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Research Methodology Class

Research Methodology Class

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Published by Biju Kumar Thapalia

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Published by: Biju Kumar Thapalia on Dec 12, 2010
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Chapter Objectives

Introduction Sampling Techniques Sampling Design Sample Size Sampling Errors Sampling Distribution
12/12/2010 Biju K Thapalia 1

To show how estimation is done.

or technique of selecting a suitable sample.Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of an unbiased or random subset of individual observations within a population of individuals intended to yield some knowledge about the population of concern. or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. process. especially for the purposes of making predictions based on statistical inference. . Sampling is the act.

A census study draws inferences from the entire body of units of interest (the population) A sample study draws inferences from a sample drawn from the population .

it may change Time limitation Improve quality of data .Basic reasonsCost is too high Population is dynamic.

a set of items or events possible to measure Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame Determining the sample size Implementing the sampling plan Sampling and data collecting .Defining Population Specifying a sampling frame.

Probability Sampling Probability sampling is an objective procedure in which the probability of selection is known in advance for each population unit Non-probability Sampling Nonprobability sampling is a subjective procedure in which the probability of selection for each population unit is unknown beforehand .

y Probability y y y y y Simple random Systematic Stratified random Cluster Multi-stage Non-probability Quota Snowball Convenience Purposive .

t specific characteristics Sampling error is more for same sample sizeso large sample size needed .Each element of the population have equal and independent opportunity to be selected Entire population should be enumerated Use of Loterry or Random numbers table Useful for homogeneous population w.r.

For population is large and difficult to list all Arrangement of elements on some pattern w.t study feature Choose any first element and then repeat next kth element and so on k depends on sample size(n) and population size (N).r. k=N/n Easy to administer .

For hetrogenous population Population is divided into strata Simple random sampling or Systematic sampling in each strata Proportionate or disproportionate allocation .

When population is widely spread or too large Look for natural Clusters Randomly choose clusters In each cluster select element randomly Also known as multi-stage sampling technique Less accurate than from other random sampling .

Think and lets find it- .

Used in multi-stage sampling Probability of selecting a Cluster is dependent on the size of the cluster Insures representative sample of population elements .

Non-probability Sampling Convenience sampling At the convenience of researcher Useful for idea testing or groundwork Cheap and easy to administer Biased and unrepresentative .

Non-probability Sampling Judgment sampling Selection of subjects are based on some judgment or purpose It is guided. so not random Depends on researchers ability to analyze the subject matter of research Easy to use Results cannot be generalized .

etc. .Non-probability Sampling Quota sampling Mix of stratified and convenience sampling Less costly and easy to implement Mostly use in marketing surveys. opinion polls.

Non-probability Sampling Snowball sampling Subject guides next subject of the population Easy if all population is not known or sampling frame is not available .

Descriptive or Experimental Precision of measure.Sample SizeA million dollar question What should be our sample size? What determines it? Research Design.Validity and Reliability Approaches to determine the sizeVia Statistical Significance Via Confidence Interval .

What should be the sample size? Three factors in determining sample size The variability of the population The level of confidence desired in the estimation The degree of precision desired in estimating the population characteristics .

Sample size for estimating a Mean The sample size n is given by n= .

W>/e)2 Where W= estimation of population standard deviation Z = the standardized z-value associated with the level of confidence e = Acceptable tolerance level of error .

Sample size for estimating a Proportion The sample size n is given by n= Z2 pq/e2 Where p = estimation of expected population proportion holding the characteristic of interest on intuition or prior information. q = 1-p Z = the standardized z-value associated with the level of confidence e = Acceptable tolerance level of error .

How large should be sample size be taken in order to estimate the mean annual earnings within plus and minus Rs. Answer n =732 . 1000 at 95% confidence level? The standard deviation of the annual earnings of the entire population is known to be 15000.Numerical A survey proposed to be conducted to know the annual earnings of old MBA students of PU.

He needs your estimation to be precise of +3 % with a 99 % confidence level. When you were posted in Dharan you remember that among 200 customers 45 % of them availed an attractive loan scheme. So what will be your sample size? Answer n= 1831 .Numerical Assume you are a manger of a bank in Kathmandu. Now your boss wants you to know how the same scheme will be taken in Kathmandu.

Will reduce if increase the size of the sample.but not in same proportion Can reduce (but not eliminate) if used random sampling .Sampling Errors Errors which are made in selecting samples that are not representative of population due to wrong definition of sample frame or excluding some population Bound to present however we are careful.

The mean and standard deviation of the sample distribution holds some relation with true parameter value .Sampling Distribution Sampling distribution of a statistics is the frequency distribution which is formed with various values of statistic computed from different samples of the same size drawn from the same population. This distribution approaches normal shape even when the population is not distributed as such.

Sampling Distribution.Why important? DistributionCharacteristics of its helps us to To estimate the unknown population parameter To set the confidence limits of the parameter values estimated To test hypothesis and draw statistical inference from it .

Bush and Ortinau y y Statistics (CA Foundation Course) Arora and Arora Statistics for Management Levin .Reference for Sampling chapter y y y Social Science Research and Thesis Writing Wolff and Pant Methodology of Research in Social Science Krishnaswami and Ranganatham Marketing Research within a Changing Information Environment Hair.

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