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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER III
NTRODUCTION
In studying human behavior, you have to start
your orientation by knowing how humans
develop. How do psychologists study human
development? What determines human
behavior, nature or nurture? What are the
areas of development in human beings? Is it
only physical? How are human being’s
perception and motor skills developed? Is
social development in beings the same as their
cognitive development? What are the theories
explain human development? These are
significant questions which psychologists aim
to answer.
WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT?
•In the medical science, pediatricians view
the subject on growth and development of the
child from the period of conception to the
adolescence.

•Some authors interchangeably or
synonymously deal with terms in growth and
development but this should not be the case
since this two terms could be distinguished
from one another.
GROWTH
•WE ARE REFERRING TO BODILY INCREASE IN
SIZE, STRUCTURE OR QUANTITATIVE
CHANGES.
•WE GROW PHYSICALLY AND MENTALLY.

DEVELOPMENT
•REFERS TO QUALITATIVE CHANGES. THE
CHANGES ARE BROUGHT ABOUT WITH AN
INCREASE IN FUNCTION AND MATIRITY. MAYBE
DEFINED AS THE CALIBRATED PROGRESSIVE
STRING OF ORDERLY, COHERENT AND RELATED
CHANGES.
BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
INVOLVE CHANGES IN THE INDIVIDUAL’S
PHYSICAL NATURE. GENES ARE INHERITED FROM
PARENTS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN,
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAINS, CHENGES IN MOTOR
SKILLS, THE HORMONAL CHANGES OF PUBERTY
AND CARDIOVASCULAR DECLINE ALL REFLECT
THE ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL PROCES.

COGNITIVE PROCESS
INVOLVE CHANGES IN THE INDIVIDUAL’S
THOUGHT, INTELLIGENCE AND
LANGUAGE.
SOCIO-EMOTIONAL PROCESS

INVOLVE CHANGES IN THE


INDIVIDUAL’S RELATIONSHIPS WITH
OTHER PEOPLE, CHANGES IN
EMOTIONS, AND CHANGES IN
PERSONALITY.
RIODS OF DEVELOPMENT
qPRENATAL PERIOD- IT IS THE TIME OF
TREMENDOUS GROWTH-FROM A SINGLE
CELL TO AN ORGANISM COMPLETE WITH
BRAIN AND BEHAIORAL CAPABILITIES,
PRODUCED IN APPROXIMATELY 9-MONTH
PERIOD.
qINFANCY- IS THE DEVELOPMENT STAGE
EXTENDING FROM BIRTH TO 18 OR 24
MONTHS. IT IS TIME OF EXTERME
DEPENDENCE UPON ADULTS.
qEARLY CHILDHOOD- IS THE DEVELOPMENT
PERIOD EXTENDING FROM THE END OF INFANCY
TO ABOUT 5 TO 6 YEARS. YOUNG CHILDREN
LEARN TO BECOME MORE SELF-SUFFICIENT
AND TO CARE FOR THEMSELVES , DEVELP
SCHOOL READINESS SKILLS SUCH AS
FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS, IDENTOFYING
LETTERS AND SPEND MANY HOURS IN PALY
WITH PEERS.
qMIDDLE AND LATE CHILDHOOD- IS THE PERIOD
EXTENDING FROM ABOUT 6-11 YEARS OF AGE,
APPROXIMATELY CORRESPONDING TO THE
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS. THE
FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS OF READING, WRITING
AND ARITHMETIC ARE MASTERED.
qADOLESCENCE- IS THE DEVELOPMENT PERIOD
OF TRANSITION FROM CHILDHOOD TO EARLY
ADULTHOOD, ENTERED AT APPROXIMATELY 10 TO
12 YEARS OF AGE AND ENDING AT 18 TO 22 YEARS
OF AGE. ADOLESCENCE BEGINS WITH RAPID
PHYSICAL CHANGES.
qEARLY ADULTHOOD- IS THE DEVELOMENTAL
PERIOD BEGINNING INN THE LATE TEENS OR
EARLY TWENTIES AND LASTING THROUGH
THIRTIES. IT IS A TINME OF ESTABLISHING
PERSONAL AND ECONOMIC INDEPENCE, A TIME
OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND A TIME OF
SELECTING A MATE, LEARNING TO LIVE WITH
SOMEONE IN AN INANIMATE WAY, STARTING A
FAMILY.
qMIDDLE ADULTHOOD- IS THE DEVELOPMENTAL
PERIOD BEGINNING AT APPROXIAMTELY 35 TO 45
YEARS OF AGE AND EXTENDING TO THE SIXTIES. IT
IS A TIME OF EXPANDING PERSONAL AND SOCIAL
INVOLVEMENT AMD RESPONSIBILTY: OF ASSISTING
THE NEXT GENERATION IN BECOMING
COMPETENT , MATURE INDIVIDUALS: AND OF
REACHING AND MAINTAINING SATISFACTION IN
ONE’S CAREER.
qLATE ADULTHOOD- IS THE DEVELOPMENTAL
PERIOD BEGINNING IN THE SIXTIES OR SEVENTIES
AND LASTING UNTIL DEATH. A TIME OF
ADJUSTMENT TO DECREASING STRENGTH AND
HEALTH, LIFE REVIEW, RETIREMENT AND
ADJUSTMENT TO NEW SOCIAL ROLES.
q
THE NATURE - NURTURE
CONTROVERSY

MATURATION AND
EXPERIENCE
MATURATION IS THE ORDERLY
SEQUENCE OF CHANGES DICATATED
BY THE GENETIC BLUEPRINT WE
EACH HAVE.
FROM THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
WHICH INCLUDES THE FAMILY,
PEERS, SCHOOLS, COMMUNITY,
MEDIA, AND CULTURE.
NATURE REFERS TO AN ORGANISM’S
BIOLOGICAL INHERITANCE, “ NURTURE”
TO ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERIENCES. THE
NATURE PROPONENTS CLAIM
BIOLOGICAL INHERITANCE IS THE MOST
IMPORTANT INFLUENCE ON
DEVELOPMENT AND THE NURTURE
PROPONENTS CLAIM THAT
ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERIENCES ARE THE
MOST IMPORTANT. IT SHOULD BE NOTED
THAT DEVELOPMENT IS NOT ALL NATURE
OR ALL NURTURE.
WHAT CAN WE INHERIT
FROM OUR PARENTS?
HEREDITY IS THE TRANSMISSION OF
CHARACTERISTICS FROM PARENTS TO THEIR
OFFSPRING THROUGH THE GENES. GENES
DETERMINE HEREDITARY CHARACTERISTICS.
THEY ARE MADE UP OF DNA. IT LIES ALONG
CHROMOSOMES , BODIES THAT ARE IN THE
NUCLEUS OF EACH CELL IN OUR BODY. EVERY
HUMAN CELL CONTAINS 46 CHROMOSOMES
ARRANGED IN 23 PAIRS. THE SEX CELLS
CONTAIN 23 SINGLE CHROMOSOMES .
FERTILIZATION RESULTS IN 23 PAIRS OF
CHROMOSOMES – THE FEMALE EGG
CONTAINS X CHROMOSOMES AND EVERY
MALE SPERM CELL CONTAINS EITHER AN X
OR A Y CHROMOSOME.
qTHERE ARE HEREDITARY
TENDENCIES TOWARD LONG LIFE.
HIGH INTELLIGENCE IS INHERITED TO
SOME EXTENT.
qCERTAIN TYPES OF
FEEBLEMINDEDNESS TEND TO RUN IN
FAMILIES. THERE ARE SOME WHO
BELIEVE THAT LOW MENTALITY IS
DUE TO CONSANGUINEOUS
MARRIAGE. IT MAY BE CONGENITAL
PRINCIPLES OF
GROWTH
AND DEVELOPMENT
qPRINCIPLE OF VARIABILITY-
MATURATION PROCEEDS FROM
FITS AND STARTS RATHER THAN A
CONTINUOUS, SMOOTH FASHION.
THE RATE IS CONSTANT.
qPRINCIPLE OF INDEPENDENCE-
DIFFERENT PARTS AND SYSTEMS
OF THE BODY DEVELOP IN
LARGELY INDEPENDENT PATTERNS
AND SEQUENCES.
qPRINCIPLE OF DIFFERENTIATION-
DEVELOPMENT OCCURS ALONG THE
LINE FROM IT’S HEAD TO IT’S
TAIL(CEPHALO-CAUDAL): FROM WHOLE
BODY TO SPECIFIC(PROXIMO-DISTAL)
qPRINCIPLE OF INTEGRATION-
INTEGRATION INCREASES WITH
DEVELOPMENT. MOTOR ACTIONS
WHICH ARE AWKWARD AT FIRST
BECOME COORDINATED SOON.
qPRINCIPLE OF PREDICTABILITY-
SEQUENCES IN MATURATION ARE
MORE PREDICTABLE THAN RATES
OF MATURATION. INFANTS FOLLOW
A CERTAIN PATTERN OF MOTOR
DEVELOPMENT BUT THE AGE AT
WHICH ONE CHILD ACHIEVES SUCH
ACTS MAY BE DIFFERENT FROM
THAT OF THE OTHER.
qPRINCIPLE OF LIMITATION-
MATURATION SETS THE LIMITS
ON LEARNING. AN INFANT
CANNOT LEARN TO CONTROL
MOVEMENT UNTIL HIS
SKELETON AND HIS NERVOUS
AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS ARE
SUFFICIENTLY MATURE TO
PERMIT SUCH LEARNING.
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
PRE-NATAL DEVELOPMENT- THE
PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT FROM
CONCEPTION TO BIRTH. THE
AVERAGE PREGNANCY LASTS 270
TO 280 DAYS OR 40 WEEKS. AT
CONCEPTION THE SPERM CELL
FERTILIZES THE EGG CELL WHILE IT
WAS STAYING AT THE FALLOPIAN
TUBE.
THE PRE-NATAL STAGE HAS
THREE LAYERS:
qTHE GERMINAL STAGE- INCLUDES THE
FIRST TWO WEEKS AFTER FERTILIZATION.
THE ZYGOTE TRAVELS AT THE FALLOPIAN
TUBE THEN ATTACHES ITSELF TO THE
WALL OF THE UTERUS.
qTHE EMBRYONIC STAGE EXTENDS
FROM THE SECOND TO EIGHT WEEK
AFTER CONCEPTION . THE ZYGOTE IS
ABOUT ON EINCH LONG. MOST VITAL
ORGANS AND BODILY SYSTEMS BEGIN TO
FORM
qAMNIOTIC SAC OR FLUID-FILLED
SAC SURROUNDS THE EMBRYO
TO SERVE AS PROTECTION AND
PROVIDE A CONSTANT
ATMOSPHERE. FROM 2 MONTHS
AFTER CONCEPTION UNTIL BIRTH
IS THE FETAL STAGE.
DURATION DEVELOPMENT
2nd WEEK IMPLANTATION ON UTERINE
3RD -4TH WEEK WALL BEGINS TO PUMP
HEART
4TH WEEK DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BEGINS
TO FORM:THEN EYES
5TH WEEK EARS
6TH WEEK ARMS AND LEGS APPEAR
7TH -8TH WEEK MALE SEX ORGAN FORM,
FINGERS FORM
8TH WEEK BONES FORM, LEGS AND
ARMS, TOES FORM
10TH – 11TH WEEK FEMALE SEX ORGANS FORMS
12TH WEEK FETUS WEIGH ONE OUNCE;
FETAL MOVEMENT OCCURS’
FINGERPRINTS FORM
20TH WEEK MOTHER FEELS MOVEMENT;
REFLEXES APPEAR. NAILS,
SWEAT GLANDS AND SOFT
38TH WEEK HAIR
FETUSDEVELOPING.
WEIGHS ABOUT 7
40TH WEEK POUNDS
FULL -TERM BABY BORN
FACTORS THAT MAY
AFFECT AN UNBORN
CHILD ..
qGERMAN MEASLES RESULTS IN
DEAFNESS, CATARACT, MENTAL
DEFICIENCY OR HEART DISEASE IN
THE BABY.
qSYPHILIS, MALARIA, SMALL POX,
CHICKEN POX, AMD MUMPS ARE
INFECTIOUS DISEASE CAUSED BY
AGENTS SMALL ENOUGH TO PASS
THROUGH PLACENTA, CAN RESULT IN
DEFORMITIES OR DEFECTS.
qMATERNAL MALNUTRITION AS WELL AS
ANOXIA AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
AFFECT DEVELOPMENT OF THE FETUS.
qALCOHOL AND SMOKING INCREASES
FETAL HEARTBEAT.
qEFFECTS OF X-RAYS AND OTHER FORM
OF RADIATION MAY AFFECT THE
MENTALITY OF THE CHILD.
qEMOTIONAL STATES OF THE MOTHER
CAN INFLUENCE AN UNBORN CHILD.
qENDOCRINE IRREGULARITIES ARE
FOUND TO BE FACTORS.
qEMOTIONAL STATES OF THE MOTHER
CAN INFLUENCE AN UNBORN CHILD.
qBLOOD INCOMPATIBILITY OR RH
POSITIVE AND RH POSITIVE (MAN AND
WOMAN) RESULTS TO STILLBORN OR
MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD.
qUSE OF DRUGS EASILY CROSSES THE
PLACENTAL BARRIER AND MAY IMPEDE
THE FETUS NORMAL DEVELOPMENT.
qEFFECTS OF PILLS OR MEDICINES
TAKEN BY THE MOTHER.
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
(1 – 18 MONTHS)
THE PROXIMO DISTAL PRINCIPLE OF
DEVELOPMENT DESCRIBES THE
CENTER- OUTWARD DIRECTION OF
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT. CHILDREN
CAN CONTROL THEIR TORSO BEFORE
THEIR EXTREMITIES. THEY CAN SIT
BEFORE THEY STAND. THE CEPHALO-
CAUDAL PRINCIPLE DESCRIBES THE
HEAD TO FOOT DIRECTION OF MOTOR
DEVELOPMENT.
AGE BEHAVIOR

1MONTH PRONE ON STOMACH, CAN


LIFT HEAD
2MONTHS PRONE, CAN HOLD CHEST UP,
CAN ROLL FROM SIDE TO
BACK
3MONTHS CAN ROLL OVER, REACHES
FOR OBJECTS

6-7 MONTHS SITS WITHOUT SUPPORT;


STANDS HOLDING ONTO
OBJECTS.
8-12 CRAWLS; PULLS SELFTO
STAND; CRUISES- WALKS BY
HOLDING ONTO OBJECTS.
12- 18 MONTHS WALKS ALONE
PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT
qTHE FIVE SENSES ARE FUNCTIONAL AT
BIRTH.
qBY SIX MONTHS, INFANTS CAN
DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN ANY 2 BASIC
SOUNDS USED IN LANGUAGE.
qBY SIX WEEKS, INFANST CAN SMELL THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEIR MOTHERS
AND STRANGERS.
qINFANTS RESPOND TO THE FOUR BASIC
TASTES.
qA NUMBER OF REFLEXES CAN BE
ELICITED IN INFANTS.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
CHILDERN ALSO GROW SOCIALLY AS
THEY DEVELOP. TEMPERAMENT
REFERS TO A CHILD’S
CHARACTERISTICS MOOD AND
ACTIVITY LEVEL.
THOMAS , CHESS, BIRCH. THEY
FOUND THAT THEY COULD
CLASSIFY INFANTS INTO
DIFFERENT GROUPS BASED ON
TEMPERAMENT.
qEASY INFANTS(40%)- WERE ADAPTABLE TO NEW
SITUATIONS; PREDICATBLE IN THEIR RHYTHMICITY
OR SCHEDULE; POSITIVE IN THEIR MOOD.
qDIFFICULT INFANTS( 10%)- INTENSE IN THEIR
REACTIONS; NOT VERY ADAPTABLE TO NEW
SITUATIONS; SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE MOOD;
IRREGULAR BODY RHYTHMS.
qSLOW-TO-WARM INFANTS(15%)- INITIALLY
WITHDRAW WHEN APPPROACHED BUT MAY LATER
“WARM UP” SLOW TO ADAPT TO NEW SITUATIONS.
qAVERAGE INFANTS(35%)- DID NOT FIT INTO ANY
OF THE ABOVE CATEGORIES.
GENDER-ROLE DEVELOPMENT
qTHE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY PROPOSES THAT
CHILDREN LEARN GENDER ROLES BECAUSE THEY ARE
REWARDED FOR APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR AND PUNISHED
FOR INAPPROPRIATE GENDER ROLE BEHAVIORS.
qCOGNITIVE THEIRY OF KOHLBERG ARGUED THAT
CHILDERN LEARN ABOUT GENDER THE SAME WAY THAT
THEY ACQUIRE OTHER COGNITIVE CONCEPTS.
qJEAN PIAGET’S THEORY CLAIMS THAT FIRST, PRESCHOOL
CHILDREN ACQUIRE GENDER IDENTITY.
qIN FREUD’S THEORY PSYCHOANALYSIS PROPOSES THAT
CHILDREN ESTABLISH THEIR GENDER- ROLE IDENTITY AS A
RESULT OF IDENTIFICATION WITH THEIR SAME SEX PARENT
DURING THE PHALLIC STAGE.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
qSENSORIMOTOR STAGE (FROM BIRTH
TO 18MONTHS OF AGE)
- CHILDREN THINK AS A RESULT OF
COORDINATION OF SENSORY INPUT AND
MOTOR RESPONSES. INTELLIGENCE IS
NON-VERBAL OR NON SYMBOLIC
BECAUSE THE CHILD HAS NOT
DEVELOPED LANGUAGE YET. INFANTS
LACK OBJECT PERMANENCE. THEY
CANNOT MENTALLY REPRESENT OR
THINK ABOUT OBJECTS THAT THEY ARE
NOT DIRECTLY INTERACTING WITH.
qPRE OPERATIONAL OR INTUITIVE STAGE
(2 TO 7 YEARS OF AGE)
- IS WHERE CAN NOW SYMBOLIZE OR
MENTALLY REPRESENT THEIR WORLD. ONE
LIMITATION OF CHILDREN IS
IRREVERSIBILITY OR THE INABILITY TO
MENTALLY REVERSE A PHYSICAL ACTION
TO RETURN AN OBJECT TO ITS ORGINAL
STAGE, CEBTRATION OR THE TENDENCY
TO FOCUS ON ONE DETAIL IN A SITUATION
TO THE NEGLECT OF OTHER IMPORTANT
FEATURES AND EGOCENTRISM, THE
INABILITY TO CONSIDER ANOTHER’S
VIEWPOINT.
qCONCRET OPERATIONS STAGE( 7 TO 12
YEARS OF AGE)
-MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS
DEVELOP.THEY HAVE DIFFICULTY DEALING
WITH HYPOTHETICAL PROBLEMS BECAUSE
THINKING CAN ONLY APPLIED TO
CONCRETE OBJECTS OR EVENTS.

qFORMAL OPERATION (12 YEARS


ONWARDS)
- THINKERS CAN HANDLE HYPOTHETICAL
PROBLEMS INVOLVE THE DEVELOPMENT
OF LOGICAL AND SYSTEMATIC THINKING.
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
OF HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT
STAGE AGE RANGE CHARACTERIST CONFLICT
ICS
• EROGENOUS ZONE - •W EANING - THE

• IS THE MOUTH ; INFANT WHO


• HENCE , THE INFANT STARTED OUT BEING
• ENJOYS ORAL ENTIRELY
• STIMULATION AND DEPENDENT ON
• ENGAGES IN CAREGIVERS MUST
• ACTVITIES SUCH AS LEARN TO BECOME
ORAL 0-1 BITING , SUCKING , LESS DEPENDENT .
SPITTING , AND THE
LIKE .

INFANT ALSO

DEVELOPS A SENSE ISSUES WITH


OF TRUST WHEN AGGRESSION MAY


CAREGIVERS ARE ARISE IF THE
ABLE TO PROVIDE CHILD BECOMES
ORAL STIMULATION FIXATED AT THIS
STAGE .
STAGE AGE RANGE CHARACTERIST CONFLICT
ICS
•EROGENOUS ZONE •TOILET

IS AROUND THE TRAINING


RECTAL AREA SUCCESS
AND LIBIDO IS DEPENDS ON HOW
DIRECTED TO CAREGIVERS
CONTROLLING APPROACH
BLADDER AND TOILET
BOWEL MOVEMENT. TRAINING.
ANAL PROPER SUPPORT
2-3

AND

•A CHILD WHO ENCOURAGEMENT


LEARNS TO LEAD TO
CONTROL HIS COMPETENCE,
BODILY NEEDS A CREATIVITY AND
SENSE OF PRODUCTIVITY
ACCOMPLISHMENT IN ADULTHOOD.
OR •INAPPROPRIATE
INDEPENDENCE.
PARENTAL
RESPONSES CAN
LEAD TO
STAGE AGE RANGE CHARACTERIST CONFLICT
ICS •OEDIPUS

COMPLEX FOR
EROGENOUS ZONE IS BOYS AND

THE GENITALIA. ELECTRA


CHILDRENMAY FIND COMPLEX FOR
IT ENJOYABLE TO GIRLS.
TOUCH OR FONDLE •
PHALLIC 4-5 THEIR GENITALS. BOYS MAY HAVE
THEY ALSO THIS DESIRE TO
DISCOVER THE POSSESS THEIR
DIFFERENCES MOTHER BUT ARE
BETWEEN MALES AND AFRAID THAT
FEMALES.
THEY WILL BE
PUNISHED BY
THEIR FATHER
FOR SUCH
DESIRES.
•GIRLS ALSO

DEVELOP
SIMILAR
DESIRES BUT
INSTEAD
STAGE AGE RANGE CHARACTERISTICS CONFLICT
•LIBIDINAL ENRGY IS
SUPPRESSED AS THE
CHILD STARTS
SCHOOLING AND
BECOMES MORE
LATENT 6 PUBERTY INTERESTED WITH
RECREATIONAL
ACTIVITIES AND PEER
RELATIONSHIPS.
•SEXUAL ENERGY IS

DIRECTED TO MORE
SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE
ACTVITIES.
•SUCCESFUL

REDIRECTION OF
SEXUAL DRIVES HELP
THE CHILD DEVELOPS
GOOD INTERPERSONAL
SKILLS AND SELF
CONFIDENCE.
STAGE AGE RANGE CHARACTERISTICS CONFLIC
•SEXUAL DESIRES T
RESURFACE BUT THIS
TIME, INTEREST IS ON
THE OPPOSITE SEX AND
WELFARE OF OTHERS.
GENITAL PUBERTY AND •THE INDIVIDUAL IS
NOW CONCERNED WITH
UP. MAINTAINING A WELL-
BALANCED LIFE.
PSYCHOSOCIAL
STAGES OF
DEVELOPMENT
BY ERIK ERIKSON
qTRUST VS. MISTRUST- (FIRST YEAR
OF LIFE) NEEDS OF INFANTS MUST BE
MET BY CARETAKERS WHO ARE
RESPONSIVE AND SENSITIVE.
q
qAUTONOMY VS. SHAME- (1-3 YEARS)
CHILDREN EXPRESS SELF-CONTROL
EXPLORING, CLIMBING ETC.
q
qINITIATIVE VS. GUILT- (3-5 YEARS)
CHILDREN ARE ASKED TO ASSUME
MORE RESPONSIBILTY.
qINDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY- (6-12 YEARS)
CHILDREN LEARN FROM SCHOOL SOCIAL
VALUES.
q
qIDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION-
(ADOLESCENCE)FINDING OUT WHO WE ARE,
WHAT WE VALUE AND WHERE WE ARE
HEADED IN LIFE.
q
qINTIMACY VS. ISOLATION-(YOUNG
ADOLESCENCE) AFTER ESTABLISHING A
PERSON IS PREAPARED TO FORM DEEP
INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS.
qGENERATIVITY VS. ISOLATION- (MIDDLE
ADULTHOOD) THE FOCUS IS GUIDING THE
NEXT GENERATION. THIS CAN BE DONE
THROUGH CRAETIVE OR PRODUCTIVE
WORK OR THROUGH CARING FOR
CHILDREN.
q
qINTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR-(LATE
ADULTHOOD) A TIME FOR LOOKING BACK
AT OUR LIVES.
EMOTIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
qEMOTIONS THAT ARE DIRECTED INTO
DESIRABLE AND WHOLESOME PATTERNS
OF EXPERESSIONS WILL LEAD TO
WHOLESOME JUDGEMENTS.
q
qEMOTIONS PREPARE THE BODY FOR ACTION. IT
COLOR’S THE CHILD’S OUTLOOK IN LIFE, AFFECT
SOCIAL INTERACTION, LEAVE THEIR MARK ON
FACIAL EXPRESSION AND AFFECT THE
PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE.
qLACK OF DIFFERENTIATION IN
EMOTION IS FOUND DURING THE FIRST
MONTH OF THE INFANT
q

qLOVE FEAR AND ANGER. CHILDREN


LEARN TO LOVE THE PERSON WHO
SATISFIES THEIR PHYSIACAL NEEDS.
MORAL DEVELOPMENT
KOHLBERG PRESCRIBES HOW
INDIVIDUALS PASS THROUGH A
SERIES OF THREE LEVELS OF MORAL
DEVELOPMENT EACH OF WHICH CAN
BE BROKEN INTO TWO SUBLEVELS
RESULTING IN A TOTAL OF SIX
STAGES.
1.PRE-CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
- STAGE 1: PUNISHMENT ORIENTATION, A
PERSON COMPLIES WITH RULES
DURING THIS SATEG IN ORDER TO
AVOID PUNISHMENT.
-STAGE 2: REWARD ORIENTATION, AN
ACTION IS DETERMINED BY ONE’S OWN
NEEDS.
-
2. CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
-STAGE 3: GOOD GIRL/BOY ORIENTATION,
GOOD BEHAVIOR IS THAT WHICH
PLEASES OTHERS AND GETS THEIR
APPROVAL.
-STAGE 4: AUTHORITY ORIENTATION,
EMPHASIS IS ON UPHOLDING THE LAW,
ORDER AND AUTHORITY AND DOING
ONE’S DUTY BY FOLLOWING SOCIETAL
RUELS.
3. POST CONVENTIONAL MORALITY
-STAGE 5: SOCIAL CONTRACT
ORIENTATION. FLEXIBLE
UNDERSTANDING THAT PEOPLE OBEY
RULES BECAUSE THEY ARE
NECESSARY FOR THE SOCIAL ORDER
BUT THAT RULES CAN CHANGE IF
THERE IS GOOD REASONS AND BETTER
ALTERNATIVES.
-STAGE 6: MORALITY OF INDIVIDUAL
PRINCIPLES ORIENTATION, BEHAVIOR
IS DIRECTED BY SELF-CHOSEN
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES.
BUILDING MORAL
INTELLIGENCE

-MICHELE BORBA
(2001)
MORAL INTELLIGENCE CONSISTS OF
SEVEN ESSENTIAL VIRTUES:
qEMPATHY IS THE CORE MORA; EMOTION
THAT ALLOWS THE CHILD TO UNDERSTAND
HOW OTHER PEOPLE FEEL.
qCONSCIENCE IS A STRONG INNER VOICE
THAT HELPS CHILD DECIDE RIGHT FROM
WRONG.
qRESPECT ENCOURAGES YOUR CHILD TO
TREAT OTHERS WITH CONSIDEARTION
BECAUSE SHE REGARDS THEM AS
WORTHY.
qKINDNESS IS A SENSE OF HUMAN
DECENCY AND COMPASSION IN
RELATIONSHIPS.
qFAIRNESS IS CHOOSING TO BE OPEN
MINDED AND TO ACT IN A JUST AND
FAIR WAY.
qTOLERANCE HELPS YOUR CHILD
APPRECIATE DIFFERENT QUALITIES IN
OTHERS , AND LISTEN OPENLY TO ALL
SIDES BEFORE JUDGING.
ADOLESCENCE
ON PHYSICAL CHANGES, PUBERTY
REFERS TO RAPID PHYSICAL
GROWTH THAT OCCURS WITH
HORMONAL CHANGES THAT BRING
SEXUAL MATURITY. SECONDARY SEC
CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH
GENDER BUT NOT DIRECTLY
INVOLVED IN REPRODUCTION SUCH
AS MALE FACIAL HAIR EMERGES AND
THE MENARCHE IN FEMALES.
ADOLESCENTS ENTER WHAT WE
CALLS AS PSYCOSOCIAL MORATORIUM
WHICH RELATES TO THE GAP
BETWEEN THE SECURITY OF
CHILDHOOD AND THE AUTONOMY OF
ADULTHOOD WHERE A PERSON IS
FREE FROM RESPONSIBILITIES AND
CAN EXPERIMENT WITH DIFFERENT
ROLES.
ADULTHOOD

IN EARLY ADULTHOOD, THIS EXTENDS


FROM APPROXIMATELY 20 TO 40 YEARS
OF AGE. PHYSICAL CHANGES ARE
SHOWN IN RAECTION TIME AND
MUSCULAR STRENGTH WHICH PEAK AT
THIS PERIOD.
IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
THIS LASTS FROM
APPROXIMATELY 40 TO 65
YEARS OF AGE, PHYSICAL
CHANGES SHOW THAT THE
ACTIVE BRAIN CELLS
DECLINE.
AGING
THE STUDY OF ELDERLY IS CALLED
GERONTOLOGY. AGEISM REFERS TO
PREJUDICE AGINST OLDER PEOPLE. AS
TO PHYSICAL CHANGES, BIOLOGICAL
CHANGING IS A GRADUAL PROCESS
THAT BEGINS QUITE EARLY IN LIFE. PEAK
PHYSICAL FUNCTIONING OCCURS
AROUND 25 YEARS OF AGE AND
GRADUALLY DECLINES THEREAFTER.
THE RISK OF CHRONIC DISEASES
INCREASES.
END..