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Executive Summary Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker one reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing. Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values, beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce. Now days employees have been hired, trained and remunerated they need to be motivated for better performance. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set or forces that cause people to behave certain ways. People are motivated rewards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed People wants more. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs. Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, or motivation Managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction. Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers and supervisors at all level. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of the organization. It requires more time, more skill, and managers who care about people. It takes true leadership. By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more important. When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities, they are motivated to work even harder so they won’t let the company down. Motivation is essential for any company because employee is Asset of company. Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of the organization.
Introduction In the organizational setting the word “Motivation” is used to describe the drive that impels an individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who “wants” to work .Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if employees know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they can often perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers want to know what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder. When people speak of motivation or ask about the motives of person, they are really asking “Why” the person acts, or why the person acts the way he does .The concept of motivation implies that people choose the path of action they follow. When behavioral scientists use the word motivation, they think of its something steaming from within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin in the Latin word “mover” which means “to move”. Thus the word motivation stands for movement. One can get a donkey to move by using a carrot or a stick; with people one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands. However, these only have a limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated, increased or reinforced to secure further movement. If a manager truly understands his subordinate’s motivation, he can channel their “inner state” towards command goals, i.e., goals, shared by both the individual and the organization. It is a well known fact that human being have great potential but they do not use it fully , when motivation is absent .Motivation factor are those which make people give more than a fair day’s work and that is usually only about sixty-five percent of a person’s capacity .Obviously , every manager should be releasing hundred percent of an individual’s to maximize performance for achieving organizational goals and at the same to enable the individual to develop his potential and gain satisfaction. Thus every manager should have both interest and concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability. At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers (Bedeian, 1993). Motivation Theories Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement
theory. According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Adams' theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965). Skinner's theory simply states those employees' behaviors that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated (Skinner, 1953). Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviors that lead to positive outcomes. Managers should negatively reinforce employee behavior that leads to negative outcomes. WHAT IS MOTIVATION? A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is: Performance =f (ability × motivation) Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task. However, ability alone is not enough. The person’s desire to accomplish the task is also necessary. Organizations become successful when employees have abilities and desire to accomplish given task. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. 6 Reassess needs deficiencies 5 Receives either rewards or punishment 4 Performs 3 Engages in goal directed behavior 2 Searches for ways to satisfy needs
1 Identifies needs
Framework of motivation Framework of motivation The framework comprises six steps. (step1) Motivation process begins with the individual’s needs. Needs are telt deprivations which the individual experiences at a given time and act as energizers. These needs may be psychological (e.g., the needs for recognition), physiological (e.g., the needs for water, air or foods) or social (e.g., the needs for friendship). (step2) Motivation is goal directed. (step3) A goal is a specific result that the individual wants to achieve .An employee’s goal are often driving forces and accomplishing those goals can significantly reduce needs. (step4) Promotions and raises are two of the ways that organizations seek to maintain desirable behavior. They are signals to employees that their needs for advancement and recognition and their behaviors are appropriate. (step5) Once the employee have received either rewards or punishments. (step6) They reassess their needs. DEFINITIONS Some definitions on motivation: …how behavior gets started is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped, and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on’ jones, 1955). …the term motivation refers to a process governing choices made by person or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity” …motivation is the result of process, internal or external to the individual that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.” …motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that aimed at a goal or an incentive” Obviously, the first definition covers all stages shown in the motivation model.
and innovative behavior at work. This is true whether we are talking about a top manager spending extra time on data gathering and analysis for a report or a clerk taking extra care when filing important document. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. 2. IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION: Probably. 1987). Of all the functions a manager performs.an understanding of the topic of motivation is thus essential in order to comprehend more fully the effects of variations in other reaction as they relate to the performance. 1991). Also. 1994). To be effective. Every organization requires human resources in addition to financial and physical resources for it to function . as employees get older. satisfaction. Motivated employees are more productive. The increased attention towards motivation is justified by several reasons 1. and is affected by . 3.Three behavioral dimensions of HR are significant to organizations (i) people must be attracted not only to join the organizations but also to remain it (ii) people must perform he tasks for which they are hired and must do so in a dependable manner and (iii) people must go beyond this dependable role per performance and engage in some form of creative. Motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker .a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu . no concept of HRM receives as much attention of academicians. 5.The high productivity of Japanese worker and the fever worker are needed to produce an automobile in Japan than elsewhere is well known.The Role of Motivation: Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival (Smith. Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. money becomes less of a motivator (Kovach. This is due. An appreciation of the nature of motivation is highly useful manager. motivating employees is arguably the most complex. in part. managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. . research suggests that as employees' income increases. to the fact that what motivates employees changes constantly (Bowen & Radhakrishna. and so forth . This statement can apply to corporate strategists and to production workers. Motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects. 4. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs. spontantaneous. For example. researchers and practicing manager’s motivation. interesting work becomes more of a motivator.
vehicles of effective and efficient operation . Such strategies may have some effects (both . A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results of this study with the study results from other populations. the task is more daunting One reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing. launch its own satellites.complex project management. The polar Satellite Launch Vehicle’s (PSLV) lift-off has been the result of 12 years of developmental work. reduced layers of hierarchy. yet insufficient.6. India has joined the exclusive club of half a dozen nations that can build and. But in reality . Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. as technology increases in complexity. transfer of technology to the private industry. Why increasing attention is paid towards motivation can be found in the present and future technology required for production. (c) personal loyalty to employees. Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of certain factors in motivating employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center. background. (g) good wages. With this feat. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce.These actions have considerably damaged the level of trust and commitment necessary for employee to put in efforts above minimum requirements some organization have resorted to hire and fire and pay – for. and (j) full appreciation of work done. more importantly. Their values. the study sought to describe the ranked importance of the following ten motivating factors: (a) job security. Specifically. (e) good working conditions. (f) tactful discipline. perceptions and attitudes are different. (b) sympathetic help with personal problems. and dedicated work by literally thousands in ISRO. beliefs. The secret behind the success of ISRO has been its employees who are both capable of using and are willing to use the advanced technology to reach the goals. lifestyles. Industry other national laboratories and research institutes. machines tend to become necessary. smoothening the manufacture of components and subsystem . (h) promotions and growth in the organization. (d) interesting work.performance strategies almost giving up motivational efforts.Consider the example of the highly technologybased space programmed in our country. MOTIVATIONAL CHALLENGES The framework of motivation indicates that motivation is a simple process. Motivating employees is also more challenging at a time when firms have dramatically changed the jobs that employees perform. and jetusoned large numbers of employees in the name of right-sizing or downsizing . (i) feeling of being in on things.
” While general motivation is concerned with effort towards any goal. and to determine its form. and expectations. and duration. firms constantly experiment with next motivational programmed and practice. if attend. and tactics for motivating employees. The following diagram depicts the motivation process. Stephen Robbins narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect singular interest in work related behavior the effort element is a measure of intensity. intensity. there is no shortage of models. Work Motivation Craig Pinder “echoing the basic definition of motivation. will satisfied the needs and lead to the reduction of tension Mechanism of motivation Motivation is the process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activate behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. An employee. The dynamic nature of needs offend poses challenge to any manager in motivating his or her subordinate. at any given time. · Needs: Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological . desire. direction. motives can only be inferred. strategies. define it as follows: “Work motivation is a set of energetic force that originate both within as well as beyond and individuals being. the key to understanding motivation lies in the meaning of. has a various needs. Mechanism of Motivation Needs Drives Goal Deprivation Deprivation Reduction With of Drives Direction Thus. to initiate work – related behavior. The need means some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. This drives general a search behavior to find particular goals. and relationship between needs. As a result. And unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within the individual. but not seen. drives and goals. Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfill their needs or accomplishment may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for affiliation and their desire to be with their families However.positive and negative) but fail to make and individual overreach him or her Third.
a drive is a psychological state which moves an individuals satisfying a needs · Goals: At the end of the motivational cycle is the goal or incentive. Thus motives can be thought of as drives that energize people to action. it is essential to grasp the meaning and significance of this concept and also to learn how to apply them intelligently Motives: Motive is defined as a inner state that energizes. Psychological needs can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. Behavior by ensuring that a channel to direct the motive . In order to minimize the restlessness. sometimes they are not. Thus. The needs for food and water are translated into hunger and thrust drives. and individuals with a strong need to get ahead may have a history of consistent success · Drives: “Drives (Or motives) are set up to alleviate needs. activates (Or moves) and directs (or channels) the behavior of individuals towards certain goals the strong motives or needs are fulfill. Although psychological may be based on a deficiency. the individual is propelled into action. Motivation: while motives are energizers of action. Thus. his level of motivation may be consider as low. Thus motive induce individual to channel their behavior towards such type of actions as would reduce their state of restlessness are inner disequilibrium. motivation and motivating) The terms motives. It is anything that wills that will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. the level of motivation of employee is judged by his actual work behavior Motivating: Motivating it is the term that implies that one person induces another to engage in action or work. Physiological or psychological drives are action – oriented and provide energizing thrust towards reaching an incentive or goals. Thus. when a employee work hard. motivation and motivating which are derived from the Latin word ‘Mover’ (to move) are important concept which have distinct connotation. and the need for friend becomes a drives affiliation. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. drinking water and obtaining friends will tend to restore the balance and reduce the corresponding drives food.imbalance For example: A need exists when cells in the body are deprived of food and water or when the personality is deprived of other people who serve friends or companions. Eating food. attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. motivation is the actual action that is work behavior itself. For instance. In order to steer the energies of the employees towards organizational goals accomplishment. For instant. and keep it under control. water and friends are the incentive are the goals in this example Conceptual clarification: (motives.
affiliation. Socio-psychological motives. motivational analysis if behavior is difficult. Thus. Competence. Psychology motives is concerned with understanding an individual’s through his motives . aggression. prestige or esteem fall under egoistic motives. Socio-psychological motives are neither inborn to him nor are they related directly to his survival .They may be divided into affiliative and egoistic motives. friendship or affection with people. Managers play a significant role in channeling the strong motive in a direction that he satisfying to both the organization and the employees. security and status are major motivating forces in human behavior at work. are largely vary from culture to culture . Power. status. sex and maternal concern .The general motives are also unlearned but are not physiologically based. affiliation. To complicate matters further. Human behavior is multi-motivational.It studies the individual’s socio-psychological motives at great length in order to be successful in understanding why man behaves the way he does. Giving ‘good’ reasons rather than ‘real’ reasons for behavior is known as rationalization Ex. Secondary motives are products of learning. Egoistic motives relate to a position over people rather than with people. people often do things without being aware of the basic motive or motives involved. and several times the individual himself is unaware of his motives.of the individuals become available and accessible to the individual. there can be several other ways of behaving to achieve these one and all these different forms of behavior may lead to the same amount of success by achieving the same end. power and nurturance. activity. Behavioral science especially industrial. curiosity.These motives originate from the training which he acquires from different social organizations to which he belongs. The complexity of motivation: Human motivation is highly complex. The converse is also true. status. Several motives are simultaneously at work when the individual behaves. achievement. security. achievement. manipulation. Classification of Motives: Primary motives are unlearned and physiologically based. Different motives may sometimes result in one form of behavior. unlike physiological motives. sleep. Socio-psychological motives include acquisitiveness. thirst. Additionally. Affiliative motives deal with belongingness. Common primary motives include hunger. The needs for power. and affection are examples of general motives. Another fact is that the same motive may give rise to various motives may lead to the same type of behavior in different individuals. Therefore. dependence.that is the needs that are less strong and somewhat dormant and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization. managers are also responsible for awakening or activating latent motives in individuals. avoidance of pain. . autonomy.
“Why did I do that?” or “Why did I fail to do that?” the reason for behavior is not always apparent to the conscious mind . it is difficult to predict behavior Motivation and Behavior: Systematic understanding of human behavior essentially involves the ability to determine the ‘why’ of past behavior but also to predict. Since it is difficult to know all there is to be known about the various motives that operate both within the individual and from outside. · Motives: Every individual carries a set of inner motivations and drives that influence the way he behaves much more radically than he realizes . the individual may face conflict some of the time . or motivation. and they change activities accordingly.that means the behavior of an individual is generally motivated by a desire to attain some goal. Behavior is basically goal-oriented .An employee who wants to tell the boss off but also wants to keep his job is in conflict. they change activities. predict.individuals are not always aware of everything they want . The specific goal is not always consciously known by the individual . all behavior is a series of activities . To predict the behavior.individual have preference for certain activities. to change. In fact. Motives are sometimes defined as needs. is likewise in conflict.they arouse and maintain activity and .Sublimation. wants.Motives are the ‘why’s of behavior . Whether motives are consciously present or are unconscious. The basic unit of behavior is an ‘activity’. An employer who must decide whether to sell an oversupply of a commodity at a loss or hold it a little long. manager must know which motives or needs of people evoke a certain action at a particular time. and compensation are a few forms of behavior in which the real motive is unknown to the individual.Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do. identification. or impulses within the individual . drives. projection.As a result. and even to control as far as possible future behavior. and even control the activities that an individual may perform at a given moment.Sometimes an individual may wonder. There are various difficulties in inferring motives from behavior as we have seen thus far: · Similar motives may be manifested through different behaviors · Different motives may be expressed through similar behavior · Motives may appear in disguised form · Any single act of behavior may express several motives · Expression of motives differ from culture to culture and from person to person within a culture · Motives vary in strength not only from one individual to another but within the same individual at different times. It is important for a manager to understand. many of them act upon the individual simultaneously .
All these needs compete for their behavior. Incentives include tangible financial rewards such as increased pay and also the ↓managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction. When we use these two terms interchangeably. motives or needs are the mainsprings of action.motives and needs-we refer something within an individual that prompts that person to action. MOTIVES GOALS · Motive Strength: We have seen that motives or needs are the reason underlying behavior. These needs have different strengths. The need with the greatest strength at a particular moment leads to activities.Goals are something referred to as ‘hoped for’ rewards towards which motives are directed Psychologists use the term ‘incentives’ for these goals. · Goals: Goals are outside an individual . A B C D E N Motive strength Motive B is the highest strength need and therefore . In essence.it is this need that determines . Every individual has several needs.determine a general direction of the behavior of an individual.
behavior.this coping behavior may be quite rational . High Strength Motive Attempted Behavior 2 Attempted Behavior Success Blockage Behaviour Continued Coping behavior when blockage occurs in attempting to accomplish a particular goal Initially . where some degree of success and goal attainment is finally perceived . as shown in the following figure. · Changes in motive strength: A motive tends to decrease in strength if it is either satisfied or blocked from satisfaction. it does not always occur initially.While a reduction in need strength sometimes follows.The person may try a variety of behavior to find out one that will accomplish the goal or will reduce tension created by blockage.and same in the direction 2 before moving in direction 3. Blocking need Satisfaction: The satisfaction of a need may be blocked . Satisfied needs decrease in strength and normally do not motivated individuals to seek goals to satisfy them. there may be tendency for the person to engage in “coping behavior”. BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION: Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod) is yet another technique of . This is an attempt to overcome the obstacle by trial-and-error problem solving .Perhaps the individual may make some attempts in direction 1 before going to 2.
The steps in OB Mod are given below: Identification of Critical Behavior: The first step is to identify the critical behaviors that make a significant impact on the employee’s job performance these are those 5 to10 percent of the behaviors that may account for up 70 to 80 percent of each employee’s performance.Skinner to provide managers with powerful and proven means for changing employee behavior. they are measured.F . OB Mod is uses the reinforcement principle of B. A baseline frequency is obtained by determining the number of determining the number of times that the identified behavior occurs under present conditions .The purpose of the baseline measurement is to provide objective – frequency data on critical behavior. Measurement of the behaviors: After the behaviors have been identified.influencing behavior of people in organizations. Identify Performance Related Behavior Events Measure Baseline the Frequency of Response Identify Existing Behavioral Contingencies Through Functional Analysis Develop Intervention Strategy Apply Appropriate Strategy Measure: Chart the Frequency of Responses after Intervention Problem Solved? Maintain Desirable Behavior Evaluate for Performance Improvement 1 2 3 4B 4A 4C 4D 5 Yes No Steps in OB Mod .
the results which accrue to the person as a result of engaging in the behavior . in order to change the behavior of his\her subordinates. Positive reinforcement is employed to increase the likelihood of a desirable behavior. in fact. Functional analysis of absenteeism behavior ABC Antecedent Cues Behaviors Consequences illness\accident Getting up late Discipline programmed Hangover Sleeping in Verbal reprimands Lack of transportation staying home written reprimands -Traffic Drinking Pay docks No day. Negative reinforcement is used as possible. engage in behavior which are critical to the successful performance of their jobs. Evaluation to Ensure Performance Improvement: In order to determine whether an OB Mod programmed has achieved its desire results. since it is here that the manager uses the results of the three step to design and implement techniques. contingent upon subordinates engaging in the desirable critical behaviors. . and (2) the consequences. it is necessary to evaluate the effects of the programmed in a systematic and objective fashion. A typical functional analysis of absenteeism behavior is given in Table.This process of analyzing the antecedent cues and the consequences if behavior is referred to as functional analysis in OB Mod.care facilities Fishing\hunting Lay-offs Family problems working at home Dismissals Company policies Visiting Social consequences from coworkers Group\person norms caring for sick child Escape from and avoidance Of working nothing Seniority / age Awareness\observation Self any consequence Development of intervention Strategy: The term intervention refers to actions will be taken by the manager or organization in order to increase the frequency of desirable critical behaviors and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors this is the critical step. in the process. The emphasis here is on the identifying rewards that can serve as positive reinforcements and establishing methods of providing these reinforces. These involves analyzing (1) The antecedent cues the factors which seem to instigate the behavior. The results of such evaluation can be used both to determine whether the programmed should be continued or not.Functional analysis of behavior: The goal of a mod programmed is to increase the likelihood that people will. and to ‘fine tune’ the interventions to increase their value and their ability to increase effective performances.
it has no counter adverse criticism. continuing to contribute financial support and care for elderly parents. The organizations which benefited include General Electric. Chinese leaders are conceived that a rapid population growth will obstruct economic development. Is it a technique for manipulating people? Does it because it decreases an employee’s freedom? If so. however. Michigan Bell. equality. Bearing two babies was strengthened because by doing so. is such an action on the part of manager unethical? And do non-monetary reinforcement like feedback. increase satisfaction. couples avoided fines.Goodrich Chemicals. in keeping with long established customs. There is evidence.OB Mod in Practice OB Mod has been used by a number of organizations to reduce costs.a negative reinforcement strategy. reduce labor costs. Skinner described an idea human community also known as Walden tow he envisioned a return to a simple culture of towns and villages that conducted their affairs face –to–face Skinners society rejected punishment and coercion as ways to motivate good behavior and relied on positive reinforcement in stead according Skinner the proper behavioral technology would make it easy to raise citizens who were brave creative happy candid affectionate humane and conscientious. of grave abuses among them.Between the mid-1960 and the mid-1970. praise. forced abortions and infanticides of the female offspring. One each such is Twin Oaks founded in share a common belief in co-operation. improve safety. and nonviolence. Standard Oil. Despite the positive result that OB has demonstrated. Societies and behavior modification In his novel Walden tow B. increase attendance. the advantages of creating a positive environment and reinforcing desirable behavior are recognized. china halved its birth rate. couples having a third baby except as the result of a multiple birth at the second confinement paid fines. Several to communes have taken their inspiration from Walden Two. because. China appears to be using behavior modification principles on a grand scale for population control. improve productivity. schooling and employment priorities . men remain with their immediate families after marriage. F. and so on –all in the US. Emery Air freight. Initially. and recognition get old after a while? Will employees begin to see these as ways for management to increase productivity without providing commensurate increase in their pay? There is no . Male are valued. Families that used contraction after their first child received positive reinforcement-annual bonuses as well as housing.f. as well as a common desire to construct behaviorist theories are no longer central to the operation of Twin Oaks. B. and increase profit. in party.
performance tends to increase. Acceptance of the goal and commitment towards its achievement will have effect on employee behavior and satisfaction. they lead employees to compare their present performance with the goal. its effect on the behavior of the person will be minimal. As result of performance. Similarly. Once this level is established. That goal motivates any individual is an established fact. such feelings are desirable and can serve as a strong incentive to extra effort. Finally. their effort and performance will decrease. Fourth. An individual may not rise in personal life if he or she does not have clear career goals. Goals are the immediate or ultimate objectives that employees are trying to accomplish from their work efforts in organizations. they feel competent and successful. It does not mean that performance of an individual is nil in the absence of a goal. We tend to relax and siacken our efforts if we are not clear about what we want to achieve. If others (concerned) do not accept the goals. performance of an employee will not increase similarly. Goal setting is the process of motivating employees by establishing performance goals. if they conclude that they can reach the goal. goal setting theory indicates that goals will guide behavior only when they accepted by the self and by others. In contrast. a person receives various intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. . A student does not do well in an examination if he or she does not keep a target in mind target may be a first class or securing distinction. Third. motivation and performance will be enhanced. the existence of a goal clarifies what level of performance is required. Specific goals lead to higher output than do vague goals such as “Do your best”. Why goals motivate employees? There are at least five reasons which explain the correlation between goals and motivation. To the extent that individuals fall short of the goal. they feel dissatisfied and work harder to attain it –as long as they believe that is possible for them to do so. If people do not have confidence in themselves. One requirement is that goals must be specific. if the goal is not acceptable to the self. which in turn. Second. influence satisfaction. performance. when individuals succeed in reaching a goal. Goals need to fulfill certain requisites if they were to impact employees. the theory calls attention to the important role of self-efficacy – individuals’ beliefs about their ability to perform at given levels. organizational support towards goal attainment supported by individual abilities and traits leads to goal realization. individual can focus on developing effective strategies for attaining it.easy answer to questions such as these. GOAL SETTING: Goal setting is one of the most effective and widely practiced techniques of motivation. The technique emphasizes that with clear goals. First.
To academics it means the degree to which members of work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organization. However. To a young new entrant. it may just mean a fair day’s pay. carefully monitored and actively supported by managers. and a supervisor who treats him\her with dignity.Goal Directly Goal Acceptance Organizational Support Rewards Goal-Directed Effort Goal Specificity Goal Commitment Individual Abilities & Traits Rewards Satisfaction Goal setting requisites Goal setting is a very powerful technique of motivation when used correctly. it may mean opportunities for advancement. There are many factors which can contribute to QWL. safe working conditions. For example. to a worker in an assembly line. neither goal setting not any other technique can be used to correct every problem. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE The term ‘quality of work life’ (QWL) has different connotations to different person. creative tasks and a successful career. They are: . Goal setting can improve performance.
and so forth. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do. etc] will also contribute to QWL some of these activities [like job enrichment] might contribute indirectly to QWL by tapping the worker’s higher . physical working conditions that ensure safety.Safety and healthy working condition. overtime requirement. more skill. feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of the organization. travel requirement. 5.order needs and motivating them. adequacy to the extent to which the income from a full-time work meets the needs of the socially determined standard of living. workers’ role in the total work process and his\her appreciation of the outcome of his\her own efforts and self-regulation. Still.Opportunity to use and develop creativity. effective employee selection. It requires more time. The typical employer/employee relationship of old has been turned upside down. The Five-Step PRIDE Model Today’s workplace is different. minimize risk of illness and occupational diseases and special measures for protection of women and children. other activities may contribute directly to QWL providing for a safer workplace.Security and growth opportunity. schedule of hours of work. acceptance of the right to free speech.Adequate and fair compensation.1. 6. including factors like security of employment. and managers who care about people. such as application of the principles of natural justice and equity.Work and family life. less discrimination on the job. The combination of almost limitless job opportunities and less reward for employee loyalty has created an environment where the business needs its employees more than the employees need the business. such as work autonomy. and constantly changing. 4.RewardReinforceRightBehavior• Involveeveryone• Developtheirskillspotential• Evaluateimprovecontinuously• . and opportunity for advancement and self-improvement. and right to personal privacy in respect of the worker’s off the job behavior. It takes true leadership. and so fourth. including reasonable hours of work and rest pauses. It is worth noting that often the conditions that contribute to motivation [equitable salaries financial incentives. nature of supervision. Management’s new challenge is to transform a high-turnover culture to a highretention culture. use of multiple skills. Managers can improve their leadership position and motivate individuals within their organizations by following the five-step PRIDE model: Providepositiveworkingenvironment• Recognize. 2. Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers and supervisors at all levels. including transfers.Respect for the individual’s personal rights. 3. diverse.
" Peer recognition allows employees to reward each other for doing a good job. All this leads to better management-employee relationships. has a unique way of making its employees feel valued and involved. every Friday employees rotate jobs..Take for example Rodger McAlister who owns a construction equipment dealership in Kentucky. which builds stronger customer loyalty. STEP 4--DEVELOP WORKER'S SKILLS AND POTENTIAL Well-trained employees are more capable and willing to assume greater control and ownership over their jobs. This involvement program goes beyond just photographs. which frees management for other tasks. Tex. Every year employees celebrate their work anniversary with a cake and receive $100. Everyone uses the same bathrooms and the same water fountains. This builds a stronger team and improves both communication and retention STEP 2--RECOGNIZE. workers may value each other’s opinion more than their supervisor’s. but a critical element in the management toolkit. he realized . Maybe that’s why TD Industries was listed last year by Fortune magazine as one of the Top 100 Best Companies. When former Intel executive David House became CEO of Bay Networks. Employees are more capable of taking care of customers. On the other hand. slogans.00 for each year employed. (Peer pressure) Managers can’t be everywhere all the time. One of the most important factors is how employees "feel" about the company. People have a basic human need to feel appreciated and recognition programs help meet that need. To minimize the we-they syndrome. and HR policies. His employees and service technicians share a profit-sharing plan that possibly means $700. One wall in the company has the photographs of all employees who have been with the company more than five years. posters. It works because employees themselves know whom works hard and deserves recognition. STEP 3--INVOLVE EVERYONE Studies show that having workers involved at all levels has a major impact on improving morale and motivation. Everyone is an equal. His turnover is almost nonexistent.One of the easiest and most effective recognition programs is "peer recognition. Twice a year employee’s children receive a $50 savings bond when they bring in their "all A’s" report card. Therefore. The person in the parts department becomes a service technician and visa versa.000 upon retirement. TD Industries in Dallas. They need less supervision. REWARD AND REINFORCE THE RIGHT BEHAVIOR Reward and recognition is not just a nice thing to do. Motivated workers are more committed to the job and to the customer. the employees are in the best position to catch people doing the right things. Also. The second aspect of this science is management must create consequences for the behavior important for business success.STEP 1--PROVIDE A POSITIVE WORKING ENVIRONMENT You don’t have to be the highest paying employer to provide a positive and attractive work environment. There are no reserved parking spaces for executives. de-motivating workplaces force workers to vote with their feet.
also called flextime.• Givethemroomdothewithoutunnecessaryrestrictions.Here are some tips for setting up your own processes to help develop the potential of your employees: Explain"bigpicture"forcompanyhowthisinfluencestheiremploymentgrowth. the measurement of attitudes.Bespecific. turnover and motivation of the workforce. 40-hour week with . in turn.• Offeron-siteclasseswhere employees can learn new skills improve upon old ones. taught the same courses to the other 6.the troubled computer manufacturer’s problems involved some basic fundamentals. The key of MBO is that it is a participative process. MBO refers to a formal set of procedures that begins with goal setting and contributes through performance review. The true competitive advantage is found within the hearts and minds of motivated people proudly working together and led by people driven by a higher purpose. morale. and Effective Meetings.000 employees. Managing for Results. he created four courses to teach the practices that he’d set in place at Intel: Decision-Making. Straight Talk.• Challenge them with lots responsibility.• Listentheirideassuggestions. The primary purpose of evaluation is to measure progress and determine what needs improving. but is not limited to. OTHERS Other motivational techniques used in organizations to influence employee performance include management by objective (MBO) flexible working hour’s twotier pay system flexible benefit and the like. has often been pointed out as one of the techniques of motivation. It includes the identification of problem areas needing improvement and the design and implementation of an improvement plan. They to accept the decisions as their own and feel personally responsible for implementing them. He personally taught the courses to Bay’s 120 highest-ranking executives who. Propounded by peter F.• Makesuretheyunderstandthecompany’sexpectations. MBO has motivational potentials because the participants become ego-involved in decisions they have made. actively involving managers and subordinates at every organizational level.Drucker in 1954.• Providefeedbacktheemployee’sperformance. To solve the problem. Various work weeks are being used. Most common are the four-day.• Involvethethedecision-makingprocesswheneverpossible. all with the aim of lengthening the leisure between work periods.mentionparticularsituationa ctivity. His personal example had a major impact on the entire company.• STEP 5--EVALUATE AND IMPROVE CONTINUOUSLY Continuous evaluation and never ending improvement is the final step of the PRIDE system. to suit the convenience of individual employees. A system of flexible working hours.• foremployeesattendworkshopsandseminars. Continuous evaluation includes.Businesses continue to search for the competitive advantage. It won’t be found with gimmicks or within the latest management fad.
It will reduce a new recruit to stick to the same organization. The two-tier system corresponds to the equity theory. The two most popular and time-tested methods of employee motivation are participative management and employee communication. Frustration is a common event in the daily lives of employees.three day off (4\3). frustration result. and the seven-day. flextime corresponds to the diverse needs of the workforce. They include reduced absenteeism. The benefits claim for flexitime is numerous. An organization sets up a flexible spending account for each employee. The two-tier pay system is seen everywhere in organizations. A junior lecturer in a university is paid less than a senior-grade lecturer. hearing. when this goal directed drive is blocked before reaching a desired goal. both attend to the same work. The idea of flexible benefit operates on the following lines. but in a negative way. and reduced traffic congestion around work sites. 4\3 arrangement is highly popular. 70-hour week with seven day off (7\7). a worker in a factory with 15 to 20 years of experience is put on a higher scale than a beginner. Similarly. Of these. The motivational cycle begins with a need followed by a response directed toward a goal object. Option might include inexpensive medical plus high deductibles. flexible benefits individualize rewards by allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies his\her current needs. 36-hour week with four days off (3\4). the three-day. Motivation and frustration: The basic process of motivation as defined earlier involves a smooth progression of the need-drive-goal motivational cycle. vacation options. The two-tier pay system is said to place a premium on experience and loyalty. dental and eye coverage. lessening of hostility towards management. expensive medical plus low or no deductibles. college tuition reimbursement plans. a variety of savings and pension plans. it is claimed. and then a price tag is put on each benefit. increased productivity. Flexible benefits allow employee to pick and choose from a menu from benefit packages that is individually tailored to his or her own needs and situations. results in an increased turnover rate among those newly hired. life insurance. usually based on some percentage of his her salary. The strength of frustration in a . elimination of tardiness. This. extended disability. Employees then select benefit options until they have spent the amount in their respective accounts. Consistent with the expectancy theory thesis that organizational rewards should be linked to each individual employee’s goals. In terms of motivational theories. reduced overtime expense. and extended vacation time. A junior worker perceives an inequity or an injustice when he\she is paid less than his\her senior though. The Two-tier pay system provides for offering significantly lower wage rates to newly hired employees than those already employed in the same job. It appeals to an individual’s growth needs (ERG theory) or desire for autonomy (motivation hygiene theory).
In order to analyze specific aspects of on-the –job behavioral reaction to know some behavioral reactions to frustration that may occur in the formal organization. Individual tries to injure or hurt the object. defense mechanisms get triggered in him. In the above figure. it was thought that a person will react by physically or symbolically attacking the barrier. goal-directed drive faces a barrier and frustration results due to blocking of goal attainment. On becoming frustrated. or mental-socio-psychological). Responses to frustration are now viewed as defense mechanisms falling into four broad categories: aggression. psychologists like Dollard ** and others felt that frustration always leads to the defense mechanism of aggression. Covert Needs (Deprivation) Frustration Defense Mechanisms Blocking of Goal-attainment: Frustration · Aggression : Aggression is a reaction to a situation wherein one’s motives are blocked causing one to turn against others or oneself in verbal. fixation and compromise. ranting attacks or physical injury. . withdrawal. or physical) or covert (inward. Overt 2. When a person is frustrated. More recently. aggression is considered as only one possible reaction. Traditionally. The barrier may be either overt (outward. person or group that is acting as the barrier. Drive (Deprivation With Direction) B Goal (Reduction of the drive) Barrier 1.situation is related to the magnitude of the need which is being thwarted.
Individual anger is directed inwards. · Displacement : It is also known as transferred aggression. malfunctioning. When people cannot attack the cause of their frustration directly. · Compromise : It usually involves substituting a new goal \ Sublimation. self-accusation and low energy. However. anxiety. or objects other than the primary source of the emotion. · Compensation : Individual devotes himself to a pursuit with increased vigor to make up for same feeling of real or imagined inadequacy. a worker feels hurt and gets angry when his boss insults him in front of some co-workers. or conflict is experienced either physically or psychologically. · Fixation : Maintaining a persistent non-adjustive reaction even though all the cues indicate the behavior is not an appropriate response to the problem. For instance. lack of initiative.” the resentful worker may pick a quarrel with his wife. or bodily symptoms of disability. His sense of failure results in self-punishment. ideas. unreasonable stubbornness.” …(poor fellows. This is sometimes also known as introverted aggression and it is usually indicated by depression. sensory. the worker’s future prospects in the organizations and his fate are in the hands of the boss. kick the cat.· Withdrawal \ Flight : Leaving the field in which frustration. This form occurs when the obstacle is unknown or when the obstacle is known but it is unwise to show direct aggression. beat his children. they may look for a scapegoat as a target for their hostility. without having done anything they have to face . Basic psychological process is redirecting pent-up emotions towards persons. or pain. Behavior is repeated over and without accomplishing anything for instance. In indirect compensation the individual puts in hard efforts to make-up for a weakness in one area by becoming outstanding or excelling in some either area. · Conversion : Emotional conflicts are expressed in muscular. In such situations.
statement. It is interesting to observe when an employee tries to explain why he made a mistake or why he was late to work. The individual does not have to be troubled about a weakness that everyone else has. · Rationalization : The basic psychological process involves justifying inconsistent or undesirable behavior. So the individual projects: “it’s you. · Projection : Individual protects himself from awareness of his own undesirable traits or unacceptable feelings by attributing them to others. Individual tends to attribute one’s own shortcomings to others so as to cover up his own weakness. and motivations by providing acceptable explanations for them.the consequences of what happened in the organization !) …. by cursing and swearing. more constructively. experiences and feelings which are psychologically disturbing because . work off his feelings by chopping wood. · Fantasy : Day dreaming or other forms of imaginative activity provide an escape from reality and imagined satisfaction. The individual may attempt to daydream that his goals (for instance. he does not have worry about it in himself. It serves many useful functions because it tends to strengthen aspirations during a period when goals might otherwise disappear. Beliefs. have been accomplished. “or . there is danger when the individual relies too heavily upon fantasy and becomes inactive. not me “ ` · Repression : The basic psychological process involves completely excluding from consciousness impulses. promotion) which are otherwise impossible to achieve in real life. A typical example is seen when a disgruntled employee continually picks on a week colleague and makes him suffer for the frustration factory atmosphere. Temporary escape from reality by day dreaming is apparently a universal characteristic. if he can project that weakness on to other people. An individual rationalizes when he gives a good reason rather than a true reason for his behavior. The individual tries to reduce frustration by imagining the satisfaction which he cannot otherwise attain. or engaging in violet exercises or horseplay of an aggressive nature”. The motive to avoid criticism and disapproval is quite strong in many individuals when they rationalize and invent reasons. However. It simply means making excuses.
· Regression : Regression is essentially not acting one’s own age. · Negativism : Active or passive resistance operating unconsciously. weeping. Urge not acceptable to consciousness are repressed and in their stead opposite attitudes or modes of behavior are expressed with considerable force. It is not simply copying another individual. It involves efforts to repress threatening information and keep it in the unconscious. · Reaction formation : Individual acts contrary to his real feelings and emphasizes it with force Thus. This phenomenon is common characteristic of people in dull and boring of routine jobs.they arouse a sense of guilt or shame or anxiety. · Identification : Individual may react to the characteristics and achievements of another person as if they were his own. style and mannerisms. annoyed or frustrated. closely associates with his attitudes and actions identification is modeling oneself after another person imitating his or her characteristics. · Negative adaptation : Accepting things as they are. The example of repression is the behavior of a subordinate who “forgets” to tell his boss something which was embarrassing to him. for instance.tantrums whenever they are under stress. The individual wants to become like someone else and thus. or even pomposity of their senior boss who may be highly successful. values. making psychological adaptations unpleasant situation. It relates to incorporation of another individual’s thinking and behavior in one’s own thinking and behavior. Resignation or apathy . · Resignation \ apathy \ Boredom : It is a type of frustration where is one gives-up. Repression is a form of forgetting an unhappy incident involving emotions and thereby avoiding all mentions or thought of it. an individual who has acquired a reputation as abrasive may behave cordially to minimize his anxieties arising from past abrasive activities. less mature level of adjustment and behave in childish way when exposed to frustrating situation. For instance the junior executives take on the vocabulary. It occurs after prolonged frustration when individual loses hope of accomplishing his goal in a particular situation and withdrawn from reality and the source of frustration. attitudes and other allied qualities. sulking or throwing temper. individual may engage in behaviours such as crying. Individual returns to an earlier.
Individuals who learn to fear situations where they will fail or be ridiculed are particularly apt to adjust by using the mechanism of insulation. there are some people for whom lack of frustration is the most frustration situation of all. One way to defend one’s ego against such judgments is to devalue their source. · Devaluation : Since one of the common causes of self rejection is unfavorable social judgments. Sour grapism is that reaction where by highly desirable but unattainable goals or objectives are considered undesirable. This can be done either by minimizing the importance of judgment or by trying to prove to oneself and others that those who made the adverse evaluation were not competent to pass judgment or were prejudiced. Importance of frustration in Industry: The concept of frustration is extremely important in a work situation. To them. frustrated friendliness. the challenge of finding a way to deal effectively with whatever barriers confront them as they strive for a particular goal is what provides the “spice” to their job. They actually look forward to meeting these obstacles. just like the fox who tries in vain to reach the bunch of grapes. · Sour Grapism : “The fox and grapes” fable is a classic example of reaction to frustration. uninvolved. gets detected. or who are centers of poor morale in industry. . Actually. However. Frustrated ambitions. withholding any sense of emotional or personal involvement. the individual also tries to deceive oneself by saying. and frustrated self-esteem in work situation lead to nervous tension. “I never did want to have this promotion since it involved transfer to a remote place”. Just like the fox who convinced himself that he never wanted the grapes at all since they were ‘sour’. The pent up continuing frustrations produce people who are difficult to get along with. He may appear self-sufficient but he maintains this behaviour as a protection rather than because he enjoy it. The sour grapes mechanism comes into existence when the individual wants to hide sense of failure. He insulates himself. and if they did not occur they would probably find their work very drab and dull. this individual also tries in vain to get the promotion.essentially involves breaking psychological contact with the environment. aloof and isolated. · Insulation : The individual tries to protect himself emotionally by keeping distance from others.
To the extent. quality of work-life. “Scott suggests that human organism needs stimulation and variety in the environment. then. Plus. they may actually tend to reduce the overall frustration experienced. Knowledge about theories of motivation. The challenge of figuring out an effective method on their own can be liberating and much more fulfilling. Frequently. Encourage Creative Thinking Successful companies promote an environment in which creative thinking by the employees is allowed. If they understand the relationship between their specific job and the company’s success. though useful. I usually tell them the successful tactics that I used while making sales but I also add that there’s no one correct way. And. employees will often come up with their own creative strategies for achieving these goals. Start off by learning about your employees’ personal lives. without this motivation will suffer and frustration may result. empowerment. is not enough to motivate employees at work situations. employees are more apt to listen to future advice if you let them figure out that you are right on their own. goals are set on a weekly. or even yearly basis. Devise a System of Teamwork and Trust Employees are never going to produce the way you expect them to if they think you don’t care about them. regardless of his or her position. Everyone has a unique personality that might translate into an effective method of making sales. The more important among them. that sense is all it takes to get that individual to finish a given task. namely. It goes to the credit of HRM that it has several readymade techniques and programmed that can be used by the manager. monthly. job enrichment and job rotation.In this Activation theory. Also. rewards. In the case of the sales force that I help manage. EASY WAYS TO MOTIVATE YOUR EMPLOYEES Set Goals It’s important to help your employees set goals for themselves. quarterly. An HR manager must know the specific ways which could help him\her motivate his\her motivate his\her subordinates. Often. These can include both long-term and short-term goals and they can be both work-related and personal in nature. of course. Many companies use “performance management systems. If you’ve been successful in explaining your company’s overall objectives in detail. they’ll often approach their work with a sense of belonging. rewarding your employees for achieving their goals goes a long way toward creating a consistently motivated workforce. behavior modification. Your relationship with your workers should seem like one between partners as opposed to one between employee and boss.” which get every employee on the same page. that barriers and obstacles to goals provide variety and stimulation to the employee. This will give you insights into how to deal with them in certain situations. spread specific assignments around . goal setting. if not encouraged.
When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities. a senior employee receives more benefits than employee . The following diagram identifies four types of rewards: membership and seniority. Membership& Seniority Task Job Status Competency Organizational Rewards Types of organizational rewards . competency and performance.among your workers. Firms distribute money and other benefit in exchange for the employee’s availability. An MBA taking up a job in Wipro or Infosys gets more benefits than boy or girl who joins a state government undertaking.Advancement . Foster an Environment of Fun Studies have shown that employees are more dependable and productive when they think their workplace is a fun place to come to every day. job status. but a few minutes here and there throughout the day can work wonders. Membership and Seniority-based Rewards Benefit an employee receives depends on the firm which he or she joins. they are more likely to listen to you when you need them to get something done. you make them feel more important. retirement benefits and perquisites depend on seniority of an employee. pay raises. Little talks like these allow the employee to see you as a regular person. REWARDS People join organizations expecting rewards. In the same firm. It’s not necessary to talk to them all day long. I’ve found that one of the most effective methods of doing this is simply engaging my sales reps in conversations about topics that we both find interesting. competence and behaviors. they are motivated to work even harder so they won’t let the company down. and when your employees like you as a person. By giving employees special tasks.
A supervisor will receive higher rewards than purchasing assistant as the job of the former enjoys better status than the latter. that is. he or she is rewarded better. Job Status-based Rewards Every firm rewards employees for the status of the jobs they are holding firms use job evaluation system which helps establish differentials in status of jobs. ensure that employees feel their pay is fair when compared to how much people I other firms are paid. Status differentials are used as the basis for establishing salary / wage differentials. Job evaluation system try to maintain internal equity. employees tend to exaggerate their job descriptions and job specifications to garner higher grading for their job through job . For one thing. Job-based rewards are criticized by man. Jobs that require more skill and effort. Pay survey helps maintain external equity. to ensure that employees feel their pay is fair when compared to how much other jobs in the firm are paid. have more responsibility and have difficult working coPayPerformancePerformanceandIntrinsic or the or a job Extrinsic the and on and a and of and employee to to to the in and nditions would have more value and consequently would be placed in higher pay grades. Further.Seniority based rewards tend to reduce turnover but may fail to motivate achievers to perform better. High status job holders are also rewarded with more perquisites.Membership based reward attract job applicants but the problem is such reward may not directly motivate job performance . One advantage of status-based pay is that it helps maintain feelings of equity. that is. Just because an employee holds a high priced job.There are advantages and limitations associated with membership and seniority based reward . such benefit fails to motivate achievers to perform better. It has more value to the organization (calculated by job evaluation system or pay survey) and therefore employees in that job receive more status-based rewards in the organization. Job-based rewards also motivate employees to compete for positions higher up the organizational hierarchy. Firms that do not use job evaluation system still reward job status based on pay survey information about the labor market. not with standing the level of performance attained by the individual. Another problem with is that they discourage poor performers form leaving the film voluntarily because al ernative jobs are simply not available to them.
or on the depth of their knowledge. For instance. Higher grades confer higher rewards on the jobs. skill-based pay rewards skills. Where rewards are linked to competencies what emerges is the skill-based pay. The purpose of this system is to motivate employees to acquire additional skills so that they become more useful to the organization. Performance-based Rewards The trend that is emerging recently is to link pay to performance rather than to seniority or membership. Europe and Asia are paying their employees more for performance than ever before. They are also expensive. result in pay disparities which may demotivate employees. Customer needs are met more quickly. product or service quality tends to improve because employees who have work experiences in several jobs are more likely to know where problems originate. In the skill based pay employees are paid on the basis of number of jobs they are capable of discharging. Competencies are reflected through skills. in a recent survey of 210 large firms in Tokyo. Firms in N. but the most common among them are: Organizational rewards → Profit sharing Stock options Team rewards → Gain sharing Special bonuses Individual rewards → Piece rate Commission Merit pay Bonuses . Performance-based rewards are many. Competency-based Rewards Increasingly organizations are linking rewards to competencies of employees.America. Moreover. underlying the principle that employees are hired for their skills and not just to hold jobs.evaluation systems. however. Employees are expected to have several competencies and these competencies are evaluated by observing specific behavior patterns. Employees can handle any job with felicity. employees find it easier to discover ways to improve the work process as they learn more skills and tasks in the process. Competency-based rewards have merits. They have been praised for developing a better-skilled and flexible workforce. Rather than paying for jobs. knowledge and traits that lead to desirable behaviors. 24 per cent awarded pay increases on the basis of performance than seniority. Skills-based rewards. Japan.
A gain sharing plan is a type of team reward that motivates team members to reduce costs and increase labor efficiency in their work process. Gain sharing plans use a predetermined formula and calculated cost savings and pay bonus to all team members. The employee takes pay as the reward for his or her work’ and the employer views it as the price for using the services of the employee. money is the vehicle by which employee can buy numerous need satisfying goods and services they desire. In the former. In profit sharing. Typically. In the first place. Expects Pay Performance Job . reality motivators? Put in another way. and improving maintenance factors is the first step in effort directed towards motivation. if pay is contingent upon performance. the company shatters the cost savings with employees. Employees stock potion schemes (ESOPS) confer ownership of the firm on employees. money is fundamental for completion of task. Some teams are rewarded with special bonuses or gifts if they collectively achieve specific goals. The most common is the piece rate which links pay to the units produced by an employee. Fourth. does money motivate employees? The answer is ‘yes’ and ‘no’. reinforcement and expectancy theories attest to the value of money as a motivator. unless it is voluntary or “play” involves a contract between two parties “guaranteed” by the payment of money. particularly monetary rewards. This is gradually replaced by retainable bonuses for accomplishing specific tasks or for achieving certain goals. as a medium of exchange. Merit pay is based on the individual’s performance. Consistent with the expectancy theory. it will encourage workers to high levels of effort. ESPOS encourage employees to buy shares of the company and rew3ard them through divided and market appreciation of the shares. money also performs the function of a “score card” by which employees assess the value that the organization place on their services and by which employees can compare their “values” to others. they may also result from satisfactory completion of individual goals. Fifth. Although these bonuses are often determined from team or organizational performance. Individual rewards are quite common in organizations. money will motivate to the extent that it is seen as being able to satisfy an individual’s personal goals and is perceived as being dependent upon performance criteria. Team rewards are common where firms rely in teams to get work done. Work. Second. money is one of the hygiene factors.Profit sharing is an organizational performance-based reward. Are rewards. Designated employees are allowed to share in the profit earned by a company. Money is understood to be powerful motivator for more than one reason. Third. Commissions are paid to sales people on the actual sales shown by them.
Second. responsibility. But behavioral scientists think otherwise. goals. The conclusion is that money can motivate some people under some conditions. thanks to strong unionization. This is not possible. seniority based promotion. a challenging job and the like are nebulous. Many worries and concerns are financially based. financial incentives discourage risk-taking propensity of people. they become less inclined to take risk or explore possibilities. Seventh. money acts as punctuation in one’s life. Put it another way money cannot motivate all people under all circumstances. therefore. All you need to . management must have the discretion to reward high performers with more money. relationships among employees are often ruptured because of the scramble for monetary rewards. money is easily vulnerable for manipulation. and the coast of living indexation. Fourth. for money to motivate the difference in pay increase between a high performer and an average performer must be significant. money is not important to all people. instead. people fail to see a direct linkage between monetary and performance. It is an attention-getting and effectproducing mechanism Money has. pay raises do not depend on performance. Fifth. Other factors like satisfaction. Studies too attest to the same assertion. In these days of unionization. It is relaxing to receive sufficient money to clear the outstanding bills and past debts which have been causing tension. tremendous importance in influencing employee behavior. Third. They downgrade money as a motivator. for example. other techniques such as challenging jobs. are intrinsically motivated. First. Whenever people are encouraged to think about what they will get for performing a task. participation in decision of behavioral scientists to money as a motivator is understandable for at least six reasons. Motivating Employees without Money The employees who work for your company are naturally motivated. Finally. In practice it rarely is. money will be a powerful motivator for a person who is tense and anxious about lack of money.evaluated Consider equity of performance pay Employee sets new expectations Employee Performance Job Evaluated Feedback to employee Based on previous expectations Pay and performance-relationship Sixth. protective legislation. They prefer. Finally. Money has little impact on such people. Payments and the plans with which they are linked are manipulatable. High achievers.
and for control and power over their work. · Plan unproductive meetings for employees to attend. competence. · Create a lot of unnecessary rules for employees to follow. In fact. · Encourage responsibility and leadership opportunities within your company. The following are the human desires that you are tapping into. · If your employees do routine work add some fun and variety to their routine. you will tap into your employees' natural motivation. · Provide lots of encouragement. recognition. · Provide employees with input and choice in how they do their work. · Develop goals and challenges for all employees. · Promote job ownership. That's right! No money. achievement. · Create an atmosphere full of company politics. Remember. · Tolerate learning errors by avoiding harsh criticism. The second step your organization can take is to develop true motivators which can spark all your employees into being motivated. · Promote internal competition between employees. · Desire for activity . they have desires for ownership. By decreasing negative zapping demotivators and by adding true motivators. focus on how you can make some changes within your organization. Your employees' natural motivation relies on the fact that all people have human desires for affiliation. · Tolerate poor performance so your high performing employees feel taken advantage of. · Provide criticism instead of constructive feedback. Instead of focusing on money. · Develop unclear expectations regarding your employees' performance. · Make appreciation part of your repertoire. The first step in utilizing your employees' natural abilities is to eliminate your organization's negative practices that zap away their natural motivation.do is to utilize their natural ability. The following is a list of ten motivation zapping organizational behaviors that will demotivate your employees. money can actually decrease an employee's motivation and performance. In addition. · Withhold information critical for employees to perform their work. The following are examples of true motivators that will help your employees tap into their natural ability to be motivated. implement these true motivators without spending money. which you can do without spending a time. · Treat employees unfairly. · Promote social interaction and teamwork between employees. · Develop measurement that shows performance increase. and meaning in their work. · Underutilize the capability of your employees. By eliminating demotivators and adding in no cost motivators you are tapping into your employees' natural human desires to perform at their maximum level of motivation and productivity.
What really motivates your staff? It is often assumed that all people are motivated by the same things. results. Do employees feel empowered? Do your employees feel they have job descriptions that give them some autonomy and allow them to find their own solutions or are they given a list of tasks to perform and simply told what to do? 5. fear. the process of involving and consulting with staff is hugely beneficial and motivational in its own right. Are they motivated by financial rewards.· Desire for ownership · Desire for power · Desire for affiliation · Desire for competence · Desire for achievement · Desire for recognition · Desire for meaning That's it! Remember. What obstacles stop employees performing to best effect? Questionnaires on employee motivation should include questions about what employees are tolerating in their work and home lives. Although not exhaustive. praise and acknowledgment. Are there any recent changes in the company that might have affected motivation? . the following ten points may help you cover the relevant subject areas and help towards establishing facts rather than making assumptions about motivation when designing your own questionnaires on employee motivation. (see the 'Hawthorne Effect').. What is the 'primary aim' of your company? Your employees may be more motivated if they understand the primary aim of your business. perfectionism. don't work to change one individual at a time. Ask questions to establish how clear they are about your company's principles. Ten tips for questionnaires on employee motivation 1. including learning about their values. Whilst your survey will be unique to your company. 4. your staff issues. 2. competition. your industry and culture.. some useful generic guidelines apply to most situations. Actually we are motivated by a whole range of factors. 3. priorities and mission. Work to change your organization to decrease the demotivators and thereby increase your employees’ natural ability to self motivates themselves. The company can eliminate practices that zap motivation. Aside from the information that questionnaires reveal. Include questions to elicit what really motivates employees. Employee motivation Principles of improving employee motivation and empowerment Employee motivation questionnaires or surveys Staff surveys are usually very helpful in establishing whether staff in your company is motivated and therefore performing to best effect. public recognition. job security. status.
Your employees would have been influenced. Even if they are unfounded. it is the feeling that employee ‘owns’ the job that motivates him or her nowadays. 8. dispensable and invisible? Ask them what would improve their loyalty and commitment. Is the company's internal image consistent with its external one? Your company may present itself to the world as the 'caring airline'. Find out what the disparity is between the employees image of the company from the outside and from the inside.efficacy among organizational members through the identification of conditions that foster powerlessness and through their removal by both formal organizational practices and informal techniques of providing efficacy information “Empower employees are energetic and passionate.If your company has made redundancies. Secondly this needs to be compared with how individuals actually spend their time. How involved are employees in company development? Do they feel listened to and heard? Are they consulted? And. Are employee goals and company goals aligned? First. How do employees feel about the company? Do they feel safe. and authoritarian styles of leadership. You may find employees are highly motivated but about the "wrong" priorities. to this image when they joined your company. 6. thoughts and concerns relating to these events. treat them with respect and honesty. What are the patterns of motivation in your company? Who is most motivated and why? What lessons can you learn from patches of high and low motivation in your company? 7. If you do not mirror this image within your company in the way you treat employees you may notice motivation problems. imposed a recruitment freeze or lost a number of key people this will have an effect on motivation. centralized resources.The conditions existing in the organizations that lead to feelings of powerlessness on the part of organizational members. . They aspire to do better job because they get personally rewarded for doing job. 9. low task variety and unrealistic performance goals. More than monetary rewards. the company needs to establish how it wants individuals to spend their time based on what is most valuable. Empowerment may be understood as ‘’a process of enhancing feelings of self . and their expectations set. loyal. Empowerment consist five stages. are their opinions taken seriously? Are there regular opportunities for them to give feedback? 10. The first stage involves identifying . valued and taken care of? Or do they feel taken advantage of. 'the forward thinking technology company' or the 'family hotel chain'. low incentive value rewards. Empowerment is what young job aspirants are looking for in organizations. if they are consulted. Collect information from employees about their fears. EMPOWERMENT Empowerment is one of concepts discussed much in HRM. These conditions manifest through poor communication.
job structure and reward systems. the next stage is to introduce empowerment strategies and techniques. The second. . Finally. and more important. Use of participative management implementing merit-Pay systems and job enrichment are example of possible empowerment practices. Identifying conditions of Of powerlessness Implement empowerment strategies techniques Remove condition of powerlessness provide self-efficacy information Feeling of empowerment generated Empowerment result in performance Empowerment is facilitated by a combination of factors including values.Diagnosis being completed as suggested above. the enhanced empowerment feelings from stage four are translated into performance in the fifth and final stage. These behavioral consequences of empowerment include increased activity directed towards task accomplishment. One is simply to remove the conditions identified in the first stage as contributing to powerlessness. Self-efficacy describes a belief in one’s effectiveness. Receiving such information result in feeling of empowerment in the fourth stage . Selfefficacy describes a belief in one’s effectiveness. leadership. Individuals high in self-efficacy tend to be confident and self-assured and feel they are likely to be successful in whatever Endeavour’s they undertake. The use of the programmes (stated above) is designed to accomplish two objectives in the third stage. is to provide self-efficacy information to subordinate. Individuals high in self-efficacy information to subordinates.This is because increasing self-efficacy straightens effort –performance expectancies.
Empowerment occurs when power of decision –making and authority to share resources go to employees who then experiences a sense of ownership and control over jobs. Empowered employees know that know that their jobs belong to them. Given a say on how things are done, employees feel more responsible. When they feel responsible, they show more initiative in their work, get more done and enjoy the work more. Empowerment demands team formation. Teams, thus formed, are called selfdirected or simply empowered teams. Wipro Corporation has nearly 30 such teams and Titan, ABB, Tata information Systems too have their own empowered teams. The 60,000 tones per annum polyester filament yarn plant of Reliance at Hazira went on stream within 14 months mainly because its technical teams were empowered to make critical decisions at the worksite. Information sharing is another building block of empowerment. Employees need to be informed about the business and demonstrate how their work fits in. One of the most important measures of job satisfaction is whether employees find meaning in their work-if they know what they are working towards and understand how their work affects other employees and the organization as a whole. The following tips may be useful in empowering employees: 1.Delegate responsibility and along with it authority. role with that of ‘partner’ role. 2.Have tolerance for mistakes committed by subordinates. Demonstrate this tolerance through deeds and words. 3.Share information with subordinates. Empowered employees need sufficient information to get full perspective. 4.Allow teams to form. Teams are the best vehicles to empowerment. 5.Performance feedback is always important. It is particularly important for newly empowered employees. Feedback enhances learning and can provide needed assurance that the job is being mastered. Empowerment needs to be implemented with caution. Where employees suffer from inflated egos and are highly self-centered, empowerment does not work. Many employees entertain the feeling that they are subjected to be led and not to led. Empowerment has no appeal to such subordinates. When employees look for secured but not challenging jobs, empowerment sounds hollow. Employee motivation principles - a short case study - sound familiar? When Michael started his own consultancy he employed top people; people he'd worked with in the past who had shown commitment, flair and loyalty and who seemed to share his values. But a few months down the line one of his team members started to struggle. Jo was putting in the hours but without enthusiasm. Her confidence was dropping; she was unfocused and not bringing in enough new business. Michael explained to Jo the seriousness of the situation. Without new business he would lose the company and that would mean her job. He showed her the books to
illustrate his point. He again ran through her job description and the procedures she was expected to follow. He told her that he was sure she was up to the job but he really needed her to bring in the new business or they would all be out on their ear. Jo told Michael that she understood. She was doing her best but she'd try harder. But a month later nothing had changed. After an initial burst of energy, Jo was back to her old ways. No matter how experienced a leader you are, chances are at times you have struggled to motivate certain individuals. You've tried every trick in the book. You've sat down one-to-one with the individual concerned and explained the situation. You've outlined the big vision again in the hope of inspiring them. You've given them the bottom line: "Either you pull your finger out or your job is on the line". You've dangled a carrot in front of them: "If you make your targets you'll get a great bonus". And sometimes it works. But not every time. And there have been casualties. Ultimately if someone can't get the job done they have to go. The granddaddy of motivation theory, Frederick Herzberg, called traditional motivation strategies 'KITA' (something similar to Kick In The Pants). He used the analogy of a dog. When the master wants his dog to move he either gives it a nudge from behind, in which case the dog moves because it doesn't have much choice, or he offers it a treat as an inducement, in which case it is not so much motivated by wanting to move as by wanting choc drops! KITA does the job (though arguably not sustainable) but it's hard work. It means every time you want the dog to move you have to kick it (metaphorically). Wouldn't it be better if the dog wanted to move by itself? Transferring this principle back in to the workplace, most motivation strategies are 'push' or 'pull' based. They are about keeping people moving either with a kick from behind (threats, fear, tough targets, complicated systems to check people follow a procedure) or by offering choc drops (bonuses, grand presentations of the vision, conferences, campaigns, initiatives, etc). 10 management motivation examples to illustrate that there are better ways to motivate employees Blaire Palmer's experience has enabled her to work with a wide range of individuals and groups from a variety of backgrounds. Some of these people are highly motivated themselves, but struggle to extend this state of mind to the people they manage. Other people are at the receiving end of KITA motivation strategies that (obviously) aren't working on them. These people know they 'should' be more engaged with their work. Sometimes they fake it for a few months but it's not sustainable. In this paper Blaire identifies some common assumptions about motivation and presents some new paradigms that can help motivate more effectively. By adding these coaching tools and motivation principles to your capabilities you should find the job of leading those around you, and/or helping others to do the same, more of a joyful and rewarding activity. Instead of spending all your time and energy pushing and cajoling (in the belief that your people's motivation must come
from you) you will be able to focus on leading your team, and enabling them to achieve their full potential - themselves. Ultimately, motivation must come from within each person. No leader is ever the single and continuing source of motivation for a person. While the leader's encouragement, support, inspiration, and example will at times motivate followers, the leader's greatest role in motivating is to recognize people for who they are, and to help them find their own way forward by making best use of their own strengths and abilities. In this way, achievement, development, and recognition will all come quite naturally to the person, and it is these things which are the true fuels of personal motivation. By necessity these case studies initially include some negative references and examples, which I would urge you to see for what they are. How not to do things, and negative references, don't normally represent a great platform for learning and development. In life it's so important always to try to accentuate the positive - to encourage positive visualisation - so, see the negatives for what they are; silly daft old ways that fail, and focus on the the positives in each of these examples. There are very many. Motivation example 1 - 'everyone is like me' One of the most common assumptions we make is that the individuals who work for us are motivated by the same factors as us. Perhaps you are motivated by loyalty to the company, enjoying a challenge, proving yourself to others or making money. One great pitfall is to try to motivate others by focusing on what motivates you. Marie, a director in her company, was being coached. She was a perfectionist. Every day she pushed herself to succeed and was rewarded with recognition from her peers. But she was unable to get the same standard of work from her team members. In the first few weeks of her coaching she would say, "If only people realized how important it was to put in 110% and how good it felt to get the acknowledgment, then they would start to feel more motivated". But it wasn't working. Instead people were starting to become resentful towards Marie's approach. Acknowledgment was a prime motivator for Marie so to help her consider some other options, she was helped to brainstorm what else might motivate people in their work. Marie's list grew: 'learning new skills', 'accomplishing a goal as part of a team', 'creativity', 'achieving work-life balance', 'financial rewards' and 'the adrenaline rush of working to tight deadlines'. Marie began to see that perhaps her team were indeed motivated - it was simply that the team members were motivated in a different ways to her own. If the leader can tap into and support the team members' own motivations then the leader begins to help people to realize their full potential. Motivation example 2 - 'no-one is like me' Since the 1980's, research has shown that although we know that we are motivated by meaningful and satisfying work (which is supported by Herzberg's timeless theory on the subject, and virtually all sensible research ever since), we assume others are motivated mainly by financial rewards. Chip Heath, associate professor
at Stanford University carried out research that found most people believe that others are motivated by 'extrinsic rewards', such as pay or job security, rather than 'intrinsic motivators', like a desire to learn new skills or to contribute to an organization. Numerous surveys show that most people are motivated by intrinsic factors, and in this respect we are mostly all the same. Despite this, while many leaders recognize that their own motivation is driven by factors that have nothing to do with money, they make the mistake of assuming that their people are somehow different, and that money is central to their motivation. If leaders assume that their team members only care about their pay packet, or their car, or their monthly bonus, this inevitably produces a faulty and unsustainable motivational approach. Leaders must recognize that people are different only in so far as the different particular 'intrinsic' factor(s) which motivate each person, but in so far as we are all motivated by 'intrinsic' factors, we are all the same.
Motivation example 3 - 'people don't listen to me' When some people talk, nearly everyone listens: certain politicians, business leaders, entertainers; people we regard as high achievers. You probably know people a little like this too. You may not agree with what they say, but they have a presence, a tone of voice and a confidence that is unmistakable. Fundamentally these people are great sales-people. They can make an unmitigated disaster sound like an unqualified victory. But do you need to be like this to motivate and lead? Certainly not. Many people make the mistake of thinking that the only people who can lead others to success and achieve true excellence, and are the high-profile, charismatic, 'alpha-male/female' types. This is not true. James was a relatively successful salesman but he was never at the top of his team's league table. In coaching sessions he would wonder whether he would ever be as good as his more flamboyant and aggressive colleagues. James saw himself as a sensitive person and was concerned that he was too sensitive for the job. James was encouraged to look at how he could use his sensitivity to make more sales and beat his teammates. He reworked his sales pitch and instead of focusing his approach on the product, he based his initial approach on building rapport and asking questions. He made no attempt to 'sell'. Instead he listened to the challenges facing the people he called and asked them what kind of solution they were looking for. When he had earned their trust and established what they needed he would then describe his product. A character like James is also typically able to establish highly reliable and dependable processes for self-management, and for organizing activities and resources, all of which are attributes that are extremely useful and valued in modern business. When he began to work according to his natural strengths, his sales figures went through the roof. Each of us has qualities that can be adapted to a leadership role and/or to achieve
'seeking to understand'. but when all this fails to make an impact the manager simply sighs and hands the troublesome employee the termination letter. Bob was also expected to work more closely now with a colleague with whom he clashed. Typically managers use conventional methods to inspire their teams. as already shown. authentic style of leadership and making things happen. we are more likely to get others behind us and to succeed if we tap in to our natural. Having set aside his assumptions about Bob and armed with a more complete picture from Bob's point of view. but was no longer able to leave the office at 5pm.'some people can't be motivated' While it's true that not everyone has the same motivational triggers. As well as administrative work he would be more involved in people management and report directly to Frank. When his manager left the company. Bob was asked by the site director. He realized two weeks of every month were effectively 'down-time' for Bob. Instead of acting the way we think others expect us to. Frank arranged for the two of them to meet to discuss a way forward. Motivation example 5 . He felt he had too much to do. is generally a better first step than 'seeking to be understood'. he didn't trust the new administrator brought in to lighten his workload. so promotion meant little to him. and he felt resentful that his extra responsibility hadn't come with extra pay. Frank was a good manager and told Bob that he simply had to be a little more organized. followed by two weeks where he was overloaded with work. The leader has a responsibility to facilitate this process. reminding them that they are 'all in this together' or that they are 'working for the greater good' or that the management has 'complete faith in you'.great success. and to find a workable way forward. While there is no guarantee that this approach will always work. But Bob remained sullen. Motivation example 4 . Bob was dedicated to doing a good job. but was not particularly ambitious. So Frank took a different approach: He tried to see the situation from Bob's point of view. Then Frank looked at how Bob might perceive him as his boss. the belief that some people cannot be motivated is what can lead to the unedifying 'pep-talk and sack them' cycle favored by many X-Theory managers. and that he (Frank) had complete belief in Bob to be able to handle this new challenge. Instead Bob did little but complain. To Bob it might look as if Frank took no direct interest except when he found fault. He realized Bob probably thought Frank's hands-off management style meant he didn't care. It's easier to help someone when you see things from their point of view. as Stephen Covey's 'Seven Habits of Highly Effective People' puts it. The reality is that motivating some individuals does involve an investment of time.'but I am listening' . Finally. Frank saw this as a promotion for Bob and assumed that he would be flattered and take to his new role with gusto. to take over some extra responsibility. Bob enjoyed his social life. Frank. Now the two were able to look at the real situation. Frank looked at the situation Bob was in to see if there was anything bringing out the worst in him.
Often when an employee tells us why they are lacking motivation we are busy internally making notes about what is wrong with what they are saying. So. This is not to say that 'the employee is always right'. industry. You succeed as a leader by helping and enabling people to reach their potential and to achieve fulfillment. See the principles of empathy. stressed. role or team that individual would be energized and dedicated. mindful of internal needs. It is not listening properly. Effort should be focused on helping people to align company goals with individual aspirations. This is certainly important. Sometimes the person and the company are simply unsuited.e. we listen really hard.'if they leave I've failed' What happens if. thinking about last night's big game and planning your weekend certainly stop you from hearing what is being said. Sometimes 'success' doesn't look the way we expect it to. having identified what sort of work and environment would suit them better. Look at Adam's Equity Theory to help understand the complexity of personal motivation and goals alignment. Motivation example 6 . at their meeting. Katherine Benziger's methodologies are rooted in this philosophy: Employees who 'falsify type' (i. But there is another important aspect to listening and that is: Listening without Judgment. If their needs and abilities could be of far greater value . so that you can actually hear. Listening is about understanding how the other person feels . leaves to find their ideal job elsewhere.We are always told how valuable listening is as a leadership tool and encouraged to do more of it. Checking your email. It's becoming more widely accepted that the right and sustainable approach is to help individual employees to tap in to their true motivators and understand their core values. Motivation and goals cannot be imposed from outside by a boss . Bob admits to Frank that he doesn't see his future with that company? What if he says the main reason he is demotivated is that he isn't really suited to the company culture. and are unable to sustain good performance. Really listening properly means shutting off the voice in your head that is already planning your counter-argument. This is prejudging. and external opportunities and rewards. and would be happier elsewhere? Has Frank failed? Not necessarily.. understand and interpret what you are being told.beyond merely the words that they say. behave unnaturally in order to satisfy external rather than internal motives and drivers) are unhappy. whereas in the present environment the same person doesn't fit.motivation and goals must be determined from within the person. In a different culture. but only when you can really understand the other person's perception of the situation are you be able to help them develop a strategy that works for them. trying to catch every detail of what is being said and maybe follow up with a question to show that we caught everything. when we remember. A successful outcome for an individual and for a company may be that a demotivated person.
interesting work. and others like it. which Tracey generally achieved. tells us that the factors that demotivate do not necessarily motivate when reversed. improving job security and positive working relationships have a marginal impact. When Tracey handed in her latest monthly report. They believe that raising the bar higher and higher is what motivates. It doesn't really acknowledge a dedication to the job or a sense of pride.'the same factors that demotivate. Tracey was an effective and conscientious account manager.'people will rise to tough challenges' Many managers hope to motivate by setting their people challenging targets. the main factors that characterized extreme satisfaction at work are: achievement.to get the job done. salary and company policy. Sometimes Tracey would mention to her boss that the effort was taking its toll on her health and happiness. and had not had a single weekend break. Herzberg's research shows that improving the 'meaningfulness' of a job (see also motivation example 7) has the motivational impact. However. motivation example 8 .not just your own interests and the interests of your organization. He was relying on her sense of duty . So. 'the opportunity to grow and advance' and 'greater responsibility'.people's true motivational needs and values . The conventional solution to dissatisfaction over pay levels would be to increase pay in the belief that people would then work harder and be more motivated. Job enlargement is different to Job enhancement. So it follows that leaders who focus on these aspects . the majority of people in research carried out by Herzberg blamed 'hygiene factors' such as working conditions. responsibility. recognition. Motivation example 7 . don't complain about it again.elsewhere. motivate' When asked what brought about lack of motivation at work. Her boss habitually set her increasingly tough objectives. don't force them to stay out of loyalty. Its leverage or 'motivation' is simply a lack of choice. 'You see? It's worth all the hard work. However. not simply increasing the amount of pressure or volume of the tasks.which she had in bucket-loads . this research shows that whilst increasing wages. 'recognition'. But this is the KITA style of motivation. Help people to enrich their work and you will truly motivate.' Her boss's belief was that Tracey would get a sense of satisfaction from completing an almost impossible workload.are the true leaders. When asked what motivated them they gave answers such as 'the sense of achievement'.it also enables you to find a replacement who is really suited and dedicated to the job. in achieving her targets last month Tracey worked several eighteen-hour days. her boss said. Herzberg's findings about human motivation have been tested and proven time and gain. True leaders care about the other person's interests . His theory.a person's quality . Helping them identify and find a more fitting role elsewhere not only benefits you and them . let them go. Achievement for achievement's sake is no basis for motivation . traveled extensively overseas. advancement and growth.
JOB ENLARGEMENT.of life must benefit too. And see also Bruce Tuckman's 'Forming. Storming. you'll be the leader of a group performing at a higher level of ability and productivity. leaving you free to concentrate on all the job-enhancing strategic aspects that you yourself need in order to keep motivated and developing. desires and values. Change can be a little unsettling at first. commitment and focus is in the beginning more time consuming than 'KITA' methods. All of these renowned theories clearly demonstrate the need for teams. giving you the chance to step back from firefighting and to consider the bigger picture. Supporting and coaching people through this stage of early doubt is vital. Hersey's and Blanchard's Situation Leadership® model also illustrates clearly how important team development is for leaders and organizations. But keep the faith. from the individual growth perspective.'this type of motivation takes too much time' If you've absorbed the ideas above. A mature team should be virtually self-managing. They may feel you are giving them too much responsibility or be concerned that changes in the way they work may lead to job losses. especially which affect relationships and feelings . Herzberg's research is among other evidence. But consider the advantages. Instead of constantly urging your people along and having to solve all the problems yourself. since KITA methods require far less thought. and performance improvement is inevitable. It is true that this style of leadership. and the individuals within them. Norming. Herzberg was not alone in identifying that leaders need invest in the development of their teams. this is bound to be. People are naturally skeptical of unconventional motivational approaches. Engaging fully with your staff. you might wonder where you would find the time to motivate people using these approaches. So is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Motivation example 9 . See also the principles of the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum. Your responsibility as leader is to develop your team so that it can take on more and more of your own responsibility. They may wonder why you have suddenly taken such an interest in them. to be positively led and developed. ENRICHMENT AND ROTATION . sustainable motivation. people quickly adjust and respond to more progressive management and motivational attitudes. that after an initial drop in performance. Performing' model. getting to know them as individuals and developing strategies that achieve a continuous release of energy is more intensive and takes time to work.it is normal for things initially to get a little worse.new motivational ideas. Douglas McGregor's X-Y Theory is pretty central to all this too. and modern experience. This investment of time means you will eventually have less to do. Encourage and help people to grow and develop. understanding their wants. and also of their own successors. Motivation example 10 .'I tried it and it didn't work' When you try new things .
It simply means adding a few more motivators to a job to make it more rewarding. 1. seems to be the only thing that people can do eight hours or more. indicating the presence or absence of errors) or provided by supervisor. People. In our society. spend a considerable amount of time working. day after day. and creative. such as eating. 3.New learning: An enriched job allows its incumbent to feel that he\she is growing . He or she earns a living from the job. we philosophy upon work and treat it as worship. 2. Job Enrichment First coined by Herzberg in his famous research on motivators and maintenance factors. socialize in work organizations. The client can be from outside the firm (such as a mechanic dealing with car owner) or from inside (such as a computer operator running a job for another department). It has become an issue for many workers because it is losing its intrinsic value. and this dissatisfaction seems to have an adverse effect on motivation and quality of life general. planning and controlling powers.Clint Relationship: An employee who serves a client or a customer directly has an enriched job. or it gives the job holder more decision-making. political and cultural. All the other activities one enjoys. According to Herzberg. a job is enriched when the nature of the job is exciting.Direct feedback: Employees should be able to get immediate knowledge of the results they are achieving. The evaluation of performance can be built into a job (as in an electronic spell-checker. Job enrichment and rotation are but example in that direction. These features are described as follows and illustrated. social. plying and sex. job has become a serious subject for social scientists and practicing managers.Job is a significant aspect in one’s life. an enriched job has eight characteristics. job enrichment has now become a popular concept. To be specific. In fact. Some workers express dissatisfaction with their jobs. are easily suitable. Attempts have been made to use jobs for motivating employees in organizations. Work is also a primary means of achieving goals-economic. It is the primary institution through which the employee satisfies his or her diverse needs. and realizes potentialities through work. no matter how much one enjoys these. without much interruption. in general. Naturally. challenging.
The frustration of such employees. 6.mentally. plans to take voluntary retirement.m. he\she must have the authority to order supplies necessary for completing his\her job. job enrichment is a valuable motivational technique. doing an enriched job. He or she receives praise for good work and blame for poor work.Control Over Resources: One approach to job enrichment is for each employee to have control over his\her resources and expenses. such as a quality controller visiting supplier’s place. For example. Deciding when to tackle which assignment is an example of selfscheduling. and satisfaction after job enrichment. a study of AT&T with clerical and other company employees showed a positive improvement in job performance. Although job enrichment can cause increased employee motivation there are some other factors that should be considered. A few studies conducted in the US demonstrated the usefulness of job enrichment as a motivator. The usefulness if job enrichment in motivating employees is well-known to everyone. Employees who perform creative work have a greater opportunity to schedule their assignments than employees performing routine jobs.Direct Communication Authority: An enriched job allows the worker to communicate directly with people who use his\her output. 8. naturally. 7. A laboratory technician in the health department of a state-government enterprise experiences frustration after 20 years of working in the same capacity. such as a quality assurance handling a customer’s complaints about the quality of the company product. specially to people working in government establishments. whose number unfortunately is considerable. 4. can be enriching the jobs. An assistant who clips relevant newspaper articles for his\her boss is. He or she.Personal Accountability: An enriched job holds the incumbent responsible for the results. as a method of increasing worker motivation. For example. . The only regular work the employee does on every working day is to sign the attendance register at 10 a. Some cautions about job Enrichment Since job enrichment has been so well-published in recent years.Unique Experience: An enriched job has some unique qualities or features.Scheduling Own Work: Freedom to schedule one’s own work contributes to enrichment. Being a direct outgrowth of herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation. The incumbent hardly finds the job interesting. 5. one can easily be misled by its possibilities.
there is ample evidence to suggest that personal capacity is a dynamic. rewriting job descriptions) but it can also present a practical barrier since labour unions may resist a scheme that eliminates jobs. If this occurs. who for a variety of reasons.Job Enrichment is a Static Process: People become bored in their jobs because their capacity to make decisions is not fully utilized.Job Enrichment is not a substitute for good Management: Regardless of how enriched jobs might be in an organization. Job enrichment is not a substitute for good supervisory practices. if we take extreme case of a worker who is motivated by a lack of responsibility. After this initial drop. 5. then job enrichment for this person would be disaster.‘Enriched’ is a Relative Team: As a general rule. that after a period of time (the exact amount varies from person to person) the worker will outgrow the enriched job. This not only present system design problems (for example. Even though the job is changed to utilize this capacity. If an evaluation of a job-enrichment programme is made too early.1. job enrichment proposes that jobs with little responsibility should be improved to provide a greater responsibility for the incumbent. 6. 4. are satisfied with their current level of responsibility. job enrichment cause more problems that it may cure.Job Enrichment may have Negative Short-term Effects: For a short time after an increase I the job responsibility. It is likely. and company policies. job enrichment will have little or no effect. it is not unusual for organizations to experience a drop in productivity. we must remember that describing a job as one with ‘little responsibility’ carries an implicit assumption about the person occupying that role. the worker could be transferred to another job which has a higher level of . enriching one person’s job means taking authority away from another (most likely the manager). if other environmental factors in the organization are not adequate. However. however. For workers. as workers become accustomed to the new work systems. additional enrichment will be required to fully utilize the individual’s increased capacity. the management may erroneously conclude that the programme is not working. developing attribute. If jobs cannot be changed over time to use this capacity. While the job may appear to be boring to the observer. the person actually performing the job may find it quite challenging. therefore. 3. 2.Enriching Jobs may Create a ‘Snowball’ Effect: Given that organizations have a fixed amount of authority to distribute among its member. wages.Job Enrichment Assumes that Workers want More Responsibility: Clearly. many firms report an increased productivity that job enrichment is supposed to produce.
job enlargement preceded job enrichment. In other words. On the other hand. Historically too. greasing. but recent research indicted that participation can have a positive effect. His logic was that workers are often conditioned to see their jobs in terms of ‘Hygiene’ factors and are unable to respond to the job content. our knowledge about change processes tells us that this type of change is one of the most difficult things to implement in a work situation. employees are not likely to be elated at the announcement of a job-enrichment programme. Figure shows the distinction between job enrichment and job enlargement. Job Enlargement Job enlargement refers to the expansion of the number of different tasks performed by an employee in a single job. this is a factor that the management must consider in the participation process. An enlarged job can motivate an individual for five reasons: Job Enrichment Job Enrichment Enlargement Routine Job Job . and changing transmission fluid. The initiation of a job-enrichment programme must take this factor into account.Change is Difficult to Implement: As is too well-known. Job enlargement attempts to add somewhat similar tasks to the job so that it will have more variety and more interesting. 8. No doubt. any change is resisted and this applies to job enrichment jobs through increasing the level of responsibility will result in an increased motivation. an auto mechanic switches from only changing oil to changing oil.work (promotion).Participation can Affect the Enrichment Process: Herzberg originally recommended that workers should not be involved in the enrichment process. For example. 7.
Shows a Difference between job enrichment and job enlargement 1. Enlarged jobs allow for more meaningful feedback. or a major portion of it. Increasing the number of tasks to be performed can reduce the level of boredom. However. Even if they are counted.Ability Utilization: Workers derive greater satisfaction from jobs that best utilize their physical and mental skills and abilities.Enlargement Variety of Tasks (Focus on Breadth) Fig. on the other hand. Enlarged jobs with optimal levels of complexity. the management must be careful not to enlarge jobs too much.Task Variety Highly fragmented jobs requiring a limited number of unchanging responses tend to be extremely monotonous. without meaningful and points.Performance Feedback: Workers performing narrow jobs with short performance cycles repeat the same set of motions endlessly.Worker-paced Control: Job-enlargement schemes often move a worker from a machine-paced production line to a job in which. jobs are enlarged so that one worker completes a whole unit of work. and can be particularly motivated if it tied to evaluation and organizational rewards. . the feedback tends to be meaningless. if they can vary the rhythm and work at their own pace. 2. As a result. This tends to increase satisfaction by allowing workers to appreciate their contribution to the entire project or product.Meaningful Work Modules Frequently. 4. 3. Enlarged jobs tend to fulfill this condition. because jobs that require more skills and abilities than the worker possesses lead to frustration and present obstacles to task accomplishments. create tasks that are challenging but attainable. it is difficult to count the number of finished performance cycles. 5.
their enthusiasm. At the first sign of business difficulty. Management inadvertently makes it difficult for employees to do their jobs. By decreasing negative zapping demotivators and by adding true motivators. Excessive levels of required . Job rotation has drawbacks. Job Rotation This involves shifting an employee from one job to another. Besides if the job-enlargement programme involves breaking up of the existing production line of work system. many jobs may still be routine and boring. enlarged tasks. Employees with a wider range of skills give the management more flexibility in scheduling work. adapting to changes. activities. That's right. In fact. certain disadvantages cannot be ignored. even after enlargement. It reduces boredom and disinterest through diversifying the employees. Employee Understanding Motivation The employees who work for your company are naturally motivated. The second step your organization can take is to develop true motivators. that has similar skills requirement. they have desires for ownership. which you can do without spending a dime. Another drawback is that unions often argue for increased pay because of the increased work load. productivity may fall during the introduction of a new system. and filling vacancies. achievement.Although the benefits of job enlargement are several. work is disrupted as rotated employees take time to adjust to a new set-up. you will tap into your employees' natural motivation. which can spark all your employees into being motivated.But there are several ways that management unwittingly demotivates employees and diminishes. The first step in utilizing your employees' natural abilities is to eliminate your organization's negative practices that zap away their natural motivation. No money. redesigning a new2 system and training employees to adjust to it. the cost can be substantial. and meaning in their work. When an activity is no longer challenging. All you need to do is to utilize their natural ability. Your employees' natural motivation relies on the fact that all people have human desires for affiliation. Other benefits are also available. Finally. at the same level. First training costs tend to rise. Training costs are increased. Many companies treat employees as disposable. recognition. if not outright destroys. In addition. and for control and power over their work. and almost two-thirds say management is much more likely to criticize them for poor performance than praise them for good work. money can actually decrease an employee's motivation and performance. employees-who are usually routinely referred to as "our greatest asset"become expendable?Employees generally receive inadequate recognition and reward: About half of the workers in our surveys report receiving little or no credit. competence. it can demotivate intelligent and ambitious trainees who seek specific responsibilities. Workers may require additional training for their new. Moreover. the employee would be rotated to another job.
a key goal is to understand what motivates each of your employees. Myth #4 -. Before looking at what management can do to support the motivation of employees. A key goal is to understand the motivations of each of your employees. Also."I can motivate people" Not really -. 6. it's important first to clear up these common myths. Motivating employees starts with motivating yourself It's amazing how. If the goals of the organization are not aligned with the goals of employees. 1. However. several myths persist -. too.for a very short time."Money is a good motivator" Not really. Myth #5 -. too. (More about these steps is provided later on in this article.it's a science"Nah. and a lack of a credible vision contribute to employees' frustration. Enthusiasm is contagious. Increased job satisfaction does not necessarily mean increased job performance. People are not motivated by the same things. Different people are motivated by different things. You might be motivated much more by recognition of a job well done. endless paperwork.Myth #3 --"Fear is a damn good motivator" Fear is a great motivator -. if you hate your job. 5.especially among new managers and supervisors.) Basics about Employee Motivation (Including Steps You Can Take) Basic Principles to Remember 1."I can't comprehend employee motivation -. Myth #1 -."I know what motivates me. Clearing Up Common Myths about Employee Motivation The topic of motivating employees is extremely important to managers and supervisors. insufficient training. I may be greatly motivated by earning time away from my job to spend more time my family. 2. There are some very basic steps you can take that will go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves toward increased performance in their jobs. Certain things like money. so I know what motivates my employees"Not really. If you are very stressed out. Again. a nice office and job security can help people from becoming less motivated."Increased job satisfaction means increased job performance"Research shows this isn't necessarily true at all. if . Myth #2 -. 3. then employees aren't effectively working toward the mission of the organization. Myth #6 -. That's why a lot of yelling from the boss won't seem to "light a spark under employees" for a very long time. it seems like everyone else is. The key knows how to set up the environment for each of your employees. Not true. Employees have to motivate and empower themselves. infrequent delegation of authority.approvals. too. Despite the important of the topic. You can't motivate people anymore than you can empower them. 4. it seems like everyone else does. but they usually don't help people to become more motivated. you can set up an environment where they best motivate and empower themselves. If you're enthusiastic about your job. failure to communicate.they have to motivate themselves. it's much easier for others to be.
it is an ongoing process to sustain an environment where each employee can strongly motivate themselves. Always work to align goals of the organization with goals of employeesas mentioned above. if the results of their work don't contribute to the goals of the organization. a job well done. you'll have much clearer perspective on how others are doing in theirs.maybe worse off! Therefore. These preferences should be worded in terms of goals for the organization. use reliable and comprehensive systems in the workplace to help motivate employees. Indeed. establish compensation systems. Key to supporting the motivation of your employees is understanding what motivates each of them each person is motivated by different things. service. For example. as do people. to support employee motivation. Also. Steps You Can Take The following specific steps can help you go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves in your organization. learning. not a taskOrganizations change all the time. for example. 1.you're doing a good job of taking care of yourself and your own job. etc. it's critical that managers and supervisors know what they want from their employees. You can find this out by asking them. Identifying the goals for the organization is usually done during strategic planning. 4. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees. then you'll be much more fulfilled and motivated yourself. they should first include finding out what it is that really motivates each of your employees. Do more than read this article -.. The nature of these relationships can change greatly. then the organization is not any better off than if the employees were sitting on their hands -. etc. time with family. Support employee motivation by using organizational systems (for example. A great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding your own motivations. The key to helping to motivate your employees is to understand what motivates them. How is your job configured to support your own motivations? What can you do to better motivate yourself? 2. policies and procedures)--don't just count on good intentions don’t just count on cultivating strong interpersonal relationships with employees to help motivate them. Instead. 3. during times of stress. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees (various steps are suggested below). So what motivates you? Consider. However. 5. ensure that employees have strong input to identifying their goals and that these goals are aligned with goals of the organization. Recognize that supporting employee motivation is a process.apply what you're reading herethis maxim is true . establishing various systems and structures helps ensure clear understanding and equitable treatment of employees. recognition. listening to them and observing them. organizational policies and procedures. If you look at sustaining employee motivation as an ongoing process. for example. employees can be all fired up about their work and be working very hard. (Goals should be worded to be "SMARTER". employee performance systems.
if that is important to them.) 4. it may not happen unless you intentionally set aside time to be with each of them. then talk to a peer or your boss about it. You might find more means to provide recognition. Briefly write down the motivational factors that sustain you and what you can do to sustain them this little bit of "motivation planning" can give you strong perspective on how to think about supporting the motivations of your employees. Much of what's important in management is based very much on "soft. 7EmployeeEmployeeand . 6. morally and interpersonally) for focusing only on how . 3.when reading any management publication. It also allows employees to take a stronger role in their jobs. Skills in delegation can free up a great deal of time for managers and supervisors. Learn to become more comfortable with them.and it will be if not done sincerely. their families. touchy-feely exercise" to you. take some time alone to write down how you will modify your approaches with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are being met. This can sound manipulative -. their jobs might be redesigned to be more fulfilling. Performance in the workplace should be based on behaviors toward goals. you leave it up to your employees to decide how they will carry out the tasks. Then meet with each of your employees to discuss what they think are the most important motivational factors to them. Lastly. You might develop a personnel policy that rewards employees with more family time. etc. names of their children. their favorite foods. Fill out the list yourself for each of your employees and then have each of your employees fill out the list for them. However. (NOTE: This may seem like a "soft. touchy-feely exercises". Make of list of three to five things that motivate each of your employeesRead the checklist of possible motivators. Cultivate strong skills in delegation Delegation includes conveying responsibil ty and authority to your employees so they can carry out certain tasks. as well. Compare your answers to theirs. However. not on employee personalities. even if you sincerely want to get to know each of your employees. Have one-on-one meetings with each employee Employees are motivated more by your care and concern for them than by your attention to them. You can get in a great deal of trouble (legally. etc. not on popularity of employees. Get to know your employees. 2. Work with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are taken into consideration in your reward systems For example. 5. Recognize the differences between your impressions of what you think are important to them and what they think is important to them. If it does. Reward it when you see it A critical lesson for new managers and supervisors is to learn to focus on employee behaviors. which usually means more fulfillment and motivation in their jobs. The place to start is to recognize their importance.
11. ongoing attention and feedback about measures toward the goals. 9. a peer. For example. 14. New managers and supervisors are often focused on a getting "a lot done". It often helps a great . If an employee is providing a product or service to external customers. Admit to yourself (and to an appropriate someone else) if you don't like an employee -. That someone could. Performance management can focus on organizations. This realization often requires clear communication about organizational goals. for example. then bring in a customer to express their appreciation to the employee. look like an uncle you don't like. Let employees hear from their customers (internal or external) Let employees hear customers proclaim the benefits of the efforts of the employee . groups. and corrective actions to redirect activities back toward achieving the goals when necessary. then have other employees express their gratitude to the employee. extending of capabilities. measurable. timely. if the employee is working to keep internal computer systems running for other employees (internal customers) in the organization. Clearly convey how employee results contribute to organizational resultsEmployees often feel strong fulfillment from realizing that they're actually making a difference. Establish goals that are SMARTER SMARTER goals are: specific. employee progress toward those goals and celebration when the goals are met. and rewarding to those involved. Without ongoing acknowledgement of success. for example. the clearer it is to the employee that you highly prefer that action. realistic. Celebrate achievements this critical step is often forgotten. In this case. measures to indicate if the goals are being met or not. admit to yourself that you don't like the employee.Managers and supervisors are people. 10. processes in the organization and employees. your boss. 12. the shorter the time between an employee's action and your reward for the action. Then talk to someone else who is appropriate to hear about your distaste for the employee. skeptical and even cynical about efforts in the organization. etc. your spouse. 8. Reward it soon after you see it this helps to reinforce the notion that you highly prefer the behaviors that you're currently seeing from your employees. acceptable. employees become frustrated. Experienced managers come to understand that acknowledging and celebrating a solution to a problem can be every bit as important as the solution itself. It's not unusual to just not like someone who works for you. Implement at least the basic principles of performance management Good performance management includes identifying goals.you feel about your employees rather than on what you're seeing with your eyeballs. Indicate to the appropriate person that you want to explore what it is that you don't like about the employee and would like to come to a clearer perception of how you can accomplish a positive working relationship with the employee. 13. This usually means identifying and solving problems. Often.
make sure he or she receives a thorough welcome orientation. You can make a huge difference in employee morale simply by taking the time to recognize each employee’s contributions and accomplishments.Don’t forget the fun.Educate the masses. less creative. Give out “Employee of the Month” awards. large or small. Allow them to attend workshops and seminars related to the industry. Promote an office atmosphere that makes all employees feel worthwhile and important.deal just to talk out loud about how you feel and get someone else's opinion about the situation. Once in a while you have put work aside and do something nice for the people who work for you. 6.Acknowledge contributions. having a team of motivated. Reward employees with an unexpected day off or by closing the office early on a random Friday afternoon. If you tell an employee that he or she will be considered for a bonus if . either with something small like a gift certificate or something more substantial such as a performancebased bonus or salary increase. A happy office is a productive office. Treat the office to a pizza lunch or take everyone to the movies. productive. Ten Tips on Improving Employee Motivation No matter the size of your company. Tell them about the history of the business and your vision for the future.Put people on the right path. their job performance suffers -. they will become more engaged in their present work.Provide incentives. Encourage them to attend adult education classes paid for by the company. 7. if you continue to focus on what you see about employee performance. and this will translate into an improved job performance. Getting people to give their all requires following through on promises. Don’t play favorites with your staff. If employees become excited about what’s down the road. When any new employee starts.they become less productive. hard-working employees is crucial to your business success. however. Be generous with praise. Help employees improve their professional skills by providing on-the-job training or in-house career development. It’s important to build a solid foundation for your employees so they feel invested in the company. and ready to give their all: 1. you'll go a long way toward ensuring that your treatment of employees remains fair and equitable.Create a positive environment. 4. Keep office doors open and let folks know they can always approach you with questions or concerns. 2. 8.Honor your promises. less of an asset to the company. When people lose their motivation. Ask them about their expectations and career goals. Employees will feel you are investing in them. 3.Build a foundation. 5. Most employees are looking for advancement opportunities within their own company. as well as how you can help them feel part of the team. Work with each of them to develop a career growth plan that takes into consideration both their current skills and future goals. Such tokens of appreciation will go far in motivating employees. As noted above. Offer people incentives to perform well. Here are 10 useful pointers on getting your employees enthused.
which can help people learn how to overcome personal or professional obstacles on their career paths. forestry. and soil and water resources. (g) feeling of being in on things. Methodology The research design for this study employed a descriptive survey method. Match tasks to talents. and women's business development. The mission of the Piketon Research and Extension Center is to conduct research and educational programs designed to enhance economic development in southern Ohio. 10. (b) good wages. As a result of the pilot test. Data was collected through use of a written questionnaire hand-delivered to participants. . you’d better put your money where your mouth is. Help employees reach the next level professionally by providing on-site coaching. Assign individuals with tasks you know they will enjoy or will be particularly good at. (h) . The Piketon Research and Extension Center has five programs: aquaculture. 9. . Questionnaires were filled out by participants and returned to an intra-departmental mailbox. The Enterprise Center has three programs: alternatives in agriculture. Ohio. The centers are in Piketon. (e) good working conditions. a survey questionnaire was developed to collect data for the study (Bowen & Radhakrishna. but the trust of every employee that hears the story. Harpaz. Face and content validity for the instrument were established using two administrative and professional employees at The Ohio State University.numbers improve or productivity increases. You can improve employee motivation by improving employee confidence. The target population of this study included employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center (centers). Results and Discussion The ranked order of motivating factors were: (a) interesting work. 1987). The sample size included all 25 employees of the target population. Kovach. minor changes in word selection and instructions were made to the questionnaire. From a review of literature. Failure to follow through on promises will result in a loss of trust -not only that person’s trust. The questionnaire asked participants to rank the importance of ten factors that motivated them in doing their work: 1=most important . community economic development. (f) promotions and growth in the organization. Bring in professionals to provide one-on-one counseling. small business development. (c) full appreciation of work done. Twenty-three of the 25 employees participated in the survey for a participation rate of 92%.Provide career coaching. 1991. An employee who is successful at one thing will have the self-confidence to tackle other projects with renewed energy and excitement. 10=least important. 1990. The mission of the Enterprise Center is to facilitate individual and community leader awareness and provide assistance in preparing and accessing economic opportunities in southern Ohio. horticulture. The instrument was pilot tested with three similarly situated employees within the university. (d) job security.
The employee realizes that the more research he/she does regarding funding sources and the more proposals he/she writes. The number four ranked motivator. is an esteem factor. interesting work. Adams (1965) stated employees will attempt to restore equity through various means. Employees who do not secure additional funds will be required to work on research and extension programs identified by the director. the employee went to work for the centers. good pay. Contrary to what Maslow's theory suggests. is a safety factor. the range of motivational factors is mixed in this study. If an employee at the centers feels that there is a lack of appreciation for work done. full appreciation of work done. The following example compares the highest ranked motivational factor (interesting work) to Vroom's expectancy theory. an inequity may exist and the employee will be dis-motivated. interesting work. motivation will be diminished if the employee is successful in obtaining external funds and the director denies the request to conduct independent research and Extension projects. increased pay would suffice. Assume that a Centers employee just attended a staff meeting where he/she learned a major emphasis would be placed on seeking additional external program funds. Additionally. Further. if all the employees at the centers feel that there is a lack of appreciation for work done. On the other hand. (i) tactful discipline. employees who feel their work is . The number one ranked motivator. as being too low relative to another employee. The employee will be motivated if he/she is successful in obtaining external funds and given the opportunity to conduct independent research and extension projects. A comparison of these results to Maslow's need-hierarchy theory provides some interesting insight into employee motivation. The number two ranked motivator. some of which may be counter. is a physiological factor. Because the state legislature has not increased appropriations to the centers for the next two years (funds for independent research and extension projects will be scaled back). inequity may exist. job security. is a self-actualizing factor.productive to organizational goals and objectives. The following example compares the third highest ranked motivational factor (full appreciation of work done) to Adams's equity theory. according to Maslow (1943). Therefore.personal loyalty to employees. For instance. Further. Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed by this study. and (j) sympathetic help with personal problems. because of the opportunity to conduct independent research and extension projects. and esteem factors must first be satisfied. social. safety. in part. The number three ranked motivator. if managers wish to address the most important motivational factor of Centers' employees. the employee sees a direct relationship between performances (obtaining external funds) and rewards (independent research and Extension projects). good wages. the greater the likelihood he/she will receive external funding. If managers wished to address the second most important motivational factor of centers' employees. physiological. employees who are successful in securing funds will be given more opportunities to explore their own research and extension interests (interesting work).
the lack of interesting work (motivator) for the centers' employees would not lead to dissatisfaction. management should begin by focusing on pay and job security (hygiene factors) before focusing on interesting work and full appreciation of work done (motivator factors). . If Hertzberg's theory is followed. In this study and the two cited above. Mausner. conducted by Kovach (1987). yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: (a) interesting work. however. (b) good wages. is only part of the picture. Another study of employees. A study of industrial employees. (b) full appreciation of work done. good wages is a hygiene factor. Conversely. about the ranked importance of motivational factors as related to motivational theory. The other part is how these rankings compare with related research. Pay was not ranked as one of the most important motivational factors by Kovach (1987). interesting work. The absence of motivators does not lead to dissatisfaction. If Vroom's theory is followed. management should begin by focusing on rewarding (pay and interesting work) employee effort in achieving organizational goals and objectives. but do not lead to satisfaction. is a motivator factor. What is clear. yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: (a) interesting work. The second ranked motivator. Herzberg. is that employees rank interesting work as the most important motivational factor. When present. but was ranked second in this research and by Kovach (1987). motivation will occur. and (c) job security. dissatisfaction will occur. The discrepancies in these research findings supports the idea that what motivates employees differs given the context in which the employee works. management should begin by focusing on areas where there may be perceived inequities (pay and full appreciation of work done) before focusing on interesting work and job security. interesting work ranked as the most important motivational factor. and (c) feeling of being in on things. Knowing how to use this information in motivating centers' employees is complex. Further. Implications for Centers and Extension The ranked importance of motivational factors of employees at the centers provides useful information for the centers' director and employees. they stated that to the degree that hygienes are absent from a job. The strategy for motivating centers' employees depends on which motivation theories are used as a reference point. conducted by Harpaz (1990). If Adams' equity theory is followed. The discussion above. In our example. The highest ranked motivator. & Snyderman (1959) stated that to the degree that motivators are present in a job. but was ranked second in this research and by Harpaz (1990). Paying centers' employee’s lower wages (hygiene) than what they believe to be fair may lead to job dissatisfaction. This final example compares the two highest motivational factors to Herzberg's twofactor theory. hygienes prevent dissatisfaction.not being appreciated may work less or undervalue the work of other employees. employees will be motivated when they are doing interesting work and but will not necessarily be motivated by higher pay. Full appreciation of work done was not ranked as one of the most important motivational factors by Harpaz (1990).
and non-monetary compensation should be considered. Options such as job enlargement. This is the form of motivation you have within yourself that comes from a passion or interest in doing a job well done.• Most small business miss the two-sides of motivation when designing employee motivation programs. small business has the greatest opportunity to create a caring. and retain a productive workforce. Take the time to ignite both forms of motivation and watch your staff performance grow by leaps and bounds. Using "command & control" style management is not effective in creating a motivating workplace. and managers must be willing to design reward systems that motivate employees. Job enlargement can be used (by managers) to make work more interesting (for employees) by increasing the number and variety of activities performed. The workplace environment can be shaped to create a motivating workforce. The results presented in this paper also have implications for the entire Cooperative Extension Sysyem. 1990. The key to motivating centers' employees is to know what motivates them and designing a motivation program based on those needs. interesting work and employee pay appear to be important links to higher motivation of centers' employees. Ignite the Two Fires of Employee Motivation Driving your small business to higher levels of performance and profits requires two types of employee motivation. 1993). 1991). Knowing what motivates employees and incorporating this knowledge into the reward system will help Extension identify. Extrinsic Employee Motivation: This force of motivation comes from the external and relies on recognition and rewards. you must understand employee motivation. like those presented here. 1990). Smith. If properly designed reward systems are not implemented. 1992. employees will not be motivated. job enrichment. Successful business owners accept responsibility for the atmosphere of the workplace. recruit. monetary. • Intrinsic Employee Motivation: The word intrinsic means within or internal. intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Extension employees must be willing to let managers know what motivates them. however. Buford. internal and external stipends. Job enrichment can used to make work more interesting and increase pay by adding higher level responsibilities to a job and providing monetary compensation (raise or stipend) to employees for accepting this responsibility. train. These are just two examples of an infinite number of methods to increase motivation of employees at the centers. Before you can build motivation within your company. What is effective is tapping into the two forms of employee motivation. employ. Survey results. promotions. In any market and economy.Regardless of which theory is followed. The effectiveness of Extension is dependent upon the motivation of its employees (Chesney. . Motivating Extension employees requires both managers and employees working together (Buford. are useful in helping Extension managers determine what motivates employees (Bowen & Radhakrishna. motivating environment.
holiday parties or special launch events. Once you grasp this concept than you can move towards taking action to building a caring and employee motivating business. though the “every day type of fun “adds more value to the overall happiness of your employees. Match job descriptions to candidates' passions. Make certain all staff members have a chance to experience your services and/or products. Then there is the spontaneous fun experience…the manager brings in bagels and muffins…just because. . Money is not everything. Yet. Employees will never have the same level of commitment and motivation as the owner of a small business. Are Your Employees Having Fun Yet? Are you having fun as a manager or is it a lot of work? Is your team enjoying themselves? How often do you hear laughter flowing through the workspace? We get so busy doing the work that we forget how important it is to enjoy the people we work with.• Decrease in sick days and absenteeism. Place employee development at the top of your list for employee motivation and the benefits your small business will exceed your expectations. Being awarded for a major client sale at the end of the quarter may be fine but provide some immediate recognition after the deal. Listen to what is important to your employees. Both kinds of fun build employees productivity. Fun comes in different formats: planned fun events such as company picnics.Three Ways to Ignite Intrinsic Employee Motivation Purpose: How does your company change the lives of others? Focus on creating a small business culture with a strong mission statement. Growth: A workplace full of opportunities for employees to grow and expand their knowledge is a motivating company. Three Ways to Ignite Extrinsic Employee Motivation Rewards: Customize your rewards. as their manager. hire someone who has a passion for research. Belief: Help your employees believe in what your company sells. People want to be part of something bigger. Everyone is there to do a job and that’s fairly obvious to most people. Benefits of High Employee Motivation creates a workplace and culture of high achievers• Improved business and staff productivity• Reduced employee turnover. Recognition: Ensure recognition is timely. If your company requires a market researcher. Passion: Hire Right. you need to know that happy employees are productive and definitely more loyal to you and the company.• Employee motivation is the responsibility of your company. The job will provide all the intrinsic employee motivation for passion-centered staff members. It is important not only to attract talent to your firm but to also keep the talent. Family time off or tickets to a major sports event may be more meaningful.
Creating a fun workplace and thought this would be great material in your own brainstorming: Here are some zany ways to celebrate: Christmas in July Un birthday Parties Bad Hair Day PJ Day Come Dressed as Your Favorite Holiday Day Elvis Day Polka Dot Day Dress Your Boss Day Foreign Language Day (speak only in a foreign language or with a fake accent) Crazy Hat Day Clash Day. Start small and build your “fun” muscles. you can always find a goody to share. One company had employees from different countries.” If you were to create a 10-minute fun experience for the staff. or as the day closes. It is as important to research and study the needs. Everyone introduce himself or herself to the new person. and human resources directors. Movie Theme Day (pick a favorite).what a great way to introduce this person to the team. Have someone organize a Friday night after work gathering Birthday fun….The First Step Towards Motivation at Work Soon to be completed and published: A practical step-by-step guide on the subject for managers. By the way. would the work really suffer? I don’t think so! It’s all a matter of “priority” that fun is for you and your team. Lots of laughter going on here and the new person felt it…. it is employees at all levels that can make or break it. the new person also had to offer one fun fact about them. Tie Day. You’re the manager…you set the tone of a working environment…will there be fun or not? Fun energizes your team. They had a potluck luncheon where everyone brought in a special ethnic dish to share with others. pop some popcorn or pizza for lunch.. Bring in bagel and muffins in the morning. Or have a birthday card passed around for everyone to sign and then give it to the “birthday” person. sharing with the new person one fun fact about themselves. Food is always a great way to bring people together. Whatever your budget. trainers. drives. Have fun today! Understanding Employee Drives and Motivations . come together over some goodies to celebrate a great day. Backwards Day. ·Schedule spontaneously a “random acts of kindness” day where everyone has to do one kind thing to someone that day without them knowing…bring in lunch. and aim . put out some candy. New hire gathering. and expectations of people we hire or employ. However large or small a company or business is. Here are some fun ideas that you can bring back to your team:Create “fun specialists” that generate fun ideas…you can have an opinion here. but also for temporary and contracted workers. that it is impossible to fit in a fun event during the day. This holds true not only for the people we hire on a regular basis. supervisors. One company of 20 people scheduled a half-hour before the close of the day for a “cookies and drinks” event. Dress up or Down Day.Question: Do you say “we have so much work to do. Mismatched Sock Day.bring in a balloon or whatever fun idea you have to recognize a person’s birthday. List yourself here to be advised when the book will be ready for sale.
It is these . people's basic needs are the same. Before going any further. let us shift our approach from grouping people under the generic category of "employee" to individual human beings and term them as "hired workers" or "working partners". In actual fact. emotionally. line of study. job security. It is only when these needs are met that workers are morally. Outer (external) motivators. drives. and even physically ready to satisfy the needs of the employer and the customers. and capabilities. acknowledgment. safe equipment and installations Social Needs Contact and friendship with fellow-workers. analyzing and planning an adequate response to employees' motivations deserves first place in the order of business. personalities. at varying degrees of intensity. as illustrated by Abraham Maslow in the following model: Self-Actualization Ego Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Maslow explains the Hierarchy of Needs as applied to workers roughly as follows: Physiological Needs Basic physical needs: the ability to acquire food. We must acknowledge them as human beings with individual needs. and acknowledge their contribution to the business success. drives. reaching the heights of one's gifts and talents. rewards Self-Actualization Realizing one's dreams and potential. Though each person has specific needs. Worker motivation must also be viewed from two perspectives: 1. A person's inner drives push and propel him/her towards an employer. This is what they are. or other activity (such as travel or recreation). Inner drives 2. characteristics. shelter. as it is with regard to customers. a particular job. clothing and other basics to survive Safety Needs A safe and non-threatening work environment. career. considering the role each "employee" plays in a company's success. aspirations. social activities and opportunities Ego Recognition.at responding to and satisfying those.
Save for and enjoy old age security benefits 3. Earn wages that will enable them to pay for basic necessities and additional luxuries such as the purchase of a home. Systematic feedback 16. Information on customer feedback 20. Sharing of company goals and objectives . Clear company policies 6. A stable. Job security (to the degree possible) 5. flexible work schedules) 4. Acquire friends at work 5. Realize their ideal(s). Improve their skills. the employer not only tries to satisfy these basic needs. Be able to advance in life and career-wise 8. An atmosphere of teamwork and cooperation 11. The outer (external) motivators are the mirror image the employer or outside world offers in response to the inner drives. Training and development programs 17. just and fair work environment 8. Have medical and other insurance coverage 4. Open lines of communication (formal and informal) 15. Employment 2. use as guidelines in our efforts to help employees feel motivated. Medical coverage and other benefits 10. transportation. Clear and organized work procedures 7. Incentive programs 14. Reward and recognition programs 13. Opportunities for promotion 18.taking into consideration additional extraordinary needs individual workers have. but to exceed them . Be acknowledged and rewarded for special efforts and contributions 7. Social activities 12. Assistance to workers for their special needs (such as child care arrangements. or travel 2. In order to attract the "cream of the crop" of available workers. Company/ business information 19. Have opportunities for self-development 9. Demonstrate and use special gifts and abilities 11. Win recognition 6. and know-how 10. Most workers need to: 1. Adequate pay 3.drives that Maslow delineates in his hierarchy of needs. The employer responds to those needs by offering and providing: 1. and which we must understand and internalize. knowledge. A safe work environment 9. same as in his/her dealings with customers.
It is important that the employer discover other extraordinary needs applicants have before hiring them and know beforehand whether he/she can satisfy those needs or not. expectations and aspirations are unexpressed . adult workers have expectations from their employer . Plans for the future 24. In addition to needs and drives. or weekends · Heavy financial responsibilities which he/she can meet only by working at two jobs.they care to know to whom they entrust their fate. experienced. . Most of these needs. Business owners and managers are under constant scrutiny by the people they hire. reputation.it is up to the employer to develop a good system of company communications.they expect: · A knowledgeable. Future expectations 23. and deficient work performance · A desperate financial need for additional overtime and weekend remuneration · Premature expectations of swift promotions. for which company policies should be planned accordingly: · If the company is in a remote location. Guidance and mentoring. employee relations. Adult workers care beyond the salary . Once they feel confident that the employer and their place of work is what they wished for and expected. They consider their work as a major factor that shapes their lives and the lives of those dear to them. Some other needs the employer can expect. training and development that will lead to an environment of openness.21. procedures. they are ready to contribute above and beyond "the call of duty". and security. leading to exhaustion. "sick leave". expert employer · Clear and fair policies. all employees will have a need for more social activities · Many single people look for dates and spouses at work · Some women may not be ready to work late shifts unless the employer provides transportation back home · Some workers may have a problem with drug or alcohol abuse. Hence the scrutiny. and employment practices · Business integrity · Clear job descriptions · Two-way communications · Effective management and supervision · Positive discipline · Good company repute · Good customer relations · Company survival · Opportunities for personal growth · Company growth · A share in the company's success. An employee may have: · Family responsibilities and be unable to work shifts. overtime. Information on the market situation and industry 22.
from inspirational quotes and poems. meetings and events. team building games and activities. and the power of positive experience Alignment of aims. teamwork. Motivational methods are wide-ranging. to be used when you have a solid foundation in place. warm-ups and exercises for conferences.cooperation. Good leadership demands good people-motivation skills and the use of inspirational techniques. the better the platform for motivation. and motivational methods work better. confidence and performance. Motivational methods of any sort will not work if people and organization are not aligned. People are motivated towards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Motivational and inspirational experiences improve employees' attitudes. and motivation that will benefit all the parties involved. then most motivational ideas and activities will have a reduced level of success. Motivational methods and theory . Motivation is a complex area. Motivated people perform better . to team building games and activities.assuming people and organization are aligned Motivational and inspirational quotes. The following is a cohesive alignment of people’s needs values with the aims and purpose of the organization. which in themselves can often be helpful for staff motivation too. You should view the following motivational methods and ideas as structure. Get the alignment and values right. Motivational receptiveness and potential in everyone changes from day to day. The batter the alignment and personal association with organizational aims. Motivational theory Employee motivation theory –team building activities. Times have changed. See the personality materials for useful explanation about different motivational needs. See the motivation principles and template for staff motivation questionnaires and surveys. all develop employee motivation for sales and business staff in all kinds of organizations. posters. workshops. motivational speakers and stories. Where the people find it difficult to align and associate with the organizational aims. poems. It’s different for reach person. inspirational quotes. People want more. workshops. as ice-breakers. Motivation is an essential part of life coaching processes and techniques too. purpose and values between staff. teams and organization is the most fundamental aspects of motivation. activities and building blocks. from situation to situation.
stories. Ice-breakers and warm-ups for motivation . which all tend to use the right-side of the brain.found in the right-side of the brain. Inspirational quotes. People playing games or competing in teams learn about each other. despite people's normal aversion to the practice (see the role playing games and activities tips to see how to manage role-playing activities successfully). Using games and activities like juggling helps to unleash rightside brain skills. achievement. Also. rules. build understanding. especially when bosses and superiors take part in the same teams as their junior staff. quotes and examples also help the life coaching process. raising their sights. team workshops and brainstorming. learning and personal development. activities like juggling develop motivation. regardless of context. Playing games enables people to experience winning and achieving in a way that their normal work might not. People often enjoy events which include new non-work activities. quotations. positive images in quotes and stories. See the Johari Window theory for example. Here is the theory of how team building games. However. This is why fire-walking and outward-bound activities have such powerful motivational effect. Experiencing these positive feelings is vital for the conscious and sub-conscious visualization of success and achievement. For more information about brain type and bias see the Benziger theory section. which encourages self-motivation. in ways that are often not possible in their usual work context. essential for broadening people's horizons. and increasing motivation. inspirational posters. The use of role playing games and role play exercises is an especially effective motivational and visualization technique. increase motivation and improve performance: How games and other inspirational references and activities help motivation and motivational training Work and business-based training commonly concentrates on process. modern successful organizations rely just as heavily on their people having well-developed 'soft' skills and attributes. confidence and belief. confidence. Mutual respect grows. theory. etc. spatial and 'feeling' capabilities . using activities and references that take people out of their normal work environment creates new opportunities for them to experience winning. People become motivated to achieve and do better when they have experienced the feelings of success and achievement. stories and poems all help motivation too.see McGregor's XY Theory for example. All of these ideas. developmental behavior. contribute to improving motivation. inspiration and performance. such as self-motivation. all of which tend to develop and use the left-side of the brain. setting new personal standards and goals. empathy and creativity. which also helps cohesiveness and 'can-do' culture.. because these activities necessarily draw on a person's intuitive. structure and logic. initiative. for example.. all help to strengthen relationships. Inspirational references. and more explained below. motivational speakers. Powerful positive imagery stimulates visualization in the conscious and sub-conscious brain. team-working. they communicate better and see each other in a new light.
there is always a feeling of uncertainty and discomfort. Taking part in new games and activities outside of the work situation illustrates people's different strengths and working style preferences. Breaking new tasks down into stages. Continual development and motivation Learning and taking part in a completely new activity or game like juggling demonstrates that earning is ongoing. so that they can fully concentrate on the main purpose of the day. Teams unite and work together when they identify a common purpose . practice. divisions. Mankind has evolved partly because of this awareness to potential threats and fear of the unknown. they feel uncomfortable in the new strange situation. demonstration.you begin to build teams. or training course. Personal motivation styles and learning motivation Everyone is different. doing it one stage at a time. rather than spending the morning still wondering what everyone else is thinking.as with all learning and development. Motivational team building When you break down barriers.. where previously people 'can't see the wood for the trees'. territories and hierarchies . Mutual respect develops when people see skills and attributes in others that they didn't know existed. people work and learn in different ways. Get a group of people in a room having fun with juggling balls or spinning plates and barriers are immediately removed. providing clear instructions. because it is different.. Also. and emphasizes the opportunity for continuous learning that is . Games and team building activities relax people. Motivational coaching and training motivation Learning to juggle or some other new activity demonstrates how we learn. or a game of rounder on the park. prejudices. meeting it and mastering it helps build confidence. misunderstandings. all the essential training and coaching techniques can be shown. Even if people know each other.whether the aim is the tallest tower made out of newspapers.it's just a start . whether juggling is the vehicle or some other team-building idea. see the Kolb learning style model and Benziger thinking styles model for examples. Games and activities provide a perfect vehicle for explaining the training and development process ('train the trainer' for example) to managers.. and the learning is clearer and more memorable because it is taken out of the work context. and therefore help develop rapport and relationships.they break down the barriers. Master juggler Enrich Rastelli practiced all the daylight hours juggling ten balls. insecurities. team leaders and trainers. Facing a challenge. See the stress theory section for examples.. time and space to make mistakes. Juggling the basic 'three ball cascade' pattern doesn't end there . staff or employees to new experiences opens their minds to new avenues of personal development. The lessons never finish. unless people decide to stop learning.When a group or team of people assembles for a conference. Introducing people. Activities and games are great levelers . Building confidence for motivation Learning something new and completely different liberates the mind. and how to coach others. Competition in teams or groups creates teams and ignites team effort. whatever it is.
which integrates well with team building activities and workshops. or outdoor games. People who can solve problems creatively can make decisions . Physical activity is motivational Team building activities like juggling. Conventional classroom training or distance learning do nothing to address this vital area. Workshops are good vehicles for team building games and activities. Motivation for problem-solving and decision-making Problem-solving is integral to decision-making . collective problem-solving. innovate. which we use when we communicate and understand others. Learning to juggle or taking part in new challenging stimulating activities uses the intuitive brain to solve the problem. Motivation and creativity Creativity and initiative are crucial capabilities for modern organizational effectiveness.available to us all." (Steven Covey). Team building games and activities are motivational . the equivalent of pumping over 20 kilos. Successful organizations have staff that initiate. See the brainstorming process. without being told. See details on the stress section. Physical activity also provides significant stress relief.and organizations need their staff and employees to have these abilities. A minute of juggling three balls is 200 throws.essential for good organizational performance (see the Johari Window model and theory). Juggling and other games activities dispel the notion that actions must be according to convention and that response can only be to stimulus. See also the workshops process and ideas. and also great for achieving team consensus. Juggling and playing spontaneous or creative games definitely promote development and awareness in the right-side of the brain.see the problem-solving and decision-making section. See the Seven Habits Of Highly Effective People summary and review. Physical activity energizes people and reduces stress and tension. which opens people's minds. and then to be understood. Improving empathy and communications for motivation "Seek first to understand. and find new ways to do things better. create. get the body moving. Using mind and body together in a completely new way encourages pro-active thought and lateral thinking. which is good for general health and for an energetic approach to work. developing new direction and strategy. Empathy and intuitive skills are right-side brain. and stress management is part of every organization's duty of care towards its employees. the same part that's vital for creatively solving work problems. and develops creative and initiative capabilities. construction exercises. To communicate we must understand the other person. Team building workshops are empowering and motivational See the section on workshops. Team activities and games promote communications and better mutual understanding . and to support the delegation and team development process (see the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum for example). People concentrate and work better when they have had some light exercise and physical stimulus.
especially where the words recognize each person's own special ability. involvement. Saying thanks is hugely motivational Saying thanks and giving praise are the most commonly overlooked and underestimated ways of motivating people. saying. Inspirational examples motivate people in the same way that the simple 'power of positive thinking'. And it's so easy. management. Visualization is a powerful motivational tool . Rudyard Kipling's famous inspirational poem.people imagine and visualize themselves behaving in the way described in the quotation. Motivational posters showing inspirational quotes or poems can be effective for staff and employee motivation. See the stories section. so if your intentions are right you will not go far wrong. and can help to build confidence and belief. retention and motivation. Taking part in workshops and brainstorming sessions are empowering activities. In front of other people even more so. participation. to increase interest.even simple skills like plate-spinning . all manner of left-side-brain conventional training and business skills can be integrated within an innovative. Powerful positive imagery found in motivational quotations and poems is genuinely motivational for people. stories and poems provide a very effective method for inspiring and motivating people through visualization. whatever. and effort. When you look someone in the eye and thank them sincerely it means a lot. participative right-side-brain activitybased approach. Combine all three and it's even more effective for team building. individually and in teams. and amusing maxims and sayings are motivational when used in team building sessions. conferences. imagination and association. and 'If'. When using quote for motivation it's important to choose material that's relevant and appropriate.help to build confidence. story or poem. achievement. Inspirational quotes stimulate images and feelings in the brain . speeches and training courses. promote team-working and unleash creativity. contribution. relating to different situations and roles. See particularly the 'Hellespont Swim' case study and exercise. When you next have the chance to thank your team or an individual team-member. These quotes all make effective motivational posters. The key words are the ones which say thanks and well done for doing a great job. the praise tends to carry even greater meaning and motivational effect. There are more quotations about inspiration and achievement on the quotes section. for example. and 'accentuate the positive' techniques do . and are excellent materials for motivational .quotes. Here are a few motivational quotes. and they appreciate being valued as an individual even more. Motivational quotes . People always appreciate sincere thanks. Saying thanks is best said naturally and from the heart. Inspirational quotes contribute to motivation because they provide examples and role models. development and motivation.using inspirational quotations and sayings is motivational Inspirational quotations. If you think about it. and in establishing organizational values.Learning new things . take the time to find out a special thing that each person has done and make a point of mentioning these things. etc. quality.both consciously and unconsciously. leadership. and prompt visualization. Doing this.
thanks Yvonne Bent) "A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than the giant himself. Boldness has genius. 1856-1915.and. I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul.thanks Brad Hanson) "I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles overcome while trying to succeed. in a speech in 1968 . as a matter of interest." (President Harry S Truman) "In the midst of winter. It matters not how strait the gait. circa AD60 ." (Didacus Stella.) "The most important thing in life is not to capitalise on your successes . and for biography correction M Yates and A Chatterjee) "Most people never run far enough on their first wind to find out they've got a second. 1913 . French author & philosopher) "If you're not part of the solution you must be part of the problem. begin it. Give your dreams all you've got and you'll be amazed at the energy that comes out of you. American political activist group. I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer." (Albert Camus. power and magic in it.speakers: Motivational quotes "We cannot solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them. I thank whatever gods may be. The credit . Black as the pit from pole to pole. 1676. thanks for quote M Kincaid.or dream you can.1960." (William James. or you're part of the problem" by Eldridge Cleaver 193598." (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe." (the commonly paraphrased version of the original quote: "What we're saying today is that you're either part of the solution. from 'Invictus') "Management means helping people to get the best out of themselves.any fool can do that. ." (Booker T Washington. not the one who points out how the strong man stumbled or how the doer of deeds might have done them better. American Educator and African-American spokesman." (Harvey Mackay . German writer.thanks Jean Stevens) "Whatever you can do . The really important thing is to profit from your mistakes. how charged with punishments the scroll. . from 'Twelve against the Gods') "Out of the night that covers me.thanks RVP) "A dream is just a dream." (William Bolitho." (WE Henley. abridged on the edge of an English £2 coin) "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. . 1849-1903." (Lauren Appley) "It's not the critic who counts. not organizing things." (Albert Einstein) "It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit. 1842-1910 ." (Sir Isaac Newton. For my unconquerable soul. American Philosopher. In the fell clutch of circumstance. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline. . founder member and information minister of the Black Panthers. I have not winced nor cried aloud: Under the bludgeoning of chance my head is bloody but unbowed . 1749-1832 .
to belong to the first class. 23 April 1923. and damages the longterm (when as a result of supplier-driven sales pressure." (Catherine the Great. or to 'increase sales'. who knows the great enthusiasms. makes me stronger. whose face is marred with the sweat and dust and blood.) "I praise loudly. the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause and who. 1856-1950. or worse still. on an ongoing basis. who errs and comes up short again and again. People will not generally and sustainable improve their performance. and with targets set to increase as well in the final quarter. if you can. sales supervisors and team leaders (typically under pressure from above from executives who should know better) to simply direct people to 'meet the target'." (Attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche. to pressurize customers into accelerating decision-making. 1729-1796. and people who get the credit." from The Twilight of the Idols. I blame softly. and every other management and motivation expert . People will on the other hand generally improve their performance if empowered to develop their own strategic capability and responsibility within the organization.) Motivation of sales people commonly focuses on sales results. By doing these things sales people and sales teams will improve their results." (Dwight Morrow. What sales people can do is to adopt a positive and creative attitude. and focus on offering these opportunities to sales people and sales teams. Adams. who strives valiantly. Don't wait until you find yourself 25% behind target with only half of the year remaining.) "The world is divided into people who do things. However the tendency remains for sales managers. but nobody can actually 'do' a result.) "What does not kill us makes us stronger. Maslow. if he fails. Instead think about what really motivates and excites people. Handy. and carry out more productive and efficient activity.belongs to the man who is actually in the arena." (Theodore Roosevelt. the customer relationship is undermined or ruined)." (George Bernard Shaw. McGregor. which might work in the short-term but is extremely unhelpful in the medium-term (when business brought forward leaves gaps in the next months' forecasts). or attitude when they are shouted at or given a kick up the backside. 1935.) . Motivational ideas for sales managers for sales teams (These principles are applicable to all job roles subject to the notes at the end of this item. Try. probably based on his words: "Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me. at best knows the triumph of high achievement and who at worst. What matters in achieving results is people's attitude and activity and the areas of opportunity on which the attitude and activity is directed. There's far less competition. 1899) "A life spent in making mistakes is not only more honorable but more useful than a life spent doing nothing. Herzberg. at least fails while daring greatly so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat. directed on higher-yield strategic opportunities.
national accounts mangers are generally able to be strategic partner and channel developers. because we know that doing so will have a motivational effect on them. self-development and advancement. value. The principles described above generally apply to most other job roles. Include yourself in this.. Performance improvement is generally found through enabling people and teams to discover and refine more productive and strategic opportunities.. major accounts developers are generally able to be national accounts managers. Usually far more ideas and activity come from focusing on how the people would like to develop their roles and value (in terms of the scale and sophistication of the business that they are responsible for). maintain and grow day-today performance while additionally developing new higher-level strategic areas. because genuinely motivated people are capable of dramatic achievements. Most employees are capable of working at a far higher strategic level. They also seek recognition. which will lead to more productive and motivating activities. But people can generally do this. This is especially so since strategic growth takes time..confirmed all this long ago. Sales teams generally comprise people who seek greater responsibility. account managers are generally able to be major accounts developers. If necessary (depending on your organizational culture and policies seek approval from your own management/executives for you to embark on this sort of exploration of strategic growth... responsibilities. and also encourage them to work on opportunities that are likely to produce increasing returns on their efforts? Of course. developing ever greater returns on their own efforts. and your business still needs the normal day-to-day business handled properly. N. People are motivated by growth and extra responsibility. ie.) Obviously part of the approach (and your agreement with your people . contribution.. For example: reactive sales people are generally able to be proactive account mangers. All businesses have many opportunities for new strategic growth available. So do it. The motivation and capacity to do will come quite naturally from the new responsibility and empowerment to operate at a higher level. roles. So if we know these things does it not make good sense to offer these opportunities to them.B. (If you are unable to gain approval there are many other organizations out there who need people to manage sales teams in this way. while at the same time the . rather than confining sales people to a role that is imposed on them and which is unlikely to offer sustainable interest and stimulation. achievement. strategic partner and channel managers are generally able to be new business sector/service developers. Again include yourself in this. If you are managing a sales team try (gently and progressively) exploring with the team how they'd like to develop their experience. and so on. Yours will be no different. status.the 'psychological contract') necessarily includes maintaining and meeting existing basic business performance target levels. within the business.
Be aware however that people in different roles will be motivated by different things. but make sure you give appropriate explanation. SolutionSevern Trent Water turned to Capital Incentives and Motivation to implement a cheque book based reward and recognition incentive scheme called ‘Saying Thanks’. supplying nearly 2 billion liters of drinking water a day in Europe. The recipients simply return the cheque to Capital Incentives in a prepaid envelope. to employees who have provided an exceptional contribution. RewardsSevern Trent Water chose Capital Bond vouchers to provide recipients with unlimited choice as they can be spent at over 140 famous high street stores from fashion and accessories. each Business Manager was given a ‘Saying Thanks’ branded cheque book with a range of serial numbered cheques ranging from £25 £250 with a covering letter and instructions confirming their reward & recognition budget. For sure your should encourage and enable people to develop their roles. specifying their choice of voucher from a selection on the rear of the cheque. engineers require more detail and clarification of expectations and process than sales people typically do. As a company. Kingfisher. Toys R Us and WH Smith were also recommended. which directly or indirectly related to improving customer service. It was essential that the provider that undertook the administration of the scheme did so in a cost effective manner as the business operates in a tight regulatory environment. they wanted to enhance the quality of their service to employees by improving employee satisfaction and motivation. Severn Trent Water has invested nearly £5 billion in improving the quality of its service to customers. M&S.organization benefits from having its people focus on higher strategic aims and activities. To launch the campaign. It was also important that rewards offered would appeal to all across the wide spectrum of business processes. vouchers from Argos. For example. . home and DIY. Case studies Severn Trent Water chooses Capital Bonds to ‘Say Thanks’ to employees Background Severn Trent Water serves over 8 million people in the heart of the UK. Leisure Vouchers. The cheques are presented with a personal letter of thanks at the discretion of the Business Manager. Next. ObjectivesSevern Trent Water required an employee motivation and incentive scheme that empowered managers at a local level to recognize individuals for their exceptional contribution to the company. Since privatization in 1989. and particularly will require different types of support and guidelines when being encouraged to work at a higher strategic level. management and support for the types of people concerned. To complement the Capital Bond voucher and ensure the employees have maximum choice. administrators are likely to require more reassurance and support in approaching change than sales people typically do. leisure and travel to food and drink.
This led to a long established pay scheme called the 'piece rate'. Schemes like this are usually associated with manufacturing industries and are not appropriate for a complex service-led organization like RBS. this is supported by provision of detailed management information. Early theorists on staff motivation always looked at factors outside the individual.‘Saying Thanks Awards’ are distributed to the recipient in a ‘Saying Thanks’ personalized voucher wallet. The employees were also impressed with the scheme as one recipient comments “I always really appreciate receiving a 'Saying Thanks' award. accompanied by a letter of Congratulations. It's nice to be recognized for doing a bit extra and the Capital Bonds are useful as they can be spent in so many different ways. . He felt that every job was measurable and each element of a job could be timed. ResultsThe scheme proves to be an ongoing success according to the Pay & Benefits Manager. management theorists have tried to understand what makes some people work harder than others. where workers received a fixed amount for every unit of output. “Employees’ achievements are now recognized upstream in the management hierarchy and as a result this has increased job satisfaction and increased motivation". Some of the motivation factors identified by theorists can be seen at work in RBS. Taylor and the 'piece rate' Frederick W. Capital Incentives & Motivation also manages the administration of the scheme including the implementation of comprehensive audit procedures for every cheque received the processing of cheques and the distribution of vouchers.: "The 'Saying Thanks' scheme has helped develop the manager and employee relationship as there is a significant 'feel good factor' due to the fact the award is a personal one made by the manager. The scheme has definitely been one of the factors in helping the company improve its customer service levels reported to the industry regulator. The overall company perception has also dramatically improved through the introduction of the scheme. Taylor (1911) was the creator of 'scientific management'." Business Case Studies Royal Bank of Scotland what is motivation? Motivating through Total Reward What is motivation? For many years. All managers had to do was pay for every item the workers produced and they would work harder to get more money.
carried out a large-scale survey into motivation in American industry. Basic physical needs were things like shelter. RBS creates the opportunity for its community of employees worldwide to share in its common goals and vision for the group. Herzberg termed these 'motivators'. . the presence of less tangible factors. Maslow (1943) on staff motivation is also evident at RBS. Maslow referred to a 'Hierarchy of Needs' which is usually drawn as a pyramid. can create or increase work motivation. How Auditing Company X Works with Retaining Valuable Employees : Swedish Case study University essay from Högskolan i Jönköping/IHH. RBS has put in place several of Herzberg's 'motivators': · employees get recognition for good work · they have a collective sense of achievement when the whole business does well · they gain extra responsibility and advancement through regular performance reviews · when RBS people do well in their work. On the other hand. food. people had to feel safe in their environment. such as the provision of challenging work and recognition for doing well. RBS provides 'self actualization' by offering recognition. warmth and bodily functions. then this creates a source of dissatisfaction. Herzberg termed these 'hygiene factors'. The results of his survey led him to develop a 'twofactor' theory of motivation. EMM (Entrepreneurskap. It provides opportunities for all employees through promotion or training and then recognizes their achievements. According to Maslow. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs The theory of Abraham H. The RBS mindset is that employees can 'make it happen' for themselves. At the very top of Maslow's hierarchy is our human need for 'self actualization'. RBS meets this by offering recognition. Social needs refer to the fact that we want to feel part of something we share in. The next level – 'esteem' . promotion opportunities and the chance to develop a lifelong career with the Group.refers to our need to feel valued. Next.Herzberg and 'two-factor' theory Another theorist. This means we work hard in order to be as good as we possibly can be. he established that if an employee's basic needs (such as a suitable working environment and a basic rate of pay) were not met. Through this RBS employees can improve their selfesteem. promotion opportunities and the chance to develop a lifelong career with the Group. the company rewards them. the most basic needs on this hierarchy had to be satisfied before workers could look to the next level. that what we do matters. It does this by rewarding the people who contribute to its success through their commitment and hard work. Maslow's higher levels of need are less obvious and less easy to describe but of great importance. Firstly. RBS provides these basic needs wherever it creates jobs. Frederick Herzberg (1959).
Auditing Company X seems to have incorporated this into their practices successfully. Firstly.  Keywords: retention. keeping employees for longer periods is an imp-ortant challenge for firms. leadership. and finally culture and leader-ship. Retention: An explanatory study of Swedish employees in the financial sector regarding leadership style. management. . which is why we have chosen to do a case study at Auditing Company X to see how they work with employee retention. motivation and performance. remuneration. Due to these statements the challenge of retaining and motivating valuable employees is crucial for the auditing firms. remuneration and elements like participation. which consist of four categories: the hiring process. remuneration and elements towards job satisfaction University essay from Växjö u niversitet/Ekonomihögskolan Author: Sanna Paulsson. including specific courses within au-diting/accounting. Linda Lindgren. and it is more important than ever to have the right employees in order to survive the surrounding competition. we have been able to conclude that the firm’s retention practices are to a great extend in line with the theoretical framework. Abstract: Today. the employee needs to have a Swedish university degree. Elina Armanto. feedback. fairness. in-ternal labor market and career. motivation. at Auditing Company X. Even though there are some parts to work on the most important spects of retention. Research told us that leadership. responsibility. autonomy. development and work-atmosphere is important for job satisfaction and retention. the person needs practical experience for a specific period of time. Maja Cassel. Yet. When looking at this problem area we found that there may be actions and tools that companies could use to come to terms with this problem. There are some areas that need further attention from the company. Abstract: Introduction: Companies today are forced to function in a world full of change and complexity. employee. 2001). Auditing. Furthermore. Management) Author: Josip Bogic. It is a fact that a too high turnover rate affects companies in a negative way and retention strategies should therefore be high on the agenda.  Keywords: Retention. We have compared the findings to our chosen theory. reward. leadership style. One industry where retention is interesting is the auditing industry in Sweden. this because certain requirements are needed to become an auditor. neither employees nor employers seem to take for granted that a person will stay with the same firm until retirement.Marknadsföring.In our conducted case study. These four categories are initially based on Leigh Branham?s book: ?Keeping the people who keep you in business: 24 ways to hang on to your most valuable talent? (Bran-ham. such as having a holistic and long-term orientation. such as an individualized reward system and communication between managers and employees.
feedback. autonomy. development and work-atmosphere must be taken in consideration to satisfy since they seem to increase employees? Willingness to stay in the company. development and workatmosphere in the Swedish financial Sector. insurance and finance companies. if not facing it already. and a broader significance. employee turnover. development and work-atmosphere connected to retention. autonomy. remuneration and elements such as participation. fairness. with findings from the thesis theoretical framework.Retention Management University essay from Göteborgs universitet/Företagsekonomiska institutionen Author: Lisa Hedberg. Research method: . The purpose is to compare the qualitative study. The survey has a quantitative approach with a web based questionnaire and includes 129 respondents from banks. retention management. fairness. What leaders can do to keep their key employees . feedback. Maria Helnius. responsibility.Object: The main objective is to increase the understanding regarding employee’s retention in relation to leadership style. Conclusion: The result shows that regarding leadership the respondents prefer leadership based on relations were they feel appreciation. Method: We wanted to investigate how employee of the Swedish financial sector prefers to be retained. We believe that the leader plays a key role in employee retention and retention management. The research is based on the leaders in the Finnish case company Tradeka. motivation. Both appreciations from the closest manager as well as the company management influences employee job satisfaction in a positive way. The concept of retention management can both have a narrow. Following key questions are intended to be answered: What are the consequences between leaders actions and employees retention? Which is the leader’s role when it comes to retaining employees? Purpose statement: The purpose of the thesis is to investigate and analyze how company leaders today can retain their key employees. The theoretical framework includes leadership and leadership style. How can the provision of key human resources develop a long-term relationship that makes top employees stay in the company? The study aims to establish the procedure leaders apply to retain employees. autonomy. and the leaders. More money was the most common reason for wanting to change jobs. made at the case company. base pay with additional bonus and benefits were preferred. and how they consider and react to the chosen areas. The background of the thesis present a few articles that discuss issues that makes it important for the organization. Both parts of its significance are generally included in this thesis. and when asking how the remuneration system should be designed. financial as well as non-financial remuneration and research done in later years regarding participation. fairness. recruitment. But also non financial factors such as participation. to work hard with retention management. responsibility. responsibility. key organizational members. Abstract: Background: retention management is a highly topical subject and an important dilemma many organizations might face in the future. [2007-09-03T08:22:31Z] Keywords: leadership. communication. feedback.
The intention of investigating and using the Finnish company Tradeka Limited as a case company.000. In February 2002. talent developer and coach. Employees were able to keep the shares or cash them in. which has 195. as well as a theoretical study where empirical findings and theories has been compared. The number of shares allocated to each employee depends on the number of hours they work each week. Savers who had started the scheme three years before could buy Tesco shares at the 1998 option price of £1. Tesco paid out £50 million to just over 100. Staff can join Tesco's profit-share scheme after two years' service.sharesave schemes Profit-share and sharesave schemes have provided good returns for the staff of retailers and other large groups. Those who had saved the maximum £250 per month saw an investment over five years turn into a maturity value of £49.35 each.000 of its workers after holding £38 million-worth of shares on their behalf for three years in its profit-share scheme. both with supervisors and employees to get a broader view at the phenomenon retention management. distributed more than £200 million through sharesave and bonus schemes. because people leave managers and not companies. two Save As You Earn share schemes matured and released £116 million to 37. as the leader plays a key role in retention management is: trust builder.000 staff. a return of almost three times what . and the company. For organizations to keep its key employees their number one priority should be to look at their management. because employees need to feel involvement.The study is a qualitative. has becoming a key in why people stay and what usually drives them away from a company. and that their presence count. is to make the information from the theories more valid. communicator. good things happen for customers. Characteristics in a leader that are of importance. The leader’s relation to the employees plays a central role in retaining employees. The leader has become the main factor in what motivates people’s decision to stay or leave. employees. Tesco's share price had risen by more than 30 per cent. when the shares were placed in trust for the employees. Result: Leaders and their skill in creating a culture of retention. During 2002. Tesco. Since 1999. When retention is a core value. and also the interest in how retention management works in practice. The shares they bought at these prices were actually worth about £2. Eleven qualitative interviews were conducted at Tradeka?s financial department. Motivation in practice .000 staff who had been saving into the schemes for either three or five years.case study . and talent finder. while savers in the five-year scheme could buy at 83p per share. In 2002. from 188p to 258p when the scheme matured.36. esteem builder.
96 before tax after five years.more than 66 times the 1981 figure when 942 employees signed up for the scheme. company called Stamp-Rite. telling them how good they were and how proud he was of them. "You clerks are a dime a dozen. each would have £695. but companies have the right to discount the market price by up to 20 per cent . employees can save between £5 and £250 per month into a scheme. chief executive of Tesco.000 applications." Jackson recalls. This year. Motivating for success .motivating employees ." Most large companies operate share-save schemes for their staff." It took a long time to repair the damage. At the end of the period. Contributions are paid into a bank or building society account nominated by the employer and interest is paid at a rate set universally by the Treasury. Calif. Parsons remembers being told he couldn't take time off to travel with his wife to her grandfather's funeral in Delaware. or. he says. spent 15 or 20 minutes one day buoying up a group of employees.which Tesco did. Staff makes 36 payments into the three-year scheme. when he worked for someone else. and 60 payments into the five and seven-year schemes. This equates to over one in four staff .. When he was an employee of a Lansing. He knew it was impossible to replace his people with just anybody off the street. This price is often the market price at outset.67 per cent gross per annum for three-year schemes. Savers who put away as little as £10 per month saw the value of their investment soar from £600 to £1." "Everybody was crushed." the boss declared. Then his own boss walked in and undid Jackson's pep talk. H. which can run for three. Under government rules. Jackson of San Rafael.they put in.99 per cent for five-year schemes. ATerry Leahy.953 once the savings had been used to buy shares at the end of the five-year term. and 4.07 per cent for seven-year schemes.includes related article on demotivators Nation's Business. if these employees had saved the same £10 per month into a savings account paying the building society average of 4. The most recent three and five-year schemes to be offered to Tesco staff in October 2001 attracted more than 63. By contrast. Wendell W. Their savings are left in the deposit account for an extra two years under the seven-year scheme. 3. the employee has the right to choose whether to buy the shares at the pre-determined option price with the savings they have made. to take the savings in cash. "I could pick somebody off the street to do your job.. five or seven years with an option to buy shares in the company at a price determined at the outset.C. Mich. instead. the rates were 3. said: "The popularity of SAYE has increased dramatically in 21 years as staff recognise the value of the benefit. His immediate supervisor refused without .8 per cent gross per year. 1988 by Sharon Nelton Motivating For Success Long ago. "but they didn't know that. if the current market price has dipped below the price at outset. March. free of tax.
Parsons worked his way through Michigan State University while employed at Stamp-Rite.. a company with $10 million in annual sales and over 50 employees. Empathy governs the way he treats his 25 employees. I remember what it was like being in the steel department and in the label department. "Leaders who wish to believe that they must continuously scurry about motivating everyone are destined to a fatiguing. business experts and business people dispute the notion that employees are unmotivated. 'No. Treat people the way you want to be treated. a professor of organization theory at Pepperdine University. There is no one-minute motivator.'" says Parsons. and now he owns the company. "The fact is. and a specialist in human motivation. Be honest. Wright suggests. creating winners out of their employees so that their companies can thrive. And laziness and lack of commitment mean low productivity and a lower bottom line. made a lasting impact on him. Jackson and other managers who succeed in motivating their workers demonstrate that applying that simple rule requires hard work. you can't do it. Though decades have passed. "I think by nature people are interested in doing well. Now. Calif. in Malibu. Deci. ulcerating career. both Jackson and Parsons still feel the sting of these incidents. The $1. But many psychologists.K." says Edward L. who started Jackson's Hardware. "I didn't have anything earthshaking that had to be done." If their motivation wanes. professor of psychology at the University of Rochester. we hire only motivated people. and what they learned so long ago has helped them unlock the secret to keeping their own employees motivated--in effect. it was just this guy who was telling me." The memories include good ones. however. it's because the leader dampens their . in 1964. no formula that can be applied easily and left to operate on its own. Parsons says. in Rochester.offering a reason." says Jackson.Y. name tags and signs. in being effective workers and effective achievers. because "I remember what it was like being the engraver. The person at the top has to care--genuinely care--about employees. "It's so simple." says Robert Grandford Wright. they are in command. Only then will the employee care enough about the company to give his or her best all the time.5 million-a-year firm makes rubber stamps and identification products such as nameplates. like the manager who made it a point to leave the front office every day and find out how Parsons was. N. they say. That someone cared enough to make sure he was doing O. It's not uncommon to hear business owners and managers complain that employees just don't want to work or that they have poor attitudes. he maintains. he says. and show that caring by treating each employee as an individual. "it's because they've had a set of experiences that have alienated them from work. What often seem to be timeworn techniques take on a new life and usefulness when looked at as these managers see them. however. Be fair." Some experts even contend that the manager's job is not to motivate employees at all. In cases where people don't want to work hard. In practice.
” La Mell says." What is "motivation" anyway? "Motivation is excitement about work. “You have to respect everyone’s job in your organization. 'Gee. Miller. there is a good likelihood that high performance will follow.” It’s easy to see that La Mell puts his own advice into constant practice. As he makes his way through the Clear brook offices. Ill. Learn how the best employers bring the best out of their employees. While motivation does not guarantee high performance. You could even tell them. they say. people want to feel free or autonomous or responsible for them. Zimmerer say in Effective Small Business Management (Merrill Publishing Company. an organization that honors small-to-midsize business leaders who inspire intensely dedicated workforces. “Even if an idea is bad. a mail-order office supply business in Lincolnshire. La Mell began giving customer service awards to employees who went above and . "What we need to do is structure the workplace in such a way that people can feel these things when they're doing their jobs. La Mell’s humble manner had actually prevented him from learning that he had even made the finalists. Though he jokes that he’s sometimes too open with his staff. La Mell believes that listening to the advice of employees and acting on it is one of the best ways to keep a staff motivated. "when employees (and owners and managers) are excited about their work.”La Mell’s advice for small business owners seeking to keep their own employees motivated is simple: “I think it comes down to one word—respect." says Deci. you’d rather have staff give you an idea than not give you one.” La Mell says. "It has to be a way of life. ‘You’re off the wall’ and they’ll laugh if you do it with respect and in the right way. Last year. Illinois that specializes in helping children with developmental disabilities. Columbus. “I thought the notification email was spam. a nonprofit organization based in Arlington Heights.'" says Harvey L. spends his time among a staff that loves him. It doesn’t matter if the idea’s off the wall. a place where motivated people can flourish. It's the job of the boss to create a workplace that "nurtures high motivation. and people want to feel involved or related or cared about by other people. When a spokesman from Winning Workplaces called to inform him that he had won along with 17 others. let's get motivated. And it starts even before they are hired.” La Mell says with a smile. they nominated him for the Best Boss Award given out every year by Winning Workplaces. "People want to feel effective. Carl La Mell.” Realizing that it was difficult to recognize his employees’ exceptional efforts off-site. Scarborough and Thomas W. Ohio)." Norman M." In his view." "Motivation is not a sign on the wall that says." he says. co-owner with his two brothers of Quill Corporation. “I deleted it. he takes the time to talk to each person he passes. the president of Clearbrook. Motivate Your Employees Creating a dedicated and motivated workplace isn't just about giving raises. you stifle people. creating the right corporate climate is what keeps employees at their peaks.spirit. “If you create an environment in which you can’t come up with an idea.
” A Supervisor's Dilemma: How to Motivate Employees in Today's Economy Supervisors at all levels and in different types of organizations find it harder than ever to create a loyal and motivated work team. mergers. he believes that giving raises is one of the least effective methods. and deliver a crew of first-class performers. The pressure is great.”In addition. they must prove their worth and succeed in achieving company goals. “It’s also the other departments you deal with. Supervisors themselves fear for their jobs and their future. There are also holiday parties where employees can win prizes. La Mell has also added financial incentives for performing well as determined by a performance-based measurement system. In fact. who will perform according to management and customers' high expectations. to gain some sort of solid footing in the new environment. “One of the things that I think is missing in other places is the idea that customer service isn’t just about the customer. They cannot do so without their employees' cooperation. dedication and "love for the job". Yet. employees' strongest drive also became one for survival.” he says. They too are victim of the market realities which bring frequent company acquisitions. many supervisors attained their position based on yardsticks other than proven leadership skills: technical know-how and past experiences unrelated to similar crisis situations. And gone are the days when employees were content with an average wage. Leaders such as La Mell demonstrate that money is far from the only means of motivating your employees. Some nominations come from the families they serve. restructuring and downsizing of operations. It is supervisors who are sandwiched in between. Above all. Gone are the days when organizations were content with average employees who were rewarded with lifetime job security as a reward for expected performance levels and good attendance. “If you show respect and keep an open environment. employers do not offer supervisors the . At the dinner. As a result. Unfortunately. enabling them to satisfy basic personal needs. La Mell believes that a properly motivated workplace must begin with an enthusiastic and motivated employer “It starts at the top. They are judged by results and results depend on their capacity to lead a dedicated crew of flawless performers. in their quest to cut down on expenses. each department puts on a skit and the best skit wins a small award like a free pizza. The problem is further compounded by the fact that. Trust and loyalty towards employer evaporated into thin air and have been replaced by economic interests. They must ignore their own fears and feelings of insecurity. Employers and supervisors must understand this scenario before attempting to regain employees' trust.beyond their job description. often sacrificing jobs and employees along the way. others come from the staff themselves. then people will follow your lead. doubts about the employer's agenda. organizations and businesses themselves in a constant struggle for survival. he hosts a staff recognition dinner every year in which he gives out awards based on years of service. In today's shifting economy. Reality has created a new set of rules.” La Mell says.
In this dogfight for survival in an uncertain future. Most supervisors face the dilemma of having to choose between appealing to management for the help and guidance they urgently need.Recognition. safe equipment and installations SOCIAL NEEDS . job security. Their drive to succeed becomes one for survival. starting with the basic essentials: PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS . They try to understand and internalize motivational theories. They seem oblivious to what is happening in the minds and hearts of their people. They also fail to see the value of the rank-and-file without whom the war cannot be won. They fail to see that supervisors are the unit leaders they send to the battlefield to win the war. written for different economic and market situations. there is little they can do.Job security. this is a secret they must keep to themselves. Safety Needs. social activities and opportunities EGO . here are brief descriptions of the motivational theories worth studying: Abraham Maslow's theory of Motivation based on Needs: Self-Actualization. rewards . Most of their efforts are focused on economic issues. clothing and other basics to survive SAFETY NEEDS . Yet. Business owners and upper management often forget this heavy burden the supervisor carries. or discover the magic key. they cast aside any awareness or insight they may have had about the root of the problem and the reasons which led to employees' mistrust and changed behavior. or trying to run the show on their own. In the course of their search. supervisors are quite often undermined by their own assistants who have an eye on their position. Social Needs. Physiological Needs As applied to the workplace.specialized support and training they need. They conduct searches on the internet.Contact and friendship with fellow-workers. Unless supervisors get backing and commitment from upper management to deal with employees' fear and loss of trust. shelter. They join newsgroups to either "listen in" anonymously.A safe and non-threatening work environment. Supervisors are left to fend on their own. job positions are being merged and eliminated by the day. ask questions. They are too quick to condemn and replace. acknowledgment. Left to their own resources. Assistants too are driven by a fierce survival instinct and are not ready to wait for their careers to take its natural course. They become avid readers of books and articles on the subject of employee motivation. Ego. at the risk of losing their standing or position within the organization. They do not trust the future. basic physical needs: the ability to acquire food. With the emergence of technology. Motivational theories that can assist in understanding the issues To help guide supervisors in their search for solutions for employee motivation. we can translate it as follows. They try to instill enthusiasm among employees and are taken aback when their best performers suddenly leave or behave like the rest. all they can hope to accomplish is crisis management.
they can try doing it on their own with ’learning’ attitude. He explains the hygiene factors (company policy. and his encouragement to manage through democratic involvement rather than unilateral authority. they can ask for outside coaching assistance. In a situation where upper management is not too ready to invest along those lines. Bearing in mind that action plans by themselves do not appeal to upper management unless translated into the costs involved. adequate preparation. working conditions and salary) as those elements of the work environment which do not by themselves cause motivation but whose absence lead to job dissatisfaction. All the theories make sense. interpersonal relations. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y. With a clear objective. Though expressed from different perspectives. distinguishing between "Hygiene Factors" and "Motivational Factors". performance. discover their assets and resourcefulness. get well organized in management. use these democratically to accomplish your goals. Instead of wasting energy on frustration. employee morale.SELF-ACTUALIZATION . Frederick Herzberg's two-dimensional theory. they carry the same underlying message: Clarify objectives. It sounds logical and simple. share goals with them. an investment in time. needs and expectations. while the motivational factors (achievement. organization. extend to them respect and acknowledgment. merge. recognition. supervision. cooperative and participative working relationship with the people they work for. They can draw a plan on how management goals and employee goals can meet half-way or. but requires the commitment of upper management. If they feel comfortable approaching upper management.Realizing one's dreams and potential. the supervisor is left to his own resources. Growth through problem-solving The best supervisors can do when embarking on such a project on their own. they must distance themselves from their own personal interests and study the situation objectively. the work itself. supervisors are well advised to study and write down all the pros and . and reward them for their contribution in achieving these goals. responsibility and advancement) do in effect cause increased job motivation. know your employees well. and systematic implementation. they can use their time to study and analyze the organization. upper management's motives and strategies. is to adopt a problem-solving approach. but also leads to a win/win situation between management and employees. based on the model of Japanese management and the theory that workers want to have a close. effort and money for actual application. he not only comes out the winner. behaviour and organizational policies. in the best of situations. reaching the heights of one's gifts and talents. If not. He has the challenge of turning the situation around on his own. Ouchi's motivational theory is also built around people's individual value and the role they have in determining the organization's success. To the extent possible. whereby he links employee motivation to the way managers express themselves through attitude. William Ouchi's Theory Z.
The proposal they submit must answer this all-important question. inviting their input. Employees often come up with solutions which escape management. untapped markets. will it create this excitement and selfless drive for successful achievement regardless of the existing work environment? Will their thoughts and efforts be directed towards constructive solutions rather than defensive and disruptive action? The supervisor can test this notion by sharing with employees a work performance problem. Employees now realize that they themselves can do something to help secure their place of employment. Driven by the survival instinct. and motivated to find solutions. even if not articulated. Upper management realizes the value of their employees. which may translate into increased profits for the company. When presenting a winning idea to management. the new skills he acquires. In the process he also succeeds in regaining their trust. To maintain this trust. It motivates him towards successful accomplishment. he would be surprised to witness in them a change of attitude and eagerness to display their knowledge and capability. supervisors must remember that the uppermost thought and question of any party to a proposed solution is "What's in it for me?". They now expect him to influence upper management. He can make sure the employees in question are acknowledged and rewarded. They care for the company's success. He gains their involvement and commitment. and unexplored opportunities such as possible new products and services. employees' creativity now comes into play.cons. If the discussion is held in a cooperative fashion. the supervisor acknowledges input and gives credit where due. management's stance may change to one . he turns into a leader. his thoughts and emotions towards employees and the organization. it would be wise for the supervisor to examine the changes he himself is going through. and costs involved. The supervisor discovers a wealth of resources among his employees. inviting them to solve it as a team. he makes sure to single out the employee or group of employees who suggested it. The work must be thorough. This results in high employee motivation and even leads to additional input by others. In the course of their problem-solving. Through this example. Can the same learning process be applied to employees? If the supervisor presents them with a problem to solve. At this stage. He can suggest developing the idea further with the involvement of those who offered it. However. The supervisor grows and becomes a better leader through the problem-solving process. From supervisor. They make suggestions for business growth. The supervisor will discover that employees give their best when treated as intelligent adults and are invited to participate in policies and decisions which affect their lives and the business itself. this success must not be at the sacrifice of their own well-being and security but must be interwoven with their personal and professional goals.
facilitators. attuned to the needs of the company. Some of them may be born leaders.of sharing and joint problem-solving. This concern for. managers and supervisors can share future planning with employees and help prepare them for opportunities and different scenarios. His reasoning is that through this investment companies will gain efficient. In his book Job Shift . Should they lose their job. Employee motivation is closely related to the quality and style of leadership. mediators. The approach is a caring one. as expected in a family setting. is fast disappearing. as related to a specific position within a company. being replaced by temporary team projects and task forces with specific mandates. and investment in. Instead of letting fears and doubts pervade the workplace. They should also realize that company secrets are hard to keep. Employees will sense this and will acknowledge him as leader. In the long run. it works out for the best interests of all parties. However.How to Prosper in a Workplace without Jobs. Organizations may not be ready yet for such a heavy commitment in employee training and a sharing of responsibility for the future. this philosophy has its merits and can inspire the supervisor in his quest for solutions within the present work environment. or may perform best when given clear directives and placed in "active" roles. By creating a "caring" and participative environment. recommending that employers train employees in business management and entrepreneurship. Before embarking on such a course. He will find his motivational problems resolved. . William Bridges goes even further. coaches. supervisors and managers must discover the specific qualifications and shortcomings of all employees. He advocates cross-training and advises employers to work together with labor unions to create a multi-skilled work force who can dynamically respond to company and market needs. William Bridges explains the employment and training needs of the new economy. The entire philosophy here is to share and help each other's survival and growth. and so should upper management. the supervisor will find the solution which will best fit the organization and its people. Supervisors must realize this. Whatever their level of education. The busy grapevine keeps even the lowest ranking employee informed of higher-up decisions and plans. it will also help them establish their own independent businesses to provide contracting services to the organization for which they worked. He will succeed in influencing management thinking one step at a time. the people who perform the actual work come across situations which trigger thoughts for improvement. Their understanding of business principles will help them contribute effectively to the company's success. loyal contractors. If convinced of the need to care for employees' future. the supervisor succeeds in motivating his employees even when the organization is not yet ready to face work force realities. Shortcomings can be remedied. He says that the traditional concept of "job". future scenarios will ingrain unshakable trust and loyalty towards the company.
This reduces boredom and disinterest. search and choice of strategies. but not seen. Job enlargement refers to adding a few more task elements horizontally. They are more productive. . Task variety helps motivate job holders. social comparison of rewards reinforcement. Recommendation Motivation is essential for each and every organization because its helps in avoiding the frustration and it also create the healthy work environment. Early theories are too simplistic in their approach towards motivation. Job rotation involves shifting an incumbent from one job to another. To be effective. The makes the job interesting and rewarding. This concern for. skinner to give the management a powerful technique to change employee behavior. motivation comprises important elements such as the need or content. For example. Every manager should have both interest and concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability. An enriched job has added responsibilities. managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Several reputed organizations in a America have used OB Mod programmes successfully to achieve positive results. The word motivation stands for movement. particularly money. advocates of scientific Management believe that money is the motivating factor. They need to have certain techniques that help them change the behavior of employees. One such technique is reward. money is not important as a motivator. and performance-satisfaction. Being an outgrowth of Herzberg’s. is a motivator according to need-based and process theories of motivation. goal-directed behavior. researchers and practicing HR managers. future scenarios will ingrain unshakable trust and loyalty towards the company. however.F. Several approaches to motivation are available. Motivated employees come out with new ways of doing jobs. The Human Relations Movement posits that social contacts will motivate workers. In its essence. two factor theory of motivation.Conclusion Motivation is an important concept that has been receiving considerable attention from academicians. it can be stated that money can influence some people in certain circumstance. Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of the organization. Motives can only be inferred. job enrichment is considered to be a powerful motivator. Motivated employees are more productive. OB Mod uses the reinforcement principle of B. Motivation is essential for any company because employee is Asset of company. Motivated employees help organizations survive. Reward. They are quality oriented. The dynamic nature of needs offend poses challenge to any . For the behavioral scientists. and investment in. Mere knowledge about the theories of motivation will not help manager their subordinates. Whatever may be the arguments. The increasing attention paid towards motivation is justified because of several reasons. Any technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully.
Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfill their needs or accomplishment may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for affiliation and their desire to be with their families. at any given time. An employee.blogspot.com hrmba. For more Notes. Project Reports visit – a2zmba. has a various needs. desire.com mbafin.com .manager in motivating his or her subordinate.blogspot. Presentations. and expectations.blogspot.
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