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Second Law of Thermodynamics - The Laws of Heat Power

The Second Law of Thermodynamics is one of three Laws of Thermodynamics. The term
"thermodynamics" comes from two root words: "thermo," meaning heat, and "dynamic," meaning
power. Thus, the Laws of Thermodynamics are the Laws of "Heat Power." As far as we can tell,
these Laws are absolute. All things in the observable universe are affected by and obey the Laws
of Thermodynamics.

The First Law of Thermodynamics, commonly known as the Law of Conservation of Matter,
states that matter/energy cannot be created nor can it be destroyed. The quantity of
matter/energy remains the same. It can change from solid to liquid to gas to plasma and back
again, but the total amount of matter/energy in the universe remains constant.

Third low The third law was developed by the chemist Walther Nernst during the years
1906-1912, and is therefore often referred to as Nernst's theorem or Nernst's postulate.
The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a system at absolute zero is a
well-defined constant. This is because a system at zero temperature exists in its ground
state, so that its entropy is determined only by the degeneracy of the ground state. It
means that "it is impossible by any procedure, no matter how idealised, to reduce any
system to the absolute zero of temperature in a finite number of operations".

An alternative version of the third law of thermodynamics as stated by Gilbert N. Lewis


and Merle Randall in 1923: