 Engineer and Quality control Armand Vallin Feigenbaum (born 1922) is an American quality control expert and businessman.
Consultant with the Industrial College of the Armed Forces Union College Founders Medal Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Life member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Life member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Life member of Plymouth Society of Marine Biology .
Edwards Deming and Joseph M. His first job was as a naval technical officer (19391941) then moved on to work at the Nissan Liquid Fuel Company until 1947. quality circle Walter A. It was his skill at mobilizing large groups of people towards a specific common goal that was largely responsible for Japan's quality-improvement initiatives. Ishikawa joined the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) quality control research group. . He translated. In 1939 he graduated University of Tokyo with an engineering degree in applied chemistry.Dr. integrated and expanded the management concepts of W. Musashi Institute of Technology University of Tokyo Ishikawa diagram. Shewhart Medal. He then undertook the Presidency of the Musashi Institute of Technology in 1978. Ishikawa would now start his career as an associate professor at the University of Tokyo. which in North America was then still perceived as a producer of cheap wind-up toys and poor quality cameras. Juran into the Japanese system. After World War II Japan looked to transform its industrial sector. Order of the Sacred Treasures Kaoru Ishikawa (石川馨 Ishikawa Kaoru) (1915-1989) was a Japanese university professor and influential quality management innovator best known in North America for the Ishikawa or cause and effect diagram (also known as fishbone diagram) that is used in the analysis of industrial process. 1989(1989-04-16) (aged 73) Japan quality. Kaoru Ishikawa Kaoru Ishikawa Born Died Citizenship Fields Institutions Alma mater Known for Notable awards July 13. the oldest of the eight sons of Ichiro Ishikawa. Japan April 16. Biography Born in Tokyo. chemical engineering University of Tokyo. In 1949. 1915(1915-07-13) Tokyo.
Nippon Telephone & Telegraph. Ishikawa was involved in international standardization activities. At Ishikawa's 1989 death.After becoming a full professor in the Faculty of Engineering at The University of Tokyo (1960) Ishikawa introduced the concept of quality circles (1962) in conjunction with JUSE. In my observation. he did so by applying his natural gifts in an exemplary way. accepted. Among his efforts to promote quality were the Annual Quality Control Conference for Top Management (1963) and several books on Quality Control (the Guide to Quality Control was translated into English). by the Japanese government. Books . Grant Award 1977 Blue Ribbon Medal by the Japanese Government for achievements in industrial standardization 1988 Walter A. Although many companies were invited to participate. Shewhart Medal 1988 Awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasures. This concept began as an experiment to see what effect the "leading hand" (Gemba-cho) could have on quality. Second Class. Juran delivered this eulogy: “ There is so much to be learned by studying how Dr. only one company at the time. Quality Circles would soon become very popular and form an important link in a company's Total Quality Management System. 1982 saw the development of the Ishikawa diagram which is used to determine root causes. He was the chairman of the editorial board of the monthly Statistical Quality Control. Ishikawa managed to accomplish so much during a single lifetime. ” Contributions to quality User Friendly Quality Control Fishbone Cause and Effect Diagram . Ishikawa would write two books on quality circles (QC Circle Koryo and How to Operate QC Circle Activities). He was completely sincere.Ishikawa diagram Implementation of Quality Circles Emphasised the Internal customer Shared Vision Awards and recognition 1972 American Society for Quality's Eugene L. and as a result was trusted completely. His manner was modest. He followed his own teachings by securing facts and subjecting them to rigorous analysis. He was dedicated to serving society rather than serving himself. It was a natural extension of these forms of training to all levels of an organization (the top and middle managers having already been trained). and this elicited the cooperation of others.
J. D. .). Kaoru (1985). Tokyo: 3A Corporation. How to Operate QC Circle Activities. ISBN 4-906224-61-X. OCLC 61341428. Kaoru (1990). Tokyo: QC Circle Headquarters. QC Circle Koryo : General Principles of the QC Circle.). Ishikawa. 1970]. Ishikawa. Introduction to Quality Control. Loftus (trans. Kaoru (1980) [original Japanese ed. What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way [Originally titled: TQC towa Nanika—Nipponteki Hinshitsu Kanri]. Tokyo: QC Circle Headquarters. H. ISBN 0139524339. J. Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. Kaoru (1985) [First published in Japanese 1981]. Lu (trans.Ishikawa. Ishikawa.
Taguchi methods have been controversial among some conventional Western statisticians. where he came under the influence of eminent statistician Matosaburo Masuyama. in Tokamachi) is an engineer and statistician. Taguchi developed a methodology for applying statistics to improve the quality of manufactured goods. Taguchi Gen'ichi?. After the war. Dr. but others have accepted many of the concepts introduced by him as valid extensions to the body of knowledge. in 1948 he joined the Ministry of Public Health and Welfare. in the Niigata prefecture of Japan. He initially studied textile engineering at Kiryu Technical College with the intention of entering the family kimono business. However. born January 1. with the escalation of World War II in 1942. 1924(1924-01-01) Tokamachi. He also worked at the Institute of Statistical Mathematics during this time. statistics Aoyama Gakuin University Kyushu University Taguchi methods Matosaburo Masuyama Indigo Ribbon. Shewhart Medal Genichi Taguchi (田口 玄一. Genichi Taguchi Born Citizenship Fields Institutions Alma mater Known for Influences Notable awards January 1. who kindled his interest in the design of experiments. he was drafted into the Astronomical Department of the Navigation Institute of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Japan Japan engineering. Biography Taguchi was raised in the textile town of Tokamachi. and .6. From the 1950s onwards. 1924.
an international consulting organisation. the loss function. Even at this point. Contributions Main article: Taguchi methods Taguchi has made a very influential contribution to industrial statistics. and Innovations in the statistical design of experiments. During the 1950s. notably the use of an outer array for factors that are uncontrollable in real life.a topic which was to be instrumental in enabling him to develop the foundation blocks of what is now known as Taguchi methods. he joined the Electrical Communications Laboratory (ECL) of the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation just as statistical quality control was beginning to become popular in Japan. R. he left ECL.supported experimental work on the production of penicillin at Morinaga Pharmaceuticals. he was beginning to consult widely in Japanese industry. his old ECL rivals. robust design. . Shewhart. a Morinaga Seika company. where he worked with C. Genichi Taguchi has been an advisor to the Japanese Standards Institute and executive director of the American Supplier Institute.S. While working at the SQC Unit of ISI. under the influence of W. His concepts pertaining to experimental design. Xerox and ITT. but are systematically varied in the experiment. Key elements of his quality philosophy include the following: Taguchi loss function. Rao . though he maintained a consulting relationship. he collaborated widely and in 1954-1955 was visiting professor at the Indian Statistical Institute. designing products and processes so that they are insensitive ("robust") to parameters outside the design engineer's control. Ronald Fisher and Walter A. he was introduced to the orthogonal arrays invented by C. and Taguchi spent his twelve years there in developing methods for enhancing quality and reliability. R. In 1950. During his visit there. used to measure financial loss to society resulting from poor quality. In 1964 he became professor of engineering at Aoyama Gakuin University. and the reduction of variation have influenced fields beyond product design and manufacturing. The philosophy of off-line quality control. who later emigrated to the U. This second visit began a collaboration with Madhav Phadke and a growing enthusiasm for his methodology in Bell Labs and elsewhere. Since 1982. Taguchi himself financed a return to Bell Labs. invited Taguchi to lecture. such as sales process engineering. In 1966 he began a collaboration with Yuin Wu. who arranged a spell at Bell Labs. In the same year he visited Princeton University under the sponsorship of John Tukey. Tokyo. Honours . ECL was engaged in a rivalry with Bell Labs to develop cross bar and telephone switching systems. with Toyota being an early adopter of his ideas. where his initial teaching had made little enduring impact. in 1980. On completing his doctorate at Kyushu University in 1962. including Ford Motor Company. Edwards Deming and the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers. Boeing. Rao. and.
Indigo Ribbon from the Emperor of Japan Willard F. Rockwell Medal of the International Technology Institute Honorary member of the Japanese Society of Quality Control and of the American Society for Quality Shewhart Medal of the American Society for Quality (1995) Honoured as a Quality Guru by the British Department of Trade and Industry (1990) .
The Sayings of Shigeo Shingo: Key Strategies for Plant Improvement. lean organizations and operational excellence. Shingo's influence extended into fields outside of manufacturing. Bodek also brought Shingo to lecture in the USA and developed one of the first Western lean manufacturing consultancy practices with Shingo's support. was a Japanese industrial engineer who distinguished himself as one of the world’s leading experts on manufacturing practices and the Toyota Production System. and "zero quality control" (eliminating the need for inspection of results) have all been applied in the field of sales process engineering. as a result of his meeting Norman Bodek. not 'foolproofing'. Shingō Shigeo?. The myth prevails that Shingo invented the Toyota Production System but he did document the system and added two words to the Japanese and English languages—Poka-yoke (mistake-proofing. Non-Stock Production: The Shingo System for Continuous Improvement. into English in 1980. Shingo for his lifetime accomplishments and created the Shingo Prize that recognizes world-class. Shingo is the author of numerous books including: A Study of the Toyota Production System. Revolution in Manufacturing: The SMED System. Utah State University recognized Dr. In 1981 Bodek had travelled to Japan to learn about the Toyota Production System. born in Saga City. Shingo had written his Study of The Toyota Production System in Japanese and had it translated. Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and the Poka-yoke System. an American entrepreneur and founder of Productivity Inc in the USA. eventually having his original study re-translated. Shingo is known far more in the West than in Japan. and The Shingo Production Management System: Improving Process Functions. which Shingo rejected as a term) and single-minute exchange of dies (SMED). 1909-1990). In 1988.Shigeo Shingo Shigeo Shingo (新郷 重夫. Norman Bodek took as many copies of this book as he could to the USA and arranged to translate Shingo's other books into English. Education Saga Technical High School Yamanashi Technical College . his concepts of SMED. For example. and came across books by Shingo. who as an external consultant had been teaching Industrial Engineering courses at Toyota since 1955. mistake-proofing. very poorly. Japan.
He would also include four major principles: • the definition of quality is conformance to requirements . Crosby Born Philip Bayard Crosby June 18. 1926(1926-06-18) Wheeling. Florida. Quality Is Free. 2001(2001-08-18) (aged 75) Winter Park. Florida. Crosby started the management consulting company Philip Crosby Associates. Crosby initiated the Zero Defects program at the Martin Company Orlando. (Wheeling.Winter Park. after a career at ITT. plant. Florida. Crosby published his first business book. USA August 18. June 18. and at eight foreign locations. USA Quality Guru Peggy Died Occupation Spouse Philip Bayard "Phil" Crosby. West Virginia. 1926 . This book would become popular at the time because of the crisis in North American quality. 2001) was a businessman and author who contributed to management theory and quality management practices. Inc. As the quality control manager of the Pershing missile program. Crosby was credited with a 25 percent reduction in the overall rejection rate and a 30 percent reduction in scrap costs. Philip Crosby Associates In 1979. August 18. North American manufacturers were losing market share to Japanese products largely due to the superior quality of the Japanese goods. Crosby's response to the quality crisis was the principle of "doing it right the first time" (DIRFT).Philip B. Also in 1979. During the late 1970s and into the 1980s. This consulting group provided educational courses in quality management both at their headquarters in Winter Park.
• • • the system of quality is prevention the performance standard is zero defects the measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance Crosby's prescription for quality improvement was a 14-step program. His belief was that an organization that established a quality program will see savings returns that more than pay off the cost of the quality program: "quality is free". .
Dr. mainly on the Theory of Constraints. He is the originator of the Optimized Production Technology. He has authored several business novels and non-fiction works. He obtained his Bachelor of Science degree from Tel Aviv University. 1948) is an Israeli physicist who became a business management guru. the Thinking Processes. Goldratt Born Nationality March 31. Eliyahu M. Drum-Buffer-Rope. 1948(1948-03-31) Israel Israeli Theory of Constraints Operations Research Organizational Psychology Management Science Education Theory of Constraints Cause and Effect thinking Slayer of Paradigms Fields Known for Eliyahu Moshe Goldratt (born March 31. the Theory of Constraints (TOC). Life Born in Israel into a rabbinic family Goldratt went on to become a physicist. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) and other TOC derived tools. Work Creative Output years . and his Masters of Science and Doctorate of Philosophy degrees from Bar-Ilan University.
This software and the principles behind it were analyzed by a number of major publications Goldratt was actively involved in many controversies such as Cost Accounting x Throughput Accounting and culminated in the publication of A Town Without Walls. trying to help people rethink the way they did things. After a while Goldratt noticed that many implementations were conducted using the Book but not the software. Within the company Goldratt noticed elements that made him uncomfortable several software implementations did not come close to their estimated potential. In 1997.After some experience helping Israeli manufacturers. the book was published and became a great success. OPT was billed as the first software to provide finite capacity scheduling for production environments. Avraham Y. Goldratt Institute years After leaving Creative Output circa 1985 Goldratt created the Avraham Y Goldratt Institute or AGI (named after his father) to promote the Theory of Constraints and help it be implemented worldwide. Goldratt Group years From the beginning of the 2000s Goldratt created the self-funded Goldratt Group and launched the Viable Vision initiative. Critical Chain Project Management and other applications. His answer was the book The Goal that took 13 months to write. but Creative Output's declining revenues and Goldratt involvement with anything but the sales of OPT software convinced the shareholders to fire Goldratt (and afterward his closer collaborators). After some work Goldratt discovered that the habits. and assumptions (paradigms) of employees and managers prior to using the software were still prominent and negatively influenced results after implementation. with help from Larry Gadd the owner of North River Press. including the field of sales process engineering. After completion the book was not well received by the company staff and by large publishers. He published The Race to explain some of the concepts he was working on. . The company developed and sold a software package. Goldratt followed his plan to retire from the Institute prior to his 50th birthday. and developed a course to teach people how to manage their production using a computer simulation game. the Optimized Production Technology (OPT). Goldratt tried to move the company down the path of "consulting". mainly the Thinking Processes (and launched it publicly in 1991). His concepts influenced applications outside manufacturing and supply management. The AGI had many success stories. During the time of the AGI Goldratt got deeply involved with the further development of TOC. This caused further stress in the company and Goldratt tried to capture the essence of how to implement the solution directly in what is now known as Drum-Buffer-Rope method. Goldratt left the academic world to join a company called Creative Output. Finally.
this time through a conversation with his daughter Efrat. Writings Goldratt has produced many works. it is considered an important work on the topic of focused performance improvement [by whom?] It's Not Luck (1994) applies TOC to marketing. The story is about a husband (manager) and wife (purchaser) working in her family's retail chain. TOC in Healthcare. Some of the more noteworthy are: The Goal (1984) introduces TOC process for improving organizations and briefly TOC's accounting aspects. An unexpected crisis helps them to find new ways of doing things . helping the reader determine the true essence of the book.He continues the development of TOC both in the Goldratt Group and in active support for other developments like TOC for Education. Ilan Eshkoli and Joe Leer Brown are coauthors. . A second edition is planned for publishing which includes Efrat's own notes she made during the conversation with her father. TOC for the Individual (in the continuity of the Odyssey program and the publishing of The Choice).ending in success. Isn't it Obvious (2009) Goldratt's newest book looks into retail. distribution and Business Strategy Critical Chain (1997) applies TOC to project management and illustrates the Critical Chain method for managing projects while commenting on the MBA Academic environment and its issues Necessary But Not Sufficient (2000) applies TOC to Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and operations software The Choice (2008) Talks about Goldratt's thought provoking approach. as he explains to her his fundamental system of beliefs.
he was denied the normal executive track and was sent instead to consult with suppliers in his later career. which became Lean Manufacturing in the U. possibly because he spoke publicly about the production system. Japan Taiichi Ohno (大野 耐一.May 28. such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. moved to the motor company in 1943.. 1990) was a prominent Japanese businessman. Just In Time production method is also called the Toyota Production System.10. To meet JIT objectives. 1912 . China. Ohno's principles influenced areas outside of manufacturing. and efficiency.end up with the opposite of the desired result. For example. the most popular of which is Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-Scale Production. the complete mechanism for making this work is often misunderstood. the field of sales process engineering has shown how the concept of Just In Time (JIT) can improve sales. He wrote several books about the system. marketing. which tell production when to make the next part.S. For instance. February 29. 1990 Toyota City. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals.." In recent years manufacturers have continued to try to hone forecasting methods (such as applying a trailing 13 week . the process relies on signals or Kanban (看 板. China Died May 28. Ohno Taiichi?. Quick notice that stock depletion requires personnel to order new stock is critical to the inventory reduction at the center of JIT. and have been extended into the service arena. He is considered to be the father of the Toyota Production System. Born in Dalian. JIT can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment. quality. he was an employee first of the Toyoda family's Toyoda Spinning. and gradually rose through the ranks to become an executive. This saves warehouse space and costs. and customer service processes Just-in-time (JIT) is an inventory strategy that strives to improve a business's return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. its effective application cannot be independent of other key components of a lean manufacturing system or it can ". However. Taiichi Ohno Taiichi Ohno Born February 29. In what is considered to be a slight. 1912 Dalian. Kanban?) between different points in the process. Implemented correctly. and a graduate of the Nagoya Technical High School (Japan).
average as a better predictor for JIT planning. however some research demonstrates that basing JIT on the presumption of stability is inherently flawed. .
he also received an honorary doctorate from the State University of Management in Moscow. he left McKinsey to become an independent consultant.D. Bestselling author In Search of Excellence was published in 1982. Peters has acknowledged the influence of military strategist Colonel John Boyd on his later writing. 1942) is an American writer on business management practices. Maryland Nationality United States Occupation Author. he worked in the White House as a senior drug-abuse advisor. In 1981. 1942 (1942-11-07) (age 68) Baltimore. From 1973 to 1974. He later studied business at Stanford Business School. and then later working in the Pentagon.Tom Peters Tom Peters Born November 7. receiving an M..B. best-known for In Search of Excellence (co-authored with Robert H. Jr). The primary idea espoused was that of solving . Maryland. receiving a bachelor's degree in civil engineering in 1965. Peters was honoured by the British Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) as one of the world's Quality Gurus. From 1966 to 1970. In 1990. during the Nixon administration. In 2004. Peters worked as a management consultant at McKinsey & Company. From 1974 to 1981. gaining national exposure when a series of television specials based on the book and hosted by Peters appeared on PBS. Thomas J. Waterman. "Tom" Peters (born November 7. he served in the United States Navy.A. becoming a partner and Organization Effectiveness practice leader in 1979. and Ph. He went to Severn School for High School and attended Cornell University. making two deployments to Vietnam as a Navy Seabee. and a master's degree in 1966. Life and career Peters was born in Baltimore. and became a bestseller.
strategy 3. was the McKinsey 7-S model: McKinsey 7-S model elements 1. when previously the only 'hard factors were considered to be the 'numbers'.corporate strengths 6. Peters says that he wanted with a passion . and advocated by Peter Drucker and Robert McNamara. systems 4.to prove how crucial people are to business success . shared values Peters and Waterman examined 43 of Fortune 500's top performing companies. As Peters explained in 2001: 'Start with Taylorism. simply: * People * Customers * Action Peters says that In Search of Excellence turned these 'soft' factors into hard ones. add a layer of Druckerism and a dose of McNamaraism. .were wrong.business problems with as little business process overhead as possible and empowering decision-makers at multiple levels of a company. staff 7. They started with a list of 62 of the best performing McKinsey clients and then applied performance measures to weed out what they thought to be the weaker companies. and to release business from the 'tyranny of the bean counters'. skills . General Electric was one of the casualties which failed to make the cut. style of management 5.. The platform for Peters and Waterman onto which the In Search Of Excellence research and theorising was built. notably those used by Xerox.particularly heavily systemised philosophies and practices . and by the late 1970's you had the great American corporation that was being run by bean counters. Peters says that one of his personal drivers in carrying out his research was to prove that certain established methods .. structure 2.' Contrast this with what Peters says became the essential message of In Search of Excellence.
value-driven .'getting on with it'. BeIt: "The harsh news: This Is Not Optional. he would not tamper with any of the eight themes.the eight themes 1. The reinvented you and the reinvented me will have no choice but to scramble and add value in some meaningful way. Hands-on.stay with the business that you know. Autonomy and entrepreneurship . 3. Sell It.treating rank and file employees as a source of quality. and speed. Peters was quoted admitting that he had falsified the underlying data for In Search of Excellence. but he would add to them: capabilities concerning ideas. The microchip will colonize all rote activities.Peters also said in 2001 that other than certain wrong companies highlighted . active decision making . Peters said finally in his 2001 interview that were he to write In Search of Excellence today. however. Talent: Develop It. And we will have to scramble to reinvent ourselves . liberation.as we did when we came off the farm and went into the factory. Productivity through people ." In the December 2001 issue of Fast Company.autonomy in shop-floor activities plus centralised values. A bias for action. and that he was the victim of an "aggressive headline. Simultaneous loose-tight properties . but that its central flaw was in suggesting that these points would apply for ever. 6. lean staff . 2.some of the best companies have minimal HQ staff. Peters has encouraged personal responsibility in response to the "New Economy". The exciting news (as I see it anyway): This Is Not Optional. In his more recent books. 7. 4." . Here is a summary of the 'In Search of Excellence' eight themes. Quoting from his book. Simple form. and then as we were ejected from the factory and delivered to the white-collar towers.management philosophy that guides everyday practice . Stick to the knitting . 5. In Search of Excellence . when they most certainly have not.Atari and Wang for instance . 8.fostering innovation and nurturing 'champions'.management showing its commitment. he later insisted that this was untrue.In Search of Excellence 'absolutely nailed the eight points of the compass for business at that time' (1982). In an odd turn of events. Close to the customer . which also form the eight chapters of the book.learning from the people served by the business.
The Project50 and The Professional Service Firm50 (Reinventing Work Series) 2003 .Trends (co-written with Martha Barletta) 2010 .The Tom Peters Seminar: Crazy Times Call for Crazy Organizations 1994 . His namesake company is based in the UK.Liberation Management 1993 . released in March 2010. Jr. Waterman.The Little Big Things: 163 Ways to Pursue EXCELLENCE . Works 1982 .) 1985 .The Pursuit of WOW! 1997 .Talent 2005 .Design 2005 .Leadership 2005 . and continues to write and speak about personal and business empowerment and problem solving methodologies.Re-imagine! Business Excellence in a Disruptive Age 2005 .The Circle of Innovation: You Can't Shrink Your Way to Greatness 1999 . Vermont with his wife Susan Sargent.A Passion for Excellence (co-written with Nancy Austin) 1987 .Thriving on Chaos 1992 . Peters currently lives in West Tinmouth.Peters's latest book is The Little Big Things.In Search of Excellence (co-written with Robert H.The Brand You50.
and won stages of the Volta a Portugal and the Trofeo Mallorca. Claus Moller Claus Michael Møller (born 3 October 1968) is a Danish former professional cyclist. and was a stage winner in the 2001 Vuelta a España. He pioneered the concepts of Putting People First. Employeeship. and Emotional Intelligence. He also won the Subida al Naranco in 2001.12. as a result he was also banned for life from representing the Danish national team. Claus offers knowledge and unique learning experiences based on groundbreaking concepts in the areas of Leadership. and A Complaint is a Gift. Claus can also train your organisation's coaching staff and certify them in the use of his concepts.000 copies. The Human Side of Quality. A best-selling management book and a tool to help you regain your unhappy customers' trust and to keep your customers. He won the overall classification of the Volta a Portugal in 2002. Claus Møller Consulting offers its clients executive coaching. tailored seminars. He also invented the world famous Time Manager® planning and results tool. . keynote addresses. Quality Management. and diagnostic tools. Time Management. Personal Quality. The first edition sold more than 130. is the author of several bestselling management books and has won numerous awards for innovative thinking and project delivery. Claus has worked extensively for a wide range of blue chip clients from IBM to American Express. His career was marred in the late 1990s by a suspension for doping. He has been called 'the Victor Borge of Management'. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated with new material on handling Internet complaints. Claus Møller is one of the world's leading management consultants and keynote speakers. leadership education. He turned professional in 1995 with the Castellblanch team before moving to Milaneza MSS in 2000. Service Management.
Employeeship . complaining effectively yourself.Personal Quality . when customers can complain instantly and broadcast their dissatisfaction around the world. Claus has been widely recognised as one of the greatest innovators in modern management thinking.The Human Side of Quality .A Complaint is a Gift .dealing with complaints directed at you. as well as new examples covering a wide range of industries. More relevant than ever in today’s constantly connected world.Putting People First . Among the concepts that he has pioneered you will find: .
In no particular order. 4. 2. Goldratt developed the Theory of Constraints which focuses on a single element in a process chain as having the greatest leverage for improvement (i. Dr. Eliyahu M. “1% can have a 99% . W. but some have stood out as key figures of quality. concepts. Dr. He advanced the state of quality. which focused on making the design less sensitive to variation in the manufacturing process instead of trying to control manufacturing variation. and methods that permeate our quality thinking today.COMPARING THE PHILISOPHIES OF QUALITY GURUS Many prominent figures have emerged within the quality field. they are: 1. He also worked with Taiichi Ohno to refine Just-InTime (JIT) manufacturing into an integrated manufacturing strategy. and the improved competitive advantage that results. and quality control. His popularized “zero defects” to define the goal of a quality program as the elimination of all defects and not the reduction of defects to an acceptable quality level. Shigeo Shingo developed lean concepts such as Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) or reduced set-up times instead of increased batch sizes as well as Poka-Yoke (mistake proofing) to eliminate obvious opportunities for mistakes. psychology and variation. Dr. originally based on work done by Shewhart with his explanations of variation. 7. and an organizational commitment to quality. Dr. Philip B. Most have passed away. Edwards Deming developed his complete philosophy of management. and his theories on knowledge.. Dr. Check. use of control charts. which is widely used to define the lean manufacturing used in the Toyota production system (TPS). Kaoru Ishikawa developed the Ishikawa diagram and was known for popularizing the seven basic tools of quality and the philosophy of total quality. Walter Shewhart developed the Plan.quality planning. as well as theories of process control and the Shewart transformation process. Dr. but their memory still lives on in the ideas. 6. Act (PDCA) cycle (known as “Plan-DoStudy-Act” in some circles. Quality management plans quality improvements that raise the level of performance. 5. which then must be controlled or sustained at that level in order to start the cycle again. Genichi Taguchi developed the “Taguchi methodology” of robust design. Juran developed the quality trilogy . also known as “designing in quality”. Do. modern quality technology. Deming greatly helped to focus the responsibility of quality on management and popularized the PDCA cycle which led to it being referred to as the “Deming Cycle”. Crosby developed the idea of “quality is free” which asserts that implementing quality improvement pays for itself through the savings from the improvement. increased revenue from greater customer satisfaction. which he encapsulated into his “fourteen points” and the “seven deadly diseases of management”. Feigenbaum developed the idea of total quality control based on three steps to quality consisting of quality leadership. Joseph M. 8.e. 9. Armand V. quality improvement. 3.
Taiichi Ohno 11.Toms Peter do not put any new theory but put theories as how people. 11. Goldratt 10. quality improvement. Gurus of Quality 1. Joseph M. Among the concepts that he has pioneered you will find mainly focusing on the human side of quality. Dr.Taiichi Ohno developed the seven wastes (muda). Crosby 9. Walter Shewhart 2. and quality control Total quality control Seven tool of quality Variation on design phase Time management Defect reduction and saving money Cause and Effect 1-99% 7 waste of quality People – Action Customer Improvement concepts Process Control Process Control Quality Control Improvement criteria Effectiveness Effectiveness Effectiveness Quality Control Quality Control Quality Control @ Design phase Reduction in set-up Time Losses Problem solving techniques Problem solving techniques Waste reduction Human Behavioural aspects Effectiveness Effectiveness Effectiveness Efficiency Economy Effectiveness Efficiency Efficiency . W. Dr. 12.Tom Peters Theory Process control Theory PDCA Process control Theory PDCA Quality planning. customer and action should be balanced for excellence. Dr. which are used in lean to describe non-value added activity. Edwards Deming 3. Kaoru Ishikawa 6. but has been widely recognised as one of the greatest innovators in modern management thinking. Armand V. He developed various manufacturing improvements with Shigeo Shingo that evolved into the Toyota Production System. Genichi Taguchi 7.Claus Moller also does not put any new theory.impact”). Dr. Juran 4. This compares to the Pareto principle which states that 20% of the factors have an 80% effect on the process. Philip B. Shigeo Shingo 8. 10. Dr. Dr. Feigenbaum 5. Eliyahu M.
6.as put by Dr. solving the problems and eliminating the causes to reduce defects. Kaoru Ishikawa are mainly based on using statistical techniques and other tools for planning. Edwards Deming mainly worked on the process approach PDCA which focuses on controlling the inputs to the process to get the desired quality of product or services 3. Goldratt use theory of defect prevention by identifying the root cause. Design phase variation.Philip B. Quality Control – Theories put by Dr. 2. Crosby also considered the economical factors as reducing losses due to defects. Waste Reduction . W. 5. Eliyahu M. Joseph M.Shigeo Shingo and Taiichi Ohnoholds japans theoris of redcing waste in time and other waste to increase efficiency. Philip B.Dr. If the product and the process are well designed the chances of defects arising from such process and product would be low. Walter Shewhar & Dr.12. Feigenbaum.Claus Moller Human aspects of Quality Human Behavioural aspects Efficiency Each Gurus of Quality has tried to put theories of improvements at various levels starting from: 1. Dr. Goldratt focussed on reducing defects by identifying and eliminating one root cause. Defect prevention. Eliyahu M. Whereas Dr. Dr. improvement and control of quality. Crosby. 4. Juran. Armand V. Process Control. Human Aspects.Tom Peters and Claus Mollers are from the current generation mainly focused the actions of the leaders and the employees to manage their action and time to fulfil the customer requirements . Genichi Taguchi.
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