# Base Station Antennas

Antenna Theory
Basic Principles for Daily Applications
November 2004

CONFIDENTIAL- Proprietary Information

1 One Company. A World of Solutions.

Dipole
λ (Meters) λ (Inches) 10.0 3.75 1.87 1.07 0.65 0.38 0.31 0.18 0.15 393.6 147.6 73.8 42.2 25.7 14.8 12.3 6.95 5.90

F0 (MHz)

¼λ

30 80 160 280 460 800 960 1700 2000

F0

¼λ

2 One Company. A World of Solutions.

3D View Antenna Pattern

Source: COMSEARCH 3 One Company. A World of Solutions.

00001 mWatt 4 One Company. . A World of Solutions.Understanding the Mysterious “DB” “dBd” – Signal strength relative to a dipole in empty space “dBi” “dB” – Signal strength relative to an isotropic radiator – Difference between two signal strengths “dBm” – Absolute signal strength relative to 1 milliwatt 1 mWatt 1 Watt 20 Watts = 0 dBm = 30 dBm = 43 dBm Note: The Logarithmic Scale 10 * log10 (Power Ratio) “dBc” – Signal strength relative to a signal of known strength. in this case: the carrier signal Example: -100 dBc = 100 dB below carrier signal If carrier is 100 Watt = 50 dBm -100 dBc = -50 dBm or 0.

00 Return Loss (dB) ∞ 26. .Effect of VSWR Good VSWR is only one component of an efficient antenna.6 14.8 1. A World of Solutions.40 1.12 0.0 11.0 9.50 2.01 0.2 96.00 0.20 1.7 15.8 4.30 1.0 99.3 97.08 0.9 5 One Company.51 Power Reflected (%) 0.10 1.0 0.04 0.0 88. (%) 100.18 0.2 0.1 Power Trans.00 1. VSWR 1.7 2.2 98.8 17.5 Transmission Loss (dB) 0.8 99.4 20.

the flatter the vertical pattern is and the higher the antenna coverage or “gain” in the general direction of the horizon. The more dipoles are stacked vertically. 6 One Company. A World of Solutions. .Shaping Antenna Patterns Vertical arrangement of properly phased dipoles allows control of radiation patterns at the horizon as well as above and below the horizon.

. A World of Solutions. are secondary minor lobes. and reduces vertical beamwidth by half. . .Shaping Antenna Patterns (cont . illustrated in the lower section. 7 One Company. The little lobes. • Doubling the number of elements increases gain by 3 dB. 4 Dipoles Vertically Stacked GENERAL STACKING RULE: • Collinear elements (in-line vertically). The peak of the horizontal or vertical pattern measures the gain.) Aperture of Dipoles Vertical Pattern Horizontal Pattern Single Dipole Stacking 4 dipoles vertically in line changes the pattern shape (squashes the doughnut) and increases the gain over single dipole. • Optimum spacing (for non-electrical tilt) is approximately 0.9λ.

foliage. 8 One Company. etc).Gain What is it? Antenna gain is a comparison of the power/field characteristics of a device under test (DUT) to a specified gain standard. . The reference gain standard must always be specified. How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard of +/-1 dB accuracy. A World of Solutions. Why is it useful? Gain can be associated with coverage distance and/or obstacle penetration (buildings.

15 (dBi) 9 One Company.15 (dBi) ! A gain antenna is two or more radiating elements phased together 0 (dBd) = 2. A World of Solutions.Gain References (dBd and dBi) ! An isotropic antenna is a single point in space radiating in a perfect sphere (not physically possible) A dipole antenna is one radiating element (physically possible) Isotropic Pattern Dipole Pattern Isotropic (dBi) Dipole (dBd) Gain ! 3 (dBd) = 5. .

.5° +9 dBd -3 dB +9 dBd 45° -3 dB 10 One Company. A World of Solutions.Principles of Antenna Gain Omni Antenna Side View -3 dB Directional Antennas Top View 0 dBd 0 dBd 60° -3 dB +3 dBd +3 dBd 30° -3 dB 180° -3 dB +6 dBd 15° -3 dB +6 dBd 90° -3 dB 7.

5 10 5 8 6 9 60° 8 11 45° 9 12 33° MHzPCS 10.9λ) λ 360° 180° 120° 105° 90° 1 2 3 4 6 8 0 3 4.1 11 12 14 15 16. A World of Solutions.5 15.5' 1' 1.5 12.) # of Radiators Vertically Spaced (0.5 9 4 7 8.6 7.5 6 3 6 7.5 10.5 10.5 11.5 13.5 12.5 18. .6 1' 2' 3' 4' 6' 8' 800/900 DCS 1800 Vertical 1900 Beamwidth 0.Theoretical Gain of Antennas (dBd) 3 dB Horizontal Aperture Typical Length (Influenced by Grounded Back “Plate”) of Antenna (ft.5' 2' 3' 4' 60° 30° 20° 15° 10° 7. 11 One Company.5 13.5 13.5 16.5° 9.5 15.6 Could be horizontal radiator pairs for narrow horizontal apertures.1 9 12 13 14 15 17 18 19.

. Length 25 20 Gain (dBi) 15 10 5 G = log ( 2. A World of Solutions.2 πλL W ) e 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Antenna Length (wavelengths) 65° Az BW 90° Az BW 120° Az BW 12 One Company.Gain vs.

.Gain vs. A World of Solutions. Beamwidths 25 20 Gain (dBi) 15 10 5 29000 G = log ( Az EI ) BW BW 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Elevation Half Power Beamwidth (deg) 65° Az BW 90° Az BW 120° Az BW 13 One Company.

Antenna Gain ! ! Gain (dBi) = Directivity (dBi) – Losses (dB) Losses: Conductor Dielectric Impedance Polarization ! Measure Using ‘Gain by Comparison’ 14 One Company. . A World of Solutions.

Various Radiator Designs Elements Dipole 1800/1900/UMTS Directed Dipole™ Diversity (XPol) Directed Dipole™ Patch 800/900 MHz Directed Dipole™ MAR Microstrip Annular Ring 15 One Company. . A World of Solutions.

A World of Solutions.Dipoles Single Dipole Crossed Dipole 16 One Company. .

A World of Solutions. .Feed Harness Construction ASP705 DB809 DB589 (And Most Sector Arrays) Series Feed Center Feed (Hybrid) Corporate Feed 17 One Company.

A World of Solutions. . .) Center Feed (Hybrid) ! Frequency Series Feed Advantages: ! Minimal feed losses ! Simple feed system Corporate Feed ! Frequency independent main lobe direction ! Reasonably independent main beam direction ! More beam simple feed system shaping ability. less beam shaping) system 18 One Company. side lobe suppression ! Complex feed Disadvantages: +2° +1° 0° +1° +2° 450 455 BEAMTILT ! Not as versatile as ASP-705 460 465 470 MHz corporate (less bandwidth.Feed Harness Construction (cont . .

A World of Solutions. Corporate Feeds – Dielectric Substrate – Air Substrate ! T-Line Feed and Radiator 19 One Company.Feed Networks ! ! Cable Microstripline. .

1 dB/m at 2 GHz) 20 One Company. .Microstrip Feed Lines ! Dielectric Substrate – Uses ‘printed circuit’ technology – Power limitations – Dielectric substrate causes loss (~1.0 dB/m at 2 GHz) ! Air Substrate – Metal strip spaced above a groundplane – Minimal solder or welded joints – Laser cut or punched – Air substrate cause minimal loss (~0. A World of Solutions.

A World of Solutions. .Air Microstrip Network 21 One Company.

. A World of Solutions.Dielectric Substrate Microstrip Elements Feedline 22 One Company.

. A World of Solutions.Stacking Dipoles 8 Dipoles 1 Dipole 4 Dipoles 2 Dipoles 23 One Company.

DB812 Omni Antenna Vertical Pattern 24 One Company. A World of Solutions. .

A World of Solutions.932DG65T2E-M Pattern Simulation 25 One Company. .

Main Lobe What is it? The main lobe is the radiation pattern lobe that contains the majority portion of radiated energy. How is it measured? The main lobe is characterized using a number of the measurements which will follow. A World of Solutions. 26 One Company. . What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard. 35° Total Main Lobe Why is it useful? Shaping of the pattern allows the contained coverage necessary for interference-limited system designs.

27 One Company. interference requirements. What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard. 1/2 Power Beamwidth Why is it useful? It allows system designers to choose the optimum characteristics for coverage vs.Half-Power Beamwidth Horizontal and Vertical What is it? The angular span between the half-power (-3 dB) points measured on the cut of the antenna’s main lobe radiation pattern. . How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. A World of Solutions.

Why is it useful? It characterizes unwanted interference on the backside of the main lobe. F/B Ratio @ 180 degrees 0 dB . The larger the number. . traditional dipole and patch elements will yield 23-28 dB while the Directed Dipole™ style elements will yield 35-40 dB. it is the sum of co-pol and cross-pol patterns. A World of Solutions. the better! How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing.Front-To-Back Ratio What is it? The ratio in dB of the maximum directivity of an antenna to its directivity in a specified rearward direction. Note that on a dual-polarized antenna.25 dB = 25 dB What is Andrew standard? Each data sheet shows specific performance. In general. 28 One Company.

Sidelobe Level (-20 dB) Why is it useful? Sidelobe level or pattern shaping allows the minor lobe energy to be tailored to the antenna’s intended use. See Null Fill and Upper Sidelobe Suppression.Sidelobe Level What is it? Sidelobe level is a measure of a particular sidelobe or angular group of sidelobes with respect to the main lobe. A World of Solutions. 29 One Company. How is it measured? It is always measured with respect to the main lobe in dB. What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard. .

Null Filling What is it? Null Filling is an array optimization technique that reduces the null between the lower lobes in the elevation plane. . How is it measured? Null fill is easiest explained as the relative dB difference between the peak of the main beam and the depth of the 1st lower null. What is Andrew standard? Most of Decibel arrays will have null fill of 20-30 dB without optimization. Why is it useful? For arrays with a narrow vertical beamwidth (less than 12°). null filling significantly improves signal intensity in all coverage targets below the horizon. we expect no less than 15 and typically 10-12 dB! 30 One Company. A World of Solutions. To earn the label MaxFill™.

5 0.5° Distance (km) 31 One Company.8 0.Null Fill Important for antennas with narrow elevation beamwidths.1 0.6 0.4 0. .3 0.7 0.2 0.9 1 Transmit Power = 1 W Base Station Antenna Height = 40 m Base Station Antenna Gain = 16 dBd Elevation Beamwidth = 6. A World of Solutions. Null Filled to 16 dB Below Peak Received Level (dBm) 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 0 0.

. Why is it useful? For arrays with a narrow vertical beamwidth (less than 12°). USLS can significantly reduce interference due to multi-path or when the antenna is mechanically downtilted.Upper Sidelobe Suppression What is it? Upper sidelobe suppression (USLS) is an array optimization technique that reduces the undesirable sidelobes above the main lobe. How is it measured? USLS is the relative dB difference between the peak of the main beam peak of the first upper sidelobe. The goal of all new designs is to suppress the first upper sidelobe to unity gain or lower. 32 One Company. A World of Solutions. What is Andrew standard? Most of Andrew’s arrays will have USLS of >15 dB without optimization.

Orthogonality What is it? The ability of an antenna to discriminate between two waves whose polarization difference is 90 degrees. XPol = -9 dB δ =30°. XPol = -11 dB δ =20°. What is Andrew standard? Andrew conforms to the industry standard. usually measured in the boresight (the direction of the main signal).5 dB 33 One Company. XPol = -5 dB δ =40°. δ Why is it useful? Orthogonal arrays within a single antenna allow for polarization diversity.) How is it measured? The difference between the co-polar pattern and the cross-polar pattern. A World of Solutions. XPol = -15 dB δ =15°. XPol =-1. XPol = -∞ dB δ = 5°. XPol = 20 log ( tan (δ)) δ δ = 0°. (As opposed to spacial diversity. . XPol = -21 dB δ =10°.

The better the CPR. . A World of Solutions. the better the performance of polarization diversity. 120° 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 Why is it useful? It is a measure of the ability of a cross-pol array to distinguish between orthogonal waves. for the Directed Dipole™ style elements. Note: in the rear hemisphere. it increases to 15 dB minimum. the minimum is 10 dB. -30 -35 -40 TYPICAL Co-Polarization Cross-Polarization (Source @ 90°) How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing and compares the two plots in dB over the specified angular range. 120° 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 What is Andrew standard? For traditional dipoles. cross-pol becomes co-pol and vica versa.Cross-Pol Ratio (CPR) What is it? CPR is a comparison of the co-pol vs. DIRECTED DIPOLE™ 34 One Company. however. cross-pol pattern performance of a dual-polarized antenna generally over the sector of interest (alternatively over the 3 dB beamwidth).

35 One Company. 120° Why is it useful? For optimum diversity performance. A World of Solutions. -45° Array +45° Array How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing and compares the two plots in dB over the specified angular range. . the beams should track as closely as possible. What is Andrew standard? The Andrew beam tracking standard is +/-1 dB over the 3 dB horizontal beamwidth.Horizontal Beam Tracking What is it? It refers to the beam tracking between the two beams of a +/-45° polarization diversity antenna over a specified angular range.

squint shall b less than 10% of the 3 dB beamwidth. How is it measured? It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. For the vertical beam. A World of Solutions. 36 One Company. . -3 dB Horizontal Boresight Squint θ θ/2 +3 dB Why is it useful? The beam squint can affect the sector coverage if it is not at mechanical boresite. What is Andrew standard? For the horizontal beam.Beam Squint What is it? The amount of pointing error of a given beam referenced to mechanical boresite. It can also affect the performance of the polarization diversity style antennas if the two arrays do not have similar patterns. squint shall be less than 15% of the 3 dB beamwidth or 1 degree. whichever is greatest.

How is it measured? It is mathematically derived from the measured range data. . Why is it useful? It is a percentage that allows comparison of various antennas. 300 DESIRED UNDESIRED What is Decibel Products standard? Andrew Directed Dipole™ style antennas have SPR’s typically less that 2 percent. A World of Solutions.Sector Power Ratio (SPR) 120° What is it? SPR is a ratio expressed in percentage of the power outside the desired sector to the power inside the desired sector created by an antenna’s pattern. The better the SPR. Σ PUndesired Σ PDesired 60 60 SPR (%) = X 100 300 37 One Company. the better the interference performance of the system.

.Based System Improvements Key antenna parameters to examine closely… F 85 G Directed Dipole™ DB950 Standard 85° Panel Antenna -7dB Roll off at -/+ 60° -10 dB points Horizontal Ant/Ant Isolation Next Sector Ant/Ant Isolation Cone of Silence -6dB 74° 74° 83° 83° -16dB -12dB -35dB -18dB 120° Cone of Great Silence with >40dB Front-to-Back Ratio 60° Area of Poor Silence with >27dB Front-to-Back Ratio 38 One Company. A World of Solutions.Antenna .

! ! ! Much smaller softer hand-off area Dramatic call quality improvement 5% . better defined “cones of silence” behind the array. Imperfect sectorization presents opportunities for: ! ! ! ! Traditional Flat Panels Increased softer hand-offs Interfering signals Dropped calls Reduced capacity 65° 90° ANDREW Directed Dipole™ The rapid roll-off of the lower lobes of the ANDREW Directed Dipole™ antennas create larger. traditional antennas produce a high degree of imperfect power control or sector overlap. A World of Solutions. .10 % capacity enhancement 65° 90° 39 One Company.The Impact: Lower Co-Channel Interference/Better Capacity & Quality In a three sector site.

47.7 JULY 1999 . .E82-A. 3. AUGUST 1998 Percentage of capacity loss overlapping angle in degree 40 One Company. . NO. VOL. From the numerical results. NO. . A World of Solutions. excessive overlay also reduces capacity of TDMA and GSM systems. By: Chin-Chun Lee et. . VOL. .120° Sector Overlay Issues “On the Capacity and Outage Probability of a CDMA Heirarchial Mobile System with Perfect/Imperfect Power Control and Sectorization” By: Jie ZHOU et. al IEICE TRANS FUNDAMENTALS. the user capacities are dramatically decreased as the imperfect power control increases and the overlap between the sectors (imperfect sectorization) increases . al IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. “Effect of Soft and Softer Handoffs on CDMA System Capacity” Qualitatively.

A World of Solutions.System Issues ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Choosing sector antennas Downtilt – electrical vs. mechanical RET optimization Passive intermodulation (PIM) Return loss through coax Pattern distortion Antenna isolation 41 One Company. .

Choosing Sector Antennas For 3 sector cell sites. A World of Solutions. . Antenna gain and overall sector coverage. use 6 dB differentials. what performance differences can be expected from the use of antennas with different horizontal apertures? Criteria: ! Area of service indifference between adjacent sectors (“ping-pong” area). ! ! 42 One Company. For comparison.

A World of Solutions. .3 x 120° Antennas 120° Horizontal Overlay Pattern Examples: 57° 3 dB VPOL Low Band DB874H120 DB878H120 High Band DB978H120 43 One Company.

. A World of Solutions.3 x 90° Antennas 43° 90° Horizontal Overlay Pattern Examples: XPOL DB854DG90 DB856DG90 DB858DG90 VPOL Low Band DB842H90 DB844H90 DB848G90 DB864H90 DB866H90 High Band DB932DG90 UMWD-9014 UMWD-9016 DB948G85 DB978G90 DB980G90 DB982G90 5 dB 44 One Company.

A World of Solutions. .3 x 65° Antennas 24° 65° Horizontal Overlay Pattern Examples: XPOL DB854DG65 DB856DG65 DB858DG65 CTSDG066513 CTSDG066515 CTSDG066516 VPOL Low Band DB842H65 DB844H65 DB848H65 High Band 6 dB UMWD-06513 UMWD-06516 UMWD-06517 DB948G65 DB980G65 DB982G65 45 One Company.

Beam Downtilt
In urban areas, service and frequency utilization are frequently improved by directing maximum radiation power at an area below the horizon.

This Technique:
!

Improves coverage of open areas close to the base station. Allows more effective penetration of nearby buildings, particular high-traffic lower levels and garages. Permits the use of adjacent frequencies in the same general region.
46 One Company. A World of Solutions.

!

!

Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt
! ! !

Mechanical downtilt lowers main beam, raises back lobe. Electrical downtilt lowers main beam and lowers back lobe. A combination of equal electrical and mechanical downtilts lowers main beam and brings back lobe onto the horizon!

47 One Company. A World of Solutions.

Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt

Mechanical

Electrical

48 One Company. A World of Solutions.

galvanized steel. Correct bracket calibration assumes a plumb mounting pipe! Check antenna with a digital level. A World of Solutions. . designed for pipe mounting 12" to 20" wide panel antennas. 49 One Company.DB5083 Downtilt Mounting Kit DB5083 Downtilt Mounting Kit is constructed of heavyduty.

. A World of Solutions.Mechanical Downtilt Mechanical Tilt Causes: • Beam Peak to Tilt Below Horizon • Back Lobe to Tilt Above Horizon • At ± 90° No Tilt Pattern Analogy: Rotating a Disk 50 One Company.

Mechanical Downtilt Coverage 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 Elevation Pattern Azimuth Pattern Mechanical Tilt 0° 4° 6° 8° 10° 51 One Company. A World of Solutions. .

A World of Solutions. .DB834H85RF-F 0° Mechanical Downtilt 85° Quiz: What is the vertical beamwidth of a 4-element array? 52 One Company.

. A World of Solutions.DB834H85RF-F 7° Mechanical Downtilt 93° 53 One Company.

. A World of Solutions.DB834H85RF-F 15° Mechanical Downtilt 123° 54 One Company.

A World of Solutions. .DB834H85RF-F 20° Mechanical Downtilt Horizontal 3 dB Bandwidth Undefined 55 One Company.

.Managing Beam Tilt For the radiation pattern to show maximum gain in the direction of the horizon. Feeding vertically arranged dipoles “out of phase” will generate patterns that “look up” or “look down”. A World of Solutions. each stacked dipole must be fed from the signal source “in phase”. GENERATING BEAM TILT Dipoles Fed “In Phase” Energy in Exciter Phase Exciter Dipoles Fed “Out of Phase” ¼λ Wav e Fron t 56 One Company. The degree of beam tilt is a function of the phase shift of one dipole relative to the adjacent dipole.

Electrical Downtilt Electrical Tilt Causes: • • • • Beam peak to tilt below horizon Back lobe to tilt below horizon At ± 90° to tilt below horizon All the pattern tilts “Cone” of the Beam Peak pattern Pattern Analogy: Forming a cone out of a disk 57 One Company. . A World of Solutions.

A World of Solutions.Electrical Downtilt Coverage 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 320 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 320 Elevation Pattern Electrical Tilt Azimuth Pattern 0° 4° 6° 8° 10° 58 One Company. .

Mechanical vs. . Electrical Downtilt 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 350 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 260 250 240 59 One Company. A World of Solutions.

. 60 One Company.VARI-TILT® With Variable Electrical Beamwidth (VEB). A World of Solutions. you can adjust anywhere in 30 seconds.

.ASPD 977 3° Electrical Downtilt 61 One Company. A World of Solutions.

A World of Solutions. .ASPD 977 8° Electrical Downtilt 62 One Company.

A World of Solutions.ASPD 977 Overlay Electrical Downtilt 3° 6° 8° 63 One Company. .

Remote Electrical Downtilt (RET) Optimization ATM ATMS ATC100 Series Local PC Local PC ATMS ATC200-LITE Local PC ANMS Remote Locations Network Server ATC200 Series 64 One Company. A World of Solutions. .

.“Intermod” Interference Where? F1 Tx F1 Rx F3 RECEIVER-PRODUCED F3 Tx F1 Rx F3 TRANSMITTER-PRODUCED F2 F2 Tx F2 Tx F2 F1 F2 C O M B DUP F3 Tx1 F1 F3 F2 ELSEWHERE Tx1 Tx2 Rx F3 Rx3 RF PATH-PRODUCED Tx2 65 One Company. A World of Solutions.

A World of Solutions. 66 One Company. Two-Signal IM FIM = nF1 ± mF2 Example: F1 = 1945 MHz.PCS A-Band Product Frequencies. . F2 = 1930 MHz n 1 2 1 2 3 2 m 1 1 2 2 2 3 Product Order Second Third Third Fourth Fifth Fifth Product Formulae 1F1 + 1F2 1F1 – 1F2 2F1 + 1F2 *2F1 – 1F2 2F2 + 1F1 *2F2 – 1F1 2F1 + 2F2 2F1 – 2F2 3F1 + 2F2 *3F1 – 2F2 3F2 + 2F1 *3F2 – 2F1 Product Frequencies (MHz) 3875 15 5820 1960 5805 1915 7750 30 9695 1975 9680 1900 *Odd-order difference products fall in-band.

∆F F1 + 2∆F.3∆F 67 One Company. F2 . F2 .Two-Signal IM Odd-Order Difference Products Example: F1 = 1945 MHz. “Higher than the highest – lower than the lowest – none in-between” .2∆F F1 + 3∆F. F2 = 1930 MHz ∆F = F1 .F2 = 15 2F2 – F1 1915 3F2 – 2F1 1900 ∆F F2 – ∆F 2∆F F2 – 2∆F F2 1930 ∆F ∆F F1 + ∆F 2∆F F1 + 2∆F F1 1945 2F1 – F2 1960 3F1 – 2F2 1975 5th 3rd F2 F1 3rd 5th Third Order: Fifth Order: Seventh Order:: F1 + ∆F. A World of Solutions. F2 .

A World of Solutions. .PCS Duplexed IM Band A Tx Frequency 1930-1945 Own Rx Any Rx Rx Band Band Frequency IM Order IM Order 1850-1865 11th 5th IM Equations Own Rx Band Any Rx Band =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1855 =3*Tx(low)-2*Tx(high)=1900 B 1950-1965 1870-1885 11th 7th =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1875 =4*Tx(low)-3*Tx(high)=1905 C 1975-1990 1895-1910 11th 11th =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1900 =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1900 68 One Company.

1975-1980 C4 10 1900-1905. A World of Solutions. 69 One Company. and C-5: 10MHz). C-3.A Band IM 11th 1855 9th 1870 7th 1885 5th 1900 3rd 1915 1930 1945 Channel Bandwidth Block (MHz) Frequencies C 30 1895-1910.5-1910. .5-1990 C2 15 1895-1902-5.5 C3 10 1895-1900. 1975-1982. 1980-1985 C5 10 1905-1910. 1982. C-4. 1985-1990 FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan Note: Some of the original C Block licenses (Originally 30 MHz each) were split into multiplelicenses (C-1 and C-2: 15 MHz. 1975-1990 C1 15 1902.

A and F Band IM 3rd 1895 1935 1975 Channel Bandwidth Block (MHz) Frequencies C 30 1895-1910.5-1990 C2 15 1895-1902-5. 1980-1985 C5 10 1905-1910. 1985-1990 FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan Note: Some of the original C Block licenses (Originally 30 MHz each) were split into multiplelicenses (C-1 and C-2: 15 MHz.5 C3 10 1895-1900. and C-5: 10MHz). A World of Solutions. 1975-1980 C4 10 1900-1905.5-1910. C-3. 1982. 1975-1990 C1 15 1902. . 70 One Company. 1975-1982. C-4.

Causes of IMD
!

Ferromagnetic materials in the current path:
– Steel – Nickel plating or underplating

!

Current disruption:
– Loosely contacting surfaces – Non-conductive oxide layers between contact surfaces

71 One Company. A World of Solutions.

System VSWR Calculator
Andrew Corporation System VSWR Calculator
Frequency (MHz): Component Used?
Yes1 Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Yes

850.00 Max. VSWR 1.33 1.07 1.29 1.07 1.29 1.07 1.11 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.29 1.07 Cable Type / Return Cable Cable Component Loss (dB) Length (m) Length (ft) Loss 16.98 LDF5-50A LDF4-50A LDF4-50A 29.42 2 1.22 4.00 17.95 0.20 29.42 2 1.22 4.00 17.95 0.20 29.42 2.00 1.22 4.00 LDF5-50A 25.66 1 53.34 175.00 29.42 2 1.22 4.00 29.42 0.20 29.42 2.00 1.22 4.00 17.95 0.20 LDF4-50A 29.42 2.00 1.83 6.00 Estimated System Reflection: Estimated System VSWR: Estimated System Return Loss (dB): Maximum System Reflection: Maximum System VSWR: Maximum System Return Loss (dB): Total Insertion Loss (dB):
Return Loss to VSWR converter

Version 1.8 05-Oct-04 Insertion Loss (dB) 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.1068 1.24 19.4 0.1904 1.47 14.4 2.21
Feet to meters converter

System Component Antenna or Load Top Jumper Tower Mounted Amp TMA Jumper Top Diplexer Diplexer Jumper Main Feed Line Surge Jumper Surge Suppressor Diplexer/Duplexer Jumper Bottom Diplexer/Duplexer Bottom Jumper

Reflections at input 0.0852 0.0207 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0507 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0338

1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1

1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1

1/2 inch Superflexible Foam

Jumper Cable Types: FSJ4-50B FSJ4-50B 1/2 inch Low Density Foam LDF4-50A LDF4-50A

Main Feedline Cable Types: LDF5-50A 1 1/4 inch Low Density Foam LDF6-50 1 5/8 inch Low Density Foam LDF7-50A 7/8 inch Flexible Feeder Foam VXL5-50 1 1/4 inch Flexible Feeder Foam VXL6-50 1 5/8 inch Flexible Feeder Foam VXL7-50
7/8 inch Low Density Foam 7/8 inch Andrew Virtual Air 1 5/8 inch Andrew Virtual Air
No

LDF5-50A LDF6-50 LDF7-50A VXL5-50 VXL6-50 VXL7-50 AVA5-50 AVA7-50

AVA5-50 AVA7-50

Return Loss (dB) 28.00

VSWR 1.0829

feet 4.00

meters 1.22

72 One Company. A World of Solutions.

Pattern Distortions
Conductive (metallic) obstruction in the path of transmit and/or receive antennas may distort antenna radiation patterns in a way that causes systems coverage problems and degradation of communications services. A few basic precautions will prevent pattern distortions.

73 One Company. A World of Solutions.

105° Horizontal Pattern No Obstacle 0° 330° +15 +10 +5 30° 105° 880 MHz 60° 300° 0 -5 -10 270° 90° 240° 120° Antenna 210° 180° 150° 74 One Company. A World of Solutions. .

.105° Horizontal Pattern Obstruction at -10 dB Point 0° 330° 30° 300° 60° 880 MHz 270° 90° 0° 240° 120° 3½' -10 dB Point Antenna 210° 180° 150° Building Corner 75 One Company. A World of Solutions.

A World of Solutions.105° Horizontal Pattern Obstruction at -6 dB Point 0° 330° 30° 300° 60° 880 MHz 270° 90° 0° ' 3½ -6 dB Point 240° 120° Antenna 210° 180° 150° Building Corner 76 One Company. .

.105° Horizontal Pattern Obstruction at -3 dB Point 0° 330° 30° 300° 60° 880 MHz 270° 90° 0° ½' 3 -3 dB Point Building Corner 240° 120° Antenna 210° 180° 150° 77 One Company. A World of Solutions.

90° Horizontal Pattern No Obstacle 0° 330° +15 +10 +5 30° 300° 0 -5 -10 60° 880 MHz 270° 90° 240° 120° Antenna 210° 180° 78 One Company. A World of Solutions. 150° .

A World of Solutions.90° Horizontal Pattern 0. 150° .51 Diameter Obstacle at 0° 0° 330° 30° 300° 60° 880 MHz 270° 90° 0° 12λ λ 240° 120° Antenna 210° 180° 79 One Company.

A World of Solutions. 150° .90° Horizontal Pattern 0.51 Diameter Obstacle at 45° 0° 330° 30° 300° 60° 880 MHz 270° 90° 45° 8λ 240° 120° Antenna 210° 180° 80 One Company.

.51Diameter Obstacle at 60° 0° 330° 30° 300° 60° 880 MHz 270° 90° 60° 6λ 240° 120° Antenna 210° 180° 150° 81 One Company. A World of Solutions.90° Horizontal Pattern 0.

.90° Horizontal Pattern 0. A World of Solutions.51Diameter Obstacle at 80° 0° 330° 30° 300° 60° 880 MHz 270° 90° 80° 240° 120° 3λ Antenna 210° 180° 150° 82 One Company.

90°) Antenna 90° horizontal (3 dB) beamwidth (Example: DB866H90) 83 One Company.57 WL) Maximum Gain > 12 WL 3 dB Point (45°) 8 W L 6 dB Point (60°) > W >6 WL L > 3 WL 10 dB Point (80° . . A World of Solutions.General Rule Area that needs to be free of obstructions (> 0.

48) 2 (0.Attenuation Provided By Vertical Separation of Dipole Antennas 70 60 50 Isolation in dB 40 0 20 H 0M z Hz 0M 85 MH 50 4 z H 0M 16 z z MH 75 z MH 40 30 20 10 1 (.14) 50 (15. If values (1) the spacing is measured between the physical center of the tower antennas and it (2) one antenna is mounted directly above the other. No correction factor is required for the antenna gains.52) 10 (3.91) 5 (1.) 61 30 (9.) 03 (30. A World of Solutions. The curves will also provide acceptable results for gain type antennas.61) 3 (0. Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas.24) 100 Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters) The values indicated by these curves are approximate because of coupling which exists between the antenna and transmission line.05) 20 (. with no horizontal offset collinear). . 84 One Company.

24 m) (approximately the far field). A World of Solutions.24) 100 (30.48) 200 (60. 85 One Company.Attenuation Provided By Horizontal Separation of Dipole Antennas 80 70 0 200 z MH Isolation in dB 60 z MH 850 Hz 50 M 4 150 z MH 50 40 30 Hz 70 M Hz 50 M z H 30 M 20 10 (3. The curves will also provide acceptable results for gain type antennas if (1) the indicated isolation is reduced by the sum of the antenna gains and (2) the spacing between the gain antennas is at least 50 ft.44) 500 (152.05) (304.14) 50 (15. .4) 1000 Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters) Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas.8) 20 (.96) 300 (91.) 61 30 (9. (15.

01745 for 0° < a < 10° : tan a = a * tan 1° tan a = Note: tan 10° = 0.01745 = 0. .1745 86 One Company.1763 10 * 0.Pattern Distortions D a d d D d = D * tan a tan 1° = 0. A World of Solutions.

87 One Company.Gain Points of a Typical Main Lobe Relative to Maximum Gain a a Vertical Beam Width= 2 a (-3dB point) -3dB point a° below boresight.35 * a° below boresight. .7 * a° below boresight. A World of Solutions. -6dB point 1. -10 dB point 1.

. A World of Solutions.Changes In Antenna Performance In The Presence of: Non-Conductive Obstructions FIBERGLASS PANEL DB980H90E-M DIM “A” 88 One Company.

A) 89 One Company.Performance of DB980H90 (PCS Antenna) Behind Camouflage (¼" Fiberglass) 120° FIBERGLASS PANEL DB980H90E-M Horizontal Aperture 110° 100° 90° 80° 1/4 λ 1/2 λ 3/4 λ 1λ 1-1/2 λ DIM “A” 2λ 70° 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim. A World of Solutions. .

A World of Solutions.7 1.5 DIM “A” FIBERGLASS PANEL DB980H90E-M VSWR (Worst Case) 1.6 1. .2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim. A) W/Plain Facade W/Ribbed Facade Without Facade 90 One Company.Performance of DB980H90 (PCS Antenna) Behind Camouflage (¼" Fiberglass) 1.4 1.3 1/4 λ 1/2 λ 1λ 1-1/2 λ 2λ 1.

Distance From Fiberglass 0° 330° 30° 90° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 102° 60° 300° 270° -55 -50 -45 90° 270° -55 -50 -45 90° 240° -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 120° 240° -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 120° 210° 150° 210° 150° 180° 180° No Fiberglass 0° 330° 30° 3" to Fiberglass 68° 60° 300° 270° -50 -45 -40 90° 240° -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 120° 210° 150° 180° 1. . A World of Solutions.5" to Fiberglass 91 One Company.

Distance From Fiberglass 0° 330° 30° 77° 60° 300° 0° 330° 30° 112° 60° 300° 270° -50 -45 -40 90° 270° -50 -45 -40 90° 240° -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 120° 240° -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 120° 210° 150° 210° 150° 180° 180° 4" to Fiberglass 330° 300° 0° 30° 108° 60° 6" to Fiberglass 270° -50 -45 -40 90° 240° -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 120° 210° 150° 180° 9" to Fiberglass 92 One Company. A World of Solutions. .