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ISBN: 960-88119-9-6
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11
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nEQaoouv 'tOY A'tAaV'tLX6 - OUVUMAlpOU<; OUYYQUlpEC<;, DLa<JT]- IIw<; Eq>'tUOE 6!lw<; 0 MaQxo<; 0't0 !lEA6DQU!lU'tou AYYAOU
!l0U<; 6nw<; 0 XEVQU T1;;EL!l<; [Henry James, 1843-1916] xm 0 OUYYQUlpEU T1;tQOAV't [Douglas Jerrold, 1803-1857];
~'tij(3EV KQELV [Stephen Crane, 1871-1900], Mu06vou<;, unEQ- «A!lnQ60ul; rXOULVE't ij MLU lO'toQLU maL OtT] eaAuoou»
j30ALxa nAo13OLou<; xanL'tuALO'tE<;, OQLO!lEVOU<; IIQoEcQou<; XL [Ambrose Gwynett; or A Seaside Story,1828], nou Ej3UAE
Ux6!lTJ-ux6!lTJ a<JT]!lou<; LEQOXijQUXE<;, EVEQYTJ'tLX6tU'tOU<; 'tonL- CCn:AU 0't0 «A» 'tou j3QElpOU<; EVU «G»;
X013<; aQXOV'tE<; xm UM!;LOU<; O'tLxonMxou<;. ~'tT) OUVEXELU ijQ8uv XL aAAU «A»: 0 AQ80uQ, nou nE8uVE

ECvm UD13VU'tov VU VLWOOU!lE aij!lEQU EXECVTJ 'tT)V LDLUC'tE- 'to 1846, OE TJALXCU EWEU !lTJvwv, TJ AMALU xm TJ AUQTJACU,
QTJ YOTJ'tECU, nou EXUVE 'tOU<; ouYXQ6vou<; 'tou vu uVExoV'tm, nou nE8uvuv XL UU'tE<; !lEOU O'tU En6!lEVU 000 XQ6VLU. rtu vu
v' UnOAU!l(3avouv XL ux6!lTJ-ux6!lTJ v' uyuno13v 'to !leyaAo xa'taAaj3OU!lE 'tOY A!tJtQ60u1;, nQEnEL onwocijnO'tE v' UQXC-
«O'tQUj36!;UAO». AQXEC vu Em<JT]!laVOU!lE - nQaY!lu nou CEV OOU!lE an6 'to YEyov6<; nw<; 'tT)V Enoxij nou aQXLOE vu XU'tU-
xavouv ouvij8w<; OL aUV'tO!lE<; UVUlpOQE<; OtT] l;wij 'tou - nw<; AU(3U(VEL'tOV X60!l0 yUQw 'tou, TJ !lTJ'tEQU'tOU ij'tuv anuoxoATJ-
Eng6xEL't0 YLU E!;mQE'tLXa XUAOq>'tLUY!lEVO aV'tQu. 'H'tuv !lEVY] xu'ta nQwTO A6yo !lE 'tT) IpQoV'tCcu 'twv VEOYEVVTJ'tWV xm
'ljJTJA6<; !lE nAo13OLu un6!;uv8u !lUAALa, Eu8u'tEVij<; xm U8ATJ'tL- xu'ta DE13'tEgO !lE 'to nEv80<; YLU 'to ijCTJ vExQ6 nmcC. 'E'tOL,
x6<;, nUQ6Ao nou UnElpEQE un6 XQ6vw a08!lu. ECXE YUAal;Lu CEV nQ60lpEQE 0't0 AyoQaxL 'tT)V uyaJtT) nou 6lpELAE. EXECVO<;
CLUUyij !la'tLu xm IpQEOXLU Q6DLVTJ EmcEQ!lCCU, nUQ6ATJ 'tT) anEQQL'ljJE 'tOU<; YOVEL<; xm 'tT)v OLXOyEVELU· XU'tEIpUYE O'tU
ouvij8ELa 'tou vu XU'tUVUAWVEL !lEyaAE<; no06'tTJ'tE<; uAx06A. j3Lj3ACU. ~13!llpWVU !lE 60u AEY0V'tUV, 0 MaQxo<; ECXE 'tT) !leyu-

12 13
A:U-tEQl1 j3Lj3A.LO!hlXl1 0't0 KOOXLOVOXO TTJ~ IVTL<xva, 6:n:ou ItE'ta- ME 'to 'Eva'to kvV'taY!la llE!;LXOV E6EA.0V'tWV 'too KEV'tU-
X6ItLOav't0 1846. EXEC'tQLYVQL!;E 0 ItLxQ6~ AIt:1tQ60u!;. xu, It:1trjXE 0't0 xa6Tj!lEQwo ocpayECo. k'tOV :n:Qaocpa'to KQLJ!ai:-
'H'tav 1t6vo~. M6vo~ 0't0 O:n:L'tL XaL 1t6VO~ 0't0 O)(OA.ELO. x6 ll6A.E!l0 E(xav XUOEL TTJ !;wrj 'too~ ELxom XLA.LUOE~ BQE'tavo(
M6A.LS EXA.ELOE 'ta OExa'tQCa 'tou XQ6VLa, Eyxa'tEA.ELljJE YLa O'tQa"tLW'tE~, a:n:6 'too~ o:n:o(OUS It0VO OL 'tQEL~ XLA.LUOE~ ~E1jIuXTJ­
:n:uV'ta 'to :n:a'tQLxo. kTTJV aQxrj, EYLVE 0 «qrtWXOOLUj30A.0~» oav O'ta :n:EOLa 'twv !laxWv. Tov A:n:QCA.LO 'tou 1862,11 cpQLxLa-
'tou w:n:oYQacpELou ItLa~ aV'tLQa'tmO'tLxrj~ ECPl1ItEQLoa~ :n:ou O'tLXrj !lUXTj "tou kCA.O, :n:oo EA.aj3E !lEQO~ XaL 0 M:n:TjQ~, "tEA.ELW-
ELXE LOQu6EL :n:Q60cpa'ta 0't0 YEL'tOVLX6 OuuQooou. 'YO'tEQa OE !lE 23.741 :n:'tol!la'ta. llEQaoE TTJ 6Tj"tECa "tou E~OA.OXA.rjQou
'tOY 'tQUj3l1~E 'to AXQov 'tou OXULO, 6:n:ou 0 AOVXLO~, 0 ItLxQ6- 0't0 No"ta. na Evav uv6Qw:n:0 YEwTJJ!a-6QE!l!la TTJS :n:EOLvrj~
'tEQO~ aOEA.cpo~ 'tou MUQxou - 't600 Ita 't600 OLacpOQE'tLx6~ ~VOl1~, OL OQELVE~ EX'tUOEL~ "tou Nmou ij"tav :n:QaY!la"tLxu
a:n:6 EXELVOV - rj'tav 0 E:n:LcpaVEO'tEQO~ :n:OA.L'tl1~: OLxl1y6Qo~, OUYXA.OVLO'tLXES. H O!lOQCPLU "taus, !lE"taj3aMmav ava:n:uV'tE-
OUYYQacpEa~, 'tEOOEQL~ CPOQE~ orjltaQXOS XaL 6QUA.LX6~ :n:OA.E- xa, j3aoavLO"tLxu, OE oxTjvLx6 avwcpEA.wV TjQWLO!lWv XaL VUXt£.
ItLO'trj~. 'O'tav, 'to 1838, 0 Kavaou~ j3QLOx6'tav O'ta :n:Qo6uQa QWwv ocpayWv. 0 M:1tTjQ~ ELOE youQovvLa va "tQWVE "tL~ oUQ-
E~EYEQOl1~ EvuV'tLa OTTJ j3QE'tavLxrj EmxuQLaQXLa, 0 «k'tQa- XE~ "twv OXO"tWJ!EVWV O'tQa'tLW'twv XaL !lUaA.U va xUvoV'taL a:n:6
TTJy6~» M:n:l1QS :n:EQaoE TTJ A.LItVl1 'EQL It' Eva oWJ!a :n:EV'taxo- aVOtYItEVa xQavLa. A:n:6 Ittav ci:n:01jITj ELXE va XUVEL ItE «W:n:L~
OLWV E6EA.0V'tWV, YLa va :n:QoxaMoEL YEVLX6 ~EOl1xwIt6. x6 :n:6A.E!l0». H !lEXQL aU"to6uoLa~ YEWaLOTTJ"tU "tau cpuVTJxe
TWQa rj'tav Eva~ OXA.l1Qo:n:uQl1vLx6~ aV'tLQa'tmO'trj~, :n:ou :n:OA.V VWQL~, mav OLEOWOE Evav :n:A.TjYW!lEVO OUVUOEA.cp6 "tou,
EcpooLaoE J!E o:n:A.a XaL :n:uQoJ!aXLxu 'tOY T!;wv M:n:Quouv :n:EQvwV'ta~ J!Eoa a:n:6 "ta :n:uQu "tau O"tQa"tov "twv NmLwv. To
[John Brown,1800-1859], 6'tav 0 'tEA.EU'taLo~ ~EXLV110E TTJv IvO'tL"tomo 'tou KEV'tUXU, !lE"tU a:n:6 :n:OMU XQ6vLa "tOY :n:QmEL-
aLJ!a'tl'/Qrj E~OOO a:n:o 'to OOUA.OX'tl'/'tLXO Now. VE yw :n:Qoaywyrj. To <l>E/3QOUUQLO "tau 1862, XaL EVol T}'tav
o AOVXLO~ a:n:ocpumoE :n:w~ 0 AIt:1tQ60u!; E:n:QE:n:E va rj0l1 A.OxLa~, !lE"ta'tE6TjXE OTTJv m~LaQxCa "tou O"tQaTTJYov rouC-
YLVEL O'tQa'tLw'tLx6~. M6A.L~ EXA.ELOE 'ta oExaE:n:'tu, 'tOY EO'tEL- A.La!l XEL!;EV [William Babcock Hazen 1830-1887], :n:ou avrjxE
A.E 0't0 :n:EQLcpTJJ!O k'tQa'tLw'tLx6 IvO'tL'tov'to 'tou KEV'tUXU. 0't0 oW!la 'tou OXULO, u:n:o TTJ OLOCXTjOl1 "tou M:n:LOVEA. [Don
'YO'tEQa a:n:6 Eva XQ6vo 'tOY a:n:Ej3aA.aV, aMu ELXE a:n:ox'trj- Carlos Buell, 1818-1898]. OVOJ!UOTTJXE a~Lw!la'tLx6s TTJ~ "to:n:o-
OEL rjOl1 O'tQa'tLW'tLxo :n:aQuO'tl1J!a XaL yvolOEL~ OXEO(ou XaL YQacpLXTj~ U:1tTjQEo(a~ XL <iQXLOE va XUQ"toygaCPE( TTJV :n:EQLOXTj.
xaQ'toYQacpLa~, :n:ou oVV'to!la a:n:00ECx6Tjxav E~aLQE"tLXU Tov E:n:O!lEVO XQ6vo EYWE u:n:oA.oxay6~ XaL"tO NOE!l/3QLO "tou
XQrjm!lE~. AxoA.ov6Tjoav EWEa !lrjVE~ YE!lU'tOL OLUCPOQE~ 1864 :n:QorjX6Tj "tLJ!Tj"tLXU Of A.oxay6. TWQa ma j3QLoxmav
:n:EQLO'tamaxE~ OOUA.ELE~ 0't0 OuuQooou, wo:n:ou 'tTjv UVOL~Tj XOV'tU O'tO Em"tEA.ELO XL Tj OUIt:1tEQLCPOQU "twv O"tQaTTJYWv "too
'tou 1861 ~Eo:n:aoE 0 EltcpVA.LO~. 0 M:n:TjQ~ rjmv a:n:' 'tou~ :n:QOXaA.OUOE aTjoCa. 'OOOL OEV T}'tav aVOTj"tOL ij"tav aVWQL!lOL.
:n:Qw'tou~ :n:ou xa'ta"tuX'tl1xav 0't0 O'tQa"to 'tou A(vxoA.v o rjQWU~"too T}'tav 0 XEt!;EV, :n:ou OEV €/3A.E:n:E J!E XaA.O J!U"tL TTJV
[Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865]. aVOTjOLa, "t600"twv O:n:A.L"tWv 600 XaL "twv a~LW!la"tLxwv.

14 15
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«AIlEQLXUVLXrj<;» AOyatEXVLU<; b'llAUbrj - IlEOO'UQUVOUOUV 0't0 't'IlV EqJ'IlllEQLbu 'to'll 'to :n:LO wrObatLX6 bLUqJ'IlIlLO'tLXO IlEOO 'to'll
EXXEV'CQLX6, um:ob'llIlLOUQY'll'tO O'tEQEWIlU 't'Il<; :n:6A'll<;: 0 M:n:QE't l:uv cI>QUVOLOXO XUL 'twQu E'tQLj3E 'tu XEQLU 'to'll wro LXUVO:n:OL-
XUQ't [Bret Harte, 1836-1902] XUL 0 MUQx To'UuL'llv [Mark 'll01l, j3M:n:oV'Cu<; :n:w<; 'll EX 'to'll O'UO'tub'llV E:n:C6E01l 'to'll MJ't'IlQ<; -
Twainl'VE'Ub. Samuel Taylor Clemens, 1835-1910]. To :n:QoYto :n:O'll EYQUqJE IlE 'to 1jJE'UbwV'UIlO «TEAUA'll<;» - O'tOV IO...rjQO 't'Il<;
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XULQL'tO'U 1868 EYLVE IlEAO<; 'to'll b'llIlOOLOYQUqJLXOU E:n:L'tEAELO'U wrO'lloCa UVUO'tOAWv 'to'll «TEAaA.'ll».
't'll<; News Letter XL u:n:6 'to i'l.EXEIlj3QLO, UQXLO'UV'CUX't'Il<; 't'll<; To uVEQX61lEVO UO'tEQL j3QrjXE 'to UO'tEQL 't'Il<; XUQbLU<; 'to'll
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[Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire, 1694 - 1778]. A:n:' 'tOY 'tQE- 'to'll uYYA6qJwvo'U x60IlO'U. To 1872, 0 YEQo-N'tuL'll U:n:OXULQE-
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x't'l101l, WO'tE vu Il'll YLVEL xux6yo'UO't0 XUxuvo. A:n:6 'to rUMo Aol:rt6v! - :n:Qo<; UVU'tOAU<;.
UqJ0IlOLWOE IlLU IlEeobo AuxWVLXrj<; XUL XUQL'tWIlEV'll<; ELQW- KL UA.A.oL UO'tEQE<; 't'Il<; KUALqJ6QVLU UqJE6r)xuv O't11v O"S'll
VELU<;, :n:0'U j3QLOX6'tUV O'tov uV'CL:n:obu 'to'll rXLIlJ'tOV. l:'t'Ilv LbLU 'to'll LbLO'U IlUyvrj't'll. 0 M:n:QE't XuQ't eu IlE'tux6IlLl;E YLU'tU xuM
OEALbu 'to'll AAcpaf3rJ1:aQiov 0 «l:0'U"CqJ'tLx6<;» OQ LO Il6<; 't'll<; O't11V AyyACa. 0 MUQx TO'lluL'llv EXUVE IlLU oUV'COIl'll EllqJUVL01l,
Ayxw.ui~ W<; « ...:n:QW'tLO'tW<; XQrjOLIl'll<; O'tU UYQatLXU :n:uv'llYu- 6:n:w<; XL 0 XOUXLV MCMEQ [Joaquin Miller, 1837-1913], ouv
QLU, YLU 't'Il O'trjQLS'll 6LOXWV IlE xQuo xO't6:n:0'UAo XUL XEqJUAWV LbLOw:n:O<; XUO'llIlJ't6'll<; «llOL'll'trj<; 'twv l:LEQU<;». 'OIlW<; 0 M:n:'llQ<;
UQOEVLXWV EV'llALXWV», UXOAO'UeEL'tUL u:n:6 'tOY «BOA'tULQLX6» :n:QatLIl'llOE vu 'tQLY'UQ(l;EL O'tU XUJ't'IlAELU IlE IlLU :n:UQEU btaXE-
'\lXl1yOQO ... «Am:6v :n:0'U SEQEL vu :n:uQuxullJ't'tEL 'to v61l0». XQLIlEVWV AYYAWV :n:El;0YQuqJWv XUL b'llIlOOLOYQUqJwv, 'll O:n:OLU
o AyyAo<; LbLOX~<; 't'Il<; News Letter, 0 cI>QEV'CEQLX MUQ- O'UIlJ'tA'llQwv6'tuv xU:n:o'U-xU:n:o'U XUL IlE 'tOY rXLA.IlJ'tEQ't [W. S.
QlO't [Frederick Marriott, 1805-1884], ELXE XU'tUqJEQELVU XUVEL Gilbert, 1836-1911], 'to ALIlJ'tQE'tCatU 'to'll l:aMLj3UV [Arthur

18 19
Seymour Sullivan, 1842-1900). 0 Mm1Q<; j3Q1'jXE EXMtE<; YLU mJYXEvtQooVE UQYOtEQU f.lE tOY thAO «To AAcpafJrrrdQI iOV
tQEL<; mJ"MAYyE<; ltE~WV. To 't\IEubWvuIlO tau, «Ntovt rXQIA» -:1tafJ6AOV». H OtijATJ EYLVE bTjf.lO<pLAtl<; xm OtU EltOf.lEVU
[Dod Grile], uvuYQUllllatLo!!6<; tOU «OQYLOIlEVO<; SEO<;» [God ltEvtE XQOVLU 6u E<ptUVE tU oyoovtU OXtW Atlf.lf.lUtU, f.lE
Riled] bEV ECXE EltLtuXCU, bEV EYLVE OLXECO Otou<; UVUYVWOtE<; OEXa:n:EvtE 00<; ELXOOL AESEL<; to xu6€vu.
XL Etm bUOXOAE1Yt'r\XE xU:n:oo<; VU mJ'V't1lQtlOEL t'll yuvuCXU xm H XQ(OLIlTJ OtLYf.ltl t'll<; AOyotEXVLXtl<; ~ootl<; tau MltTJQ<;
tau<; buo VEOYEVVI1tau<; ywu<; tou. H AYYACU 01100<; tau UQWE E<ptUOE to 1887, OtUV 0 rOULMLUf.l PUvtOA<p XEQOt [William
- IlEtUj3Atl6TjXE OE Ev6EQIl0 UyyM<pLAO - xm OtEVOXooQtl 6 TjXE Randolph Hearst, 1863-1951], UltO<pOLtO<; tOU XUQj3uvt xm
muv TJ MOMU, ltOU ECXE tlbTJ EltLOtQE't\IEL OtO ~UV <l>QuvoCOXO, yw<; EVO<; ltAOVOWU oLu<p6uQf.lEVOU uut00TJf.lwvQYTJtou
VOOtUAYWvtU<; tOY tOltO t'll<;, tOU UvijYYEIAE ltoo<; ijtuv EYXUO<; YEQoumuOtij, UvtLAll<P6TJXE ltW<; to IlEMOV tWV E<PTJIlEQLbwv
OtO tQCtO tou<; ltmbL Tov Oxtwj3QW tOU 1875, 0 MltTJQ<; j3QLoxmuv OtOV «XLtQLVL0f.lO» ltOU EQE6~EL f.lE mOXQo tQOltO
E<ptUVE xovtu Ot'YJV OLXOYEVELU tOU, Ot'YJV KUAU:P0QVLU, xutU- tL<; m06ijoEL<; tooV uvuYVWOtwv. AQltul;E tOY MltTJQ<; xm tOY
f.lEoij<; f.lLU<; OLXOV0f.lLXtl<; V<pEOTJ<;, ltOU tOY uVUYXUOE VU ltEQU- Ej3UAE VU YQU<PEL f.lLU at1lATJ xm XVQLU uQ6Qu Ot'YJV Examiner
OEL ltOMOV<; f.ltlVE<; UVEQY0<;, ltQLV XUtU<pEQEL vu Ult0YQU't\IEL tOU ~UV <l>QUVOLOXO. To yeyovo<; ltoo<; tau ltUQELXE t'll ouvu-
f.lLU OtijATJ Ot'YJv E<pTJf.lEQCbu Argonaut, ouv «TIOAUAOYU<;»· 0 t6trrta v' UIl<pLOj3TJt€L 6,tL xm 6ltOLOV ij6€A€ ijtuvaQxEt6. Tov
«TEAaATJ<;» f.lE YEO OVOf.lu. XEQOt OEV tOY EVOLU~E UV OL Ulto't\lEL<; ltau El;E<PQu~E °
To 1880 ltuQatu l;u<pVLxu t'll bTjf.l0owYQU<p(U XL UVUAUf.l- MltTjQ<; ijtuv UvtLeEtE<; f.lE tL<; OLXE<; tou. ESUMOU, TJ Examiner
j3UVEL tTJ bLEV6uvoTJ EVO<; IlEtUAAE(OU OtOU<; MuvQou; ijtuv f.lLU XUAij oLEl;obo<; YLU tL<; LOtOQLE<; a:n:6 tOY Ef.l<pVAw
Ao<pou<; tTj<; Ntuxotu. MLAUf.lE YLU AYQLU ~VOTJ OtU ltOU tOY XU6LEQooOUV 00<; OTJIlUvtLX6 Af.lEQLXUVO AoYOtEXVTJ.
«UYQLU» tTj<;! 0 MltrlQ<; E(XE t'llV ltQOVOW VU ltQOOAuj3EL to To <')tllYTJIlU f3QLOX6tUV UXOIlTJ Ot'YJv E<pTJf3ELU tou w<; AOYO-
YQTJYOQOtEQO EV ~o:n'i «ltLOtOAL» tTJ<; ltEQWXtl<;, YLU t'llV ltQO- tEXVLXO E(OO<;. 0 MltTJQ<; to tQo<POOOt'llOE f.lE EVUV mJvbuuof.lo
OtUO(U t'll; EltLXE(QTJOTJ<;· ~tL<; f.lw60botLXE<; xUtUOtUOELC; ltQOOEXtLXU EltLAEYIlEVooV AElttOf.lEQELWV xm UMoxotWv,
tOY XUtUXWQLOE 00<; «MltOVVU MEU, bOAO<pOVO<;». 'OvtW; El;uLQEtLXWV YEYOVOtooV, OltooOOij:rtOtE «UltLOtEUtooV». Su
UlttlQXE XQUOU<PL OE XELVOU<; tOU<; UV6QUXOAO<POU<;, UAAU TJ f,lltOQOVOE vu 6EooQTJ6EL ltQooQOf.lo<; tOU «MUYLXoV PEUAL-
EltLXE(QTJOTj OEV f!QLOXOtUV Oto owOto OTJf.lE(O XL EtOL, XWQ(; 0f.l0v», ltOU uVa:n:tVX6TjXE 0t'YJ bLUQXELU tou bEVtEQOU f.lLOoV
Eu6VVTJ toU MltTJQ<; - OE OAE<; tL<; OOUAELE; tOU ijtuv ltoM tOU 20au mwvu ij xm f.lLU OTJf.lUvtLXll E:rtLOtQO<pij Otov rOUWA-
UltOOOtLXO; - to oVf,lltuv XUtEQQEUOE OE f.lEQLXOV<; Iltl VE ;. tEQ ~XWt [Sir Walter Scott, 1771-1832], to IlEYUAO (1)llwuQ-
BUVUOtTJOE of.lw<; tTJ OtijATJ tOU «TIOAUAOYU» OE f.lLUV UAATJ yo «f.lU6LOtOQLWV». AQXEL vu QC1;OUf.lE f.lLU f.lUtLU OtO Aijf.lf.lU
E<PTJf.lEQ(ou tou ~UV <l>Quvo(oxo. H Wasp toy ltQOOEAUj3E w; Mu9to'toQ........a, Oto AAcpafJ1JidQI: «rtu t'll !-lU6LOtOQLU, to
mJvtUXtTJ tOY IuvouuQw tOU 1881. TotE 6u SEXLVOVOE - f.lU6LOtOQTJf.lU ELvm O,tL 1) <pootoYQu<p(u YLU t'll ~WYQU<PLXij». 0
OAoo; ltuQubol;oo; UltO to YQUIlf.lU «P» - tU Atlf.lf.lUtU ltOU 6u bLELolhmx6<; EltLIlEATJtii<; tOU EQYOU tOU Mlt1)Q<; XUtUAaj3U(VEL

20 21
TY)V «EOW'tEQtXtl OXEar\» 'tOlV btTJYTJl1u't(uv yta 'tOY EI1q:nJAW, /-t6vo I1La :rtQ6<paOTJ Xat 6Xt at'tla yta 'to XWQLol16 'to'U~, 'to
'tWV «MuSwv» xat 'twv <paV'taonxwv ta'toQtWV, :rt0'U EX0'UV 1888, :rtaQ6Ao :rt0'U :rtoM aQy6'tEQa Sa E~O/-toAoytmaV O1:L~
tlQWE~ :rtOAL'tE~. 'OI1W~ TY)V aVal1<Ptof3tlTY)TY) :rtQ01:LI1TJOTJ 'tWV X6QE~ 'to'll :rtw~ TJ /-tTJ'tEQa 'to'U~ TJ1:av TJ /-tEyUATJ ayu:rtTJ 'to'll. TTJv
avayvW01:WV TY)V avYXEV'tQWOaV OL <paV'ta01:LXE~ L01:0QLE~. E:rt6/-tEVTJ XQOVtU, 0 N'taLTJ, 0 bExaEmuXQovo; yw~ 'to'll, aVEQ-
~TY)V ayyA6<pwVTJ AOY01:EXV(a bEY 'U:rtUQXEt 'tL:rt01:E :rtaQ611OLo X6/-tEVO~ bT]!lomoYQu<po~, amO:rt'llQo(3oAtlSrrXE a<pO'lJ :rtQW1:a
!lE 'ta btTJytll1a'ta 'to'll EI1<p'UA(O'U, :rt0'U avVEX~O'UV va avyxw- oxmwoE 'toy xaM'tEQ6 'to'll <pLAO yta XUQTJ EVO~ xOQt'tmoo.
v~o'Uv 'tOY avayvwOTY), ax611TJ xat I1E'tu a:rt' 6Aa 'ta d;atQE'tt- H YQa<ptl 'to'll M:rtTJQ~ EytvE ax6/-tTJ mo :rtLxQ6XOATJ. '000
xu XELI1EVa YLa 'tOY :rt6AE110 :rt0'U YQu<p1:TJxav I1E'tU 'to 1914. YLa 'tOY XEQ01: ... 'H'tav xa'tabEx'ttx6~ Xat xaAo:rtATJQW'ttl;,
Ax6!lTJ Xat 'ta YQamu 'to'll P6!1:1tEQ't rXQEtf3~ [Robert Graves, aAAu 0 MJtT]Q~ bEY UQYTJOE v' aV'tLATJ<pSEL Xat v' aV1:L/-tE'tw:rtL-
1895-1985], a~ :rtOUI1E, tl 'to'll BaOLAt rXQ60!lav [Vasily OEt !lE xaX'll:rtO'ljJLa 'ta :rtOAL'ttXU OXEbtu 'to'll. (OL Aa"(Xt01:tXE~
Grossman, 1905-1964], 6'tav avYXQLVOV1:at I1E 'to abEXa01:0 E<pTJ/-tEQLbE~ 'to'll E~'U:rtTjQE1:ouoav 'tTJv Em8'U!lLa 'to'll va YLVEL
Tatxal1uo'Uyxa [Chickamauga] 'to'll MJtT]Q~, <paLvoV'tat oav nQ6EbQo~). AMu OL :rtQOObOXLE~ 'to'll EQyob6TY) 'to'll Eytvav
va l1a~ A'U:rtOUV1:at, oav va !la~ xQuj3o'Uv xU:rtota :rtQuYl1a'ta. xm bLXE~ 'to'll, 6'tav 'to 1896 0 XEQ01: 'toy €01:ELAE OTY)v O'Uu-
o M:rtTJQ~ 'UJtT]QE'tOUOE OTY)V 'ta~taQXLa 'to'll XEt~EV, OTY) mvyx'tov, YLa va oQyavwoEL EX01:Qa'tE(a EvuV'tLa 01:0V K6A.-
~6Q't~ta, 6'tav 'to ~EmEI1j3QLO 1863 ~EonaoE fJ I1UXfJ 'tTJ; AL~ II. XUV'tLVYX'tOV [Collis P. Huntingdon, 1821-1900].
Tatxal1uO'Uyxa,. 0 O1:Qa't6~ 'twv BOQELWV omoSoxwQTJOE, o M:rtTJQ~ a:rtExSavo'tav 'tOY XuV'ttvyx'tov, f3E'tEQUVO TY)~
Eyxm;aAELnOV1:a; 16.000 VEXQOV~ Xat (3aQLu nAfJyw/-tEVO'U~. Emj3LWOTJ~ /-tta~ YEVtU~ abLo'tax'twv xam'taALO'twv 7:TJ;
'Onw~ OL nEQtOomEQOL naALoL O1:Qa'ttw'tE~, 0 MnTJQ~ EnvL~E /-tE'tEI1<p'UAtaxtl~ E:rtOXtl~. H X'Uf3EQVTJOTJ AlVXOAV ElXE bavELO-
/-tEoa 'to'll 'tL~ <pQLxLa01:LXE;, X'UQLOAEX'tLXU anEQLYQamE;, bo'ttloEL 'tTJV Southern Pacific Railroad Company, no'll 'to'll
/-tVtl!lE~ 'to'll nOAE/-to'U, yta bExaE'tLE~. TEALXU, TJ 'tEXVTJ 'to'll aVtlXE. Ta XQtl/-ta'ta bEY E:rtE01:Qu<PTJOav Xat 'twQa 0 XUV'tLV-
xa'tu<pEQE va 0XTJl1a'tonOLtl0EL 'tTjv TOLxal1uo'Uyxa, 6XL yx'tov :rtQOWSOUOE 01:0 KOYXQEOO vOl1oOXEbw, 'to O:rtOLO
«<pW'toYQa<pLxu», aAAu an6 TY)v U:rtO'li'TJ 'twv avvEnEtWV TY)~, aVE01:EtAE 'to XQEO~ yta E(3bo/-ttlV'ta :rtEV'tE XQ6vta. rLa 'to'U~
I1E 'ta l1u'tta Ev6~ xw<puAaAo'U ayoQwu. E:rt6I1EVO'U~ I1tlVE~, 0 MnTJQ~ bTJI100LE'UE avYXAOVt01:LXU 01:0L-
To nQW1:o f3tf3ALO 'to'll, OL IaroQ(E~ yw I7:QaTiwu~ xat XELa O1:t~ E<PTJ/-tEQLbE~ 'to'll XEQ01:, 01:0 ~av ~QavoLoxo Xat
IIo)'iu:~
[Tales of Soldiers and Civilians], EI1<pavLOTY)xE 'to 'tTJ NEa YOQXTj. Mta TJ/-tEQa, O1:a axaALu 'to'll Kant'twA(o'U, 0
1891. AmTj TJ «oo(3aQtl» bTJI1LO'UQYLXtl EXQTJ~TJ E(XE av!1:1tEOEL XUV'tLVYX'tOV 'to'll ~TJ1:TJOE va OQLOEt TY)v 'tLlltl 'to'll. «.H Ti/-l7j
I1E TY)V xU'ta01:Qo<prJ TY)~ :rtQOOW:rtLXtl~ 'to'll ~wtl~. E~aYQtWSTjXE /-Iov» anUVTY)oE EXELVO~, «eiVQl EfJ()o/-l7jV7:a neV7:E EXa7:0/-l/-lv-
mav avaxuAuli'E TY)V EQW'tLXtl Em01:0Atl :rt0'U ELXE O1:ELAEt OTY)v QW oolldQw. Av, 67:av Elan: E7:0l/-l0~ va nll7]QwoEu, 7:VXa(VEt
M6M'U xU:rtotO~ ~av6~ :rtEQa01:LX6~ an6 TY)V KaAL<p6QvLa. va IlElnw, /-InoQElu va 7:a OWOEU 07:0 q;(Ilo /-Iov, 7:0 Orjoav-
'Iow~, amTj TJ Myw ant01:La TY)~ M6M'U, va /-tTJV TJ1:av :rtaQu Qoq;vllaxa 7:WV HVW/-IEVWV IIolllulwv». H anuV'tTJOTJ EYLVE

22 23
1tQ{J)'toOEAL~1O O'tL~ ECPTJIlEQ(bE~ 6ATJ~ T% XWQa~ 1<aL 'to To av"cLIlE"CW1tL~E (OOO~ oav IlLo. 1l0Qcprj Eu80.vo.o(a~. 'H8EAE
KOY1<QEOO a1tEQQL'1pE "Co. OXEbLa "COU XuvnVY1<"Cov. va ayoovLO"CEt O"CO 1tAEUQ6 "coov aV"CaQ"Cwv "Cou iluV"Coo BtYLa
To ~E1<EIlj3QLO "Cou 1899, 0 M1tTJQ~ E1tEO'tQE'1pE O"CTJv OUUOL- [Pancho Villa / Doroteo Arango Ar_mbula, 1877-1923] rj yo.
y1<"Cov YLa IlOVLIlTJ EY1<a"CuO"CaOTJ. 'H"Cav a1<61lTJ U1tUMTJAo~ "cou "Cov 1tuQEL Xo.llLU o.bE01to"CTJ; E1<"C6~ "Cou"Cou, O'UVEXLOE va LOXU-
XEQO"[ 1-taL 1tEQU;rj"CTJ"CO~, 6"Cav YLa 1<a1<rj "Cou TUXTJ, o"cL~ aQXE~ Q~E"CaL 1too~ 0 1t6AEIl0~ "Cov EvbLECPfQf o.1<OIlTJ. eO. !t1toQouoa-
"Cou 1901, 0 ALY1<, 0 bEmEQo~ yLO~ "Cou - E1t(OTJ~ bTJ!.I.OOLOYQUqJO~ flE Aom6v va 1tEQLIlEVOUflE 1<L aMa <<YQ<l.1t"Cu» E1tt "Cou 8E!.I.a-
- 1tE8aVE an:6 1tVEUllov(a O"CTJ NEa Y6Q1<TJ. TEooEQa XQ6vLa "Co~; rVOOQ~OUIlE 1too~ "Cov 01<"CWj3QLO E1tL01-tEcp8TJ1<E "Co. 1to.ALU
aQY6"CEQa 1tE8aVE 1<aL TJ M6MU M1tTJQ~, a<p<>U E1tL"CEA.ou~ EtXE 1tEbta "CooV ftaxwv "Cou EflcptJAtOU, O'Uf.l1tEQLAo.flj3o.VO!.l.EVTJ~ "CTJ~
U1tOI3UMEL at"CTJOTJ bLa~uytOu. ~"Co IlE"Casu, 0 M1tTJQ~ 1taQrjyaYE TOL1<aIlUOUYXo., 1<aL 1too~ EqJ"CaoE O"CO TEso.~, 0.1t' 61tou "Co.xu-
YLa "Cov XEQO't EL1<OOL"CEOOEQL~ CPOQE~ «1tEQLOO6"CEQO» AAcpaf31J- bQ6ftTJOE !.I.EQLxa YQuflllo."Ca. To av 1<aL xa"Cu 1t600 TJ E1tLO"COArj
'Ui(}l. To AAcpaf31JTQ(}1 ev6~ KVVlXoV [The Cynic's Word Book] 1tOU EAo.l3E TJ YQalllla"CEo.~ XaL oUV"CQocpo~ "Cou KUQu KQ(-
EllcpavCO"CT]1<E "Co 1906 1<L 0 E1<b6"CTJ~ "COU, 0 N"Ca!t1tAV"CatTJ, rj"Cav O"CLavoov -1<aL CPEQf"CaL oo~ TJ "CEAEU"Co.to., ftE TJftEQollTJVta an:o-
1tavEmuX'1~ IlE "COV"Ct"CAo. ilEQLAa!.l.l3avE "Co oUVOAO "Cwv ATJ!.I.lla- O'tOAij~: 26 ~EXEIlI3QtOU 1914 - "CaxubQollij8TJ1<f an:6 "CTJv TOL-
"CooV, an:6 "Co «A» IlEXQL 1<aL "Co «L». OA61<ATJQO "CoAAcpaf31JTa(}l, ouaouo. O"CO MEsLXO, bEY EtVaL j3Ej3aLO. Tu1tL1<u, 1tQ61<EL"CaL
!.I.E "Co oooO"C6 "Ct"CAo "COU, bTJIlOOLEU8TJ1<E "Co 1911, O"Cov 70 "C6!.1.o YLa "Co "CEAEU"Co.tO tXvo~ "COU M1tTJQ~. To o(youQo E(VaL 6"Ct
IlLa~ 1taQu"CoA!.I.TJ~ boobE1<U"COIlTJ~ ExboOTJ~ "CooV «MUV"COOV» "Cou Xo.vEva~ a1t6 "COU~ 1tOMOU~ AIlEQLxavou~ bTJIlOOLOYQUcpou~
[Collected Works / 1909-1912]. ME "CO YUQLolla "C01) aLwva, "Co 1tOU o.xoAou80uoo.v "Co O'tQa"C6 "Cou B(YLa, bEY O'UVUV"CTjOE "Cov
AAcpaf31J'Ui(}1 elXE lleyuATJ a1trjXTJOTJ. OL av"cLbQuoEL~ rj"Cav 1taAatllaxo 1<aL bLUOTJftO O'UVUbEAcp6 "Cou, 1<aL 1too~ TJ EQEuva
aAUOLb<D"CE~, a1t6 "Co IlLOOYUVLOll6 "COOV X6IlL1<~"CTJ~ New Yorker 1tOU bLESrjyo.YE TJ o.IlEQLxaVL1<rj 1<Uj3EQVTJOTJ bEY E(XE 1<aVEVa
XaL n~ «!l1tTJx;tE~» "Cou rXQou"Coo MaQs [Groucho Marx, an:O"CEAEolla. ilQo.Yllo.n1<u O'tOLXE(o. 1tOU yo. O"CTjQ~ouv "CTJv
1890-1977] IlEXQL "CTJv uYQLa oanQa "Cou rXEOQYX r1<QO(; MO'1pTJ 1too~ 1tijYE 0't0 r1<QaV"C Kuvuov, I3Qrj1<E Ilta ijO'UXTJ
[Georg Grosz, 1893-1959], "COU ~"CTJI3 M1tEA [Steve Bell, 1951- YOOVLU XaL am01tUQol3oAtl8TJXE, bEY U1tuQXouv.
] 1<aL "Cou PaAcp ~"CEV"C!.I.aV [Ralph Steadman, 1936-], 1tOU EL1<O-.
vOYQacpel !.I.E "COV XaAU"CEQO "CQ61t0 "COV avaXEtQa~ "C61l0 .
To yeyov6(; 1too~ 0 M1tTJQ~ I3LaO"CTj1<E va O'UY1<EV"CQWOEL "Co.
YQama "COU, EvbEXE"CaL yo. OTJllo.tVEL 1too~ 1ttO'tEUE 6n bEY 80.
EYQacpE 1tL0. 1<U"CL aSL6AoyO. M1toQEl yo. EVOLoo8E 1too~ EYQo.'1pE,
IltA.TJOE XaL IlE8uOE o.Q1<E"CU. M6 "Co cp8LV61tOOQo "Cou 1913,
UQXLOE va xouI3Ev"cLU~Et YLa "CO EvbEX6flEVO va 1tUEL O'tO
MEsLX6 Xo.L va bEL an:6 1<oV"Cu "CL~ E1tavaO'tan1<E~ ESEACSEL~.

24 25
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124 125
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126 127
x,m va 't'U:n:O:n:OLtlOEL 'tLe; AEL'tO'UQYLEe; 'tT]e;. 0 AESLX,0YQU-
epoe; flae;, aepou YQu'ljJEL 'to AESLX,O 'tOU, cp'tUVEL ow <Jl']flELO
va 8EWQEL'tm «au8EV'tLa», uoxna av 60'UAELU 'tOU tl'tav
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m1'] AOYLX,tl x,m U:n:O'tuooE'tm OE flLav LmoQLx,tl acptJy1']<Jl'],
:n:ou 't1']v aV'tLflE'tw:n:i1;,EL oav a:n:oepa<Jl'] <hx,aO'tT]QLou.
AQX,EL flLa x,aAtl "-ES1'] va xaQax,'tT]QLOEL mo AESLX,O
«sE:n:EQaOflEV1']» tl «a:n:aQxmWflEV1']», X,L aflEOWe; EAUXL-
mOL UV8QW:n:OL 6Lax,w6uvEUOUV va 't1']v XQ1']OLflO:n:OLtl-
oouv, 000 X,L av 'toue; ELvm a:n:aQaL'tT]'tT], 000 X,L av 8a
:n:QO'tLflouoav va sava:n:ox,'tt)OEL 'to :n:aALo 'tT]e; x,UQoe;.
Ku:n:we; E'tOL cp'twxaLVEL 1'] YAwooa auVExwe;, x,m x,u:n:we;
E'tOL flaQal;wvEL. A:n:o 'tT]v UM1'], avayvwQi1;,oV'tae; 'to
YEyovoe; :n:we; 1'] YAwooa :n:QE:n:EL va ava:rt'tUOOE'tm - av
'tEALX,U ava:7t'tUOonm - flEOW x,mVO't0flLwV, 0 auYYQaepE-
ae; 61']flLOUQYEL VEEe; "-ESELe; x,m XQ1']OLflO:n:OLEL 'tLe; :n:aALE<;
flE aauVtl8Lmo 'tQo:n:o. <l>uOLX,U, OL uMOL 6EV 'tOY ax,o-
Aov80uv x,m 'tOV Em<Jl']flaLvovv mx,QoxoAa :n:we; «am6
6EV u:n:uQXEL mo AESLX,O», :n:aQoAO :n:ov, a:n:o'tT]v E:n:OXtl
'tov :n:Qwwu AESLX,0YQUepou (0 eEOe; va 'tOY auYXWQE-
OEL!)" x,avELe; 6EV XQ1']OLflo:n:OL1']OE flLa "-ES1'] E:7tEL6tl v:n:tlQ-
XE mo AESLX,O. ~'tT] 6LuQx,ELa 'tT]e; XQuat)e; E:7t0Xtle; 't1']e;
aYYALx,tle; YAwooae;, mav a:n:o 'ta XELA1'] 'tWV flEYUAWV EAL-
oaj3E'tLaVWv Ej3ymvav "-ESELe; :n:ou 61']flLOuQyouoav 'to
6LX,0 'toue; SExwQLmo v01']fla x,m 'to flE'tEepEQav flE 'to 6LX,0
'tove; I;ExwQLmo tlXo, mav f!:7tOQOUOE va YEvv1']8EL Evae;
~aCS:n:1']Q [William Shakespeare, 1564-1616] x,m va

EnovQ(T[oon: H Q1rlh::opn a..u.ayrl TOU rponou KaKo81O{Knan~


128
U:n:6.QSEL EVa£ M:n:ELXOV [Francis Bacon, 1561-1626] XL 'YI VCEQCPOQ£ [Samuel Wilberforce, 1805-1873], «YAOLWO'YI,
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av8Qwmvou :n:aQaAoYLO!lOU. B6.afl TI]£ AOYLXl1~ ELVaL 0
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TEQ6AEJtTa. AQa ...

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f-taO'tE( aQLSf-tTJ'tLx6;. L'Uvb'Ua~EL 'tT] AOYLXl1 f-tE Ta l-taSTJf-ta-
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K6.:n:O'tE 0 N'tLoQaEAL [Benjamin Disraeli, 1804-1881]. blJtAoU; Ena(vo'U;.
XUQUX-rllQLOE TI] OU!!:1tEQLCPOQ6. TOU EmoxO:n:ou rou6.LA-

130 13l
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bctLo811oELC;, Ex"t6C; a:Jt6 "tl]V :JtaQa"tl1Q'T]<JY), "t'T]v E!l:JtELQLXl1
bLanLmW<JY) XctL "to O'UAAOYLaIl6.

AOYOXAO:rtll ova. AOYO"tEXVLXl1 aUll:Jt"tW<JY) :Jt0'U bLabQa-


IlmLt;E"tctL IlE"tal;u Ev6C; aXQELO'U :JtQw"t0:Jt6Qo'U XL Ev6C;
EV"tLIlO'U E:JtLy6vo'U.
"

AoyoJ'axia ova. 0 :Jt6AEIl0C; mov O:JtOLO "ta 6:JtAa ELVctL


AEl;ELC; XctL "ta "tQaUlla"ta, "tQ'U:JtL"tOEC; mo OWOLj3LO "tl]C;
-,
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O:JtOLO'U 0 VLX'T]"t1lC; :JtaQctL"tEL"tctL an6 "tl] VLX'T] "to'll, xaSmC; 0
'T]"t"tlJIlEVOC; bEY EWOEL va O'UVELb'T]"t0:JtOL110EL"tl]V l1't'ta "to'll.

A'Uxuv8Q(J):rto~ ova. 'Evac; AUXOC; :JtO'll *av -11 XctL EVL01:E


ELVctL - av8Qw:Jt0C;. OL A'UxavSQW:JtOL EX0'UV Ellcput'll xaxLa. MayLOv~a ova. Mla a:Jt6 "tLC; OaA"tOEC; :Jt0'U XQ'T]OLIlO:JtOL-

IIa(Qvouv"tl] 1l0Q<pij /;mo'U Yla va Lxavo:JtOL1100'Uv EIl<pma OUV OL raMOL aV"tL YLa E:JtL<JY)Il'T] SQ'T]OXELa.
x"tl]vmb'T] EvmLx"ta . 'OIlWC; OQLOIlEVOL, :Jt0'U 'Un1lQl;av
8Vllam llaYELac;, O'Uvbua/;O'llv "tl]v aVSQm:JtlV'T] 1l0Q<P11 IlE MuyuJOa ova. [1] Ka8E aOX'T]Il'T] XctL OLXaIlEV'T] YQLa, :JtO'll
"tl]v E:JtLX"tl]"tl] :JtQ01:LIl'T]<JY) YLa "to aV8Qm:JtLVO xQEac;. EXEL aV(EQEC; E:Jta<pEC; IlE "to bLaj3oAo. [2] MLa 61l0Q<p'T] XctL
«/;O'UIlEQl1» yuvaLxa :Jt0'U EXEL aVLEQEC; E:Jta<pEC; IlE"tal;u
AUQa ova. AQxaLO 6Qyavo j3aoavLOIlOU. aM.WV XctL IlE "to bLUj30Ao.

Au'tQa ova. To :Jtoo6 IlE "to O:JtOLO aYOQa/;E"tctL Xa"tL :Jt0'U


bEY aVl1XEL mov :JtWA'T]"t1l XctL bEY Il:JtOQE( v' aVl1XEL mov
ayoQaa"t1l. H :JtLO aaUll<PoQ'T] E:JtEVb'U<JY). MayvTJ'tL(JJ'6~ ova. Ka"tL :Jt0'U E:Jt'T]QEU/;EL "to llayv*'T].
OL Mo 1l6AlC; :JtQoava<pEQ8EV"tEC; OQLaIlOL O'UIl:Jt'UXVm-
VO'UV "tlC; EQyaO(EC; XlALWV E:JtL<paVmV E:JtL0"tlJ1l6vwv, OL
O:JtOLOL <pffi"tloav "to /;11"t'T] Ila IlE !l:Jt6AlXO b'Uva"t6 <PWC;,

132 133
S"H tH

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m8EQa, 't01J O:ltoC01J 'll u:ltaQI;'ll a:ltObELXvUE'tm a:lto 't'I1 aV'tLxa8LO'ta xa:ltOLa 8Q'llOXE1J'tLXtl Aa'tQeCa, 'll XQ'llOLflO-
O1Jfl:ItUXVW011 'twv ~aQmEQWV 1JALXWV O'tOLXECWV 't01J. H 't'll'ta 't'll~ o:ltoCa~ bEY EXEL xa80QLO'tEL.
mo :ltQompa't'l1 E:ltLO't'I1flOVLXtl 'ta011 ECvm 'to LOV. H bLa-
cpoQa 't01J LOV'tO~ a:lto 'to flOQLO, 'to OWfla'tLO xm 'to M:n:EAav'tova oua. ~'ta L'taALxa O11flaCvEL wQaCa Y1JvaCxa.
a'toflo, EYXEL'tm 0't0 yeyovo~ :ltW~ eCvm LOV. MLa :ltE!AJtTr] ~'ta aYYALxa, 'tQOflEQO b'llA'll'ttlQLO. 'E'tOL, a:ltObELXvUE'tm
8EWQCa bLa't1J:ltw8'llXE ano 't01J~ 'llAL8C01J~. ECvm aflcpC~o­ 'll XOLVtl xa'taywYtl 'tWV buo yAWOOWV.
AO, oflW~, av a1J'toC !AJtoQouv va yvwQ(t01JV YLa 't'llV UA'll
xa'tL :ltEQLOOO'tEQO ano 't01J~ aM01J~. M:n:QclV'tU oua. {< ayyA. Brandy}. HbiJ:ltO'to q:rtLaYflEVO flE Eva
flEQO~ !AJtafl-!AJt01Jfl, Eva flEQO~ flE'tavLwfla'to~, buo flEQ'll
MOQcproOTJ oua. To ECbo~ ayvOLa~ :lt01J xaQax't'llQ(tEL aYQL01J I;ExOLALaofla'to~, Eva flEQO~ :It'twfla'tO:ltoC'l1011~ xm
't01J~ O:ltOUOUOflEV01J~. n:ooEQa flEQ'll xa8aQou ~a'tava. EV()e()eLYflEV'll ()OO11:
Eva xQavCo I;EXELAO, xa8E O'tLYfltl Tr]~ flEQa~. To M:ltQa-
Mou avl'lUv. 0 avaQfloO'to~ W:ltO~ 't01J Eyw. H :ltQOOW:ltL- V't1J, lOmE 0 ~Q. TI;6voov [Samuel Johnson 1709-1784]
xtl avtWVUflCa EXEL 'tQEL~ 'tU:lt01J~, 'tOY El;o1JOLaO'tLxo, 'tOY ECvm :ltO'to YLa tlQWE~. Movo Eva~ tlQwa~ EXEL'tO x01JQa-
avaQfloO'to xm 'tOY xa'ta:ltLEO'tLxO. Ka8E W:ltO~ ECvm OL YLO va 'to :ltLEL.
aAAOL Mo.
Muya Tonoe oua. AcpQLxavLxo Evtoflo - Glossina
Moul-lta oua. AQxaCo~ ALYU:lt'tLO~, 'tOY O:ltoCO oAa 'ta crUY- morsitans - 'tou O:ltoCOU 'to 'tOLfl:It'I1fla 8EwQEC'tm 'to a:lto-
XQova :ltOAL'tLOflEva E8v'll XQ'llOLfl0:ltOLouoav :ltaALo'tEQU 'tEAEOfla'tLxO'tEQo cpaQflaxo YLa Tr]v ai.i:n:vLa, av xm flEQL-
oav cpaQflaxo. ~tlflEQa oflW~ 1J:It'llQE'tEC Tr]v 'tEXV'll, XOL ao8EvEL~ :ltQO'tLflOUV 'tOY AflEQLxavo fl1J8LO'toQLoYQa-
:ltaQExovta~ flLav El;mQE'tLXtl XQwO'tLXtl 01JOLa. IlaQaA- cpo - Mendax interminabilis ['PE1JboflEVO~ 0 ALWVLO~].
A'llAa, XQ'llOLflEUEL xm O'ta flO1JOECa, YLa va bLaoxEbatEL
't'll xubaCa :ltEQLEQYELa :ltOU EmflEVEL va ()LaxQLVEL 'tOY MuOw'toQTJI-la[45] oua.'Eva :ltaQaYEflLOflEVO bLtlY'llfla.
av8Qw:lt0 a:lto 'ta xa'tw'tEQa twa. ECbo~ crUV8E011~ :lt01J ECvm YLa 't'll Aoyo'tExvCa O,'tL 'to
:ltavoQafla[46] YLa 't'll tWYQacpLxtl· Aoyw 'tou fleyaA01J

144 145
f.ltlXOUS; 'tou, bEY f.lnOQEL va blaj3aO'tEL f.lOVOf.llaS;, XaL OL qJOS; f.lUS; ELVaL bUO'tUXL0f.lEVO nAa0f.lU, Evas; arrAOS; bTJf.lO~
naQaO'taOeLS; nou bTjf.lLOUQYOVV 'ta blaboXlXa f.lEQTj 'tou OLOYQa<poS;, onws; Su EAEYE XL 0 KUQAaLA [Thomas
E;a<pav~oV'taL EnLOT]S; blaboXlXa, onws; aXQlj3ws; 0't0 Carlyle, 1795~1881]. MnoQEL va EnLVOtlOEl 'tOUS; tlQWES;
navoQaf.la. Ebw bEY unaQXeL EvO'tTj'ta, OV'tE EVlaLa XaL'tTjv nAoxtl 'tOU, UAAa bEY nQEnEl va qJUV'tUO'tEL Xa'tl
EV'tVnwOT], Yla'tL EX'tOS; ano 'tlS; 'tEAEU'taLES; OEALbES;, 0't0 ubvvu'to vu O'Uf.lj3EL, XUL'tOL TJ aqJtlYTJatl 'tOU ELVaL unu~
f.luaAO 'tou avayvwO'tTj bEY f.lEVeL naQa f.lLa nOAv YEVLXtl ;arraoa Eva xaSaQo '4JE/-tU. ErrELbtl Emj3aAEL umo 'to
lbEa YLa 'tTjv nAOXtl. rLa'tTj f.lUSlO'toQLa[47],'t0 f.lUSLO'tOQTJ~ OXATJQO XUSEO'tWS; O'tov Eamo'tou XaL «naV'ta OEQVEl OE
f.la ELVaL O,'tL TJ qJw't0YQaqJLu YLU 'tTj ~wYQaqJlXtl. H blU~ XaSE j3tlf.lu 'tou 'tTjv U'tEAElW'tTJ uAuoLba»[48) nou oqJUQTJ~
qJOQonOLOS; uQXtl 'tou, Tj UATJSOqJaVeLa, aV'tlO'tOLXEL 0'tTJ Aa'tTjOE 0 LbLOS;, xmaqJEQvEL vu YQu'4JEl Mxu OAOXATJ-
AEJ't'tOf.lEQeLUXtl naQuO'tu'tLXO'tTj'tU 'tTJS; qJw't0YQaqJLus; QOUS; 'tOf.lOUS;, XWQLS; QL1;El OV'tE 'tTj qJA6yu EVOS; XEQlOV
XaL 'to 'tonoSE'tEL oUqJWS; O'tTjv xa'tTJyoQLU 'tTJS; bTJf.lOOLO~ 'tQE f.looj3TJO'tov O'tTJv aj3uooo 'tTjS; aYVOLaS; 'tOU Yla 'to
YQuqJLXtlS; uV'tanoxQlOT]S;, EVW, UV'tL8E'tU, '11 EAEUSEQLU SEf.lU'tOU EQYOU 'tou. YnaQXouv XOQUqJULU f.lUSLO'tOQtl~
XLVtl0EWV 'tOU auYYQaqJEu f.lUSlO'tOQLWV 'tov Enl'tQEnEl f.lU'tU, nou OL O'UYYQaqJELS; 'tOUS; «OnU'taATJOUV f.llU OAO~
va XQl1OLf.l0nOLtl0El OOT] qJaV'taoLu SEAEl 0 LbLOS;. Ol XATJQTJ ~Wtl» YLa vu 'ta bTJf.lLOUQYtl0ouv, wO'tooo nUQu~
'tQElS; j3UOLXES; UQXES; 'tl1S; AOYO'tEXVLUS; ELVaL: qJUV'tUOLU, f.lEVEl UAtlSELU nws; 'to YOTJ'tEU'tlXO'tEQO nE~OYQaqJTJf.la
qJUV'tUOLU XaL qJuv'taoLu. H 'tEXVTJ 'tou f.lUSLO'toQtlf.lU'tOS; nou blUSE'tOUf.lE ELVaL 'to «XLALES; XUL /-tLU NVX'tES;».
- 'tOUAaXlO'tOV f.lE 'tTJ f.lOQ<pti nou ELXE XanO'tE - ELVaL
nQo nOAAov VEXQtl OE OAO 'tOY XOOf.lO EX'tOS; ano 'tTJ MuOoloyiu ouo. 'E'tOL OVOf.la~E'taL 'to aVVOAO 'twv nQw~
PWOLU, nou ELVaL Xa'tl XaLVOVQYLO. eEOS; OXWQEO' 'tU 'toyovwv UV'tlAtl'4JEWV 'tou uvSQwnou Yla 'tTJv xa'tayw-
nOSaf.lEVU 'tTJS; - f.lEQLXa EX 'tWV onOLWV naQOUOLa~OUV Ytl, 'tTJv nQwlf.lTJ lO'tOQLU, 'tOUS; tlQWES;, 'tOUS; SEOVS; XaL 'ta
'tQEMS; nwAtlOELS;. auvuqJtl, OE UV'tL8EOT] f.lE 'tlS; aAtlSElES; nou oxaQqJLO'tTJ~
XE UQyO'tEQU.
MUOlU'toQiu ouo. IIE~oYQaqJTJf.la, 'to onoLo bEY OqJELAEl
nLO'tTj 0't0 SEO 'tWV IIQayf.lu'twv Os; , Exouv . ~'to f.lUSl~ Mu'tTJ ouo. To f.lESOQlUXO qJUAaXLO'tOU nQoownou. Arr'
O'toQl1f.la, TJ qJuV'taoLa 'tou auYYQuqJEa ELVaL bEf.lEVTJ uqJoQf.ltl nov OAOL OL f.lEYaAOL xmax'tTj'tES; ELxav 'tEQa~
O'tl1v aATJSOqJaVEla, ouv baf.laOf.lEVO aAOYO 0't0 nuxvl, O'tLES; f.lV'tES;, 0 rE'tLOS; - auYYQaqJEas; 'tTjS; nQo~XLOuf.l0Ql~
uUa 0'tTJ f.lUSlO'toQLa XaA:rra~El xma j3oVAl1OT] O't' anE~ O'tlXtlS; EnoXtlS; - OVOf.lUOE 'tTj f.lv'tTj OQYuvo xmuO'toAtls;.
QuV'ta Alj3abLa 'tTJS; qJuV'tuoeuS;: EAEVSEQTJ, uaV<'iO'tTj, 'EXEl nUQa'tTjQTJSEC nws; TJ f.lEYUAV'tEQTJ EUXUQLO'tl1OT]
f.lUXQla ano yxEf.lla XaL xaAlvuQlU. 0 f.lUSlO'tOQlOYQa- f.lLUS; f.lV'tTjs; ELVaL VU XWVE'taL O'tlS; UnOSEOElS; 'twv aAAWV,

146 147
YEyov6~ :ltOU ODijYTJOE OQLOIlEVOU~ cpumoA6you~ mo
(JU!l:ItEQUOIlU :ltW~ DEV DLU8E'tEL 6mpQTJOTJ.

MroQo ouo. A'tUXE~ :ltAUOIlU u'Xu86QL<J'tTj~ TJAL'X(U~, cpUAOU


'Xat 'tUI;TJ~. Tu IlWQU E(Vat UI;W:ltQ60E'X'tU 'XuQ(w~ YLU
'tTJV EV'tUOTJ 'tWV (JUIl:ltU8ELOOV 'Xat 'tWV uV'tL:ltu8ELOOV :ltOU
:ltQO'XUAOUV mou~ :ltUV'tE~, XWQ(~ 'tU (DLU vu E'XDTJAOOVOUV
'to :ltUQUIlL'XQ6 (JUvu(08TJllu. Y:ltuQXouv DLUOTJIlU IlWQU,
6:1tw~, YLU :ltuQUDELYIlU, 0 IlL'XQ6~ Mwuaij~, 'tou O:ltO(OU
OL :ltEQL:ltE'tELE~ IlE 'tU (30UQAU EVE:ltVEUOUV 'to DLXW~
UAAO, :ltQLV u:lt6 EmU aLOOVE~, mou~ ALyum(ou~ LEQEL~
'tOY Uv6TJ'to llu80 'tOU 'OmQTJ, :ltOU 6'tuv ij'tUV IlL'XQ6~,
MEL, OOO8TJ'XE :ltMoV'tu~ :ltUVW 0' EVU cpUMO AOYtOU.

NauaQX0C; ouo. To 'tllijllu 'tou :ltOAEIlL'XOU :ltAO(OU :ltOU


IlLAU, 6'tuv O'XEqrtE'tat 'to u'XQ6:1tQwQo.

Nia Ka'talli"tQ1]o1] ouo. ~'tTJv UIlEQL'XUVL'Xij :ltOAL'tL'Xij,


VEU 'XU'tUIlE'tQTJOTJ EXOUIlE muv :ltULQVEL 'tu ~UQLU 'XaL
mijvEL 'XaLVOUQYLU :ltUQ'tLDU, 'to 'XOQotDo 'tTJ~ :ltQOO'tTJ~ -
E:It(OTJ~ mTJIlEvTJ~ - :ltUQ'tLDU~.

N £xQo'taqJt:Lo ouo. A:rt0llovWIlEVTJ :ltEQLOXij 'twv :ltQou-


mCwv, 6:1tou OL 'tE8ALIlIlEVOL (JUYYEVEC~ DCVOUV UYOOVE~
U:ltO'XQLO(U~, OL :ltOLTJ'tE~ (3QLaxOUV 'XU'tL vu YQUljJOUV 'XL

OL IlUQIlUQUDE~ llu8uLVOUV 0Q80YQUCPLU.

148 149
Nix'tuQ ova. IIOl:O :n:ou EmVaV O'ta O'U~OOL(i 'tOU£ OL oLaj3Qw flEVO£ a:n:o TI'J OLaO'tQO'Pl'j TI'J£ avd;aQ'tTJo(a£.
8EO( 'tOU OAUfl:n:OU. To flUO'tLXO TI'J£ :n:aQao'XE'lJll£ 'tou IIEQL'PQoVTJ'tL'Xl'j E'X'PQaOTJ.
EXEl xa8E(, aAAU OL crUYXQOVOL 'XU'tOLXOL 'tou KEV'tU'XU
mO'tEUOUV :n:w£ j3Q(o'XoV'tm :n:OAU 'XOV'tU OTr)V ava'XUAU- Nw'tWv£wC; crr{(J.O OXE'tL'XO£ flE Tl'Jv 'XOOflOAoYL'Xl'j 8EWQ(a
'l.jJTJ 'tou 'XUQLOU O'UO'ta'tL'XOU 'tou. 'tou NEU'twva, :n:ou ava'XMU'\.jJE :n:w£ EVa fll'jAO 8a :n:EOEL 0't'I1
yTj, aA.A.6. bEV fla£ lOmE 'to YLa'tL. OL O'UVEXLO'tE£ 'tOU EQYOU
N£OOUAA£X'tOC; ova. A'tOflO :n:ou ~EXWQitEl a:n:' 'tov :n:OA(- 'tou 'Xa'tu'PEQav va O'UY'XEV'tQWOOUV 't000 OTJflaV'tLxO EQEU-
TI'J Myw 'tTJ£ O'tOAl'j£ 'tOU, 'XL a:n:' 'to O'tQa'tLWtTJ AOYW 'tOU VTj'tL'XO UAL'XO, WO'tE va E(vm 010 8EOTj va fla£ :n:ouv 'to :n:mE.
j3TJ fla'tLOflOU 'tou.
N1):J'uUXll HALXtU ova. H :n:EQ(obo£ TI'J£ ~Wrl£ fla£, O'tTJ
N£o't1)'tu ova. H :n:EQ(OOO£ 'tou E'PL'X'tou. 'O'tav 0 AQXL- bLUQ'XELa 'tTJ£ o:n:o(a£, crUfl'Pwva flE 'tov rOUEQV't~YOU­
flrlbTJ£ [287-212 n.x.] EmVOE( flOXAOU£, TJ KaoouvbQa EQS [William Wordsworth,1770-1850)], «Ma£ 'X0Qo"(-
ElOa'XouYE'tm, 'XL EmU :n:OAEL£ bLE'XbL'XOUV Tl'Jv na'tQo'tTJ- OEUOUV OL OUQavo( nw£ u:n:uQXouv flOVO YLa fla£»[51]. 0
'ta'tou OflrlQOU. 'XOOflO£ aQxitEL va fla£ 'XOQO·(OEUEL aflEow£ flE'tU.
H VEO'tTJ'ta E(vm 'to :n:QaYfla'tL'XO j3aO(AELO 'tOU
~a'tOUQVOU,[49] TJ Enuvooo£ TI'J£ XQUarl£ E:n:oXrl£ O'tTJ YTJ. NLQllavu ova. 'E'tOL OVOflU~E'tm 0't0 BOUOLOflO 'to O'tU-
TO'tE 'ta ya·(OouQuy'Xa8a 'XaQnitouv crU'Xa 'Xm 'ta you- OLO TI'J£ a:n:OAaUO'tL'Xrl£ E'XflTJMvLOTJ£ 0't0 0:n:0(0 <p'tUVOUV
QOUVLa E(VaL nEV'ta'Xu8aQa, flE flE'ta~EVLE£ 'tQ(XE£ 'Xm OL OO'PO(, Lb(w£ E'XE(VOL nou ElVm aQ'XE'tU OO'POl WO'tE
'tQWVE flOVO 'tQL<pUAAL, 'XL OL aYEAUOE£ nE'toUV 'Xm flOL- va 'to 'Xa'taAuj3ouv.
QU~OUV YUAa O'ta on(na, 'Xm 'XaVE(£ OEV EXEL a'XouOEL
'tTJ ~L'XmocrUVTJ va QoxaAitEL, 'XL OAOL OL OOAO'POVOL
E(vm 'PaV'tuofla'ta nou OUQALU~OUV 'Xm 'tQEXOUV va
'XQu<p'touv 0Tr) BaA'tLfloO'tTJ. [50] N01)01) ova. EY'XE'PaAL'Xrl E'X'XQLOTJ, TJ o:n:o(a Em'tQE:n:EL
O'tOV 'XU'tOXO 'tOU EY'XE'PUAOU va avayvwQlOEL Eva O:n:('tL
N£:rto'U0J10C; ova. Na OLOQitEL£ TI'J YLaYLU OOU 0't0 ~TJflO­ a:n:o'to UAOYO :n:ou j3Q(oxE'tm 0Tr) O'tEYTJ 'tou. H <pUOTJ 'Xm
OLO YLa 'to 'XaA.6 'tOU 'XOflfla'tO£. OL VOflOL TI'J£ vOTJOTJ£ EI;E'tuO'tTJ'Xav bLEI;OOL'XU a:n:o 'tOV
Ao'X [John Locke, 1632-1704], :n:ou rl'tav 'XaM£ L:rt:n:Ea£,
Nio'toQuC; ova. 'E'tOL a:n:o'XaAE('taL OTr)V :n:OAL'tL'Xrl amo£ 'XaL a:n:o'tov KaV't [Immanuel Kant, 1724-1804], :n:ou
:n:ou U:n:0'PEQEL a:n:o au'tOE'X't(flTJOTJ 'Xm E(vm EV'tEAW£ ~OUOE 010 UAOYO.

150 151
N6....l ....0~ arlO. l:ull~moe; I-f£ TIlV Em8uIlCa 'tOU ()Lxa<J'ti), Nro-ra (-ra) ouo. dnO. l:'tov allEQLxavLxo <YtQa'to, E'tOL
<YtOU O:7tOCOU TIl ()LXmO()OaCa EIl:7tL:7t'tEL. OVOIlU~E'tm 'to aXUAU:7t'tO 'tllijlla 'tou <YtQa'tou :7tOU !3QC-
aXE'tm :7tLO xoV'tu <Yt0 KoyxQEao.
NOOU ....£yOy[52] ouo. Au'to :7tOU U:7tuQXEL, aE aV'tC8E<.rr] IlE
amo :7tOU a:7tAU <paCvE'tm va U:7tUQXEL xm OVollu(;E'tm
<pmvoIlEVO. To VOOUIlEVO ELvm ALYOUAUXL ()UaXOAO va
'to :7tQoa()LoQCaouIlE. I1QE:7tEL o:7tWa()ij:7tO'tE va XQTJOLllo-
:7tOLijaoullE IlLa auAAOYL<YtLXij ()La()LXaaCa, TJ o:7toCa ECvm
ij()TJ <pmvoIlEVO. 'O:7tWe; xm va 'XEL, TJ avaxUAU'ljJTJ xm
:7taQouaCa<.rr] 'tWV VOOUIlEVWV avoCYEL a:7tEQaV'tOUe; oQC-
~OV'tEe; a' au'to :7tOU 0 ALOULe;]53] xaQax'tTJQ~EL «a'tEAELW-
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Zij'tw (auvE:7tWe;) 'to NOOUIlEVOV!

No,,~ ouo. MU<YtTJQLW()Ee; UALXO aWlla xQullllEVO IlEaa


<Ytov eyxE<paAo Ilae;. H xUQLa ()Qaa'tTJQLo'tTJ'tU 'tou
auvC<Yta'tm O'tTJv :7tQoa:7tu8ELa ()LaAEuxav<.rr]e; 'tTJe; C()Lae;
'tTJe; <pu<.rr]e; 'tou. H lla'tmo'tTJ'ta 'tTJe; :7tQoa:7tU8ELae; O<pEC-
AE'tm <Yt0 YEyovoe; :7tWe; 'to IlOVO <YtOLXECO :7tOU ()La8E'tEL
YLa va :7tQoxwQijaEL <YtTJ yvw<.rr] 'tou Eau'tou 'tou ECvm 0
Eau'tOe; 'tou.

N't£~£y£ ouo. [ <yall. Dejeuner] To :7tQoYEUlla 'tou AIlEQL-


xavou :7tOU !3QCaxE'tm <Yt0 I1aQCm. I1Qo<pEQE'tm O:7tWe;
va 'vaL.

NU<J>TJ ouo. MLa yuvaCxa IlE U:7tEQOXEe; :7tQOO:7t'tLXEe; EU'tU-


xCae; :7tCaw TIle;.

152 153
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'tt'J<; ()OXLIlUO(U<; 'tOU .

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•.. TO XELIlWVU xm E:rtt/3LWVEL /3u~u(voV'tu<; llt'JxuvLxa TU
()aX'tUAu 'twv :n:O()LWV 'tt'J<;. AUTO ESt'JYE( YLU't( o'tuv
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N"OTnTO: Ta yaiooIJpa)"w8a Kaprrit;ollV oVxa Kal 1:a YOIJpow.a


eWQI llevr:axdBapa XI 01 aycldoe~ 1TClOW. 155
EoJUtA.ulo'tQU ouo. H Y1']QaLa XUQLa rtOU "t"UxaLVEL v' av'tL-
rta8ELe;. AEYE"taL XaL xam tl xa"tooUt.a.. IIaALa, "tLe; !-lay LO-
alOe;, "tLe; Y1']"tEmQEe;, XArt., "tLe; EAEyav ;O!-l:ltALaO"tQEe; ErtELOrl
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"tQLXEe; "tou XE<paALou. Axo!-l1'] rtaALo"tEQa, 1'] M;1']
«;o!-l:ltALaO"tQa» ()EV ELXE xaxtl OT)!-laOLa. 0 N"tQaL"tOV
[Michael Drayton, 1563-1631] !-lLAaEL YLa !-lLa «O!-loQ<pT)
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XE~ CPOQE~, "to. XEA.UcplJ bLVOV"ta.L O'tOU~ cp"tooxo13~. vou va :7tOO aAtl8ELa YLa XU:7tOLOV UMO.

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ov :7tOU xa'tlJyoQEL'ta.L YLa EVOXAlJ'tLXtl OU!lJtEQLCPOQU.
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bE13E'ta.L !lE u<p80vlJ EXXQLOlJ uYQo13 XAOOQLX013 vmQLov QLU 'tlJ~ E:7tL8v!lLa~.
a:7to 'to. !lu'tLa.
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OUAAU:7tlJ"ttlQLa.
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XOUOE O'tov a£Qa, 6'tav 0 aEQa~ *av cp'Umxo O'tOLXELO Xa.L
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XOLALU'tOU, WO'tE bEV XQELU~E'ta.L va YUQLOEL YLa va "tov 'to cpOO'taEQLo Xa.L'ta OXE'tLXU :7tQo·(oV"ta 'too :7tOAL'tLO!loU. Ot
XAO"tatlOEL~. OQLO!lEVE~ CPOQE~ ELVa.L aQXLouV"tuX'tlJ~. ~uA.cpLbE~ tl'tav aU!l!laX0"t "toov rVO!lOOV, 'toov NU!lcpwv Xa.L
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200 201
VEQoU 'XaL 'tTJe; cpW'tLUe;, nov ELVaL rjbTj !-LOA:UO!-LEva. OL ~'UA­
cpLbEe;, om:.oe; oAa 'ta novAL<i, rj'tav 8TjA'U'XEe; 'XaL aQOEVL'XEe;,
XWQLe; nQocpavrj wyo, YLmL av ELxav 'tTJV L'Xav6nj'ta va I;'Uf.lf.lUXLU ouo. ~'tTj bLE8vrj nOAL'tL'Xrj, E'taL OVO!-LU~E'taL Tj
avanaQuyoV'taL, 'Xuno'U 8a Ecp'tLaxvav cpWALEe;, aA.A.<i EVW<JTj b'Uo 'XAEcp'tWV no'll EX0'UV 'ta XEQLa 'to'Ue; 'tooo
'XavELe; nOTE bEY ELbE ~'UA.cpLbu'XLa. j3a8Lu XW!-LEVa 0 Evae; one; 'tOEnEe; 'to'll uAAo'U, wmE bEY
f-L3toQouv va 'XA.£tjJo'Uv 'tQL"tO.
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'Xa'tEXEL 'XaL bEY mEQrj8T]'XE naQu !-LOVO O,'tL ()L'XaLW!-La-
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0'0 YLa 'XU'tL no'll EXW l]bT] anocpaoLOEL. bL'XTjYOQOe; no'll 'UnEQaon~E'taL Evav EY'XAT]!-La'tLa, yvw-
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'tT]v tjJl]vw !-LEXQL va QobO'XO'X'XLVLOEL aVT]<J'UXT]'tL'XU. no'tE YL' a'U'tl]v.

202 203
(;l]Tl]8EL'rl VU TO'll E3tLTQUnEL. H ALUX'rlQ'USl] Tl]~ AVESUQ-
Tl]OLU~ 8u nQEnEL vu &LUj3UO'tEL x6.:n:oo~ {Tm:
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6.Mu xmVOUQYLU. a<pTJVLaOf.,l,EVO XOJtUbL ayvwmwv».

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204 205
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206 207
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[1] ToAAcpaf3rrcuQI TOV LJtaf36Aov UgxLOE va &U.lOOLEUE'tat-


roto 'to ygu[.l[.la «P» - 'to 1881, OtTJv E[360[.la6LaLa Eq:YlWEgL6u
<<Icprjxa TOV l:'av WQavaiaxo» [San Francisco Wasp] Xat OUVEX(-
OtTJXE [.lE u'tux'tov<; guS[.loU<; Xat [.leyw..E<; 6LuxonE<; [.lEXgL'tO 1906,
onmE Xat ExMSI']XE YLU ngtlmj cpogu OE [3L[3ALO [.lE 'tOY 'tt'tAo To
AE~IX6 Ev6C; KVVIXOV [The Cynic's Word Book, Doubleday, New
York, 1906]. To [3L[3ALO EXELVO, 'too onoLoo 'tOV'tL'tAO «0 ovyygu-
CPEU<; 6EV ELXE 'tI'] oova[.ll'] va rotOggL'ljJEL, oUTE 'tI']v EmuXLU vu
EYXQLVEL» onw<; EAEYE 0 l6LO<; 0 MJtI']Q<;, rj'tuv [.lLa EJtLAOYt'j roto'tu
JtLO «uvw6uva» At'j[.l[.la'ta. 0 Ex66't!']<; rotECPUYE va avaygu'ljJEL 'tI']
AESI'] «6LU[3oAo<;» O'tO ESWcpuMO. TIgO'tl[.lI']OE v' axoAou8t'jOEL 'tOY
'tl'tAo, nou ElXE EJtL[30AEL O'tO ovyygUcpEU - roto Sgl']O'XEmLxt1
[.lE'tgLonOSELa -I'] EcpI'][.lEgl6u OtTJv onola 61'] [.loOLEU'tI']xav 'tu 'tEAEU-
'tala At'j[.l[.la'tU. TIagoAa amo, 0 MJtI']g<; ELXE 6wOEL xa'to Xatgou<;
6LUcpOgE<; OVO[.lUOlE<; O'tO AAcpaf31JTuQI, onw<;: «KW[.lLXO AESLXO»
[Comic Dictionary], «To ffit'jgE<; AESLXO 'too HALSlOU» [Idiot's
Unabridged Dictionary], «BEA'tLW[.lEVI'] 'Ex600l'] 'tou AESLXoU
rOUE[.lJtO'tEg» [Webster's Improved Dictionary]. A[.lEOW<; [.lE'tO'tl']V
Ex600l'] 'tou AE~IXOV Ev6C; KVVIXOV, ogXLoav OL anO[.lL[.lt'jOEL<;. H
A[.lEQLXt'j yE[.lLOE [.lE [3L[3ALa «XUVLXWv» ovyygacpEwv. «Ta nEgLo-
omEga ano amu rj'tav [3Aaxw6!']» OI'][.lELWvEL 0 MJtI']g<;, «av Xat
OgW[.lEVU xa'tucpEgav va SEXWgLOOUV [.lE'tI'] YEAOL6't!']'tU 'tou<;».
Ta At'j[.l[.la'ta 'tI']<; avo XELga<; Ex600l']<;, EnEAEYI']OaV ano 'tOY 70
'to[.l0 'tI']<; OVYXEV'tgW'tLXt'j<; Ex600l']<; Ta 'EQYa TOV Ap:n:Qoovl;
M:n:1JQC; [The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce /12 Vol., Neale,
New York, 1909-12].
[2] TIgOXEL'tUL YLU 'tI'] [3aOLxt'j [.logcpt'j 'tI']<;Ayiac; rQacprjc; OtTJv
aYYALxt'j yAwooa.
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tXrl P~Z;-~8I1UA;'IA.10~ sD)OU"{%%3: s~%1AmW10X sUl. DO;'ll.DIl -DltOI D)XDrlrll1D UW D03rlVAD [PILl-lOLl] sD)ADltOI Stu s~XoQ
ADl. 9ltD 3%u9~A.Oa01rluQ 9].(1D DrlA.9Q o~ °A<]>Xa!\t A(I)l. s(I)l.;'Io -mv aorl;'l"{oIl aol. s3XVrl s303l.9%1l.ADrllto s1l. 9ltD mw [s]
-m~3AD A(I),,{9 sD)Oi.tl.(l)O stu DrlA.9Q Ol. ml.3X;'IQOltD aolt s9Amw °A(I)30<]>Q'3,,{% A(I)l. voa3"{lt ~%103l.(l)03 AUw 'Dl.DA9A.
-10X 0 )3WDrlOAO DA 30~00url D9 s~1'{D003g1i\(t01.1 [11] Dl. 9ltD s<]>g10%D (l)O)lt ml.Ao%o)og s3l.AOA;'Il. )OXDaM.110 [I>]
°sI1DJl.ON sl1Dl. ADO(l)A)3ltDl. m% 01"{~rl3 AOW ADOU%)A °VO%Drl U03~3Q It mx D)3XDOg mA)3 ul.g>Olt U A(I))OltO A(I)l.
1013098: 10 119 I1DA;'IrlOQ3Q 'stu,,{V1rD3 31.OltV% 3A1A.;'I 'V%1l.url11.Olta X3 'A<]>gD'{'{11D mOvA.a3~ 3l.A;'Ilt ~QD,,{UQ 's3Q9lt s~0%1grlm 3l.A;'Ilt
ADO~010ltOrl10I.tOX Atu I1Dlt U~;'I,,{ U ~D 'I1D19N 11Dl. s~AD%103rlV 9ltD ml.J3"{31.OltD 'slto0QVODlt s~%1l.U10lt s~%1"{A.A.D Stu sOA;'Irl
[18] Robert Green Ingersoll [1833 - 1899]: AIlEQLxuv6~ [24] ~'tll OLUQXELU 'to'U MEoaLwvu, OL O'tQa'tLW'tE~ ELxav
:7tOAL'tLX6~ xm QtlToQu~, yvwO't6~ YLU 'tllv E:7tL8E'tLXO'tll'tU 'to'U :7tUVW 'to'U~ Eva O'tLAE'tO, 'to 0:7t0(0 XQllOLIl0:7tOLOvOav YLa va OLEV-
xu'tu 'to'U u8E"L01l0v. XOAVVO'UV 'to j3Ej3aLO 8uvu't0 'twv OLOEQoqJQax'twv L:7t:7tO'twv :7t0'U
[19] ~'tllv AYYALU XaL O'tL~ H.II.A. ~oQow vu OLEVEQYll8oVV E:7tEqJ'tav a:n:o 'ta UAOYU 'to'U~. To :7taQa'toovxAL 'to'U O'tLAE'too
O'lio ELOWv OrtlW1l'llqJ(OIlU'tU: umo'too O:7tO(OO 'to a:n:O'tEAEO~ E(VaL amov Tl'tav Misericorde, OllAaOTl «EAErjIlWV».
'U:7t0XQEWIlEVTt VU EX'tEAEOEL II X'Uj3EQVTtOTt [j3AE:7tE At]IlIlU LlllIlOljlt]- [25] <PaAayxLO'tTl~: OEvOQ6j3w llaQOL:7tOqJOQO 'tll~ A'UO'tQa-
qJLolla] XaL amo 'too O:7tO(OV 'to a:n:O'tEAEO~ EXEL Ilovo O1JIlj3ovAE'U- A(a~, 'tll~ NEa~ rOVLvEa~ xm 'tllv Ta~llav(u~. M:7toQeL va :7tE'tU,
'tLXO xaQux'tljQu YLU 'tllv a:n:6qJaOTt :7too 8a :7tuQEL 'tEALXU 'to XOLVO- 'U:7t6 'tllv EvvOLa :7tW~ YALO'tQU O'tov aEQa XaL :7tQOayELWVE'taL
j3oVALO [LlLEQE'UVTt'tLXO Llll~qJLolla]. To OEV'tEQO eLOO~ OllIlOl\lll- llaAUXU 0't0 EoaqJo~, 6'tav :7tEqJ'tEL a:n:o 'ta 'iJllAU OEV'tQU.
qJCallmo~ avvlj8w~ aqJoQu OE VOlloOXEOLa, :7too OrtIlLOVQYoVV EV'tO- [26] EMllvLXU 0't0 :7tQID'tOw:7to.
VE~ aV'tL:7taQu8EOEL~ uvullEoa O'ta x61llla'ta 'too XOLV0j30'UA(00. [27] 0 O'ta'UQo~ O'tov O:7tOLO llagruQllOE, YVQw 0't0 60 Il.x. 0
[20] AqJEAt], 'U:7tEQmOLoOol;a 1l'U8LO'tOQt]IlU'tu IlE xao'U~6ll­ AYLO~ AVOQEa~ 0 An6O'tOAO~, Tl'tav XLaO't6~. Ano'to 140 mWva,
OE~, LVOLUVO'U~, j3o'Uj3uALa, ALj3uOLa XA.:7t. E:7t0XTl :7t0'U :7tQID'tOEllqJavLOTTtxE II OXE'tLXTl :7tAllQoqJoQLa, 0 XLaO't6~
[21] ~'tll aVYXQOVll qJ'UOLXt], LOV'ta E(VaL OL LOVLOIlEVOL u'toIlL- O'tu'UQ6~ OVollu~E'tm O'ta'UQo~ 'to'U Ay. AVOQEU.
XO( :7t'UQt]VE~, UMU 'tllv E:7t0Xt] :7t0'U EYQUqJE 0 M:7tllQ~ LoV'ta ovo- [28] IIL8avw~ uvaqJEQE'tm O'tllV Av MUQIl:7tO'UQL XU'tOLVOOV
Ila~av 'tu llAEX'tQLXU qJOQ'tLOIlEva OWIlU't(OLU :7t0'U :7tEQLO'tQEqJO- [Anne Marbury Hutchinson, 1591-1643], a'U'trj 'tllv EV't'U:7tWOLa-
V'tav yVQw O'tov :7t'UQTlvu. AQY0'tEQU, 'ta oWlla't(OLa a'U'tu :7tTlQuv xu OTtllaV'tLxTl yvva(xa, :7t0'U aywv(OTTtXE 0't0 YEO x601l0, YLU 'tllv
'tu ovollu'ta :7t0'U OLU'tllQoVv IlEXQL OTlIlEQU. aVEl;L8QlloxLa XaL 'tllv a'U'tovoll(U 'twv XOLVO'tlj'tWV xm qJ'UOLXU
[22] OL avu'tOALxE~ 8QllaxE(E~ LOXUQ~OV'tav :7tuV'ta 'tllV V:7tuQ- OLWX8llXE aQxE'tE~ qJOQE~.
l;ll Ev6~ ~ID'tLXoV QE'UO'toV O'tov av8Qwmvo OQYavLoIlO, 'to 0:7t0(0 [29] 0 Zuv( 'U:7trjQl;E EVU~ a:7to 'to'U~ XAUOLXOV~ xaQux'tTlQE~
E:7tllQEu~6'tav a:n:o 'tllv :7tVE'Ulla'tLxTl aVO'tUOTt 'to'U aV~aV'to~. 'tll~ L'tUALXTl~ KOIlEV'tLa N'tEA AQ'tE [Commedia Dell' Arte]. Y:7tO-
BEj3aLa 0 av8Qwmvo~ OQYavLollO oLa8E'tEL ~ID'tLXU 'UYQu, 'ta O:7toCa o'Uo'tuv 'tOY V:7tllQE'tll, :7t0'U E'tQEXE O1JVEXW~ :7tLOW a:n:6 'to aqJEV'tL-
61lw~ ELVaL OQYUVLXE~ O1JV8EOEL~ XaL OxL IlE'taqJ'UOLxE~ OV't6TTt'tE~. x6 'to'U, IlLIlOVIlEVO~ 'tL~ XLVTlOEL~ XaL 'ta AOYLa 'to'U, 'ta O:7tO(U Tl'tav
~'ta 'tEAll 'to'U 190'U mwva tlTav oLaoEoollEVllll 8EwQ(a aVll- TlOll aQxE'tu XWIlLXU.
qJwva IlE 'tllV O:7to(u 'to qJW~ 'tal;(OE'UE a:7t6 :7tAuvrj'tll OE :7tAavtlTll, [30] 0 IlE'taqJQaa'tlj~ OEV ~OQEOE va EV'tO:7tLOEL EQYO 'tov
IlEOW 'to'U 'U:7tO'tL8EIlEVO'U «<PID'taywyov AL8EQa» [luminiferous M:7t'UqJ6v IlE a'U't6v 'tOY 'tL'tAO. Ex't6~ av :7tQ6xEL'tm YLa 'tIlTllla 'tll~
ether], EVO~ aEQLo'U oWllmo~ :7t0'U YEIlL~E 'to aV~uv a:7t' uXQll 0' 44't0Illl~ <PvOLXTl~ IO'toQLu~ [Historie Naturelle], :7t0'U 0 rUMO~
UXQll· H 8EWQ(U av'tlj IlE'tEqJEQE 'to 1l0V'tEAO IlE'tUOOOTt~ 'to'U Ema'tljllova~ El;EOWOE a:7t6 'to 1749 IlEXQL'tO 1788.
TlX0'U 0't0 qJmvollEVO 'tll~ IlE'tUOOOTt~ 'to'U qJID'tO~. [31] Auyvo~ UQOEVLX6~ oaLllovac:; no'U XUVEL EQID'ta IlE 'tL~
[23] To m8avO'tEQO E(VaL OL ovo U'U'tE~ qJQUOEL~ va a:7tO'tE- Y'UVU(XE~ 'tllv wQu no'U xOLllovV'tm, nQoxaAwV'ta~ 'to'U~ LOX'U-
AoVV 0llIlOOWYQUqJLxu «llaQYUQL'tUQLU» 'tll~ E:7tOXTl~ 'tov M:7tllQ~, QOv~ OQYUOIlOV~ xm O1JXVU 'tL~ xa8LO'tu EYX'UE~, IlE anO'tEAEolla
'twv O:7tO(WV 'tU O1JllqJQU~OIlEVU E(vm EV'tEAW~ uyvwO'ta 0't0 'tll YEVVllOTt OaLIlOVWV, llaYLOOWV XaL 'tEQU'tWV. ~vllqJwva IlE 'tllv
IlE'taqJQua'tlj . nUQuo0OTt, 0 Ivxov~o'U~ [Incubus] xm 'to 8llA'Ux6 'to'U aV'tL-

238 239
otOLXO, T] ~OUXO'\JIl:7tOU~ [Sucubus] U:7ttlQsuv aYYEAOL, OL O:7tO(OL 'tOV :7tAOU'tO. 'E'tOL 8EooQtl8T]XE :7too~ UVLLotOLXE( OE Xa:7tOLOV 8E6
EXUOUV 'tT] 8EOT] 'tou~ 6C:rtAU oto 8E6. tl 6u(llova xm xa8LEQw8T]XE.
[32] T600 0 I:7t:7t6YQu:7t0~ 600 xm 0 rQU:7tO~ 6EV E(vm E:7tL- [39] Ta Maotuvyx ECvm IlLxQ6000Ila OXAT]QayooYT]IlEVa xm
VOtlOEL~ 'tOU M:7tT]Q~, uUa IlU80AOYLxa 'tEQaLU. OL rQU:7tOL !lU; u'tLeuoa allEQLxavLxa aAoya, :7tOU :7tQoEQXOVLm a:7t6 LO:7taVLXtl
:7tuQu6(60VLUL OUV 'tEQaotLOL UE'tO( IlE OWIlU ALOVLUQLoU tl OUV Qa'toa.
'tEQaotLu ALOVLaQLU IlE XECpaAL xm :7t66LU UE'tOU. Tu vUXLU nov [40] ME'ta LT]v allEQLxavLxtl E:7tUVaotaOT], L6Qu8T]xUV :7tOA-
:7t06LWV 'tOU~ ECvm IlEYaAU ouv XEQU'tU ~06LOU. 'Exouv 'tEQaotLU AO( E8vLXOL oUv6EOIlOL, IlE oxo:7t6 'tT]V :7tQow8T]0T] :7toM 6La<poQE-
[)UVUIlT]· M:7toQouv VU OT]XWOO'UV ux61lT] xm EM<pUVLU otT] QaXT) LLXWV :7tOALLLXWV xm OLXOVOIlLXWV OUIl<PEQ6VLoov. 'Eva~ a:7t6
'tOu~. 0 I:7t:7t6YQU:7t0~ E(vm xUQ:7t6~ 'tOU EQOYtU Ev6~ UQOEVLXOU LOU~ OT]llaVLLx6'tEQOU~ tlLUV T] Tammany Society 'tT]~ NEU~ Y 6Q-
rQU:7tOU xm IlLU~ <poQa6u~. IIQ6xEL'tm YLU <pLEQ0Yt6 aAoyo IlE XT]~. Ta IlEAT] LT]~ XOOQ~oVLav OE oWi6E~ IlE aQXT]You~, OL O:7tOL-
xE<paAL UE'tOU. AE't(OLU ELvm xm 'tU !l:TtQootLva'tOU :7t66ta. E:rtEL- OL E<pEQav 't('tAOU~ 6avELollEvou~ a:7t6 'tou~ IltlVE~ 'tOU Lv6LaVLxou
6tl oUll<PooVU IlE LT]v IlEOmoovLXtl :7tuQa600T] OL rQU:7tOL xm 'tU T] IlE QOAOY LOU. 'Evu~ 'tE'tOLO~ 't('tAo~ tl'tav 0 MEya~ IvxoX6vL
MOYU tlLUV 8uvaOLIlOL EX8Qo(, 0 I:rt:rt6YQu:7t0~ OUIl~OA~EL 'to [Incohonee].
EVLEAW~ u6uvu't0. [41] BEQ~EXEQOL: aYQLOL xm 6uvaLo( ~xuv6LVa~oL :7tOAEIlL-
[33] AE't6~: 'to :7tuQU'tOoUXAL'tOU XQ'UooU UIlEQLXUVLxoU 6EXU- otE~, 6LljJaollEvoL YLa aLlla xm xa'taotQo<pij.
66AUQOU. [42] 0 AUotQLax6~ YLa'tQ6~ AVLOV MEOIlEQ [Franz Anton
[34] H VT]X'tLXtl XUotT] ELvm UVaL0IlLx6 XUQUXLT]QLotLX6 OQL- Mesmer, 1734-1815] LoxuQL~mav :7too~ 'to VEUQLX6 Ila~ oUotT]lla
0IlEVooV ljJUQLWV. IIQ6xEL'tm YLU :7tQOEX'tUOT] 'tou OLoo<payou :7tO'U 6La8E'tEL llayvT]'tLx6 <p0Q't(0, 6:7too~ 0 :7tAavij'tT]~ Ilu~, xm 'to ov6-
YEIl~EL IlE UEQU xm :7tU~EL IlEYaAo Q6AO otT]v U6QOotaLLXtl llaOE «ZooLx6 MayvT]'tLoIl6». XQT]OLIlO:7tOLT]OE 'tOV u:rtVOYtLOIl6
LOOQQO:7t(u. oav 8EQa:7tEULLxtl IlE8060. 0 U:7tVoo'tLOIl6~ EYLVE 1l66a xm 0
[35] 0 xu<poov tlLUV IlLU SUALVT] OUOXEUtl- ouv xUQu08Quu- MEOIlEQ LOIl6C; ExaoE YQtlyoQa LT]v :7tQWLT] - E:7tL0'tT]1l0VLXtl tl
otT]~ U~ :7tOUIlE - T] O:7to(u muv EXAELVE, 6EOllEUE LO Amll6 xm'tQ :7taQaE:7tLotT]Il0VLXtl - aSLa 'tOU.
XEQLU 'tOU ~uOUVL~6IlEVOU. [43] 0 A:rt6otOAO~ IIauAo~ U:7ttlQSE Ev8EQIl0~ <l>aQLoaLo~,
[36] BL~ALX6 :7tQ60oo:7t0. 0 BUAuall :7tLotEljJE otT] [)UVUIlT] 'to'U :7tQLV Y(VEL A:rt6otOAO~ LT]~ 6L6aoxaALac; 'tOU XQLotOU.
8EOU, 6'tuv 0 yaL6uQ6~ 'tOU aQXLOE vu IlLAa. [44] 0 EgVot XaxEA [Ernst Haeckel, 1834-1919] tlLav UALotij~
[37] 0 AYYAO~ OLxovolloA6yo~ T61lu~ MaA80u~ [Thomas <pLA6oo<pO~ xm E!;EALXLLX6~ ~LOA6yO~. 0 M:rtT]Q~ oagxa~EL LT]v aoa-
Malthus, 1766-1834] E:7tLoijIlUVE LOV xLv6uvo 'tou U:7tEQ:7tAT]8u- <pELa xm aOUVE:7tELa 'toov E:7tLotT]Il0VDtWv 8EooQLWv LT]~ E:7tOXtl~ 'tOU.
0IlOU YLU LT]v E:7tL~(ooOT] 'tOU uv8Qw:7tou xm :7tQmELvE 'tOV E8E- [45] MLAaEL ouYXExQLIlEva YLa 'to QEaALotLx6 IlU8Lot6QT]lla.
AOUOLO :7tEQLOQLOIl6 'toov YEVVtl0EooV. [46] To :7tav6Qalla ECvm Eva~ :7tOAU IlEYaAOC; :7t(vaxu~ :7tOU
[38] 0 MUlllloova~ 8EooQEL'tm 8E6~ 'tOU :7tAOU'tOU, LT]~ 6LljJu; ava:rcwooE'tm otOV 'tOLXO IlLa~ XUXALXtl~ aLeouoa~ xm 6LVEL otO
YLU :7tAOmo . .6.EV U:7ttlQSE :7tO'tE xUIlLa 'tE'tOLU UQXu(u 8EmT]'tU. 8EaLij LT]v aL08T]0T] :7too~ ~QLOXE'tm IlEOa 'tou. To EL60~ ELXE IlEYa-
~LT]v Katvtj .dtaOrjXT/, 0 MaL8uLO~ xm 0 Aouxa~ XQT]OLIlO:7tOLOUV AT] :7tEQaOT] ota 'tEAT] 'tOU 180u xm 'tL~ aQXE~ 'tOU 190U mwvu.
um6 'to ayvooO'tT]~ :7tQOEAEUOT]~ 6vOIlU, YLU vu XUQUXLT]QLOOUV [47] ME 'tT] AEST] «IlU8LotOQLa» 0 IlE'ta<PQaottl~ EVVOEL LT]

240 241
qlUVtUOll~tl nEQlnE'tnolfuj tl EQoyn~tl uq>rJyYJOT)· 'tT]C; qlLAoOOqlCaC; 'tou KuV't [Immanuel Kant, 1724-1804]. IIQ6~EL'tUl
[48] IIQ6~n'tUl YlU un60nuo~u un6 'to nEQ(qlT]~O nO(T]~u
YLU 'to nQuYl-lu, 'to XU8E UV'tLXE(l-lfVO, 6nooc; E(VUl OtYJv nQuYl-lu'tL-
,,0 TusLC')lW'tYJC; tl MLU IIQoon'tL~l'j 'tYJC; KOLVooV(UC; [The Traveler: xo'tT]'tu, un6 I-l0VO 'tou Xul 0XL 6nooc; 'to (3MnOUI-lE vu E(VUl. EI-lE(C;
Or, A Prospect of Society, 1764] 'tou AI'I'AOU QL~o01tuOlT] ouY- . (3Mnoul-lE I-lOvO qlUlVOI-lEVU. II(ooo un6 umu UnOtC8E'tUl nooc; unuQ-
YQUqlEU 'OAL(3EQ r~OAVtO~L8 [Goldsmith, Oliver, 1730-1774].' XOUV 'tu 'UALXU UV'tLXf(I-lEVU nou fQf8~ouv 'tLC; Ul08l'jonc; l-luC; Xul
OMXAYJQYJ YJ OlQOqll'j, OtYJv ono(u UVl'j~EL 'to unoonuo~u nov Enn61'j I-l0VO I-lE ouOtYJI-lU'tLXtl AOYLXl'j ox6jJT] [voT]OT)] ~OQOUI-lE vu
UVUqlEQEL 0 MnYJQC;, MEL: un08EOouI-lf nolC; ELVUl OtYJv nQuYl-lu'tLXO'tT]'tU umu 'tu UV'tLXE(I-lE-
«'Onou ~L UV nl'jyu, OOU (3uoCAnu ~L UV E(6u, VU, YL' umo'tu OV0I-lUOf VOOUI-lEVU. 0 oUQXU0I-l0C; 'tou MJtYjQC; 6EV
OUV U'tus(6EmYJ nuVtu T] ~UQ6LU ~ou ~Evn E(VUl XOOQ(C; vOT]!!U. H 6LUXQLOT) UVUl-lfOU Of NOOUI-lEVU Xul qlUl-
XL OAO YUQ~n 'tQUqlEQU xOVtu OOU, nOVE~EVYJ_ V0I-lEVU f(VaL I-lLU noM nUQuxLv6uvEU~EVT] qlL"J...oOOqlLXl'j fvEQynu.
nuV'tu ~OVtU oou, U6EAqlE, )tUl nuVtU OEQvn [53] IIQoqluvolC; fVVOE( 'tOY AYYAO qlLA600qlo Xul xQL'tLx6
OE ~U8E (3l'j~u 'tYJC; ~L' U'tEAnoo'tYJ uAuo(6u». 'tT]C; AOYO'tfXV(UC; nooQ't~ XEVQU ALOULC; [George Henry Lewes,
[49] LU~ql{J)VU ~E 'tTl Qoo~U'L~l'j ~U80AOY(U, 0 LU'toUQVOC; 1817-1878].
[Satunmus], nou 'tUmL~mUV ~E 'tOY KQovo 'twv EMl'jvwv, muv [54] Tov oQo AMonu8T]'tLxtl fLa1']YUYE 0 rfQl-luv6C; YLU'tQ6C;
ESOQ(OtYJ~E un6 'tOY 'OAU~O, ~E nQOYto(3ouA(U 'tou ~(u, nl'jYE OlO
LU~OUEA XUVEI-lUV [Samuel Hahnemann, 1755-1843], ouv6uu~0-
AU'tLO ~ul (6QUOE EVU (3uoCAno XUQUC; ~ul EUYJ~EQ(UC;. H nEQ(060C; V'tuC; 'touC; fMT]VLXEC; AEsnc; «UMOC;» XaL «nu80c;», YLU VU XUQu-
'tTlC; (3UOLAECaC; 'tou E(VUl T] I-lU8L~l'j XQUa1'] Enoxl'j, MEL 0 Ho(060C;. x'tT]Q(on 'tLC; OXAT]QEC; LU'tQLXEC; I-lE8660uC; 'tT]C; fnoxl'jc; 'tou, nou
[SO] LXoon'tLxl'j nUQuql80Qu 'tYJC; BUA'tLl-loQT]C;, T] ono(u OlU nEQLAUI-l(3uVUv 'tT]v Uqlu(I-lUST], 'tT]v nQoxAT]OT) EI-lE'toU XaL 'tT]v
UYYALXU E(VUl Baltimore. 0 MnT]QC; uV'tLxu8LOtU 'tT]V XU'tUAT]ST] nUQoxl'j L6lU('tEQU 'tOSLXolV O'UOLolV. OL nQuX'tLXEC; umEC; E(XUV
more [ouyxQL'tLXOC; (3u81-l0C; 'tou Em8E'tOu much, nou OT)I-lU(VEL
uQXu(u EMT]VLXl'j 8fooQT]'tLXtl (3uOT) XaL EQI-ll'jVfUUV 'tLC; u08EvnfC;
«noM»] I-lE 'tOY unEQ8E'tl~0 (3u81-l0 most. H ~U'tUAYJST] more unM ouv 6LU'tUQUXl'j 'toov 'tEOOUQooV XUl-lolV 'tou uv8Qoon(vou Ooll-lu'toC;
OUVT]XE( XUlYQUqlE'tUl 0I-lOLU I-lE 'to EnC8E'tO. To 6v0I-lU 'tT]C; U~EQL­ [u(~u. qlMYl-lu, l-luuQTj Xul ~('tQLVT] XOAl'j], 'toov 'twouQoov XU'tU-
XUVLXl'jC; n6AT]C; nQoEQXE'tUl uno 'tOY 'tL'tAO 'tou nQW1:ou AyyAOU
OtuOEooV 'tou ool~U'tOC; [8EQI-ll'j, '/J'UXQl'j, uYQl'j Xul ST]Ql'j] Xul 'toov
6LOLXT]'t1'] 'tT]C; Caecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore [1605-1675]. 'tfOOUQooV q>UOLXolV OtOLXE(WV [YT], UEQUC;, qlOYtLU Xul VEQO].
L'tT] 6LuQxnu 'tou 180u ulolVU, T] BUA'tLl-loQT] unl'jQSE OT)l-luV'tLx6-
[55] H XU'tUAT]ST] «ox» 'tT]C; UYYALXl'jC; MST]C; «Orthodox» E(VUL
'tU't0 ALI-lUVL Xul (3LOI-lT]XUVLXO XEV'tQO 'tT]C; BOQnuc; AI-lEQLXl'jC;. T]XT]'tLXl'j. ~T]Au6l'j 6EV Exn SEXooQLOtl'j OT)~uo(u, 6f60I-lEVOU 6'tL T]
Tooo OtOV AYYAOU~EQLXUVLXO nOAEI-lO 'tou 1818, 600 Xul OtOV
MsYJ E(VUl I-lf'tUYQUq>rJ 'tT]C; EMT]VLXl'jC; «OQ8660soC;» [OQ86C;
AI-lEQLXUVLXO EI-lq>UALO, EYLVE XEV'tQO UlI-lU'tT]QWv ouYXQOUOEooV. -~6su]. H T]XT]'tLxl'j 'tT]C; 0I-lOL6'tT]'tu I-lE'tT] MST] «ox» [(306L] 6T]I-lL-
[51] 0 Ot(X0C; UVl'jXEL OtYJv oo6l'j 'tOU rOUEQ't~YOUfQ8 «Nusnc; OUQYT]OE EVu AU'LX6 UOtf(O, 'to ono(o oUQxu~n 0 MnT]QC;.
A8uvuo(uC; uno 'tLC; Avul-lvl'jonc; 'toov IIQW1:ooV IIUl6Lxolv XQo-
[56] OL OuUOLVYX'tOVLOL [Washingtonians] unl'jQsuv I-lLU uno
voov [Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early
'tLC; nQW1:EC; EAfU8EQLaXEC; xOLv6'tT]'tfC; uno(xoov OtYJv LOtOQ(U'toov
Childhood, 1807].
H.II.A. KU'tOLXOUOUV XOVtu OlOv nO'tu~o IIo'tol-lux, 0tYJ OT)I-lEQL-
[52] To NOoUl-lEVOV E(VUl I-lLU un6 'tLC; OT)!!UV'tLXmfQfC; EWOLEC; vl'j nfQLOXl'j 'tT]C; OUUOLY~'tOV.

242 243
[57] OL ltEQOLXE~ WLXE~ ltaQa66oEL~ ltEQLYQacpow 'to 1:LlloUQ- 6LEL06'U0'l] 'twv H.IT.A. XUQLW~ 0't0 ITO'llEQ'tO PLXO XaL 't1]v KoU[3a
yx [Simurgh] oav Eva 'tEQaO'tLO ltaywvL IlE XEqxlAL OXUAou XaL [1898], OL EltLXELQ1]lla'tLXE~ 6'UvaO'tLE~ 'twv POXqJEAEQ XaL N'tLOUX,
6oV'tLa ALoV'taQLou. ELVaL a8ava'tO, YL' amo EC6E ltOME~ qJOQE~ 'tOY uva6LoQYavwoav't0 EIlltOQLO 't1]~ ~axaQ1]~ XaL 61]IlLOuQY1]oav Eva
x601l0 va xa'taO'tQEqJE'taL XaL va 1;avaYEvvLE'taL. A'U'tl'j 1] EIlltELQLa 'tQaO't, 'to OltOLO ijAEYXE 'to 98% 'to'll 6LaxLvoullEVO'll ltQO·LOV'tO~.
'to ExavE ltavooqJo XaL ltaV't06waIl0. H ltaQa600'l] 6EV avuqJEQEL [65] Ev6EXOIlEVW~ va EVVOEL 'tOY AIlEQLxav6 OOOLaALatij
ltOLO~ ELVaL aXQL[3w~ 0 OXOltO~ 't1]~ ultaQ1;1]~ amou 'to'll 'tEQa'tO~. 'AAIlltEQ't MrtQL0IlltEW [Albert Brisbane, 1809-1890] 0 OltOLO~ axo-
<l>aLVE'taL ltW~ altAa ltaQa't1]QEL 'tL YLVE'taL O'tov x60IlO. Aou80uOE 'tL~ L6EE~ 'tou raMO'll omOltLXoU OOOLaALatij 1:aQA <l>0'll-
[58] To 1863, 0't1] 6LaQxELa 'tou AIlEQLxavLxou EllqJUALOU, 0 QLE [Francois Marie Charles Fourier, 1772-1837]. To 1843 L6Q'Uol!
BOQa~ XaL 0 No'to~ ELXav 't1]v a't'UXLa va auyxQouO'touv O't1]v IlLa ltELQalla'tLxij am06LaXELQL~oIlEV1] XOLVO't1]'ta 0't0 NLO'U nEQ-
ltEQLOXij TOLxallayxoua [Chickamauga]. H L6LOIloQqJLa 'tou OEU XaL 't1]V OV61laOE <l><iAayya 't1]~ BOQELOU AIlEQLXij~.
'tOltLOU, avayxaoE 'tOU~ 6uo O'tQa'tou~ va auyxQouO'toVV OE auv- [66] AyvWO'tOL ELVaL OL Ema ltQEO'[3mEQOL 't1]~ EqJEOO'U.
8ijXE~ ltQW't6yovou ltOAEIlOU oWlla IlE oWlla. OL EltLXEqJaAij~ BE[3aLa O't1]v 'EqJEO'o EYWE 1] 31] OLXO'llIlEVLxij 1:uv060t:; [431IlX.]
Exaoav 'tEAELW~ 'tOY EAEYXO 'twv O'tQa'tLW'twv XaL altAa xa8Eva~ XaL Ema ELVaL OL EXXA1]O(E~ xa'ta'tov IwaVVl], aMa OL 1l6VOL yvw-
OX6'tWVE 6ltOLOV E[3AEltE IlltQoO'ta'tOu ij 6CrtAa'tou. 0't0( Ema E(VaL OL Ema ITa(6E~, ltOU llaQ'tUQ1]oav O't1]V 'EqJEOO
[59] ITav6aLIlOVLO ovollaoE 0 AYYAO~ ltOL1]'tij~ nwv MCA'tov 'tOY 60 Il.X. aLWva XaL 0 'taqJo~ 'to'U~ [3Q(OXE'taL ax61l1] EXEC.
[John Milton, 1608-1674] 0't0 EQYO 'tou XallEVOt:; ITaQa6ELoo~ [67] 0 TouQ~ <l>ULQIlltUVX~ [Charles Fairbanks, 1852-1918]
't1]v ltQW'tEUOUOU 't1]t:; qJUV'tUO'tLXijt:; EltLxQa'tELa~ 'tou 1:a'tava. urtijQ1;E uV'tmQ6E6Qo~ 'twv H.IT.A. mL ltQoE6QLU~ 8E66wQO'll
[60] BAEltE 01]IlELWO'l] [22] PoUO[3EA't. E6w 0 Mlt1]Q~ xavEL AoyOltU(YVLO, XQ1]OLIlOltOLWV'ta~ 'to
[61] 0 auYYQuqJEa~ ELVaL ltQaYlla'tLXO ltQ6owlto. ITQOXEL- OVOIlU EVOt:; ltEQL'P1]IlO'U ijQwu 'to'll AIlEQLXUVoU ltE~OYQaqJO'll Qua-
'tal YLa 'tOY LO'tOQLXO XaL ltE~oYQaqJo Sabine Baring-Gould OLvyX'tOV 'IQ[3wyx [Washington Irving, 1783-1859]. 0 Pm Buv
[1834-1924]. ITQaYlla'tLx6 - XaL 0'l]1laV'tLx6 - ELVaL XaL 'to [3L[3ALO QutvXA, 0't0 OIlWvvIlO 6LijY1]IlU, xOLlla'taL ltQw 't1]v allEQLxavLxij
'tou Curious Myths of the Middle Ages [1867], aAAa 'P"OLxa muvaO'taO'l] XaL 1;ultVa IlE'ta 't1] ~LaxijQ'U1;1] 't1]~ AVE1;aQ't1]OLa~.
6EV ltEQLEXEL 'tOU~ llu80u~ ltOU avaqJEQEL 0 Mlt1]Q~. [68] 1:'t0 ltOL1]IlU «0 BaOLALa~ 'twv EQA» [Erikoenig, 1782],0
[62] EVVOEL'tOV 8E66wQo POUO[3EA't [Theodore Roosevelt, rXUL'tE U'P1]YEC'taL IlE 6QUIlU'tLx6 'tQ6lto ltW~ 0 [3uOLALa~ 'twv O'tOL-
1858-1919], 260 ITQ6E6Qo 'twv H.IT.A. [1901-9] XaL ltQW1:0 XELWV EQA EXAE'ljJE EVU ltaL6L UltO 'tOY uwltomo ltU'tEQU 'tou. To
EXqJQaO'tij 'tou allEQLxavLxou EltEx'ta'tLollou. OL EltEIl[3aoEL~ 'tou ltaL6L XU'tUAu[3U(VEL ltW~ 'to O'tOLXEL6 ltA1]OLa~EL. To AEEL O'tov
O'ta EOW'tEQLxa aAAwv XWQwv ij'tav L6LaL'tEQa OXA1]QE~ XaL aLlla- ltU'tEQU 'tOU, uMa EXELVO~ 6EV 6(VEL O'l]llaOLU, WOltOU 0't0 'tEAO;
't1]QE~. To ltaQa'toouxAL 'tOU ij'tav Teddy, 61]Aa6ij AQxou6axot:;. 'to xavEL. Qt:; ltQot:; 'tOY ltAa0IlU'tLXO llu80 «0 ~ijllo~ XaL 1] BLOIl1]-
[63] EVVOEL'tO 61]1l0XQa'tLXO ltOAL'tLXO nwv 1:aQlt OutALall~ xuv(a ITaL6LWV», Illt0QOUIlE VU ult08EOOUIlE ltW~ oUQxa~EL 't1]v
[John Sharp Williams, 1854-1932], 0 OltOLO~ UltEQaOltL~o'tav 't1]v ltAa'tWVLXij 8EWQLU 't1]~ 0llu6Lxij; uva'tQo'Pii~ 'twv ltaL6LWv Ill!
OLxovollLxij UU'tovollLa 'tou allEQLxavLxou N6'tou, aqJou 0 L6LO~ Eu8Uv1] 'tou ~ijIlO'U.
6La't1]QouoE 'P"'tELa O't1]v ltOAL'tELa 'tou MLOLOLltij. [69] 1:'t1]v UYYALXij, 1] AE1;1] «saw» O'l]IlULVEL XaL ltuQOLIl(a XaL
[64] ME'ta'tov ltOAEIlO IoltuvLa~-AIlEQLxij~ XaL't1]v altOLXLaxij ltQL6vL.

244 245
[70] OL I1ElpwtLO!!EVOL u:rtijQ;av - xm ELvm ax6!iTJ - lila a:rt6 [76] John Milton [1608-1674]: KOQu<paLo~ AyyAo~ x"-amxt-
tL~ LOXUQOtEQE~ !iUatLXE~ xm !!UatLXLatLXE~ !!aOOVLXE~ atOE~, !!E atij~ :rtOLTJtij~. 0 </O!!TJQo~» tT)~ aYYALxij~ yAWooa~. 'Eva a:rto ta
OTJ!!avtLxij EJ'tLQQOij atTJv OLXOVO!!La xm tT)v :rtOALtLxij. AQXEL va o:rtaubmOtEQa EQYa tau ECvm to !!EYaAO EJ'tLXO :rtoCTJ!!a 0 Xa!!E-
OTJ!!ELWSEL :rtW~ OL ()UVa!!LxOtEQOL I1ElpwtLO!!EVOL tT)~ AYYALa~ VO~ I1aQubELoo~ [Paradise Lost], ato o:rto(o :rtEQtYQU<PEL xm tT)v
xm tT)~ BauaQ(a~ E:rtm;av o:rtou{)a(o QOAO OtT)v (bQuOTJ tT)~ :rtQW- J'tt6>OT) twv aYYEAillV, !!E EUSUVTJ tau l:atavu. BEj3aLa Ebw 0
tT)~ KO!!!!OUVLatLXij~ tUESVOU~. l:E SEWQTJtLXij j3uOTJ, J'tLatEUOUV M:rtT)Q~ aatELEuEtm. 0 MCAtov bEY MEL :rtOUSEVU tC:rcotE OX,Ettx6
:rtW~ EJ'tLXOLVWVOUV !!E to eEO !!EOW tWV auvELbTJmaxwv bLEQYa- !!E tT)v J'tUQ(tLba.
mwv tOU~ xm 0XL !!EOW tEAEtWV xm SQTJOXEUtLXWV !iUatTJQCwv, [77] l:tTJ Pw!!mOXaSOAtxij EXXATJOCa, to PEXj3LE!! E(vm :rtQo-'
O:rtW~ OL UAAoL XQLatLavoC. OEUXij U:rtEQ ava:rtauoEw~ tWV 'IjIuxwv. H !!oumxij aUVSEOT) !!E to
[71] H AatLVLXij EXlpQaOTJ OTJ!!a(vEL «I1aSTJtLXOC I1ElpwtLO!!E- CbLO ovo!!a j3aoCl;Etm OtT) bo!!ij tT)~ SQTJOXEUtLXij~ AELtOuQy(a~.
VOL» xm bTJAWvEL tT)v EOwtEQLatLXij tuOTJ twv I1E<pwtLO!!EVWV, YLa [78] A:rto ta aQxaCa XQovLa, XUXAO<POQOUOE TJ u:rto'ljlTJ :rtw~ TJ
tau~ O:rtO(au~ TJ SQTJOXECa ijtav EOwtEQLXij, OUVELbTJmaxij U:rtOSEOTJ. l:aAa!!uvbQa ECXE tTJv Lxav6tT)ta va avtEXEL tT) <pwtLU. l:tT)
[72] H <PQUOT) avijXEL ato PW!iaCo a;LW!!atOuXo Flavius bLuQXELa tOU MEoaCwva, TJ u:rtO'ljlTJ autij ;E:rtEQaoE XUSE OQLO
Vegetius Renatus, yvwato !!OVO yLa to j3Lj3A(O Ile(J{ JloAipov LltE- <pavtaoCa~, :rtQOoSEtOvta~ OtT) !!LXQij oauQa <ptEQU xaL j3ul;o-
~aywyrj<; [De Re MililariJ :rtou EYQa'ljJE YUQw ata 390 !!.x. xm vtu~ tTJV va YEvvLEtm xm va XatOLXEC atL~ <PAOYE~.
ECvm a<pLEQW!!EVO atOV autoxQutoQa BaAEvtLVLavo [Flavius [79] 0 M:rtTJQ~ :rtQo<pavw~ ava<pEQEtm ELQWVLXU atOV :rtOAU-
Valentini anus, 321-375]. YQa<pOtato auYYQa<pEa xm :rtOLTJtij Iwaij<p M:rtEAOX [Joseph
[73] OL atCXOL avijxouv ato o:rtou{)a(o :rtoCTJ!!a KOU!!JlAa Hilaire Pierre Belloe, 1870-1953], 0 o:rtoCo~ EYQa'ljlE :rtOAAU XE(-
Xav [Kubla Khan] tou KOOUAQLt!;. !!EVa U:rtEQUa:rtLOTJ~ tau KaSoALxLO~. H Kagxao6v [Careassonne]
[74] 0 I1QEoj3UtEQLaVLO!!O~ ECvm bWLXTJtLXO aUOtT)!!a tT)~ ECvm Evtu:rtwmaxij :rtOATJ-xuatQo tT)~ NOtLa~ raMca~ xm u:rtijQ-
EXXATJo(a~ :rtou LbQuSTJXE a:rto tOY KaAj3(vo [Johannes Calvinus, ;E !!EYUAO XEvtQO tT)~ aCQEOT)~ tWV KaSaQLatWv. OL KaSaQLatE~
1509-1564]. l:u!!<pwva !iE auto, TJ EXXATJOCa bLoLxE(tm a:rto tOU~ ij AAj3LYTJVOC f!!<pavCOtT)xav tOY 110 mwva OtT) NotLa raMca xm
XATJQLXOU~ xm tOU~ Aa"Lxou~, OL O:rtO(OL OVo!!u!;ovtm :rtQEOj3utE- yvwQLoav !!EYUATJ ax!!ij OtT) bLuQXELa 1:OU 120u mwva, !!E XEvtQO
QOL. To !!EtQO at0XEUE atTJv a:rtobuvu!!wOTJ tT)~ aUSEvtCa~ xm tT)v :rtOATJ AAj3L KijQuttav tT)v fJ'tLatQO<pij atTJV ayv6tT)ta twv
tT)~ E;ouoCa~ tWV E;aQtW!!EVWV a:rto tOY I1Ma XATJQLXWV. :rtQWtWV XQLatLaVWV xm tautLl;av to xaxo !!E tT)v UATJ. AQXLXU,
[75] OL I1QOOXUVTJtE~ I1atEQE~ [Pilgrim Fathers] ij'mv !!La TJ KaSoALxij EXXATJo(a :rtEQLOQ(OtT)Xf atTJV xatabCxTJ tT)~ aCQf-
o!!uba I10uQLtaVWv :rtou a:rtoOX,COtT)xav a:rto tT)v AYYALxavLxij OTJ~. AQYOtEQa O!!W~ EJ'tLMSTJXf Of atauQo<poQCa [1209-1244],
EXXATJOCa, OtT) bLuQXELa tau 170u mwva. IOX,uQCl;ovtav :rtW~ 1:0 !!E a:rtotEAfO!!a tTJV :rtAijQTJ a:rtObLOQYUVWOTJ xm ata{)Laxij f;a-
EQYO tT)~ MEtaQQuS!!LOTJ~ ()EV E(XE OAOXATJQWSEC xm aval;TJtou- <pUVLOT) tWV KaSaQLatWv.
oav Evav to:rto YLa va !;ijoouv aU!!<pwva !!E ta bL{)uy!!ata twv [80] 0 AouxLavo~ ijtav 0 :rtQ6>to~ auyyQa<pEa~ :rtou :rtEQLE-
EuaYYEA(wV. A<pou bEY !!JloQEoav va :rtQay!!ato:rtOLijoouv to YQa'ljlE tOU~ l:EATJV(tE~ - tOU~ EJ'tLVOTJOE bTJ"-abij - ata <pavtaatL-
SQTJOXEUtLXO OVELQO tOU~ OtT)v TJJlELQwttxij EUQWJlTJ, !!EtaVu- xu a<PTJyij!!atu tou, ta o:rto(a ijtav xm to :rtQ6>ta xE(!!EVa EJ'tLOtT)-
atEuoav atTJv A!!EQLXij, to 1620. !!OVLXij~ <pavtaOLa~. 0 Aox :rtou ava<pEQEtm Ebw bEY E(vm 0
246 247
Ayy'Aor; qJLMompor;, c:iM6. 0 Ayy'Aor; 6"J-L00LOYQUqJOr; Pi,tOaQvt J-LEVO altO 'to SEO J-LE ouv6'lluoJ-L0 'twv YQaJ-LJ-Lu'twv EVOr; nQW't'uQ-
A vtaJ-Lr; Aox [Richard Adams Locke, 1800-1871], 0 oltoior; OUvtU- XLXOU uAqJaj3ll-rO'll. MEAE'tOUOUV nr; oxEOELr; J-LE'tU!;U 'twv 6vtwv,
QU!;e 'tovr; A/-teQLxavoVr; 0't'Tj 6exae'tia 'tOV 1830, 61]J-LOOLeVOvtar; OUOXE't~Ovtar; 'tLr; aQL8J-L1]TLXEr; u!;ier; 'twv OVOJ-Lu'twv 'tovr;.
O't'Tjv eqJT]J-LeQi6a New York Sun uQ8Qa ltOV VltO't'(8E't'aL It(J)r; eixe [87] H nEvtuAqJa untlQ!;E Eva altO 'to. OTJJ-LUvtLxmEQa aUJ-L-
YQul/JeL 0 avVltaQx'tor; aO't'Qov6J-L0r; ~eQ 'I1;,ov XEQoel.., ~'ta j30Aa 't'T]r; aO't'Qol..0YLXl1r; J-LaYELar;. ~'t'T]v o'lloia OUJ-Lj301..~EL 't'T]
uQ8Qa amu LOXvQL~6'tav nwr; 0't'Tj oel..l1VTJ eixav naQa't'T]Q,,8Ei J-LE 60J-L11 'tou aUJ-Lnavtor;. ME 'to. XQ6VLa EYLVE aUJ-Lj30AO 't'T]r; J-LaYEiar;
xunoLO Ei60r; «nQw'tonoQLaxov» 't"AEoxonLov, ~wu, qJv'tu, uml1r; xa8' Eau'tl1r;.
AiJ-LVEr;, ltO't'UJ-LLU XaL uv8Qwlt6J-L0QqJOL XU'tOLXOL, [88] 0 J-LeyuAor; EXltaLOemLltor; XaL ouYYQaqJEar; 6L6ux't'LXWv
[81] 0 ~ULJ-LOV NLOVX0J-Ln [Simon Newcomb, 1835-1909] j3Lj3I..LWV NWE OvEJl1tO't'EQ [Noah Webster, 1758-1828], «na't'QLuQ-
Unl1Q!;E 6LUOTJJ-L0r; AJ-LEQLxav6r; uO't'Qov6J-L0r; XaL J-LU8"J-LU'tLX6r;, 0 X1]r;» 't'T]r; aJ-LEQLxavLXl1r; Exnai6E'UOTJr;·
MnQuYYEAor;, nov EJ-LqJav~E'taL I..LyO mo ltUVW, ELVaL avvnuQx'to [89] 0 OUvL'tuQLaVL0J-L0r; [Unitarianism] E(VaL'tO 8Q"OXE'll-
nQ6owlto, 'tLXO 60YJ-La ltO'll Em'tQEnEL 't1] XQl10TJ 'to'll oQ80u AOYO'll O't'" 8Q"-
[82] ME Iv6Luvovr; 61]1..0.611, 0 Mlt1]Qr; oaQxu~EL 't'T] Qa't'OL- oxeia. AltoQQim'eL 't1] 8eLxl1 qJV01] 'tOV XQLO't'OU XaL 'to o6Y/-ta 't'T]r;
O't'LXl1 avtLJ-LE'twmOTJ 'twv Iv6Luvwv an6 'tovr; J-LOQqJWJ-LEVOUr; AJ-LE- uyiar; 'tQLu60r;. ~'to SEO avayvwQ~EL J-LOVO J-LLa 'llnoO't'aOTJ. To
QLxavovr;, MYJ-Lu EXEL J-LEYUI..l'] anl1XTJOTJ O't'Lr; H.IT.A.
[83] 0 AQOEVLOr; 0 Aox"T1lr;, Vnl1Q!;E ltI..OVaLOr; PWJ-Laior;, [90] <PLI..LO't'aLO'llr; EAEyav OL XUMLEQY"J-LEVOL E'llQwnaiOL XaL
AnaQv1181]xe 'tov x60J-L0 XaL aoxll-rEl/JE J-LE oxl..1]Q6 'tQ6no, SEW- AJ-LEQLxavoL, X'llQLWr; OL qJOL'tl']'tEr; 'twv navEmO't'T]J-Liwv, 'to'llr;
Qovoe 'to qJaY1]'t6 XaL 'tov VltVO ltOAv'tEAELer;. aO't'our; ltOV 6ev evoLUqJEQOvtaV yLU 't'Lr; 'tExver; XaL 'to. YQuJ-LJ-La'ta
[84] ~'tov EJ-LqJVI..LO n61..EJ-L0 nov !;EonuoE 'to 1642 O't'T]v aMu J-L6vo YLa 'tLr; 'llI..LXEr; altol..auoELr; XaL L6LaL'tEQa YLa 'to
Ayyl..ia, ouyxQouO't'Tjxav OL vnoO't'1]QLX'tEr; 'tOV xOLVoj3ovAEmL- XQtlJ-La. OL <PLALO't'aLOL ll-rav nOAEJ-LLXOr; Au6r;, EYXa't'EO't'T]J-LEVOr;
OJ-LOU, J-LE 'to'llr; onu60ur; 'tov j3aaLI..LU KUQ6AO'll 'to'll ITQWTO'll o't'"v ITUl..aLO't'LV" ltQLV alt6 'to'llr; IOQa1]Ai'tEr;. H BLj3l..or; 'to'llr; ltEQL-
[1600-1649]. OL onu60i 'to'll xOLvoj30'llAEmLOJ-LOU, OL ~'tQOYYVAO­ YQUqJEL oav qJLAonOAEJ-LOVr; EL6wI..OAU'tQEr;. ELVaL amoL nov nay i-
xEqJaAoL [Roundheads], ll-rav IIo'llQL'tavoi XaL Exoj3av xovtu 'to. 6euoav 'tov ~aJ-Ll/Jwv [KQL'tai]. Eix;av J-LaxQLEr; xo'toioer; XaL 'to
J-LaAALU 'to'llr;. OL onu60L 't"r; j3aaLAEiar;, OL Kaj3aI..LEQOL !;uQLOJ-La 'tou xEqJal..LOu 'to'llr; Lo06'llvaJ-L0UOE J-LE 8uvu't0, onwr;
[Cavaliers] ll-rav aQLO't'oxQU'tEr; XaL uqJ"vav 'to. J-LaMLU 'to'llr; UMWO't'E 'llnaLVLooE'taL XaL 0 J-Lu80r; 'to'll ~aJ-Ll/Jwv.
J-LaxQLu. 0 nOAEJ-LOr; 'tEAELWOE 'to 1848 J-LE vix" 'twv ~'tQOyyvI..OXE­ [91] Anu'taL, TOEYLEV. ~Mr; Iv6L1ivwv 't'T]r; BOQeLUr; AJ-LEQLXl1r;.
qJaAwv, 'llno 't"v aQX"YLa 'tOU 'OALj3EQ KQOJ-LYO'llEA [Oliver [92] Habeas Corpus: eE0J-LLXl1 xa't'OxuQwOTJ 't'T]r; EAE'U8EQiar;
Cromwell, 1599-1658]. 'tou ltoAi't'T], nov EYLve 'to 1679 O't'1]v AYYAia XaL f8eoe qJQaYJ-L6
[85] BMltE OTJJ-LELWOTJ [13]. o't'"v U'll8ULQE't'T] aUAA"l/J" XaL xQu't'T]01]. H AUTLVLXl1 qJQu01]
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256 257
xu8rp<.av'ta LXV'1 'tOU, crtT]V nQomtU6EtU 'tou va xaAU1jJEl nOAEl-tlXU MrtT]Q<; tl-rav Qt~oonucrtT]<;. l:txmvCrtav 'to allEQtXaVtxo xaxExw-
YEyovCrta. Amo nou XUVEl nEQLEQYT] 'tT]V nEQLmooOl] MnT]Q<; ELvm no oT]1l0xQa'tLa<; xm 'tOY allEQtXaVtxo EnEx'ta"ttollo. Ot AOYot ano-
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To f3Ef3mo ELvm noo<; 'to 1913 naLQVEl ouo Ol]llav'ttXE<; anocpu- ooullE 'to YEYOVO<; noo<; OtxmvCrtav nQoooomxu 'to acpEV'ttXO 'tou,
oEl<;. HilLa ELvm va EmoxEcp6EL nUAt 'ta naAtU nEOLa llaXWV 'ta 'toy rouCMtall XEQor [William Randolph Hearst, 1863-1951],
onoLa ELXE nmLoEl IlE 'to aLlla 'tou xm T] UMT], va EmOXEcp6EL 'to anOOELx6T]XE noo<; ELXE OUYXEV'tQWoEl nOMu orotXELa yta 'tT]
ME!;txO, onou ELXE !;EonUoEl EllcpVAto<;, xa6w<; ot Enavaoru'tE<; oQUOl] 'tou nOAmxou xm IlEYtoruva 'tou wnou oro ME!;tXO. 0
aYQCrtE<;, IlE EmXEcpaAtl<; 'tOY TIuV'too BLyta IlUX0V'tav IlE'ta orQa- XEQor ELXE IlEyaAT] nEQtouoLa EXEL xm nOMu OUllcpEQoV'ta. 0
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1873-1913]. 0 MnT]Q<; ELvm 70 XQovoov Xt av E!;mQEoouIlE 'to ME!;tXO, 'ta naQEooooE 010 Evav yvoooro 'tou tOtoX-rtl'tT] !;EVOOOXEC-
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ano 'tT]V otXOYEVElU 'tOU aXOIlT] nEQtooCrtEQT]. Kouf3aMEl l'iuo XEQor tl aMou<; Ert(Ol]<; EIlrtAEXOIlEVOU<;, OEOOIlEVOU o,'tt 'tE'totou
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ArtO'tT]V UMT], 'tooo T] XOQT]"tou 000 xm nAtl60<; aAAot OUYYEVEL<;, Lincoln, 1809-1865] ano nQux'tOQE<; 'tou Muo ToE'tOUVYX [Mao
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OtooIlEVT]<; YQalllla'tEoo<; 'tOU KUQu KQ(ortaVoEv, "tOY CPQoV't~OUV IlE 1879-1953] (ot EQEUVE<; OUvEx~oV'tm aXOIlT]). 'Eva xanoto XA(lla
IlEYUAO EVOtacpEQov. TT] OT]llomoYQacpLa 'tT]v EXEl EyxmaAELljJEl. anoyotl-rEUOl]<; - unaQ!;taxou wnou - xaMtEgytl6T]XE ano 'tOY
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XE<;, 0 AOYO<; tl ot A6yot nou 'tOY OOtlYT]oav oro ME!;tXO - xm ora ljJtU 'tou AWQa, AEEl: «Av axouoEl<; noo<; IlE attioavE 010 xanoto
naAtU nEOLa 'tWV Ilaxwv - 1lrt0QEL va ELvm nOMoi. IlE!;txavtxo llaV'tQCrtotXO Xat IlE YElltOaV ocpa(QE<;, 6EAoo va !;EQEl<;
To EVOEXOIlEVO va E'toLlla~E xunoto f3tf3ALO yta 'tOY aIlEQu<.a- noo<; E(vm noM ooQaLo<; 'tQono<; yta va cpVyoo ano 'tT] ~ootl. ME
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va tl6EAE va IlU/;EljJEl UAtXO yta va YQuljJEl yta 'ta YEyovCrta oro OXUAE<; 'tou unoYELou. To va ELom Eva<; rXQLVYXO oro ME!;tXO -
ME!;tXO. Mta EmoroAtl (29 Mdtou 'tou 1913) oro cpCAo 'tou rou- amo ELvm Eu6avaoLa!» ALYO nQtv nEQuoEl 'ta aUvoQa IlE 'to
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H AWQa iAa/3E dMo iva aVV7:0l-lO YQo.Jlf.W ana TOV Mn1]Qq, BIBAIOrPA<I>IA
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/3QtaxOTav aTO AaQivTO TOV Til;ar;; Xat rt:AElWVE JlE Ta AOrta: EPrA
«.1 EV Oa JlElVW EOW yta nOAv, wart: va no.Qw via aov Xat OEV Nuggets and Dust, Chatto and Windus, London: 1872.
l;iQw nov Oa /3Q{axoJlat aQyort:Qa. YnoOiTW nwq Oev iXEt (Y1]Jla- The Fiend's Delight, John Camden Hotten, London: 1873.
ala. AV7:toq, AJlnQoovi;».
Cobwebsjrom an Empty Skull, Routledge, London: 1874.
'ExTort: OEV l;aVo.xovaE Tlnort: yt' aVTOv.
The Dance of Death, Henry Keller and Company, San Francisco: 1877.
Black Beetles In Amber, Western Authors Publishin8, San Francisco: 1892.
*0 KriQA:t eLVat 0 rivtQU£ "tTJ£ AWQu.
The Monk and the Han8man's Dau8hter, F.]. Schulte, Chica80: 1892.
Tales of Soldiers and Civilians, E.L. G. Steele, San Francisco: 1892.
Can Such Thin8s Be?, Cassell Publishing Company, New York: 1893.
Fantastic Fables, G.P' Putnam's Sons, New York: 1899.
Shapes of Clay, WE. Wood, San Francisco: 1903.
The Cynic's Word Book, Doubleday, New York: 1906.
The Shadow on the Dial and Other Essays, A.M. Robertson, San Francisco: 1909.
Write It Ri8ht, Neale Publishin8 Compa~, New York: 1909.
The Collected Works ofAmbrose Bierce 12 Volumes, Neale, New York: 1909-1912.

BIorpA~IEI:

Busch, Niven. California Street, Simon And Schuster, New York: 1959.
Fuentes, Carlos. Grin80 viejo, Fondo de Cultura Econbomica, Mexico: 1985.
Hall, Oakley. Ambrose Bierce and The Qyeen of Spades, University of California
Press, Berkeley: 1998.
Hampton, Bo. Lost Planet [Six Issues], Eclipse Comics, Forestville: 1987.

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