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By : Saritha Manoharan M.Sc, M.Ed, NET
The study examines the relationship between Frustration and Behavioural problems among students belong to early adolescent periods. For the purpose, the author employed two tools first one was a Frustration inventory scale –A modified tool based on the frustration test questionnaire prepared and standardized by Chowhan and Tiwari in the year 1999 to measure the Frustration among teenagers, second tool employed was a self developed Behavioural Problem Identification Test (BPIT) to identify the Behavioural problems in the teenagers. Sample of the study were 300 students belonging to early adolescent period from the schools of Kollam district in Kerala. Results revealed that Frustration and Behavioural problems are positively correlated (ie. when one variable increases other also increases) in the adolescent students.
According to Chandra “Frustration is an emotion that occurs in
situations where one is blocked from reaching a personal goal”, and Behavior is something which constitutes one’s personality. It is the manner in which one behaves and it is a mean of evaluation by others. Behavioural Problem can be defined as a deviation from the accepted pattern of behaviour. A frustrated adolescent may express his Frustration in the form of certain defective Behaviors some of them are Temper tantrum, Negativism, Truancy, Specific fear, Lack of confidence, Learning problem, and Selfishness.
“Adolescence is the life stage that bridges childhood and adulthood”. For most of the individuals, it is a period of serious emotional disturbances and it occurs from the age of 13 to 19. It is one of the life’s fascinating and perhaps most complex stages, a time when young people take on new responsibilities and experiments with independence. They search for identity, learn to apply values acquired in early child hood and develop skills that will help them become caring and responsible adults. When adolescents are supported and encouraged by caring adults they thrive in unimaginable ways, becoming resourceful and contributing members of families and communities. Thus young people can change the world in astonishing ways using their creativity, energy and enthusiasm. Unfortunately at present most of our youngsters are not blessed with the support of adults, conflict between an adult and an young is not a new thing, teenagers and their parents often blames each others behavior, parents feel they have lost any sort of control or influence over their child. Adolescents wants their parents to be clear and consistent about rules and boundaries, but at the same time may resent any restrictions on their growing freedom and ability to decide for them selves, as a result feelings like stress, strains and Frustrations became an inseparable part of our youngsters life. Stanleyhall calls adolescence as a period of great stress and strain, storm and strife. Holling worth calls this as period of temporary insanity. In the view of Morgan and associates, there may be various causes of Frustration and related stresses like environmental, physical, or it may be people like parents, teachers or other elders. Some times the individual may set his eyes on a certain goal which is beyond his ability to achieve. And in other cases the parents may be over aspiring about the children, in such cases both parents and child suffer Frustration
If Frustration continues, our body enters the second stage- resistance. Body attempts to adjust to the stress. These Frustrations threaten the individual’s psychological balance. Psychologists opined that an upset or Frustrated adolescent may express his negative feelings with sulky behaviors rather than obvious distress. So considering this situation the study was intended to find out the probable relationship between Frustration and Behavioural Problems among adolescent students. The following questions were raised in the mind of the researcher while selecting the problem. 1. What is the level of Frustration and Behavioural problems among adolescent students? 2. Is there any relationship between Frustration and Behavioural Problems? There have been many studies conducted on selected variables separately. But no study has been done on all the selected variables simultaneously. OBJECTIVES : To study the level of Frustration among adolescent students. To study the level of Behavioural Problems among adolescent students. To study the relationship between Frustration and Behavioural Problems of adolescent students for the total sample and the sub samples with respect to, (a)Gender, (b)Locality of school, (c)Type of Management of school.
METHODOLOGY: Considering the nature of the study the investigator had selected normative survey method to study the problem. The aspects of the methodology followed are tools, population, sample, and statistical techniques. i) Tools: Tools are the techniques used in the data gathering process, which may vary in their complexity, design, administration and interpretation. Tools used in the present study were: • Frustration Inventory Scale A standardized tool of ‘Frustration Inventory’ based on the Frustration test questionnaire prepared and standardized by Chowhan and Tiwari (1999) was used in the study. • Behavioural Problem Identification Test (BPIT) The investigator prepared the tool to find out the Behavioural Problems in adolescent students. The face validity of the tool was established with the help of experts. The reliability of the tool was determined by split half method. ii) Population of the study A population refers to any collection of specified group of human beings or of non-human entities such as objects, educational institutions, time units, geographical areas, prices of wheat or salaries drawn by individuals. Population in the present study consisted of whole adolescent students in the Kollam district.
iii) Sample of the study The representative proportion of the population is called a sample.The present study consisted of a sample of 300 adolescent students in Kollam district. iv) Statistics used in the study Statistics is the science of computation. In this study the investigator used different statistical methods like Mean, Median, Standard deviation, Skew ness, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation, and ttest were used. RESULT Analysis of the Frustration scores The statistical constants namely mean, medium, standard deviation and skew ness were computed for the Frustration scores. The results of preliminary analysis are given in the following table. Table 1 Statistical constants of Frustration scores Sample Total Boys Girls Urban Rural Aided Number of Students (N) 300 150 150 150 150 150 Mean Median (Md) (M) 86.70 85.25 88.15 88.27 85.14 87.11 89 88 89 90 88 89 Standard Deviation(SD) 13.43 13.58 13.15 12.57 14.10 12.91 Skewness
-0.53 -0.89 -0.14 -0.47 -0.53 -0.38
The mean, median and standard deviation of the total samples were calculated and their scores are, 86.70, 89, and 13.43 respectively. In the above statistical table all the sub variables are negatively skewed. It means that there are many individuals in the sub variables with their scores higher than the average score of the particular group. • Details about the level of Frustration among the sample The investigator found the mean and standard deviation of adolescent student’s Frustration. Then the investigator classified the students in to below average, average and above average based on the formula x + 1 σ and x-1 σ . The students who lie between x + 1 σ and x – 1 σ are average students, those above x +1 σ are above average students and those below x -1 σ are below average students. Table 2 Classification of students in terms of Frustration inventory scores Below average 15% Average 72% Above average 13%
Of the 300 samples 15% are in below average Frustration, 72% are in average Frustration and 13% are in above average Frustration
Analysis of the Behavioural Problems scores. The statistical constants namely mean, median, standard deviation and skew ness were computed for the Behavioural problem scores. And the results are shown below.
Table 3 Statistical constants of Behavioural Problem scores Number of Students (N) 300 150 150 150 150 150 150 Mean (M) 11.18 11.47 10.88 11.43 10.93 11.20 11.16 Median (Md) 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Standard Deviation (SD) 3.00 2.98 2.99 3.00 2.98 3.01 2.99 Skewness
Sample Total Boys Girls Urban Rural Aided Unaided
+0.25 +0.27 +0.25 +0.26 +0.25 +0.30 +0.21
The scores obtained for mean, median and standard deviation of the total samples are 11.18, 11, and 3.00 respectively. And all the sub variables are having positive skew ness value. Hence it is inferred that there are many individuals in a sub variable who score less than the average score of that particular group.
• Details about the level of Behavioural sample.
Problems among the
The investigator found the mean and slandered deviation of adolescent student’s Frustration. Then the investigator classified the students in to below average, average and above average based on the formula x+1 σ and x-1 σ . The students who lie between x+1 σ and x–1
σ are average students, those above x +1 σ are above average students and those below x -1 σ are below average students.
Table 4 Classification of students in terms of Behavioural problems score Below average 19% Average 65% Above average 16%
Of the 300 samples 19% are in below average Behavioural Problems 65% are in average and 16% are in above average Behavioural Problems.
Table 5 Result of Relationship between Frustration and Behavioural Problems among Adolescent Students in respect of Boys, Girls(Gender), Urban Schools(locality of school), Rural Schools, Aided Schools and Unaided Schools(type of management of school). (Consolidated) Table value 0.05 0.01 level level 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.208 0.208 0.208 0.208 0.208 0.208 Significant/ Not significant Significant at 0.01 level Not Significant at 0.05 level Significant at 0.05 level Not Significant at 0.05 level Not Significant at 0.05 level Significant at 0.01 level
Sample Boys Girls Urban Rural Aided School Unaided School
N 15 0 15 0 15 0 15 0 15 0 15 0
r 0.21 5 0.12 3 0.16 8 0.13 2 0.09 7 0.21 2
The above table denotes that there is significant positive relationship between Frustration and Behavioural Problems in Adolescent Boys, Adolescent Urban School Students and Adolescent Unaided School Students. Whereas, there is no significant relationship between Frustration and Behavioural Problems in Adolescent Girls, Adolescent Rural School Students and Adolescent Aided School Students. FINDINGS: Major findings of the study were
• Of the 300 samples 15% were in below average Frustration, 72% were in average Frustration and 13% were in above average Frustration. • Of the 300 samples 19% were in below average Behavioural Problems 65% were in average and 16% were in above average Behavioural problem.
Regarding the relationship between variables there is significant positive relationship between Frustration and Behavioural Problems in Adolescent Boys, Adolescent Urban School Students and Adolescent Unaided School Students. Whereas, there is no
significant relationship between Frustration and Behavioural Problems in Adolescent Girls, Adolescent Rural School Students and Adolescent Aided School Students IMPLICATION The findings of the study have direct implication to the field of education. It is very clear from the study that Frustration and Behavioural Problems is Correlated. It may be studied further because, today’s adolescents are tomorrow’s adults and the future developments of our Nation determines by them. Frustration is a feeling of powerlessness and helplessness when something goes wrong in our lives or when the results of a certain action do not meet our expectation. Frustration causes people to be angry and rude it damages relationship and harms ones health and personality. Today it has become a chronic problem among our adolescent which prevent their wholesome development and it may affect the growth of our nation inversely. By considering all the above mentioned reasons the investigator suggest the following points as educational implications,
• The school administrators and teachers should organize activities that may foster the free interaction among students and teachers and it will create a better understanding between them. • Provide classes on personality development, which will promote wholesome development of the student. • Establishment of counseling zones in every school will help in wiping out the negative outlook prevailing in the minds of children. • Quit corporal punishments from the schools, because corporal punishments may affect the development of the students adversely. • The teacher should be sympathetic to the difficulties of the students, which will create a good relation between student and the teacher. • Provide personal, educational, and vocational guidance to the students and will create ‘hope for the future’ • Train students to set goals based on their desires and passions and it will give self confidence in them. • Avoid making comparison between students, and avoid giving undue pressure on the students. Promote healthy competition among students all the above will reduce the stress and strains in the students. CONCLUSION
Personality is an unique configuration of an individual’s characteristics and mode of Behaviour that shape his adjustments to his environment. Frustration is a negative feeling which may affect once personality development adversely. Frustration is a feeling of powerlessness and helplessness when something does not happen as per our expectation. In addition to making people to be angry, rude, it spoil their relationship with others, also it harms ones health and personality. Proper guidance and counseling is the only way to tackle with the condition of negative feeling. Today most of our youngsters are suffering from negative feeling due to various reasons which inculcates awkward behaviour in their selves. The aim of imparting guidance and counseling in educational institution is saving our youngsters from the condition of negative feeling. So all educators and school authority should take proper care to implement the facilities for guidance and counseling in the school. REFERENCE
o Best,J.W. (2007). Research in Education. New Delhi: Prentice hall of India Pvt. o Koul, L. (2008). Methodology of Educational Research. Vikas Pvt Ltd. New Delhi:
o Amato, P.R. and Keith, B. (1991). Parental Divorce and Adult Well-being a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Marriage and the famiy, 55(4), 43-58. o Bar-on, (1997). Frustration Tolerance in Indians. International Education, 2, 18. o Kothari, C.P. (1985). Research Methodology. New Delhi: Wiley eastern
o Sidhu, K.S. (1985). Methodology of Research Education. Newyork: Sterling.
o Carlson, G. A. and Cantwell, D.P. (1978). Unmasking Masked Depression in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry. 137, 445449.
o Chiles, J. A, Miller, M. L. and Cox, G.B. (1980). Depression in adolescent delinquent population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1179-1184.
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