<

OU1 64740

OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
(5aII

No.

1

4 9 . 3/B 9 5M

Accession No.

2

1

B 3

Author
Title

Burhan ahmad faruqi -Mujaddid's conception of tawhid
last

This book should he returned on or before the date

marked below,

THE
MUJADDID'S CONCEPTION OF TAWHID

Imam-i-Rabbani Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Tham Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi's Conception of Tawhid

OR

THE 'MU J ADDID'S CONCEPTION OF TAWHID
By

BURHAN AHMAD FARUQI, MA,
Aligarh Muslim University. Ahgarh

Ph.D

With a foreword by

MA

SYED ZAFARUL HASAN
(Alig),D Phil (Oxon), Dr Phil
(Erl
)

SH.

MUHAMMAD ASHRAF
-

KASHMIRI BAZAR

LAHORE (INDIA)

First published

October

1940

Published by Sh

Muhammad A^hraf Kashmiri Bazar. Lahore

Printed at the Ripon Printing Press, Bull Road, Lahore

bv Mirza

Mohammad

Sadiq

Dedicated
to

my

revered teacher

Dr. Syed Zafarul Hasan who watched my life with paternal concern and
at

whose

feet I learnt to

understand

the fundamental problems in

Philosophy and Religion

FOREWORD

IN drawn our attention to a central point of religion, mysticism
>y*.)

this treatise Dr.

Burhan

Ahmad

Faruqi has

and philosophy.
sufis.

^

ev- affirmed

O^x^ which thereby became a

widely accepted
***s^*

doctrine amongst Islamic

$>

firmly

and solemnly denied it, and persisted in his denial throughout his career and he based his denial, not on extraneous considerations, but on mystic experience itself. Dr. Burhan has formulated and clarified the issue between these two great mystics with a care and perspicuity which deserves praise and he has brought religion and philosophy to bear on it. In this connection his discourse on the distinction of Religious Consciousness from mystic consciousness and speculative
; ;

consciousness
logic

is

indeed illuminating; while the
little

of

his

contention and the cogency of his
to desire.

arguments seem to leave

Now

8

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

after the relapse of Islamic mysticism again into>**-)

^^j,

it

was high time that an earnest study

of this kind should have been undertaken and

pursued with the thoroughness characteristic of Dr. Burhan Ahmad's work.
-

Another conspicuous service of Dr. Burhan Ahmad's book is that it has brought the great Mujaddid and his far-reaching movement within
the purview of western orientalists.
is

Certainly

it

most interesting to note how deeply has
specially in India,

this

unique personality influenced the nerve of Islamic
thought,

throughout the
inquiry
if

last

three and a half centuries.
further and
still

The

pursued
believe'

more

in

detail will, I

repay the time and labour bestowed upon it. It has been my privilege to watch the growth
of
this

valuable
I

treatise

at every

stage

of
it

its

development.
all

can confidently recommend

to

Muslim

scholars and western orientalists for

sympathetic study and careful scrutiny.

Aligarh 30-9-40

S.

Z.

HASAN

CONTENTS
Foreword
Abbreviations
...
...

...
.. ..
.

.

vn
xi

...
...

...
...
...

PRELIMINARY
(a)
(fe)

...
.

1

Biographical sketch
liis

...
...
...
.

7

Times

...
..

...
.

12

(c)

(eO

His Achievements His Influence

...

...

INTRODUCTION Unity of the World-Principle ... CHAPTER I The Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
1.

28 31 45 85

Ibn Arabi's Wahdat-i-Wujud or Unityism and the Mujaddid's Criticism of it

2.

The Mujaddid's Tawhid
II

^

86
117
141

.

...

CHAPTER
1
2.
3. 4. 5.

The Reception of the Conception of Tawhid

Mujaddid's
...
..

Shah Wali-Ullah ..145 Khwaja Mir Nasir and Khwaja Mir Dard ... 149 ... ..157 Mawlwi Ghulam Yahya ..163 ... ... Shah Rafi-uddin ... 164 ... Shah Sayy id Ahmad Barelwi
..

THE CONCLUSION
INDEX

...

..

...
..

171

189

ABBREVIATIONS
AM =
At.

=
.

DB.

'Awn-ul-Ma'bUd fi SJjarh Abu DSud (Ar.), by Mawlwi Shamsul Haq of Patna, AnsSrl Press, Delhi, 1323 A H. 'Abaqat (Ar.), by Mawlwi Shah Isma'il SJiahid, (undated). Damagh-ul-Batil (Per ), by Shah RafT-uddln, MS. No. 1699,
Oriental Library, Bankipur.
Epistle

Ep FH.

FM.

= = =

Fusus-ul-Hikam (Ar ), by Ibn 'ArabI, MS. Futuhat Makklyya (Ar ), by Ibn ArabI, Darul-Kutub
'

al-

'Arabia. Egypt. 1329

A.H.

FW.
HQ.
IK.

Faysalat-u-Wahadat-ul-wujud-wash-shuhGd (Ar.).by Sh^ah Wall-Ullah, AhmadI Press, Delhi, 1324 A.H.
==

Urdu Translation of Khw5ja Badr-uddin's Hadrat-ul-Quds,
Islamia Steam Press, Lahore, 1341 A.H.
'Ilm-ul-Kitab (Per.), by |Chwaja H. Delhi, 1308

=

Mir Dard, Ansarl Press

KH.
KhA.
M.

= =
=

A

Kahmat-ul-Haqq (Per

),

by

Mawlwi GhuUUn Yahya,

MS

Shefta Collection, Lytton Library, M. U., Ahgarh. Khazlnat-ul- Asfiya (Per ), by Gh/ilam Sarwar Lahawri,

Thamar-i-Hmd

Press,

Lucknow, 1290 A.H.
(Per.),

Maktubat-J-Im5m-i-RabbanI
Sirhmdl, edited by 1334 A H.

by

M

Shaikh

Ahmad

Nur Ahmad,

printed at Amritsar,

MM.

=

Mabda-o-Ma'ad (Per.), by SJiaikh Mujaddidl Press, Amritsar, 1330 A H.

Ahmad

Sirhmdl,

xii

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh (Per), by Mulla 'Abdul Qadir BadayunI, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 3865 A.D.
Maqamat-i-Mazharl (Per
Press, Delhi, 1309
),

MT =
MtM.

=

by Sh5h Ghulam'Ali, Mujtabat

A.H
A.H
edition,

NA =
Q
RQ
SA

N3la-i-'Andalib (Per), by KhwSja Mir Nasir 'Andalib,

=

Shshjahan! Press, Bhupal, 1310

Qur-3n
1354

Anjuman-i-Him5yat-i-Islam

Lahore,

AH

Urdu

=

Translation of Khwaja Kamal-uddin's Raudat-ulQayyurmyya, Civil Steam Press, Lahore (undated). Sawanih Ahraadi, by Ja'far 'All, Sufi Publishing Co Pmdi

Bah5-uddln, Steam Press, Lahore (undated).

SM
ShF
TA

=
= =

Sirat-i-Mustaqim (Per

),

by Mawlwi Shah Ismail Shahid.

Mujtabai Press, Delhi, 1322 A H Sharh FusHs-ul-Hikam (Ar.), by

'Abdur

Razz5q

al-

Qashani, Maymaniyya Press. Egypt, 1321

AH

Tadhkirat-ul-Awhy3 (Per Press, Delhi, 1305 A H.

),

by Farld-uddin 'Attar, Mujtabai
Sir

TtA
TJ

= =

TasSmf-i-Ahmadiyya (Urdu), by

Sayyid

Ahmad

Khan,

Ahgarh
Sayyid

Institute Press, Ahgarh, 1300

A.H

Tuzuk-i-Jah5ngiri (Per), by Mirza Hadi, edited by Sir

Ahmad
Press,

Khan, his private Press, Ahgarh, 1281
),

A

H.

ZM =

Zubdat-ul-Maq5m5t (Per

by KhwSja

Muhammad Hashim,

Mahmud

Lucknow, 1310

A

H.

PRELIMINARY
is an attempt to work the conception of Tawhid in the thought of that great Islamic mystic, viz.,

dissertation

THIS out
Shaikh
called

Ahmad
the

Sirhindi,

who

is

generally
*

Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Thani

(the

as the Reformer, the Regenerator, or the Renewer. I prefer Renewer. The idea of Mujaddid has its origin in the hadith
:

*The word Mujaddid can be translated

"

God

will,

this nation

on the eve of every century, raise a person in " Abu (Islam) who would renew the religion
:

DSud

(202-275 A.H.). It is maintained that many persons have accordingly been the Mujaddids of their centuries, e.g., 'Umar b. 'Abdul 'Aziz (d. 101 A.H.) First Century Imam
;

b. Idrls (d. 204 A.H.) Second Century; Third Century; Imam BaqillanI Suraij (d. 306 A.H.) Muhammad b. Tayyab (d. 403 A.H.) or ImSm AsfrSyyini Ahmad b. Muhammad (d. 406 A.H.) Fourth Century ImSm GhazzSlI Fifth Century; Imam Fakhruddln RazI (d. 606 <d. 505 A.H.)
h.5fi'I

Muhammad

Ibn

;

2

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
of Islam

Renewer

on the Head

of the second

thousand of the Islamic Era). The Shaikh himself had the inspired belief that he was a
Mujaddid.
1

A.H.) Sixth Century; Ibn Daqiq Al'id Muhammad b. 'All Seventh Century Imam Bulqim Sir2juddln (d. 702 A.H.) Eighth Century Jalaluddln al-Suyuti (d. 911 (d. 905 A.H.) Ninth Century, and others of the subsequent centuries.
,

AH)

;

However, it is noteworthy that (Cf AM., Vol. IV, p. 181). only Shaikh Ahmad has claimed the dignity of the Mujaddid- 1Alf-i-Thani for himself. Khw5ja Kamaluddln Muhammad Ahsan has quoted two
hadithes

m

&"Z*y?^\
(l)

"A man will arise

at the beginning of the llth century,

who
,

will

be a great light and whose name will be the same as mine (he will arise) amidst tyrant kings thousands of men will enter
;

Paradise through his intercession/'

>yo
41

(r)

There

will

be a

man

in

my

nation

who

will

be called a

'

conjomer,' through whose intercession there will enter Paradise so-and-so."
It is believed that these predictions

were made about ShaikVi
need of a great Reformer

Ahmad
1

(See RQ., Part

I,

pp. 37-38.)
realises the

The Mujaddid keenly

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid
It

3

was Mulla 'Abdul Hakim of Sialkot

1067 A.H.), the most illustrious scholar of the day and the Shaikh-al-Islam of India, who
(d.

wasfche

first to

apply to Shaikh

Ahmad
1

the

epithet of Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Thanl.
all

Indeed

the divines and mystics of eminence have

acknowledged him as such. For example, 2 Shah Wali-Ullah and his son Shah 'Abdul
son KhwSja Muhammad Ssdiq (1000-1025 A.H.). See M., Vol I, Ep. 234. Further he expressly claims for himself Vol. II, Ep. 4. the dignity of Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Th2nI. See
in a letter to his

M

,

Again writing to
A.H.) he says
:

his son,

Khw5ja Muhammad Ma'sum (1009-1079
?

"

Praise be to Allah who created me a conjoiner between two Vol. II, oceans and a pacifier between two parties. (See Ep. 6.). The reference is perhaps to the last Hadith in the preceding note

M

,

*KA

.

Vol.

I,

p. 614.

He was the most 'Shah Wall-Ullah (1114-1176 A.M.). eminent divine of his age, and a mystic too. He belonged to the Mujaddidi Naqshbandi School. He acquired mystic discipline from his father, Sh5h 'Abdur Rahim, and is said to be the Mujaddid of his time. He is the founder of a school in Hadith and Tafslr. He translated the Qur-3n into Persian and is the author of many famous works on Hadith, Theology and Mysticism.
'

'

4
1

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

'Aziz,

among

a host of others, always speak

of
is

him

as Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Tliani.

The

latter

have said that amongst the of Islam, Shaikh 'Abdul Qadir Jllanl mystics (470-560 A.H.) and Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindl are the two greatest, only he could not decide
also reported to
*

which was the greater of the two. Shaikh Ahmad is the first and the

greatest

among the mystics
tion of

of Islam

who

expressly and
2

strenuously opposed the Pantheistic concep-

Tawhid known

as

Wahdat-i-Wujud

or Tawhid-i-Wujudi. This conception had become almost universal amongst Muslim
1 Shah 'Abdul 'Aziz (1159-1248 A.H ) was the eldest son of Shsh Wall-Ullah. He was the most celebrated scholar of his day and universally respected like his father. He taught Hadlth to the famous mystic Shah Sayyid Ahmad Barelwl, and also initiated him into the Naqshbandi School. He wrote many works on Kal3m and Hadlth.

(

Wahdat-i- Wujud ( >js^5 ) or Tawhid-i-Wujudi ^J?*}^} ***^5* ) ls umt y of Being. It is the doctrine of very many mystics in Isl5m. The exact equivalent would be Unity ism that is, existent is one. This soon becomes Identythe end tsm that it is identical with everything else, which
*

Oo^

m

passes on to pantheism,

that

it is

God and God

is all.

It

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
mystics, specially since Ibn Arabl
*

5

l

who wrote

on

extensively and has had enormous influence on the subsequent thought of Islam,
it

and gave

it

a strenuous

push forward.

the opposition of Shaikh Ahmad to Wahdat-i-Wujud is based not on theological dogma or philosophical argument, but on

Now

Kashf 2 or direct religious experience.
is

Con-

also called

Wujudiyyat.

Hence Wujudiyym

Wujudiyya or Mawahidln
1

are those

who

or Sufiya-ibelieve in Unityism.

Ibn 'Arabl,

great eminence.

Muhayyuddm (560-638 A.H.) was a mystic of He is generally styled as Shaikh-i-Akbar,

shifted to Seville

He was born at Murcia in Spam, but he which he made his home for thirty years. In 598 AH he set out for the East from where he never returned home. He visited Mecca and Mosul. His fame went with him everywhere. Finally he settled down in Damascus where he died in 638 A.H. He belonged to the Zahirl School,
the Greatest Shaikh.

but rejected Taqlld in doctrinal matters. Ibn 'Arabl's sole guide was inner light with which he believed himself illuminated in a special way. He is said to be the author of as many as 400 books. The most famous of his works are Futuhat-i-Makkiyya and FusUs-ul-Hikam. In the latter he has discussed the
pantheistic conception of Tawhld at length. He was denounced as Zindlq in Egypt, and there was a move to assassinate him.

Ibn Taimiyya (661-728 A.H.), one of the greatest divines Islam, criticised Ibn 'Arab! unreservedly.
1

n

Kasljf

(v-x<)

:

Literally

means unveiling

;

it is

apprehen-

6

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid
it

sequently
sies

gave

rise to

among

mystics.

Many

burning controverscholars and

mystics of eminence took exception to his position while others emphatically affirmed it. It is worth while to go into the matter at

length and try to determine as best as we can.

its

exact position

sion of facts and events as well as truths,

mundane and

celestial,

by inner sight or light generally
:

is

symbolic. Shuhud (^X"**v Ilham direct apprehension of the being and attributes of God.
it is
1S

(f L$Jl)

inspiration

;

technically

it

is

confined to mystics
is

;

it is

reception of guidance or inspiration from above. thus received is not absolutely infallible, hence it

The guidance
not binding not contrary

on

all

but only on the recipient of

it,

provided

it is

is literally

to any injunction received through the Prophet. Wahl (tj^) communication or command technically it is com;

munication imparted by God to a prophet, its highest form being communication through the agency of an angel. Guidance received through it is absolutely sure and binding on all. Generally Revelation may be regarded as an equivalent term to Wahi, but the exact significance of the term is as described above.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

Biographical Sketch

A BRIEF biographical sketch of Shaikh Ahmad,
with special reference to his times, would not be out of place here. Shaikh Ahmad is a descendant of 'Umar, the Great. He was born in Sirhind in 971
A.H.
Sirhind
is

really Sahrand,

which means
the

the forest of

tigers.

It is related that in

days of Feroz Shah Tughlaq (752-790 A.H.) once the royal treasury was passing through
this forest

Sahib-i-Kashf
treasury.

under the imperial guard. A saint, 1 was travelling along with the
the caravan

When

reached

the

spot where Sirhind is now situated, the saint had the inspiration that a very great saint will be born at the place. The news reached

the King.
1

He

ordered the construction of a
^A*Lo)
is

Sahib-i-Kashf

(<^>.*'X<

saint, rather a

person

who

has spiritual illumination.

8

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

town there and entrusted the work to Imam Raff uddm,1 the ancestor of Shaikh Ahmad, While the construction was in progress, Shah

Bu

Qalandar came and helped in it, and informed Imam Raff that the great saint of
'All

2

the prophecy would be his descendant. 3 Shaikh Ahmad received his early education
at

home.

He

learnt the
is

Qur-an

4

by heart

'Imam Rafi'uddm

the sixth ancestor of the Mujaddid.
disciple

He was

the brother of

Khw2ja Fateh-Ullah the prime minister
of the famous saint

of Feroz

Shah Tughlaq and a

Sayyid Jalal Bukhari (707-750 A.H.) known as Mukhdum-iJahaman. Imam Rafl' was entrusted with the management of the town of Sirhmd where he settled down after its construction.
a

harfuddm Bu 'AH Shah Qalandar

of

Panipat was a

He came from 'Iraq to Panipat, saint of very great eminence. where he died in 724 A.H. It is related that he helped in the
not
construction of the town of Sirhmd. However the dates do For Feroz Shah in whose time Sirhind was constally.
i.e.,

tructed began his reign in 752 A.H., of the Qalandar.

28 years after the death

RQ., Part
4

I.

pp. 22-23.

The Qur-an is the book revealed to Muhammad word by word and letter by letter. It is the source of all the teachings of Islam. All other sources must be in harmony with it. It is also
called

Kit3b(<~>K*)
It

second source.

the Book. Hadith (cLU^X*,) is the embodies the sayings and doings of Muhammad,

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

9

1

very

Then he took to the study of early. Hadith, Tafslr or Exegesis and Ma'qul (J>***) or Philosophy and went to renowned scholars
at

When he was at Agra, Hadith and Tafslr, Abul Fadl and studying Faidi, Emperor Akbar's right hand men, hearing of his brilliance, tried to draw him into
various places.
their
circle.

However,

this

friendship did

not

very long, because the Shaikh took serious offence to Abul Fadl's anti-Islamic
last

attitude.

It is said

that a portion of Faidfs
l

celebrated Sawati'-al-Ilham
and

was written by

as a source of Isl5m it is next in authority to the Qur-3n.
,

Ijma" ( ^U-^-t ) is the third source of Islam it means the consensus of the faithful on a point which is not to be found

means

explicitly in the inference.

Qur-3n and the Hadith.

By some
Ijraa").
(

it is
it

of Islam.
1

In order to be valid

Qiyas ( ^/ ^* ) regarded as the fourth source should be based on the Qur-3n

and Hadith (and on
Sawati'-al-Ilham
,

^l^J^H

l>l^*o

)

known

as

"

Tafsir-i-bi

^,W.A'J ) is a commentary on the Qur-an in nuqat" (iaJu -_> Arabic written by Abul Paid Faidi, the poet-laureate of Akbar,. which has the very difficult peculiarity of containing no letter with a dot. It is noteworthy that the Arabic alphabet has IS

dotted

letters.

10

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
1

the Shaikh.

After finishing his education at an early age the Shaikh took to mystic discipline under the guidance of his father who was an emi-

nent mystic and received Khilafat 2 from him 3 in the Chishtiya and Suhrawardiya orders. When he was 28 he went to Delhi and joined
its

the Naqshbandiya order, and soon received Khilafat from Khwaja Baqi-Billah (9724 The Khwaja is the person from 1012 A.H.).

whom

this order begins in India. It is said that he was directed in a vision to leave his

home, Afghanistan, and go to India, where he had to initiate a very great man into the 5 This great man was Shaikh Ahmad, order.
1

RQ

,

Part
(

I,

pp. 60, 62, 63
)
:

;

Cf.

HQ., Vol.

II, pp. 9-10.

In mystic terminology it is generally the recognition of the spiritual leader that the disciple has completed the mystic journey and has reached such a high stage of
Khilafat

1

OwU

development that he can be authorised to guide others on the
way.

RQ., Part
4

I,

pp. 69-70.

/tod.,

pp. 76-81.

*lbid., pp. 72-73.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

11

who quickly went through all the stages of the mystic journey, and became so great at it that even the Khwaja used to sit before
him
and confessed that it was Shaikh Ahmad's spiritual help that through he got out of the mazes of Wahdat-i-Wujud 2
as a disciple,
1

RQ,PartI,
J

p. 113.

ZM.,

p. 155.

12

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

HIS TIMES
1.

Mystics

WHEN the great Mujaddid
of reform,

came to

his task

he found

that

taken complete possession
soul.

Tasawwuf * had of the Muslim

A

Pantheistic Deity had been substi-

tuted for the Monotheistic, Personal, Trans-

cendent

God

of Islam.

2

Excessive belief in

Karamat or miracles
cherished.

of saints

was commonly

Many

un-Islamic means of the

development of occult powers had been introduced into Tasawwuf itself. The mystics had gone to the extent of denying the com-

mandments
1

of Shari'at

3

or the

Law

of Islam

Tasawwuf ( \*y** ) or Islamic mysticism is an attempt to have the direct experience of what the Prophet of Islam himself is supposed to have experienced.
MT.. Vol.
II. p.

258.

'S&arl'at (s^U*J^*>) Law, the Code of IslSm which prescribes various modes of action and practice. Jarlqat

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

13

as universally binding, and to regard Shari'at
itself as

something external and superficial;
4

* or music hearing had indulgence in Sima become the order of the day. They were

indifferent to the Sunnat or the example of

the Prophet.

They

extolled Sukr
rationality.

2

or ecstasy

above Sahw, or sane
ls

The

dia-

the

way towards God through
means

some
(

extra ascetic

purification of soul, for which are adopted by the mystic. Ma'rifat

is the <JU*jH*- )

development,

inner

knowledge of God acquired through spiritual purification and illumination. Haqlqat

(CXx^Aj*. ) is the truth underlying the Shari'at as grasped through spiritual illumination. According to the Mujaddid the Shari'at is the Code of Islam. Tariqat is the attempt to remove the conflict and a sense of revolt against the injunctions of Shari'at. Ma'rifat is the realisation that man cannot know God and Haqlqat is the perfect faith in the truth of the directly
;

actions prescribed by Shari'at.
1

Sim5

t

(

'**"

)

means music hearing
intoxication.
It is

for the sake of bring-

ing about ecstasy, prevalent in mystic orders.
'

Sukr
in

(

^-"

)

is

that state of a mystic's

mind

which he is overpowered by the love or vision or realisation of God, and more or less loses control of his self and

reason.
state of

Sahw (^^^o
mind
is

in

reason and

) is opposed to Sukr, i.e., sobriety. It is the which man has full control of his self and his not overpowered by emotion. Sahw is regarded

as a state higher than Sukr.

14
1

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

logue

between Mahmud of Ghazni and Shaikh Abul Hasan Kharqanl is a pertinent

example showing clearly that since long the mystics had practically severed their connection with Islam and the Prophet.

2.

The Theologians

FURTHER,

the 'Ulama' or theologians had

1 Sult3n Mahmud (d. 421 A.H ) was once passing by Kharqan. He had heard the fame of Shaikh Abul Hasan Kharq5ni (d. 419 A H ). He wished to see the Shaikh So he sent his messenger to the Shaikh asking his permission to visit him. The Sultan instructed the messenger that if the Shaikh were not willing to grant him an interview he should recite the

"

j*-=xx> 3 J>**/^|^*^>^ ^xi|l_^4>l Allah, obey the Prophet and obey the sovereign from The Shaikh did not attend to the Sultan's message. amongst you." The messenger accordingly recited the verse. The Shaikh said
:

Quranic verse

^xY^^

Obey

:

"

that I am ashamed to neglect I am so busy with obey Allah 'obey the Prophet' how can I obey the sovereign. (See TA.,
'

'

p. 352.)

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

15

taken exclusively to Fiqh or Jurisprudence as the whole of religious learning; they had
ceased to refer to the Qur-an and Hadith

the genuine sources of Islam. Consequently only the juristic view of Islam was alive, the
spirit of Islam

had died.

Many

a theologian
1

was

of the type of

in order to

Makhdum-ul-Mulk who, avoid the payment of Zakat or

tax on wealth, transferred his property at the end of the year to his wife and had it retransf erred

to himself before the time of the payin the hair;

ment next year. 3 They were busy
splitting discussions of the

problems of Fiqh

minutest differences sufficed to cause perennial quarrels among them. They were generally
full of

worldly success.

ambition, always hunting after They could be induced to

give Fatwa (^^X) or decision of the sacred law,
1

Zakat

(

o^J

)

:

Tax on wealth prescribed
It is

\>y

Islam which

is

iV of one's yearly savings.

one

'of

the five injunctions

of Isl5m.
*

ML,

Vol.

II, p.

203

16

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

permitting the

Haram

(f

1^) or the prohibited

and prohibiting the Halal (J^L-*.) or the permitted. Makhdum-ul-Mulk is said to have 1 given a Fatwa that the ordinance of Hajj or Pilgrimage was no longer binding, that it had 2 rather become injurious.

3.

Akbars

Policy

THE

policy

of

reconciliation

which

the

Mughal Emperor Akbar

persistently followed

throughout his long reign (963-1013 A.H.) was naturally calculated to hurt and weaken
the
religious

consciousness of
its

Musalmans.

In certain of
feelings.

phases

They

felt that

outraged their Islam was undone
it

in
1

India.
It
is

Mulla 'Abdul
Muslim
life,

Qadir

Badayuni,

binding on every

Mecca

at least

once in his

to go on pilgrimage to provided he can afford the

expenses of the journey.

'MT., Vol.

II,

pp.203, 259.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

17

a contemporary historian and a zealous Musalman, describes the state of things prevailing in Akbar's time, and his description mirrors the sore uneasiness under which every religious Musalman of the day was suffering. Mulla Badayuni says that the Emperor wanted to win over his Hindu subjects. He,
1 therefore, turned his face against Islam.

He
i.e.,

started encouraging 'Ulama'-i-Su

(^ -Ux),

the worldly divines, who would do everything to win his favour. He managed to

surround himself with people who really did not believe in revelation and the religious
code.
as

To

believe in revelation
2

was considered

Taqlid or following authority blindly a low kind of mentality and fit only for the
1

MX., Vol.
Taqlid
(

II, p.

255.
)

*

J~$&*

literally
(

means to follow

;

technically it

means acknowledging Ijma"

^U-^-0 and Qiyas

(^US)

of a

competent divine as the sources of Islam besides the Qur-5n and the Hadlth. Muqalhd (jJJL*) is one who believes in Ijma* and QiySs of some divine as the sources of IslSm as regards the point not explicitly found in the Qur-Sn or the Hadlth. Ghair
2

18

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

uneducated
Islam.

and

the

illiterate.

Nay, the

Emperor went

further.

He

openly opposed

He

as temporary

regarded the injunctions of Islam " In these days, and irrational.
all

when

reproach began to be cast upon the
questions relating

doctrines of Islam and
thereto, and ever so

of Hindus and Hinduised Musalmans brought unmitiand the gated revilings on the Prophet

many wretches

;

villainously irreligious 'Ulama' in their

works

pronounced the

Emperor

to

be

infallible

and contenting themselves with mentioning the unity of God, they next mentioned the various titles of the Emperor, and did not have the courage to mention the name of the Prophet (God be gracious to him and his followers, and give them peace in defiance this was the state of things of the liars) which became the cause of general disgrace, and the seeds of depravity and disturbance
;

Muqallid

(

O^JLt

j*

)

is

one who denies IjmS' and QiySs as the

sources of Islam and sticks to the Qui-Sn and the Hadith.

MujaddicCs Conception of Tawhid

19

this the
classes,

began to sprout out in the empire. Besides mean people of the higher and lower

having put the collar of spiritual obedience to the Emperor upon their necks, professed themselves to be his disciples." * The

Emperor had ceased
the

to believe in the
life after
2

Qur-an

;

he did not believe in

death, nor in

He had gone further. had determined publicly to use the for" mula <&\ J^XL j**\ &\ VI *J\ Y There is no god but Allah, and Akbar is God's RepresentaBut as this led to commotions, he tive."
Day
of Judgment.

He

thought it wiser to restrict the use of this formula to a few people within the precincts 3 4 of the Haram. Sajda or the form of prostration reserved by Islam for
1

God

alone,

was

MT., Vol.
Ibid.

II. p.

269.

9

Ibid., p. 273.

*

Sajda

exclusively distinction

(O>U

a form of prostration reserved by Islam Allah and forbidden to anyone else. was made, viz., Sajda to Allah is Sajda'-i-'lbsdat OtXaEX**) and the same act if performed before kings is
(ovXacr.-**)) is

for

A

Sajda'-i-Ta'?lml

(

20

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
1

made compulsory before the Emperor.
2
;

Wine was declared lawful, and bacon was made an ingredient of wine 3 Jizya 4 or the 5 and beef was military tax was abolished
Pigs and dogs were spereared and regarded as manifestations of cially God. 7 The Salat (V-) or the prescribed

declared unlawful.

6

prayers, the
fasts

Saum

(

o*

)

or the prescribed

and the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca

were abolished.8

The

Islamic calendar

was

replaced by the new-fangled Ilahi months and 9 Indeed Islam after a thousand years years.

was considered

to have played itself out; the study of Arabic was looked upon as if it
MT., Vol.
3
*

II, p.

259.

Ibid., p. 301.
Ibid., p. 302.

Jizya

(

ou

fa.

)

is

the military tax collected from the unbe-

lievers to maintain the
5

Army

for their protection.

MT., Vol.
J&ui

II, p.

276.

Ibid., p. 305.

Ibid., p. 306.
9

Ibid.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

21

were something unlawful; the Law of Islam or Fiqh, Tafsir or the exegesis of the Qur-an and Hadlth or the traditions of the Prophet were ridiculed; and those who prosecuted these studies were looked down as deserving
of contempt. 1

The Adhan c>W )
(
k

or
(

call to

the Namaz-i-Jama at
gational prayers

^*U-

the prayers, and jUo ) or congreas prescribed

which used to be,

by

Islam, offered five times a day in the state

were stopped. 2 Such names as Ahmad, Muhammad and Mustafa, the various names of the Prophet of God, had become offensive to the Emperor, and to utter them was a crime. 3 Mosques and prayer rooms were changed in4 to store-rooms and into Hindu guardrooms. Islam was in great distress. Unbelievers could openly ridicule and condemn Islam and
hall

the Musalmans.
'

The

rites of

Hinduism were

MT., Vol. II, pp. 306-307. /W.,p.314.
Ibid., p. 322.

'Ibid.
4

22

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

celebrated in every street and corner, while Musalmans were not permitted to carry out

the injunctions of Islam. The Hindus when they observed fast could compel the Musalmans not to eat and drink in public, while

they themselves could eat and drink publicly
during Ramadan. At several places Musalmans had to pay with their lives for sacrificing the cow on Id-al-Adha. A number of mosques were destroyed by Hindus and temples erected
in their place.
1

Thus the times

cried for the appearance of a

great reformer. Shaikh Ahmad was a spiritual man and at the age of forty, i.e., in the year

He had the inscall. was the Renewer of the second millennium of the Islamic era.3 But the task before him was stupendous. Long he worked, and strenuous and constant were the efforts he made to turn the tide. Some
1011 A.H., he
felt

the

piration that he

*M.. Vol.II.Ep.92. * Sec foot-note 1, p. 2, supra.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid
of the

23

means he adopted for
:

this

purpose were

the following
Firstly,

he prepared a number of his disciples
sent

for the

work and

them

in all directions

to preach the true Islam, to emphasise the
Ittiba'-i-Sunnat (*-* ^USl) or following the

example of the Holy Prophet, and to bring the people back to the folds of the Shari'at. This work was effectively done, not only in India
but even beyond
its

borders in the neigh-

1 bouring Muslim countries. Secondly, he started a vast correspondence with men of eminence in various parts of these

countries.
lated.
laid

were widely circuThey expounded religious truths, and a the greatest emphasis on Ittiba*-i-Sunnat.
epistles

These

Thirdly, he enlisted the great nobles of the

Imperial Court as his disciples and used them to bring about a change in the life of those
1

RQ., Part I, pp. 166-67. For example M., Vol.

I,

Eps. 25, 36, 41, 42, 44, 75, 79, 114,

152. 165, 195, 249, 254, 255, 272.

24
circles,

Mujaddid's Conception of Taivhid

and to influence the Emperor towards
1

a change of heart.

Fourthly, when Akbar died and Jahanglr succeeded, the Shaikh started a campaign.

People had to take a

vow

that they will not

obey any orders contradictory to Islam. This
2 campaign was extended also to army. Asaf Jah, the prime minister, advised Jahanglr to take care of Shaikh Ahmad whose influence was spreading widely in India, Iran, He advised him Turan and Badakhshan. further to stop the soldiers of the army from

visiting the disciples of the

Shaikh and taking further to imprison the Shaikh. Jahanglr issued the orders and Shaikh Ahmad became a political suspect. Jahanglr
the vow, and
still

also decided to send the
it

Shaikh to prison. But was not easy to lay hands on him. The great nobles revered him and were devoted to him.
'M., Vol.,
I,

Eps. 23, 25, 43-54, 65-72, 119-21, 191, 194, 195,

198, 209, 214, 228, 231, 238, etc.

'RQ., Parti, pp. 170-74

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

25

So Jahangir sent them one by one to distant places Khan-i-Khanan to Deccan, Sadr-iJahan to the East, Khan-i-Jahan to Malwa, Khan-i-A'zam to Gujrat, and Mahabat Khan
to Kabul.

Having done

this he sent for

Shaikh

Ahmad from Sirhind and

accused him of pub-

lishing certain un-Islamic ideas in his Epistles.

But the Shaikh met the accusations squarely. Jahangir had now to find some other excuse.

He demanded
the Shaikh.
it,

Sajda (oix*u*) or prostration of
agree to exclusively due to God

The Shaikh would not
is

because Sajda

else. Thereupon Jahanglr imprisoned the Shaikh and sent him to the Gwalior Fort, where he remained a prisoner

and to no one

This imprisonment of the Shaikh greatly annoyed Mahabat Khan in Kabul and he expunged the name of Jahangir
for
years.

two

1

from the Khutba (+~^-) or Friday sermon and the coin in Kabul, and invaded India with his chosen army. It is narrated that
1

RQ., Part

I,

pp. 175-186.

Cf. TJ.. p. 273.

26

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

he virtually took JahangJr a prisoner at Jhelum. Mahabat might have gone further. But the Shaikh sent him instructions to obey
the King and to cause no disturbance in the realm. Thereupon Mahabat set Jahangir
free.

Soon after followed the release of the from Gwalior (1028 A.H.). The Emperor wished the Shaikh to see him. The Shaikh would not come unless certain conditions were accepted. Firstly, that the Emperor would abolish Sajda-i-Ta zimi or prostration secondly, that all the mosques that had been
Shaikh
l

;

erased should be erected

;

thirdly,

that

all

orders prohibiting cow-slaughter should be cancelled; fourthly, that Qadls, Muftis and

censors should be appointed to enforce the Islamic code; fifthly, that Jizya or military
tax should be re-introduced
all bid'at
(
;

sixthly,

that

OUoo

)

or innovations should be

Law

stopped and injunctions of the Sharfat or be enforced; and seventhly, that all prisoners who had been sent to prison

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

27"

in contravention
released.
1

of

the above should

be

The Emperor accepted

these conditions. 2

When

the Shaikh came to him, the Emperor received him with great honour, giving him a Nadhr ( j** ) or monetary offering as well as a
Khil'at
3

(cxx^) O r robe

of honour.

4

Hence-

forth the Shaikh, for the remaining six years of his life, became the special Adviser of the

Emperor.
1

5

RQ., Part

I,

pp. 186-95.

'Ibid., p. 193.

TJ.,p.273. Mirza Hadl, the writer of Tuzuk-i-<Jahangirl is annoyingly brief and curt about this whole episode, and the so-called histories too are silent. One has to depend for the details on RQ., which AhsSn-Ullah 'AbbSsi also follows in his " Life of the
*

Mujaddid ".
Cf. M., Vol. Ill, Eps. 43. 44
;

RQ., Part

I,

pp. 199-209.

28

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

HIS

ACHIEVEMENTS
Mujaddid brought

THUS,

in the first place, the

the Islamic kingdom of India back to Islam. In the second place, be induced the divines

of Islam to the study of Qur-an and Hadith, which they had neglected so long. In Tasaw-

wuf or mysticism he revolutionised the doctrine of Islamic mystics, questioned their
pantheism, and brought them round to Ittiba*i-Sunnat (following the example of the

Prophet). Moreover, he widened the bounds of religious experience, by realising and describing a large
1

number

untraversed and
sors.

unknown

of higher stages yet to his predeces-

Further he made a fundamental deparfrom the accepted mystic doctrine inasmuch as he propounded that Wilayat or sainthood is essentially different from
ture
>M., Vol.
II,

Eps.

4, 6.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

29

Nabuwwat
line

l

with

it

or Prophethood and not in one 3 indeed qualitatively different.
this
is

Connected with

the position which

the Shaikh established and which had long been perverted, viz., the Din or Religion and

not Suluk-wa-Tasawwuf
1

3

or mysticism

is

the

Nabuwwat

(

dj^o
But

)

the word Prophet.

in Islam it

means prophecy from which comes means the stage where a

in contradistinction to WilSyat by sheer grace God, the subject of special divme favour and messages for the guidance of man are sent to him by God. Wilayat is that stage of spiritual development in which the ( ,_^o^L )

man becomes,
of

mystic realises that he has attained to nearness or proximity to God. Everyone can get to it by dint of his continued effort and struggle, though not without the grace of God.
8 3

M., Vol.

I,

Suluk

( viT^X*** )

Ep. 260. is the method of spiritual development.

The
God,
is

thing has been conceived as a journey or pilgrimage to
similarly Sair

(^**)

which means rambling.

When Suluk

attained at a certain stage the my&tic begins to experience the adumbrations of Asma'-o-Shuyun i.e. divine (^j^Jl* 3 *U*1 )

names and
t.e.

phases.

This is called

Sair-ila-'llah

(

<ju)|

J|

_^

J

Then he surpasses this stage journey towards Allah. and enters into the experience of the Being of Allah. This is called Sair-Fi'llah journey inside Allah. After ) ( &\

g

that the mystic returns back in his journey and this is called Sair-'an-Allah &\ _^*o ) journey away from Allah. Then (

^

f

o

30

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

1 indispensable thing for a Muslim. It is for these great reforms that he was

the Reformer called Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-Thanl of the second millennium. Henceforth we
shall

speak of him in the text as the Mujad-

did.
he resumes his duties as an ordinary human being in consonance with the teachings of Shari'at and directs his energies like the
Prophets to the reformation of his fellow beings. >M., Vol. I, Ep. 48.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

31

HIS INFLUENCE
IT may be added here that the Mujaddid's influence on subsequent development too has been very great. His was really the call " Bach " to Muhammad and it had had far-reaching
;

consequences.

Besides
shall

Tawhid which

his conception of be considered in the

following pages, this call inherently affected the Islamic mind and gave it a new turn in

mysticism as well as in theology, -llm-i-Batin

and

'Ilm-i-Zahir.

1

Firstly,

arose a
1

new

with regard to mysticism, there yearning a yearning to purify

'Ilm-i-Zahir

(y*^^*)

Tafsir, Hadlth, Fiqh
is

is knowledge in general, such as and 'Ilm-i-Kal5m. llm-i-Bstm ( l>L> )

a

cognition attained through mystic efforts. Hence the distinction of 'Ulama'-i-Z5hir, those well versed in learning, theologians and jurists, who are guided by the word of the Qur-Sn,
etc.,

^

and not the

spirit as

therefore called 'UlamS'-i-Batin,

the initiated or the mystics who are who try to have the direct

experience of

God and

eternity.

32

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

mysticism

from extraneous

elements

and

exclusively from that pure and perennial fountain-head from which Islam had
it

draw

arisen

;

in other words, a yearning to learn it

from the Prophet of God. Accord1 happened that Khwaja Mir Nasir ingly who belonged to the Mujaddid's school of mysticism got into a trance which lasted for 3 full week, and Imam Hasan, the grandson
directly
it

of the Prophet himself, appeared to him in his cell and initiated him into a new mystic

method, insisting that the method shall be called after the Prophet, 'Muhammadi,' because that was the genuine method of the Prophet
1 Khwaja Mir Nasir 'Andalib (d. 1172 A.H )L was a lineal descendant of the celebrated saint Khwaja Bahauddin, the founder of Naqshbandia order. In the beginning Khwaja Mir Nasir was a soldier in the Mughal Army. All of a sudden he He became a celebrated left the army and took to seclusion mystic. Indeed he founded a new order of mysticism called

the Tariqa-i-MuhammadI
of
(

Muhammad.

He

( ^J^-a^.^ s&OjJa) or the method wrote a voluminous book Nala'-i-' Andalib

w^J^Xx* v)U ) m 1153 A.H. in the form of a story in which he discussed most of the mystic doctrines.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

33

of God.

When

the

trance was
cell,

over the
first

Khwaja came out
person

of his

and the

whom

was his son on the threshold. 2 The father and son have written voluminous books on the method which they believe to have been the work of inspiration. 3 The " Break away from essence of the method is everyone and attend only to your master (Muhammad) and continue to attend on him It is, say they, the want of this incessantly."
:

new method Khwaja Mir Dard who met him
he initiated in the
1

4

principle that has created dissensions

amongst

'KhwSja Mir Dard (1131-1190 A.H.) was the second son of Khwaja Mir Nasir. At the age of fifteen he wrote a treatise
bl^LoJl j\j~>\ ) He is the author of several e.g., USandat-i-Dard ( >j> ^\>j\j ), "llmul-Kitdb ( v-->lX$Jl ^X ), etc. He was held in great esteem and even the Mughal Emperor Shah 'Alam used to visit his Majlis
Asrar-us-Salat
(

works on mysticism,

Khwaja Dard was also a ( ^A*.Xsxxo ) or gathering every month. famous poet of Urdu and has a recognised position in the history
of

Urdu
2

literature.

IK., p. 85
/feu*.,

pp. 91, 95

4

Ibid., p. 87.

3

34

Mujaddtd's Conception of Tawhid
1

Musalmans. Go back to Kitab-o-Sunnat, the Qur-an and the example of the Prophet, and
attach yourself exclusively to the 2 That is the right course.
Similar
is it

Prophet.

with Shah
belonged
'

Barelwi.
1

3

He
L_-Ax

to

Sayyid Ahmad the school of
'

means book Technically it means the Qur-an and the injunction of the Qur-an. Sunnat literally means habit technically it means the Prophet's mode of habitual Hence Kitab-o-Sunnat means actions, or the Prophet's example the injunctions of the Qur-an and the example ot the Prophet
Kitab
(

) literally

,

2

IK., p 87

From early 'Shah Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi (1201-1246 A H ) childhood he was mystically minded and felt in himself a strong After some education propensity to follow only the Prophet at Lucknow, he went to Delhi, where he became a disciple of Shah 'Abdul 'Aziz However, he broke away from Shah 'Abdul
'Aziz on the practice
picturing
of
in

Tasawwur-i-Shaikh
imagination,

(

>

^-^**

jy**

),

which he regarded as idolatry, and pursued his spiritual development single-handed. The progress he made was immense, indeed Shah 'Abdul 'Aziz himself wished to become his disciple m the end Soon his MawlwT 'Abdul Hayy and reputation spread far and wide Sh3h IsmS'Il, two eminent relations of Shah 'Abdul 'Aziz joined him Thousands of Muslims adopted his views, and he was everywhere hailed as the true Khalifa. One of his biographers, Mawlwl 'Abdul Ahad, asserts that more than 40,000 Hindus and unbelievers became converts to Islam through his preachIn 1232 A.H. Shah Sayyid Ahmad set out from his native ings
the

Shaikh

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

35

the Mujaddid and has a

very high place

amongst the mystics of Islam. The Sayyid believed that he had a special affinity to the Prophet and that he got spiritual guidance 1 He turns directly from him or from God. round and sets up a new method, which he
city on a pilgrimage to Mec ca, staying a few months at Calcutta on the way. Two years later, on his return to India, he started making active preparation for Jihad or religious war on the Sikhs of the Punjab to rescue the Mubalmans of that province from

their tyranny.

He made campaign after campaign against the Sikhs and died a martyr fighting at the battle of Bal5kot in the year 1246 A H
1

In mystic

spirituality of the

terminology to get guidance direct from the Prophet is called Uwaisiyyat ( Ov^*o^l ).
It is

The term comes from Uwais
spiritual guidance direct

believed that

Uwais got

never meet him
( t^***-?.^ ),

from the Holy Prophet, that he could The Mujaddid regaids himself to be an Uwaisi
ib

and

it

remarkable that after him a large number

have claimed themselves to be Uwaisis In our times too there was a mystic of great eminence, Hajl Sayyid W5nth 'All Shah (d 1321 AH), about whom it is said that he received spiritual guidance directly from a'imma'-i-alil-i-bait
of mystics

(C^o

tJ-fcl

v/

^~^)> the grandsons of the Prophet.
the mysterious personality of

Prof.

F.

Krenkow doubts

Uwais-al-Qaram, which is supposed and claimed as the origination of Sufism, and is convinced that such person never existed in reality. Imam Malik b. Anas (d. 179 A.H.) is the first

36
calls,

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
l

Tarlqa-i-Nabuwwat or the Prophetical Method. Other methods are according to him
only Tarlqaha-i-Wilayat or mystical methods. The peculiarity of the new method is that the
2

mystic should first make all his actions conform s strictly to the law given by the Prophet
;

and only then take to Dhikr and Fikr\ remembrance and contemplation. The dhikr 4
who
heard of him and doubted his real existence. Uwais are not convincing at all

*

The biogra-

phies of

'Tariqa-i-Nabuwwat ( O^-o AAO Jo ) is that method of development which aims at developing only those values which the the Holy Prophet aimed at. Tariqa-i-Wil3yat
spiritual

vOjl> ) is the method of mystic development, used by mystics of Islam, and aimed at cultivating mystical mode of life. The difference is that of being according to Shari'at or in(

OoM^

different to

it

'SM., p 8
'Ibid., p. 144.
4

Dhikr

(j*

)

is

commemoration.
Shughl
)

In

it

Asma'-o-Sifat, the

names and
progress of

attributes of God, are recited,

the mystic
(

ghughl-i-Nafl

^ J^

is

is a help in the the practicing of dhikr.

which

is

the dhikr

of

vAJIM.

denial of

everything other than God, and Shughl-i-Ithbat (C->L*Jl
is

the

dhikr of

dSMI, the affirmation

of God.

Fikr
general the

is

distinguished from Muraqiba (*^*^^*).

It is in

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

37

of the method consists in reading the Qur-an and reciting the prayers which the Prophet

used to recite

1
;

consists in contemplation

while the fikr of the method on the Goodness

and Grace of God which is so profusely spread us, and in making our will wholly subordinate to His Will, and in realising His
about

omnipresence
this

at

every moment,

etc.

2

The

most beneficial
method,
is

aid to all this, according to

tXat the mystic should take
3

to the service of his fellow-beings.

Shah

Ahmad denies pantheism and believes in theism. He puts Sahw or sobriety above Sukr or spiritual intoxication. He preaches Jihad or fighting in the way of God in place
Sayyid
4

of Sima'

(

^U

)

or music-hearing for the sake

of ecstasy, and demands social service instead
), attributes of contemplation of the Sifat-I-Ilahl ( ^^^ Muraqiba is the concentrated contemplation.
1

OU-o

Allah.

SM., pp. 148-149. Ubid., pp. 154-157. /W. t pp. 20-24.
4

/&*., pp. 45-46.

38

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

of solitude.

He punctiliously follows Kitab-oexample
of

Sunnat, Qur-an and the

the

Prophet, and strenuously and emphatically denounces bid'at or innovations. 1 That is why

he rose, organised the Musalmans and raised the standard of Jihad or the holy war against the Sikhs who were subjecting Musalmans in
the Punjab to religious persecution.

He fought and fought valiantly and was himself long killed in Jihad (1246 A.H.) and with him
;

was

killed also

Shah
2

Isma'll

Shahid

who was

his chief lieutenant.

Secondly, the

call of

the Mujaddid induced

theologians, those learned in the religious lore, Before the Mujaddid to turn to the Hadith.
religious learning consisted

wholly of

juris-

prudence or Fiqh. But the Mujaddid turned the tide to the Kitab-o-Sunnat or Qur-an

and the Prophet. People started learning the Hadith or Tradition, and Shah Wall-Ullah
1

SM., pp. 45-46.

'SA., pp. 142-150.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

39

1

established the first school of

Hadith

in India.

With Shah Sayyid Ahmad
turned into Ahl-i-Hadith

Barelwi the school
l

or Traditionists
it.

which yet had room

for mystic element in

Later the emphasis fell against Taqlid or blind following of the authority of the jurists

and there arose Ghair Muqallidin or pure and simple Ahl-i-Hadith or strict traditionists.
In this connection we may also speak of the reform and High Criticism inaugurated by Sir 2 Sayyid Ahmed Khan. Sir Sayyid emphasised

the criticism of the Hadith and forcibly directed attention to the Kitab or the Qur-an as the
1 Ahl-i-Hadith ( vjio J^. J-*\ ) Those who follow only the Hadith or sayings and doings of the Prophet and not the school of Islamic jurists. All great collectors of Hadith really belong to this school of thought. But it became a sect in the hands of 'Abdul Wahhab of Nejd (d. 1201 A.H ) and took its root in India with the followers of Shah Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi (d. 1246 A.H.) and his chief lieutenant Shah IsmS'Il Shahid (d. 1246 A.H.). Ahl-i-Qur-dn Those who follow only the Qur-an and discard the Hadith also along with Fiqh or jurists.
:

:

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1232-1315 A.H.) came of a family connected with the Delhi Court. The fall of the Mughal

1

40

Mujaddid' s Conception of Tawhid
of Islam.

real source

This in the long run the sect of the Ahl-i-Qur-an or 1 Quranists instituted by Mawlwi 'Abdullah.
gave
rise to

Sir Sayyid was brought up in the school of the Mujaddid. His conception of Tawhid or divine unity is theistic a and with reference
;

to mysticism he

went further and
is

clearly an-

nounced that mysticism
a

way

of purifying the soul

nothing more than and the morals 3

something which was implicit in the teachings of the Mujaddid, but which had not come
Empire
in

1857

AD

set

him thinking and he took
,

to the

work

of the reform of the Musalma'ns of India.

At last

in 1875 A.D.

he founded the present Ahgarh Muslim University. Sir Sayyid, he is generally called, has exerted a great formative influence indeed there is hardly any movement of importance religious, amongst the Musalpolitical, social, educational and literary m5ns of India which is not directly or indirectly traceable to him.
as
;

1

Mawlwi 'Abdullah Chakralwi

(d.

1334 A.H

).

He

was a

great scholar of the Qur-an, and in the beginning of the present century of the Christian era founded the sect of Ahl-i-Qur-5n.

maintains that Qur-5n and Qur-3n alone is the genume all Islamic dogmatics, and that neither QiySs nor Ijm3' nor even Hadith has any authority
source for
3

He

TfA., Vol.
Ibid.,

I,

p. 156.

9

pp. 78-91.

MajaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

41

to clear consciousness.
2

1

Later Sir

Muhammad

Iqbal also protested against Wahdat-i-Wujud of the mystics, gave Islamic morality a new
spirit

and preached

life

of Effort

and Activity.3

Now, Tawhid

is

the Problem on which the

Mujaddid has deservingly laid the greatest
emphasis and made great and original contri1

M., Vol.
Sir

I,

Eps. 207, 217.

Iqbal (1294-1357 A.H ) was a great poet, philosopher and scholar. Since he wrote his Asr5r-i-KhudI about 1333 A.H he became a force which modified the trend of
,

2

Muhammad

Muslim thought
4

in politics
' '

for its doctrines of

and morals He attacked mysticism Fana or self-annihilation, and substituted
its place.

Khudi

'

or self-affirmation in

He

also objected to
an<^

Wahdat-i-Wu]ud or umtyism. 3 Cf. IqbaTs poems Asr5r-i- Khudi
Rumuz-i-Bikhudi
(

(

v3^*- ^j~*\

)

^>^^
life

)**}}
:

Asrar-i- Khudi (Secrets of Self)

mysticism as un-Islamic in
national and political
of

its

origin

In this Dr. Iqbal denounces and injurious to the

Musalm3ns.
:

In it he lays emphasis on the life according to the Qur-Sn and the Sunnat, and preaches such morals as are more positive.

Rumuz-i-Bikhudi (Secrets of Selflessness)

42

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

Thereby he has undermined the whole structure of mysticism in its very
butions.
It is this viz., its pantheism. conception in the Mujaddid which I have chosen as the theme of this Dissertation.

foundations,

The
parts
:

Dissertation

is

divided

into

four

Introduction develops the abstract forms of the Unity of the World-Principle asconceived by the Speculative and the Religious Consciousnesses in their distinctions; and

shows how these distinctions tend to be
terated in Mystic Consciousness.

obli-

Chapter I describes the Mujaddid's conception of Tawhid in contrast to and criticism
of Ibn 'Arabf s Pantheistic conception.

Chapter II traces how the conception of the Mujaddid was received amongst the mystics of Islam.

theistic conception of

The Conclusion brings out that the panTawhid is a case of the

transformation of the religious unity into the

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

43-

speculative unity, or rather the case of the that the identification of the two unities
;

MujaddicTs conception of Tawhid is in consonance with the religious consciousness, and
that the attempts made by the successors of the Mujaddid to re-affirm the pantheistic

conception of Tawhid are neither based on
direct experience nor are they conclusive as rational arguments.

INTRODUCTION
Unity of the World-Principle

MAN
ness.

takes different attitudes towards the

objects of his experience.

These

atti-

tudes are called different forms of conscious-

Theoretic consciousness

is

the attitude

which he takes towards the world of objects in order to acquire its knowledge and epistemo;

logy or logic is the science that studies the nature and implications of this consciousness.

Moral consciousness

is another attitude that he takes it towards mankind and man takes ethics or moral philosophy is the science that
;

deals with the laws that arise in this field

and

the implications thereof. Similarly religious consciousness is the attitude that man takes

towards ultimate

reality

;

and

k

*

theistic

or

46

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

philosophy

of religion is the branch of knowledge that studies the nature and impli-

cations of this consciousness.

definite limits,

These various forms of consciousness have and they are valid only within such limits. But there are cases in which the
is for philoto consider the limits of these various sophy forms with a view to avoid their overlapping

various forms of consciousness seem to overlap or conflict with each other. It

and

conflict,

therein. Further

sense in

and to trace the error lying it has to determine the exact which each is valid. The unity of
is

the world-principle

a case of this kind.

The

theoretical and the religious conscious-

nesses seem to overlap

on

this point.

The theoretical or the speculative consciousness
of

knowledge-attitude has an ideal of knowledge. It yearns to realise that ideal. This ideal consists in having a unified picture of the universe. It
is,

as said above, the
It

man.

consists in finding out a unitary principle, out

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

47

of which could spring all the multiplicity of the world from which the multiplicity could

be deduced.

Such unity has been hovering before the gaze of every metaphysician. The yearning for it is so intense that the speculative consciousness is strongly inclined to go forward and assert the existence of this unity indeed it would go still further and grasp the
;

essence of

it

also.

The

efforts

made

in this

direction have different forms resulting from the different tendencies of the thinkers who

have tried to determine

this

unity.

The

empirically-minded start from the side of the objects of experience, i.e., the multiplicity.

They want to seek some empirical object which may be used as a principle of unity forming
the basis of
all

existence.
'

Thales seeks this

which he finds to concrete unity in water be the principle of all things; Anaximander
',

finds

it

in
in
*

'

matter undetermined
'.

menes

air

unity in particles

AnaxiDemocritus finds such a of physical things, i.e., atoms
; '

'

48

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
'.
'

and void
finds
it

The

British school of empiricists

in

ideas

and sensations

'.

Each of

them

that the essence of things consists in these entities. Now, these entities,
tries to

show

taken to serve as principles of unity, are Each of these attempts is, really concepts. an attempt to conceive the unity therefore,

when

concept from which the multiplicity is deduced. For the unity in each case is not something which exists over and above and
as a

beside the multiplicity that is deduced from The it, but only as a general idea or concept.
rationalistically-minded

thinkers

held
;

that

thought and being are essentially one or that
thought
is

the essence of being.

They

seek

the principle of unity expressly in a concept or a system of concepts from which every-

thing could be deduced logically.
finds that such a concept
finds
it is

Parmanides
'

in

v

Ideas

'

or

'

'Being'; Plato Idea of the Good
'.

;

Aristotle in pure
*

'

Substance

'

Spinoza regards to be such a concept, and Hegel

Form

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
*

49

Absolute Idea

'

which

absorbs the whole

system of categories in itself. Both these tendencies agree in the assumption that there
is some such principle of unity and that things can be deduced from such a principle. But

critical

philosophy denies that.
that

Kant comes

to the conclusion
4

Regulative

Idea

\

We

objectivity we cannot principle of the world is one.
tive Idea \

is only a cannot affirm its maintain that the

Unity

As

a Regula-

*

it is only helpful in our attempt to construct a unified system of knowledge and
;

should go on making attempt after attempt to discover a law from which all other laws could be
it

as such

consists in this that

we

deduced or expressed

as its

modes

;

though
in

we know

that

we can never fully succeed

this attempt.

On the other hand a unitary principle is the very mainstay of the religious consciousThe religious consciousness is that ness.
attitude of

man which he

takes towards the

50

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

Ultimate Reality.

But how does religious

consciousness conceive this principle ? Now, what is the religious situation ? Man finds
himself confronted in his course with insurmountable obstacles. On the one side stands he with his innate yearning after harmony with reality, after moral perfection and happiness, after knowledge and after beauty. On the

other stands the universe, stupendous, dark

and

brutal, full of sin

and
his

ugliness,

unamen-

able to

harmony with

moral and spiritual

yearnings, and unwilling to accede to the demands of his soul. He finds himself helpless

forlorn.

There must be

a

Being

who

has the power, as well as the will, to help him, if he is to be rescued. Hence it is that
religious consciousness affirms the existence

He can help of such a Being. natural wants and can guide
right path.

him him
and

in his

to

the

He

is

Rabb

or the Providence,

and

Razzaq

or the Sustainer;

He

is

Rahman

or the Beneficent, for

He

accedes

Mujaddids Conception of Tawhid
to his natural wants.

51

He

is

Hadi or the
to the
right

Guide,

for

course; and

He He

guides
is

him

Ghafur-ur-Rahlm or the

relief

Pardoner and the Merciful, Who can give him relief from the unbearable burden of

his sins

and sinful nature.
if

help him only

He

But He can truly knows all facts open or

hidden, past or future. Therefore He is Sami'um-Baslr or the Hearer and the Seer, and

'Alim-ul-ghaib wash-shahada or the OmnisFurther He must have power to do all He likes He is Qadir or the Powerful and
cient.
;

Fa"al-ul lima-yurld the Accomplisher of all

He

might wish the Omnipotent. But such l power He can have only if He is the Creator
:

of the world and

man.

Therefore

He

is

1 Because if things exist or have come into existence independently of His Will, a limit is set thereby to His Power by their nature His control over them and over the events of the uniHe thereby ceases to perform verse does not remain complete
;

That

the function for the sake of which His existence was postulated. is, He cannot satisfy the religious consciousness unless He is also the Creator, Khaliq ( o^UL ) an d BSrI

52

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

Khaliq and Ban or the Creator. Moreover He must have the supreme will to lead him
to perfection most Gracious.
;

self

the

He is Dhul-fadl il- azlm, the He must consequently Himbe perfectly Good, He is Quddus or Holy. His help is grace. Man cannot
4

claim

it

as his right.

When man
power

realises his

own
he

helplessness and the

of this Being,

is filled

seeches

Him

with awe and devotion, and befor help and guidance. He is

Ma'bud or the Object of worship, and Mujibud-da'wat or the Answerer of human prayers. The further implication that dawns on
Religious Consciousness, in view of the supremacy of this Being and the exclusiveness of

the right of devotion to Him, is that He is One, He is Ahad or the One, and Samad or the Self-sufficient

who

needs nothing and to

whom

recourse

is

are the attributes of the

had in every need. These Unity which religious

consciousness affirms in relation to us, and

which we understand and know. But in Him-

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid
self

53

in

His entirety and His essence, we do
:

not

know Him

UJ>

^ 0^*2*^. ^

by cognition

they cannot comprehend Him; nor can we comprehend Him by analogy, for in His essence
nothing
there
is is

like

unto
like

Him cr^ *^* ^~^
:

nothing

unto Him.

With

this

much

Him

of positive and negative knowledge of the religious consciousness is satisfied.
it
is

paramount importance to differences between these two unities the speculative and the In the nature of the case it would religious.
of
realise

Now,

the

inherent

appear that Firstly, the speculative unity is unqualitative, while the religious unity must necessarily
:

be

qualitative,

i.e.,

of a certain nature.

The

empirically-minded thinkers sought the prin" " ciple of unity in water ", in matter undeter-

mined
"

",

in "air
",

",

in

"

atoms
"

",

in "ideas
"

",

in

sensations
1

in
"

some
it

existent entity.

The

rationalists

found
,

in

the Good'

in

Form ",

Being ", in Idea of " in Substance ", in

54

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

in some concept. The philosopher sought it in 'Abstract This shows that the speculative conLaw sciousness is really indifferent to the nature of

"Absolute Idea",

critical
'.

the unity.

It is satisfied if
is

the ideal of unified

knowledge whether the unity
idea,

realised.
is

It is all

the same to
air,

it

water or

atom or

matter or mind, conscious or unconIt may be scious, mechanical or teleological.

of

any quality whatsoever, or

it

may be even

qualitiless.
is

that

it

should possess should be such that from it the
quality
it

The only

multiplicity could be logically deduced.

The

speculative consciousness is not even keen that it should be numerically one. It may be

one in number or it may be many. But the religious consciousness is in dead earnest exactly with regard to the nature of
the unity.

The unity must be Rabb and Razzaq, Providence and Sustainer, and it must be Rahman or Beneficent; further it must be GhafUr-ur-Rahim or the Pardoner

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

55

and the Merciful,
or

and

it

must be

Hadi

Moreover, it must be 'Alim-ulghaib wash-shahada or the Knower of the Open and the Hidden, and it must be Fa"al-ul
Guide.
lima-yurid or the Doer of whatever He chooses to do. It must further be Khaliq and Barl or
the Creator of the Universe, and
1

Quddus

or

the Holy, and Dhul Fadl or the Gracious. And more, it must have the exclusive right of

devotion to

itself

from man,

i.e.,

it

must be
;

the only Ma'bud or the Object of worship and it must be one numerically one or Ahad. Indeed, the religious consciousness is so keen
Creation means bringing something into being out of comThis conception, however, is a stumbling block the speculative consciousness, because such a coming into for being is absolutely inconceivable. The speculative conscious1

plete nothing.

ness, therefore,

or

must stop Wujud, from which it
into being ab novo.
it

actual world order.

in its logical regress at some being could, by modification, deduce the It cannot conceive that a substance can

About accidents or equalities of the does not seem to be so sceptical, new qualities do come into being as a matter of fact. But in its purity in its rigour, the speculative consciousness does yearn to deduce ^ven qualities from the primordial essence of the substance
come
substance
icf. Scientific

Materialism).

56

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
of the unity that
it

on the nature

yearns

even for the oneness of the unity only because
of its attributes.
It is

rather the attributes

that the unity in question should be numerically one, for then and then alone

that

demand

can

it

give the satisfaction for

which

it

has

been postulated.
Secondly, the speculative unity must naturally be immanent while on the contrary the
religious unity

must be transcendent.

That

the speculative unity is immanent means that it does not exist over and above the multipli-

which indeed is city but only in multiplicity only a form and modification of it. Empirically conceived, the unity is some existential air water matter undeterbeing, e.g.,
'

4

4

',

',

mined \

*

atom

\

The unity here
It

is

really

only of concept.
in
its

does not exist over and
It is

above existing things.
it is
*

wholly exhausted

denotation. Rationalistically conceived r evidently an abstract concept, e.g., the
'

Being of Parmenides.

It

has only conceptual

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

57
It

being:

it

has no existence of

its

own.

becomes

fact only in things, because they are
its

conceived as

instances.
is

Even
it it
is

critically

conceived, the unity
principle, a law.

only

a conceptual

As such
own, and

abstract;

it

has no being of
its

its

exists

only in

applications.

Thus the

unity in all its three kinds

speculative form of is such that it is

nothing other than the unity of an abstract in no case it is the unity of an concept
;

existent being. The concept however either has no being at all, i.e., in the sense of exis-

tence

;

or

if it

has one,

it is

exhausted in the

being of the instances to which it applies. Thus the speculative unity, if it exists at all,
is

necessarily immanent.

On the contrary the religious unity must be transcendent. It must necessarily be over and above the world and man. It must be
wholly an other. Because the despair of amidst the obstacles that originate in his

man own

nature and those that originate in the nature

58

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

of the world around him, demands that help should come from a source which is other

than the sources of his troubles, and which has full control over the whole world of men

and

things.

Indeed this succour from the

source over and above the world

purpose for
postulates

which

religious

is the very consciousness

the existence
religious

of

such
is

a

Being.

That

is

why

unity

necessarily

transcendent.
Thirdly, the speculative unity
is

necessarily
is

monistic, while the religious unity

dualistic.

In connection with

immanence and transcen-

dence

it has in general been brought out above that the speculative unity has no being over
;

for

and above the multiplicity. This is monism it means that the one and the many have no separate existences. But it means more it means that only the one exists, and that the many have no existence by the side of the one.
;

the speculative unity is of this nature for speculative consciousness is out to con;

Now

Mujaddids Conception

of Tawhid

59

ceive the world as one or as differentiation of

the one. So far

it is

qualitative

monism. But
is

at a certain stage speculative consciousness

not

with mere qualitative monism will also be quantitative monism, the Real
satisfied
;

;

it
is

one, single, individual At that stage the unity

it is

numerically one.

is

conceived either as

a whole, or as a substance or as a spirit.

But

the whole, one single, individual, does not -exist over and above the parts, it is only the
organisation of the parts and
existing in its
is

incapable of
position re-

own

right.

The

mains that of mere immanence.
tance.

The unity

is

consequently raised to the dignity of a subs-

Now
;

the

many become only modes
its

of the substance,

manifestations,

its

ad-

they have no being of their own. jectives When the unity is conceived, not merely
as substance

but as
finite

spirit,

it

is

an Infinite
as

Spirit;

and

spirits

are
it.

conceived

numerically

identical

with
;

They have

no being

of their

own

while the material

60

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

is conceived either as expressly unreal, or together with the finite spirits as a reproduction or re-realisation of the Infinite

world

Spirit itself.

1

istic.

But the religious unity must needs be dualFor the situation, that has given rise to

the postulating of the existence of a Divine Being, is that man is disappointed with his own self and the nature of the world. Neither
of

them is capable him in his distress.

of according any help to

He postulates the existence of a spiritual Being. To be in harmony with Him alone would enable him to realise
his yearnings.

one

side,

This implies that and the universe and

God on man on

the
the

other,

must be fundamentally different in

nature.

One

is

perfect, the other imperfect.

1 It may, by the way, be remarked here that in putting the emphasis on the reality of the one, on its self existence and its supreme value, already the influence of the religious consciousness is present, and where it leads further to the apparent

affirmation of the

affirmation

is

many as existent, as in Plato or Green, the made most grudgingly and the point is left obscure..

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

61
is
if

Both exist

they exist side by side. One other than the other. On the contrary,
religious unity

were a whole,

an aspect or relation of
not exist in
;

would only be the manifold it would
it
;

its

own

would and if it world and man would only be immanent expressions of and hence essentially, identical with it, there would be no room for man as a separate existent and hence for the specific
for its object would be already a realised fact or will necessarily be realised without any ado and any kind of
religious yearnings
;

only the manifold right, were substance or spirit, the

external help.

In that case there need indeed

be no religion or religious yearning. That is why the religious consciousness cannot afford
to be monistic
;

it

must be

dualistic,

it

assert the existence of the imperfect

must on one
It

side

and that of the Perfect on the other.

cannot permit the evaporation of the one, or of the other.
Fourthly,

the

religious

unity

must be

62

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

personal

Personal, while speculative unity need not be indeed it tends to be Impersonal.

Personality implies consciousness
implies

;

nay

it

more,

it

implies

self'-consciousness\

consciousness of

itself as

over and above

as

other than something else, i.e. as transcending them. But we can conceive a being who is self-conscious, and yet it will hardly deserve
the
its

name of personality unless it can determine

own

morality,

action according to the principles of i.e., unless it is free. Again, such a
just
is

being
holy.

may be

absolutely just

;

it

may be

But that

not enough
"

;

it

would then

We

be only the doctrine of Karma hypostatised. want more. It should be capable not
only of justice but also of grace.
It is

"

grace

which forms the
nality.

distinctive feature of perso-

A man who always gives you but your
more nor
less,

deserts, neither

will be regar-

ded by you

as lacking in personal elements.

Now,

the religious consciousness seeks a unity which is eminently personal. It seeks that

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

63

the

actual condition
of
it

Divine Being should be aware of my and that it should be aware
; ;

yearnings more, it should have grace should be capable of satisfying my yearnings

my

in spite of

my

shortcomings

in spite of
for.

my

failure to deserve
is

what

I

yearn

That
fully

to say, the religious unity

must be

personal.

Not
;

so the speculative consciousness.

It is

not interested in personality. It wants only a unity whether it is personal or impersonal is
immaterial to
cussing
as
it.

As brought out above

in dis-

immanence and transcendence, as well monism and dualism, speculative consciousits

ness has conceived

impersonal.

So long

unity pre-eminently as as the unity is only a

qualitative one, the issue
it

But when is clear. becomes a quantitative unity the whole, the substance, the spirit, even there the specuis

lative consciousness

not inclined to conceive

the unity as personal.

As

any kind of whole

;

as a

may be substance again it may
a whole,
it

64

MujadduTs Conception of Tawhid
as such, it
is,

be any kind of substance. Indeed,

as in Spinoza and Schelling, something other than self-conscious. Only as spirit it looks
like a person.

Here

that

is

at

work.

the religious interest However, the attributing of
it is

a kind of transcendence to that spirit turns out to be nominal it loses itself in the demand,
;

inherent in speculative

consciousness,
is

for

immanence.

The

spirit

not other than

anything else, or no being is other than the spirit. This makes self-consciousness doubtful; hence the idealist is strongly inclined
to refuse personality to
it.

Moreover the

speculative consciousness is loath to ascribe freedom to it, or it would interpret freedom
as identical
satisfies

the
;

with necessity for necessity alone demand of the speculative con;

sciousness
necessity.

indeed

it

yearns for unity and

With necessity there hardly remains
grace.

any room for

Thus

all

the elements

of personality are jeopardised by the requirements of the speculative consciousness.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid
Fifthly, the religious unity

65

absolutely free, and
;

it

must be Free must admit of moral

freedom for man while the speculative unity need neither be itself free nor need it admit of the freedom of man. Freedom means, positively, the possession
free to determine the

of inherent independence in the object called mode of its activity and negatively, the absence of any kind of
;

external restraint or internal constraint on
action.

its

Religious

consciousness

conceives

the unity as a perfect Being. It must therefore be morally perfect, have grace, and be
self-sufficient.

volves freedom

morality necessarily inthe Divine Being, if He is morally perfect, must be fully free. Further
;

Now,

if

He

is

to have grace,

which

is

so inevitably

demanded by religious
have freedom
various forms,
;

consciousness,
if

He must
in
its

otherwise,

grace

viz., beneficence, sustenance, guidance, mercy, forgiveness and reward, is a necessity of His nature, then it will come to
5

66

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid
;

and more, it will us without yearning for it hardly deserve the name of grace, for it will be from the moral standpoint of a lower kind
than the grace which even man is capable of showing. Moreover, freedom is a requirement of His Samadiyyat or Self-sufficiency.

He

does not need anything; not even the

exhibition of any kind of attitude or action towards other beings. What He does for

man

is,

therefore, absolutely unselfish,

and

hence absolutely free. And there is room for the freedom of man also, for man must be free, if he is created by Him to yearn for moral perfection and to seek His grace.

The

speculative consciousness,

trary, yearns exactly for necessity,

on the conit would

have a unity from which all multiplicity could be deduced rigorously. Hence there can be

no freedom in its unity, nor city which proceeds from
as existent object,
e.g.,

in the multipliit.

When

the

speculative consciousness conceived the unity
in materialism, etc., the

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

67

is conceived as a cause, from which the whole world process originates and proceeds on the principle of mechanical causality.

unity

conceives the unity as a rational concept, e.g., the monism of Spinoza, the principle on which it acts and on which the
it

When

multiplicity

is

derived from

it is

of logical ground-consequence.

the principle When the

speculative consciousness seems to go further

and conceive the unity

as a spirit, it has

then

the appearance of affirming freedom in the unity as well as in man. But then what is
really

constraint;

meant is only the want of external and freedom is identified with internal necessity, which in truth is no
Sixthly, Immortality
is

freedom.

another point which

is

bound up
its

for the religious consciousness

with

unity, but

consequence

which is hardly of any from the standpoint of the

speculative unity. The religious consciousness yearns for per-

68

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

faction perfection which is wanting in man, and which to all appearances cannot be attained by him in this short span of life nor by his own endeavours, unless the whole

;

system of reality is somehow transformed into a new order. It is for this reason that
immortality as well as the existence of Divine
postulated by

Being

is

it.

The two

are really

two

phases of
is

the former

one and the same postulate, the subjective condition and

the latter the objective condition of one and the same requirement.

But for the speculative consciousness both these conditions are unnecessary. It neither
cares for a definite qualitative nature of the
unity, nor consequently for the survival

of
is

human

soul after death.

This because

it

not the interest of the speculative consciousness that the multiplicity, or indeed that the
unity, should have a particular nature.
Its

problem

is

to find out the unity from

which

the multiplicity as such could necessarily be

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

69

deduced.

Hence

it is

that

all

the attempts

to determine the speculative unity and trace the growth of multiplicity from it are indifferent as to the immortality of the
soul.

human

They

are not only indifferent as to the

immortality of the human soul, they rather strongly tend to deny it. If the unity is only qualitative one, then too the soul is a transitory

mode

of the substance.

Its

being
it

is

in

every case adjectival.
its

Even when
is

seems
its

to attain to self-subsistence, as in idealism,
survival after death

the survival of

memory

(or idea) in God or the survival of the element common to all the souls, i.e., their
;

general idea
in

in every case

it is

re-absorbed

God.

Seventhly, the speculative unity must be absolutely knowable, while the religious unity

need not be knowdble at

all.

The

speculative unity has
to

its

origin in the

yearning

know
is

reality.

The

speculative conIt

sciousness

knowledge

consciousness.

70

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

is essentially knowable by us. Hence when the empirically-minded comes to the task of metaphysics, he grasps

assumes that reality

reality

as

fundamentally

matter,

material,

physical,

as the direct object of
;

immediate

perception or as sensations and ideas, psychical,

mental,

again as

something

which

is

directly

apprehended in introspection.

The
is

world-picture that is thereby constructed materialism or subjective idealism.

While

if

the task

is

undertaken by the
is

rationalistically-minded, the world

as a system of concepts or categories,

grasped of that

which is the proper object of thought and can be grasped by the intellect without remainder. The world-picture thus produced is idealism,
etc.

But
i.e.,

if

tically,

the attempt were to be made crion the principle of Kant, the unity

shall

have to be conceived as that of a
all

Law

from which
derived,

other laws could be rigorously
is

law which

again an abstract object

and

is

fully grasped

by thought.

However,

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

71

for

Kant

it is

only a regulative idea and has

no

objectivity.

difference

Thus we see that it makes no what kind of unity is taken as the
it is

unity of the world by the speculative consciousness,

through and through

known

and knowable.
need not be wholly knowable, indeed it is not wholly knowable, because the demand for it arises in the need of man for
;

But the knowable

religious unity
it

need be only partly

a being

who

could protect and guide and help

him

in the world-situation in

which he finds

himself.

The unity must

therefore have the

But they attributes requisite for the purpose. constitute the nature of the unity with regard
to
all

in relation with him.

They

are neither

the attributes, nor need they necessarily define the absolute nature of the unity. And

the humility incident to the attitude towards the unity and the immense grandeur of the unity necessarily lead man to maintain that it
surpasses the grasp of his tiny faculties and
is

72

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

essentially incomprehensible to confess that >* ^ <wx*o y

by him. He has no one knows

him but He Himself and U-U

^ ctf^H U

by

cognition they cannot comprehend him. Indeed the religious consciousness in its highest form, viz., revelation seems to hold that the

unity
at

is

not knowable, even in relation to
it is

us,

knowable neither in its exisall, nor even with regard to its attributes tence, in relation to us for its existence and its
that
;

attributes are

beyond experience, only it is convinced of and hence believes in the existence of the unity, and in such attributes of it as
its

necessitated the postulate of

existence;

there

is

no question

of knowledge.

Eighthly, each of these unities engenders a
different

mode
;

of

life.

The

speculative conmeditation,,

sciousness breeds

contemplation,

quietude

while the religious consciousness

arouses yearning, struggle, activity.

The

speculative unity, once grasped, brings
to end.

all activity

For

if

the unity

is

grasped

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
as perfect, the highest activity

73>

becomes the
"
is

timeless activity of thought
tic

which

dialec:

"

for Plato,

and

"

theoria

"

for Aristotle

and human beings become perfect with the perfection of God the unity of which they
are modes (Spinoza) and hence there remainsno room for activity. But if the unity is conceived as imperfect, there arise two alternatives. In one case, it would be once for all
;

sity

imperfect and determined by and hence all exertion to
;

its

inner necesit

make

perfect

would be
it

futile.

In the other, that

is if

the

unity involves progress towards perfection,

activity

would of necessity grow perfect and no on the part of us human beings is

required for its perfection. In its very nature the speculative consciousness in knowledgeconsciousness.

And knowledge in itself produces contemplation and not activity. But it is quite the other way about with the
religious unity.

The need

of

the religious

unity has arisen in

man from the situation that

74
there are

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

many

world around him
realisation.

yearnings in his soul, and the as well as his own nature

raises insuperable obstacles in his

way to their The help and guidance from the

religious unity,

him The
in

i.e., God, require and inspire to active struggle against these obstacles.

struggle aims at bringing his

own

nature

harmony with the Divine Will, and in bringing the whole order of the world too in

harmony with His Will.
is

This struggle to

create the subjective and objective

harmony

not the means to the realisation of these

yearnings; rather the struggle itself is the gradual realisation of them. The task is so gigantic that it must continue till the end of

the world, and requires enormous and incessant work. Indeed the religious consciousness
is

yearning

it is

thing, to get to something,

yearning to become someto bring about

something; it is practical consciousness and must needs generate activity.

These distinctions between the speculative

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

75

and the

religious

unities

are of

paramount

importance.
tics called

They must not be

obliterated.

Now pantheism, the doctrine of Islamic mysWahdat-i-Wujud, seems exactly to
it

do

this

;

obliterates these distinctions.

It

seems to identify the religious unity with the
speculative unity.

The confusion
is

of

these

two very

distinct unities

not confined to

it is found also in philosophers. There seems to be an urge in human nature to make of these two one unity. What happens is this. The two unities lie latent in

mystics only;

the consciousness of the subject, the thinker or the mystic. Both are descriptions of ulti-

mate

reality.

either through the

The primary approach to it is medium of thought or

to the speculative unity or to the religious unity. If to the former, the attributes of the religious unity are unawares

that of intuition,

attached to

it,

if

to the latter, those of the

speculative unity.

Thus
4

are the
'

'

Substance

'

of Spinoza and the

Idea

of

Hegel endowed

76

MujaddicTs Conception of Taivhid
;

with Divine attributes and thus are the Deity of Plotinus and God of Jarni deduced from
the conception of pure Being.

More
with, he

particularly

what seems to happen
is this.

in

the case of a Muslim mystic
is

To

begin

a

Muslim.

He

believes in God,

he believes in His
in his

own

and he believes and in life-afterresponsibility
attributes,
all

death

;

indeed he believes in

that has

been given to
ness as
it

him by the

religious conscious-

manifested

itself

in

Muhammad.

Then
soul,

there happens to arise a yearning in his the transcendental yearning of Kant,

know God. Ordinary experience palpably has no place here. He is led to believe that there is a new kind of experience, a transto

cendental experience which can be acquired. " That is, there is something called Kashf-otakes to

by which one can know God. He He now knows-, he realises God he realises His nature. The reason that and he now uses in this connection too is Kasijf-

Shuhud

"

it.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

77

o-Shuhud

;

it is

spiritual reason.
viz.,
;

Thus both
experience only they are

the elements of knowledge, and reason get to their rights
transcendental.
tic passes

In this

way

the Islamic mys-

ness

over to the speculative consciousto knowledge consciousness. All the

inherent requirements of the speculative consciousness must now be fulfilled; God must

be grasped now as the speculative unity. The mystic knows that He is knowable, that He is immanent, that He is the only existent,
etc.

believed

which he formerly remain confusedly tacked on to his newly-attained knowledge. Sometimes the
attributes,
in,

The

mystic himself remains unaware of the confusion; sometimes he becomes aware of it,

and either throws, such attributes overboard
in favour of the speculative attributes, or

permits the confusion to remain for fear of "dire "consequences to himself or to the vulgar

^h^, would
truth
is.*

lose all

if

they were told what the

78

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

But what the Islamic mystics
held
is

consciously-

this

:

Mysticism

is

an attempt to have

a firsthand experience of

of Islam

is

what the Prophet supposed to have experienced.

The

Islamic mystic believes that the Prophet

experienced God and Eternity. is out to experience them himself.
certain practices called
tual exercises.

The mystic

He adopts
spiri-

"Mujahida" or

On

his

way he

believes he

acquires certain occult powers to work Karamat, miracles. With these we are not concerned.

However
all

it

must be borne
is

in

mind

that in

this

he

tries to
"

keep to Islam and
the third ele"

its spirit.

What

interests us

ment

of mysticism, viz.

Kashf-o-Ilham

or

intuition of

God and

Eternity.

The mystic
is

believes that he comes to apprehend eternal
verities also

and God
as

directly.

This

what

is

known
Divine
of

religious

experience.

The

subject comes, so to

say, in direct

contact

with
vision

Being.

He
result

has
is

immediate

God.

The

"Haqq-ul-

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

79

Yaqm

"

*

the infallible certainty of His exis-

validity

The competence and Kashf-o-Ilham as the faculty cognisant of Divine Being is assumed without question; and it is maintained that Kashf is
tence and His essence.
of
qualitatively different

from reason.
in

It is

the

direct apprehension of ultimate Reality.

Now

it

must be borne
is

mind that on the
by the criterion

principles of Islamic mysticism the reliability

of Kashf

to be measured

of the spiritual experience of the Prophet of

God

;

for that

was the highest and the truest

experience. This gives us a standard, so to an internal evidence of the truth or say,
1

Haqq-ul-Yaqm
'

Yaqm
yaqln

Literally absolute certainty. ( ^fc*-^! J^*- ) ilm-ulor certainty according to mystics has three stages
:
' ; '

ain-ul-yaqin haqq-ul-yaqin certain that there is fire, this is ilm-ul-yeufin \
',

',

'.

One

finds

smoke and
one sees

is

'

fire

with his

own

eyes, he

is
*

existence of

fire, this is

more sure than the first person of the ain-ul-yaqin one puts his hand in fire
'

and gets a burn, he
yaqin.

realises the existence of fire, this is haqq-ul-

With

reference to the Being of Allah, the

mystics

believe that one passes through similar stages of certainty and realisation. But on the principle of the Mujaddid none of these-

kinds of yaqin

is

possible in case of the Being of God.

"80

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

otherwise of the findings of a mystic. Throwing a glance on the history and deveIslamic mysticism,
4

lopment of pantheism or Wahdat-i-Wujud in we find that before Ibn Arabi and Haklm-i-Ishraq, 1 there are to be

found only accidental utterances of sundry mystics purporting to pantheism. For example Bayazld Bustami (d. 261 A.H.) is said to
have exclaimed, ^yl^ ^\U ^U^^o Holy am and Mansur (d. 309 I, how great is my Glory
;

A.H.) J^ Jl l>l I am the Truth the implication thereof being that the relation between me and
;

Him is that of identity.
seems to have been the

It

was Ibn Arabl who
'

first to

interpret his

mystic experience of Tawhid, or unity in such a way as to be intelligible to others, and to

own

have strenuously maintained that Wahdat-iWujud is the very essence of Islam. And Ibn
4

Arabl tried to support his interpretation with verses of the Qur-an and the sayings of the
1 Shaikh iShahsb'uddin Suharwardi, the author of Hikmat-ulMrocj, (d.578A.H.).

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

81

Holy Prophet. Ibn 'Arabi has had enormous influence on mystic thought in Islam. Consequently Ibn Taimiyya had to write a treatise,
"
>***j)\

OwX_^
in

Jlk>l

^

"

Refutation of Pancriticised
its

theism
cations.

which he strongly

Ibn

'Arabi's conception of

Tawhid and

impli-

But perhaps Ibn Taimiyya's criticism At least it had little influence in the Islamic East. Ibn 'Arab! had not yet come to sway the Islamic soul. It was later that his sway became complete. Practically everyone accepted Wahdat-i-Wujud and held 1 it on the basis of mystic experience. It was at this stage that the Mujaddid appeared. He found Wahdat-i-Wujud ram-

was too

early.*

1

Ibn Taimiyya (661-728
as

AH)

and Im5m Dhahabi

(d.

748

A.H.)
"

Krenkow

theologians strongly opposed Ibn 'Arabi. Dr. F. has kindly enlightened me on the point He writes

:

In Syria and Egypt was a similar struggle against sufi Pantheism waged by Ibn Taimiyya and the historian and Muhaddith Dhahabi. In the eighth century *the adherents of Sufism were

found

India and
6

Egypt and Syria only-among emigrants from Persia and I fear they had a bad time. A Kh5nq3h in Cairo, Sa'Id-as-Su'ada', generally harboured them."
in

82

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

pant.

He

himself went through

it

in

his

mystic development. And the real point of interest is that he throws it overboard as a
mystic, i.e., exactly on the ground of his own advanced mystic experience and he seems to have liberated the religious unity from its
;

complication with the speculative unity on that very ground. And his findings apparently
bear the
test,

the criterion of the reliability

of mystic experience,

namely,

it

coalesces

with the findings of the religious experience of the Prophet as generally formulated by

Muslim

divines!

Describing his internal history, the Mujaddid writes that at first he only believed in

Wahdat-i-Wujud; for from early childhood he knew it on rational grounds and was thoroughly convinced of its truth. But when he entered mysticism, it was then that he
first realised

Wahdat-i-Wujud

as a spiritual

experience and came to know it first-hand. Long did he remain in that maqam or stage

;

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

83

knowledge that is incident to that was granted to him. 1 Afterwards a new kind of spiritual experience took hold of his soul, and he found that he could hold Wahdat-i-Wujud no longer. Yet he hesitated to give expression to his new experience, because he had cherished Wahdat-i-Wujud so long. At last he had to reject it definitely, and it was revealed to him that Wahdat-i-Wujud was a lower stage and that he had arrived at a higher His stage, viz., Zilliyyat or adumberation. rejection was now something which he could no longer help, though he was really unwilling
all

and

stage

to reject it because of the respect for the great leaders of mysticism who all had held it. However, he yearned to continue at the
stage of Zilliyyat or adumberation for Zilliy-

yat or adumberation has a kinship with Wahdat-i-Wujud. In it he experienced himself and the world as the zill or shadow of
1

M., Vol.

I,

Ep. 31.

84

Mujaddid' s Conception of Tawhid

But the grace of God took him higher up to the highest stage, viz. \Abdiyyat or
God.
servitude.

Then
is

or servitude
stages
;

did he realise that 'Abdiyyat very high above all other

stick to

and he repented having yearned to 1 Wahdat-i-Wujud and Zilliyyat or

adumberation.
Naturally enough, one expects that those
of the

Muslim mystics who have chosen to differ with the Mujaddid and have gone back to Ibn 'Arabi and his Wahdat-i-Wujud, for example Shah Wali-Ullah, should primarily
contest the position of the Mujaddid on the
basis of mystic experience,
rationalistic

and not merely on

should

or logical grounds, that they base their case on the religious

consciousness
consciousness.

and not on the

speculative

With
proceed

these introductory remarks, let us
to
discuss

the

position

of

the

Mujaddid
>M., Vol.
I,

in detail.
Ep. 160.

CHAPTER

I

The MujaddicTs Conception

of

Tawhid

means oneness. But term denotes the religious As we have seen, the religious unity unity. must be numerically one, and unique in the
literally
-*

HPAWHlD

in Islam, the

possession of

all

the attributes of perfection.

This

is

Tawhid.

The conception of Tawhid as developed by the Mujaddid has historically arisen in his mind in close contrast with indeed as a proWahdat-i-Wujud or the unity ism. Ibn 'Arabi in particular for criticism, because Ibn Arabl is the great mystic who, for the depth of his insight and comprehensiveness of his argumentation, may well be called the Imam or the Leader of pantest against

He takes

4

'

'

86

Mujaddid's Conception of
;

theistic mystics in Islam

indeed he

is

actually

called
It is

Shaikh-i-Akbar or the greatest Shaikh.

consequently necessary to give a brief of Ibn 'Arabl's conception of Tawhid and the Mujaddid's criticism.
exposition

I.

Ibn 'Arabics Wahdat-i-Wujudor Unityism

and the Mujaddid's Criticism of

it

IBN 'ARABI'S position with regard to Tawhid is that Being is one, it is that which exists.
This Being
is

Allah.

Everything

else
is

is

His

manifestation.

Hence the world

identical

with Allah. The identity of the world and Allah is conceived on the basis of the identity

of

His Dhat-o-Sifat 1 or existence and
of

'The distinction

Dhat

(

C->^

)

and

Sifat

(OU-o)

j

s

very

nearly the distinction of substance and attributes. At times it looks like that of existence and essence. It can be rendered as

the distinction of Being and Nature, or It and Its Qualities. Asma' ( U~*ol) plural of Ism, means Divine Names with reference to particular Sifat or Dhat as they occur in the Qur-an, e.g..

Majaddid's Conception of Tawhid

87

essence
2

substance and attribute
1

;

the world

being only a Tajalli
Sifat

or manifestation of His In
is a

or attributes.

other words, the

creation of the world

form of emanation. 3 by Ibn 'Arabi
his followers

The theory of emanation
and especially

as held

as elaborated

by
e.g.,

as well as the later mystics,

JamI,

is this.

Rahim ( fe*>j X the Merciful, as they are the names of Allah in virtue of His qualities or activities, i e an Ism combines Dh5t
,

and
1

SifSt.

Tajalli

(

^^^
that

)

is

underlying

it is

God

bodily in many forms effluence, emanation, manifestation and in philosophical termiWhen the Light shines forth on nology is equivalent to Mode
itself
it
is

forth. The conception Light and this Light shines forth as if Hence it may be translated as eradiation,

really shining
is

Tajalli-bi-nafsihl

(

AA~AX>

^^

).

As

the Light

shines forth in various grades to the mystic it is Tajalir-i-Dhatl or Sifdti, etc. with reference to the mystic it means the vision of the Light or illumination by it. If this vision is that of the
,

God it is Tajalli'-i-Sifati ( ^isli-o jj^.vi> ), if it is the vision of the Being or Dhat of Allah it is Tajalli'-i-Dhati
attributes of
2

3

ShR, p. The act

8, lines

15-21,

and

p. 9, lines 6, 11, 15, 16, 21.

of creation

the descent of

by the word ("Be") is nothing but the Creator Himself into the being of things.
25-27, p. 183, lines 10, 11; p. 213, lines
;

^

See ShF.,
11-12
;

p. 178, lines

p. 152, lines 11-16

p. 253, line 22.

88

Mujaddid's Conception of Taivhid
is

The Being

indeterminate

;

it is

the stage of

La-ta'ayyun or Indeterminateness of the unity. In its Descent or Determination it passes through five stages. The first two are Ilml
'

or Cognitive and the last three are Kharijl or Existential. In the first descent, the unity

becomes conscious of
general,
it is

itself as
is

pure being, and
only Ijmali, i.e.* second descent,
of
itself

the consciousness of Sifat

implicit. In the

the

unity becomes conscious
;

as

possessing the attributes that is the stage of it is Sifat-i-tafslli, i.e., attributes in detail,
explicit.

These two descents seem

to

be

conceived as conceptual or logical rather than actual; for they are out of time, and the
distinction of
is

Dhat and Sifat or its attributes Dhahni or logical. Then begin the only
actual
is

real

therefore

The descents. Ta ayyun-i-ruhi or
4
;

third

descent

the determina-

tion as spirit or spirits
itself

the unity has broken

up into so many
its

spirits, e.g., angels.
is

The

fourth of

descents

Ta'ayyun-i-mithall or

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
ideal determination, thereby the

89

world of Ideas
is

comes into being.

And

the fifth descent

Ta'ayyun-i-jasadi or physical determination ; 1 it yields the phenomenal or physical beings. These stages are only gradual realisations of

the capacities that were already latent in the
attributes.

This brings out that for Ibn 'Arabi Dhat or Being is identical with Sifat or atributes,

and

Sifat express themselves in tajalliyyat,

i.e.

manifestations or modes which are the world and its objects. This same identity of divine modes with His attributes, and of attributes

with his Being, is brought out in another way. Ibn 'Arabi maintains that Asma'-i-Ilahi or
Divine
or the

Names are
3
;

identical with the

Musamma
is

Named, and the Musamma

the very

being of Allah

and that the Divine Names, they are many, denote the same although
>M., Vol.

II,

Ep.

1.

ShF., p. 143

text of

FH.

90
1

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

and that whatever is denoted by is denoted by all of them together. God can be praised with any name or with all the names together, because 2 all the names denote the same being. Just as He is manifold as regards His Names, and One as regards His Being, so He is Ahadiyyati-Ma qula 3 like Hayula 4 or 'matter' or a conceptual unity as regards His being, and manifold as regards His existence, because the created beings are nothing but He himself
entity;

each name separately

k

in self-emanation.

5

Now this identification of
for the identification

Asma' or names and Musamma the named
is

only another

name
i.e.,

of
1

Dhat and
2

Sifat,

Being and Attributes,

Ibid., pp.
3

ShF.. p. 223 text of 226-227.

FH.

in mystic journey

Ahadiyyat (C-o*>^.l)is the quality of being one it is a stage where the mystic turns away from multiplicity
;

and sees only unity.
4

means conceptual unity
has Surat

Ahadiyyat-i-Ma'qula (<*Jyua-o d^o.^X^l) unity which is conceptually grasped.
1

Hayulaf VjJ_^A )is 'Matter

in the Aristotelean sense,

which

(O^-o)

ShF., p.

Form 253-text of FH.
Or
'

'

as its correlative.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

91

because

'

Ism

'

or

name

is

nothing but the

description of the object in virtue of an attribute of the being. As to the relation between the world and

God, Ibn 'Arabi holds that
identity.

it

is

one

of

In bringing out this identification he proceeds either from the negation of the

world or from the affirmation of God. Proceeding from the negation of the world, Ibn 'Arabi holds that the world as such is merely nominal, unreal, imaginary, objectively non1

existent,

and that

God

alone

exists.

The

of the unity

world or multiplicity exists only as the modes as His modes it has no exist;

ence of
1

its

own

:

ShF., p. 117, lines 3-5

text of

FH.

plural of 'Am (y^*). It means essence in the terminology of Ibn 'Arabi. But essence can be conceived in two ways either as the concept of the nature of a thing or as the
2

A'yan (o^t^)
;

ls

nature of a thing

The latter is something which exists, itself. and may rightly be called the existent nature of the thing. It is in this sense that Ibn 'Arab! uses the term A'y3n. Ibn 'Arabi calls

it A'yan-uth-ThSbita (jvJoliJI >U*1). They are Thabita because they are posited as existent they are therefore existent essences,
,

92

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

the essences which are existent nature of
things have not got the slightest touch of 1 reality about them. Proceeding from the side

God, Ibn 'Arabi maintains that the world is it is the modes in which the unity has differentiated itself these modes exhaust the
of

God

;

;

unity wholly the unity has no existence over and above them c>.U -/iX*JV* U* sXsoU there
;
:

absolute nothingness beyond these modes and the mystic should not take the trouble of
is
;

seeking

God beyond

this world.

2

But this experience of identity is not a Hence Ibn 'Arabi permanent experience. comes to speak of a new experience called
3

4

Farq-ba'd-al-jam' (difference-after-Identity).
1

ShF., p. 63, lines 14-15

2

Ibid

,

p. 33, line 17.

means difference in mystic terminology it signifies the state of mind in which the mystic feels the sense of being other than God and separate from Him. Jam' (^.^) means coming together in mystic terminology it signifies the state of mind in which the mystic feels one with God Farq-ba'dFarq ( Jj/*)
literally
; ;

3

al-Jam' (j-*^^*-? <3/*)

me ans separateness after unification

;

in

mystic terminology it is the state of mind in which the mystic has outgrown the stage ot Jam' and feels himself other than God.
4

ShF.,

p. 91, line 24.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

93

One may call that which really exists God or one may call it the world, or one ma>
express his inability to differentiate between the two. 1 It remains one and the same. Again

Ibn 'Arab! denies transcendence, and he denies immanence, because these conceptions impl> He puts it thus if God duality of existent.
:

immalost. Hence Tawhid should be affirmed with Tanzih and Tashbih 2 i.e., with transcendence and immanence both. 3 Again, according to Ibn 'Arab Allah is Asl or the Thing and the world is Hif 4 Zill or adumberation. But zill or adumberais

posited either as transcendent or as
'

nent His infinitude would be
* '

'

,

'ShF., p 134, lines 22-23, p 147, lines 10-11.
2

Tashbih

( tA<^*-

x

^)

literally

means attributing likeness
creatures to the Creator.
tity

In theology i the qualities of th< Ibn 'Arab! takes likeness to be iden
likeness.
i

means

of Creatures,

e

,

and hence Tashbih comes to mean immanence.

Tamil

In theology it signifies tha the attributes of creatures cannot be ascribed to God. In Ibi
(iAJ>.^ij) literally

means to

purify.

'Arab!
3
4

it
,

comes to mean transcendence.
45, line 12
(

ShF p

text of

FH

,

p. 48, line 31.
its

Asl-o-Zill

JJi

J-ol) means the Thing and
zill

Adumbera

tion or shadow.

In Ibn 'Arab!

seems to be usedas equivalen

94

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
is

tion
is

the appearance of asl or the thing

;

it

asl

appearing,
is

the world

manifesting itself. 1 identical with Allah.

Hence

As
Ibn

to the relation

between
that
is

Man
the

and God,
relation

'Arab!
2

maintains

between God and man
immanence,
qurb
of

that of identity, of

Qurb
S-V 51

or nearness.

Really

or nearness
J**- cx
*?. J 1

as affirmed in the verse,
c***>

H

J

l

We

are

nearer

unto him than

his life-artery,

means nothing
is

other than the fact that

God Himself

the

3 very essence of the limbs and parts of man. Again, man is said to be created after the

to appearance

which
in

it is conceived as In'ik3s ( /J ^-*-i ) or Reflection, c well-nigh equivalent to Tajalli or Emanation. But the Mujaddid zill in the beginning means shadow which
' ;

is

But as he advances, resemblance with the Thing becomes more and more of a mere shadow and indicates insignificance and unreality. In the end it comes to mean only an effect
signifies
'zill'
1

ShF., p. 113, line 12, and

p. 116, lines 10, 11. 13,

14
9,

9

Ibid., p. 77, lines 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, Ibid., p. 128, lines

11 and p. 79, lines

13

9

2-5

text of

FH

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
:

95

man man
fact

image of Allah *3jy* J>* ^>^ J^ He created after His own Image. That means that
possesses
it is
;

all

the attributes of God.
1

In

His attributes that are manifested in

man they are bodily there in man. That is why it is said *o ^f *** **> ^f cx one who comes to cognise his own self comes to
:

2 That cognise his God. is knowledge of God.

is,

knowledge

of self

also

Ibn 'Arabi's Wahdat-i-Wujud comes out in connection with his theory of the

Purpose of Creation.
tion, according to

The purpose
is
:

of crea-

him,

the yearning on the

part of Allah to

jxil cxfti^i ^j^l

know Himself Uiiu *\^& c^> O cuxxaJ.* I was a hidden
1

Treasure

;

I

wished that
is

I

should be known,

so created the creatures.

The yearning

to

know Himself
tion.

the yearning for self-perfec-

This perfection consists in expression or realisation of His own self through the
1

ShF., p. 252

text of
1-5

FH.
text of

2

Ibid., p. 185, lines

FH.

96

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

temporal and eternal qualities that manifest in other themselves in the world-process
;

words

in actualising all the qualities that

were

potentially there in

Him.

Thus from what-

ever side
leads to

we

start,

Ibn 'Arabl unambiguously

Wahdat-i-Wujud.

turning to the Mujaddid we find that his mystic progress in general has had three

Now
1

wujudiyyat or pantheism, zilliyyat or adumberation and 'abdiyyat or servitude. At the first stage he has the spiritual experistages, viz.,

ence of Wahdat-i-Wujud.

The

object of

mysticism at this stage is to turn the belief based on faith or reason into sure and certain

knowledge based on direct experience with regard to God and His relation to man and the world, that God exists, that He is immanent in man and the world, and that His relation with the world is that of identity. This stage lasts for a long interval and the
'M., Vol.
I,

Ep. 160.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

97
in all

Mujaddid
its

realises it in all its detail

and

passes over to the stage of zilliyyat or adumberation. This is a transiAt it he finds that the world tional stage.

depth.

1

Then he

has a being of
zill

its

own, though

it

is

only the

or a shadow, semblance of reality. Allah sense of duality is the Asl or the Real. arises he seriously begins to doubt Wahdat-

A

;

but he does not yet possess the and the conviction to deny it forthIndeed he yearns to stay on in this with. stage because it has affinity with Wujudiythe world is seen as zill or adumberayat, tion of the Asl or the Real, i.e., of Allah. He

i-Wujud

;

clarity

finds himself reluctant to

outgrow

this stage.

In course of time, however, he outgrows this stage also, and passes over to the stage of
the highest stage. the world now becomes The clear to him like the light of the day.
'abdiyyat

or

servitude

Duality of

God and

1

M.

Vol.

I,

Ep. 31

;

Vol.

II,

Ep. 42.

7

98

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

world and God are two. He is thoroughly convinced of this and he must promulgate their duality whatever odds there be against
;

him.

1

At

this

stage he realises that all his

previous mystic experiences were really subthey did not corresjective and unreliable
;

pond to objective reality. No room is left now for the identity of God and man. His
confidence in the objective validity of mystic experience is gardually being undermined. In
the end he comes to realise that to speak of an experience of God, which the mystics do,
is

blasphemy.

God
AX

is

far

and

far

above the
:

grasp of our faculty of reason and of kashf
2

^J\

\x ^

.i^Jl

<&!

&\

Allah

is

beyond

the Beyond, and again beyond the Beyond.

Neither His being nor His attributes are The only justification directly knowable.
for mystic discipline

that remains to

him

now
1

is

not the possibility of the experience
II,
1.

M., Vol.

Ep

42.

*lbid.,

Ep.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

99

of the Divine, but
fication of morals.
1

its

trend towards the puriexpressly

The Mujaddid
is

realises here that Iman-bil-ghaib or the faith

in the

Unseen alone

the truth.

2

With

these stages of the development of his

mystic experience in view, we may now turn to the Mujaddid's criticism of Ibn 'Arabi's Let it be remembered Wahdat-i-Wujud.
that the
basis

Mujaddid contests it exactly on the on which Ibn 'Arabi held it, viz., mystic
3
;

experience

them both

rational

though in the exposition of argument is mixed up

with the description of mystic experience. That in God dhat-o-sifat or existence and
essence, being

and

attributes are identical,

*lman-bil-ghaib

(t^^Jb c>^'):

Faith in the Unseen,

Ghaib (ur^^) is opposed to Shahada, i.e., to that which can be seen and observed, faith in entities which cannot be seen and observed, e.g., God, Angels, Heaven, Hell, etc., is Im5n-bilghaib. The term is used in this dissertation with particular reference to the Being of God.
1 8

Cf. M., Vol.
Ibid,,

I,
;

Eps. 207 and 217.

Ep. 31

Cf. Ibn 'Arabi, ShF., p. 12, line 24.

100

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
is

and that the world
tion, or

the

tajalli

or emana;

mode

of

sifat

or attributes

these

two premises necessarily involve Wahdat-iWujud. The Mujaddid must therefore meet
each of these premises. Consequently he holds that each of these premises is invalid. The sifat or attributes are not identical with the

dhat or being but they are over and above the dhat. This is a truth directly apprehen;

ded by kashf-i-sahih or veridical intuition,

i.e.,

by genuine mystic experience. Moreover it is also in harmony with Revelation, because
the
iUJl c? Qur-an says o' verily God is wholly sufficient unto Himself, He needs none of the worlds (29 5) the worlds or the creation being but only the
:

*

ft

s:

^^ ^
:

;

Sifat, in their actuality or realisation

according

to Ibn 'Arabl.
attributes,

by
it,

perfect in Himself. The which He turns to the world
is

He

and creates
1

are other than His Self. Indeed

right reason also demands that the attributes

M M Vol.

Ill,

Eps. 26, 100, 110.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

101
is

must be other than His
world the
attributes.
tajalli or

being.

Nor

the

For

if

emanation of the sifat or the world were the tajalli

would have been identical with them but the sifat are perfect while the world is full of imperfections. 1 For example, human knowledge has no resemblance with God's knowledge, so that one may be 2 called the tajalli of the other. Further
of God's
sifat, it
;

Kashf-i-Sahih or true mystic intuition bears testimony to it that the world is not the
tajalli

or emanation

of

sifat

or attributes.

Moreover when we turn to wahi 3 or Revelation, which is the criterion of the truth of
mystic experience, it bears us out. It says thy Lord is ^^i^ai U* O^*J! v^ vb^ ^Isy* holier than the qualities which they ascribe
:

1

M., Vol

III,

Eps. 113-114

'Ibid.,

Ep. 100.

3 Wahi (^^'^} is revelation general but in Islam it is a revelation of specific nature. It is information or guidance communicated to a Nab! (^**>) by /v llah through the agency of an angel or directly.

m

102

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

to

Him

(37:180).

likeness whatsoever

That is, there is no between the Divine and
1

the

human

attributes.

Now
4

where Ibn 'Arabi
'

starts

from the

denial of the world as such and maintains that

A'yan-uth-thabita the existent essences of the world have not had the slightest touch of

reality,

and that

it

is

God

alone that exists,

the Mujaddid observes that Ibn 'Arabi is 2 talking at the stage of Fana or annihilation.
is after the mystic passes over to the higher stages, that he realises the error involved in this stage. It is then alone that he understands the reason of having formerly

It

regarded the world as non-existent. At the stage of Fana or annihilation the mystic was

absorbed
1

in

the being of
1.

God and

utter

M., Vol.II.Ep.

Fana (^*) literally means self-annihilation. In mystic terminology it means the stage at which the mystic turns his face away from everything other than Allah and forgets it totally.

1

The

obliviousness leads in certain cases to the denial of every-

thing other than Allah.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

103

forgetfulness with regard to ma-siwa

things
of

other than

God had

taken hold

him.
1

Hence he could perceive nothing but God.

Consequently he began to deny the existence of everything else and affirm the
being of Allah alone. Just as shines the stars disappear in

when
its

the sun

light

and

cannot be observed, although they are actually present in the sky and have not ceased to
exist

much

same manner the mystic was so occupied with the being of God that he was unable to apprehend and affirm other
;

in the

things in spite of the fact that the things were 2 In fact Ibn 'Arab! does not actually there.

seem to have

realised

Fana or annihilation
;

adequately, for he is still aware of the world that is how he could identify it with God. 3

Secondly, Ibn 'Arabics position does not satisfy the criterion of kashf-i-sahih or veridical in'M.Vol.
'Ibid.,
I.

Eps. 122,291
Vol.
II,

/fcut.Ep.43.

Ep. 272

;

Ep. 35.

104

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
'

with Wahl It is against revelation. We have been taught by revelation that God is wholly other than
tuition, viz., it is not in accordance
'.

the world, and that the world exists.
it

Had

awamir-o-nawahi or the commandments of commission and omission, and
not been
so,

the

actions in accordance with those

com-

mandments, should have become meaningThe imperatives and the actions less.
according to them can have meaning only if the world really exists. Otherwise reward

and punishment cannot rightly follow on them and the Hereafter becomes meaningless. 1
reality
it is scepticism to deny the objective and external existence of the world and call it unreal and non-existent; indeed

Thirdly,

it

is

a denial of God's attribute of Ibda' or

creation and of the fact that
a

He
call

really created

world.

2

Moreover to
do.

will
a

not

For

it mawhum mawhum may mean a

Ibid.,

M., Vol. Ill, Ep. 67. Vol. II, Ep. 44.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

105

number of things. In one sense mawhum means that the world is simply the invention
of

own
if
is

our imagination; it is nothing but our In this case it would disappear ideas. our imagination were to disappear. This

downright scepticism and denial of God's
;

attribute of Ibda' or creation, as said above

and

wholly untenable. In the other sense, mawhum means that the world does exist
it is

objectively,

though

to God's
of a

is

existence as compared as insignificant as the existence
its

mere imaginary thing. In this sense it would be wrong to hold that it is identical with God. 1 For the world is contingent,
while

God

identical

is necessary; they can never be with one another. The former is
is

temporal, the latter
to
4

eternal.

One

is

subject

and the other is above from both the points of it. Consequently view, religious and rational, it is impossible to hold that the world does not exist, or that
1

How

'

and

*

Why \

M M Vol. m, Ep. 58.

106
it is

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
identical

with God. 1 Further where Ibn 'Arabi

sole reality of

starts with the God, the Mujaddid points out

is speaking at the stage of or vision of Being, i.e., the Tajalli'-i-dhati stage at which the mystic feels that he is

that Ibn 'Arabi

directly apprehending the being of

God. But

the mystic discovers the error involved thereThen in only when he outgrows that stage.

and then alone he realises that God is wholly other and beyond this world, and that he cannot approach Him, and that the identity of the world and God was a fabrication of his own mind. Ibn "Arabi took the world as identical with God because he did not pass beyond this stage. It was the highest stage Had he advanced of his mystic progress. he would have realised that God is further, beyond all kashf-o-shuhud or intuition and 2 Indeed had Ibn 'Arabi realised experience.
1

M., Vol.
Ibid.,

9

I, Ep. 31. Vol.111, Ep. 75

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
Tajalll'-i-dhatl

107

or vision-of-being fully, he

should have talked only of God, and not at
all

of the world

and

its

identification with

God. 1

Further, this mystic intuition of Ibn 'Arabi, unless interpreted otherwise, is absolutely opposed to Revelation. According to

Revelation
of

it is

a heresy of the worst kind.

3

Another aspect in Ibn 'Arabi's exposition Wahdat-i-Wujud is his doctrine of Farq-

ba'd-al-jam' or difference after identity.

The

objection that the Mujaddid raises in this connection is this If it is true to say that
:

A yan-i-khariji or existent essences
4

have not

had the
it

slightest

touch of existence,
of

possible

that affirmation
i.e.,

how is God only
can

bit-tanzih,

as a transcendent Being,

change His infinitude into f initude ? God is existent and the world is non-existent and
imaginary, having no objective being. How can an imaginary being set limits to the
*M., Vol.
9

Ill,

Ep.32.

Ibid.,

Ep. 89.

108

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

It is equivalent to saying existentially real ? that the mere idea of God's equal can destroy * the quality of His uniqueness Secondly, if
!

tashblh or immanence must be joined with tanzlh or transcendence, the ma-siwa-llah
or things other than
it

God

cease to be.

Hence

is

why

that Ibn 'Arabi maintained that
of

worship

worship opposed to wahl or Revelation. The Qur-an teaches: *\y* <wK ^Jl l^Jbo ^UJ\ J*l L J5

of

any object whatsoever is the 2 which is diametrically Allah;'

o o^-x

lj

^

Say

u
:

O followers of the Book

!

Come

to an equitable proposition

between us

and you that we shall not worship any but Allah and (that) we shall not associate aught with Him, and (that) some of us shall not take but if they others for lords besides Allah
;

turn back, then say
M., Vol. Ill, Ep. 74. 'Cf. ShF.,p. 55, lines
1

4
:

Bear witness that

we

are

4, 9, 10, 11.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

109

Muslims

That means that Ahl-i-KitatT or the people of the scriptures worshipped some things other than Allah, and that things and
".

'

l

4

Thirdly, beings other than Allah there are. those who combine immanence with transcen-

2

dence do not

know

that

God

is

beyond the

reach of our reason and comprehension, and that what they regard as immanent are mere
fabrications of their

own

imagination,

whom

they have raised to the dignity of God. God 3 is high above our kashf-o-shuhud or intuition

and experience. Fourthly, the stage which Ibn 'Arabl calls the stage of Farq-ba d-al-jam\ i.e., difference-after-identity, is not the stage
4 4

of Farq-ba d-al-jam'.

That

stage

is

attained

only

when

the world and

God

are realised as

different

did not realise

In fact

from one another, while Ibn 'Arabl them as separate and distinct. Ibn Arabl did not reach this stage
4

;

>Q.,3:64.
2 8

M., Vol.
Ibid.,

I,

Ep. 272.

Ep.

9.

110

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
is
'

why he proposes that one may call the God, or he may call it the world, or he may express his perplexity on account of their 1 The stage of Farq-ba dindistinguishability.
that
'real
4
l

al-jam

is

realised

only

when

the mystic
;

differentiates

between the world and God

and it is a higher stage than that reached by 2 Ibn 'Arab!. Again where Ibn 'Arabi has based Wahdat-i-Wujud on the identity of asl and zill, i.e., the thing and its adumberation, the Mujaddid contends that the
zill

or adumberation

of a thing can never be identical with the asl or being, the zill is only a copy or a likeness

of the
gent,

asl.

In case of
asl

God

the

zill is

contin-

and the

Necessary.

The

essence of

the contingent

is

necessary being. be identical. 3 For example,
1

Hence

non-being and that of the asl and zill can never
if

the shadow of a
Ep. 285.

M., Vol.

Ill,
I,

3

Ibid, Vol.

Ep. 71 Cf Ep. 290.
;

.

Ibid.,

Vol.

I,

'Ibid.,

Vol.

II,

Ep.

1.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

111

person is prolonged, it can never be said that the person is prolonged. Now, firstly, the

world

is

not the

zill

of

God and
;

secondly,

even if

it

may be taken
two
is

as the

zill

of God, the

identity of the

As

to
is

man
cr

not proved. 1 and his identity with God, Ibn
it

*Arabl

not right in basing
<^J\

on the verse

:

jo.^Jl jxs*

God

life-artery. Certainly nearer to us than our life-artery but the nature of His Qurb or Nearness is beyond
is
;

unto him than his

s own

j s\ c>*xS /

We are

nearer

our comprehension.

2

Nor

is

he right in his
"rt

interpretation of created man after His

^^>
is

J* ^>\

,3)^

God

own image.
the

This does

not mean that

man

attributes of the Creator.

embodiment of the It only means that

both God and the human soul are non-spatial, and that they resemble each other in this 3 respect. Otherwise there is a vast difference
1

M., Vol.
Ibid.,

I,

9
3

Vol.

II,
I,

Ep. 160. Ep. 46.

Ibid.,

Vol.

Ep.287.

112

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

between man and God, as there is, for example, between the spider that warily spins its web and a being who by a single breath can wipe out the whole structure of heaven and earth. God and man simply cannot be identical. Again Ibn Arabi is not right in his inter1
4

pretation

of

*>j ^J/

^

*-~^ J>f
his
self

cr*

one
to

who comes

to

cognise

comes

cognise God. That knowledge of the self is the knowledge of God, does not mean that therefore the self and God are identical. No. It only means that one who has fully

become conscious of the defects and imperfections in his

own

nature realises that values

and perfections are possible only through God and that God is the source and embodiment of all values and perfections. 2
;

As to the Purpose of Creation, the Mujaddid observes that Ibn 'Arabi's position implies that God was not perfect in Himself; and
M., Vol. I,Ep.310.
/&*., Vol.
I,

Ep. 234.

Mujaddid's Conception of Taivhid

113

that

He

had to depend on the world for His
But,
firstly, this is

perfections.

against reli-

gion and against Revelation. According to Revelation God is absolutely independent of the world. c^ il* JI o verily Allah

^ ^^ ^

l

is

sufficient
1

unto

Himself and needs

no

Secondly, according to Revelation the purpose of creation is not knowledge at
worlds.

but 'Ibadat, 2 service. The Qur-an says o^**^ ^ ^~jv^ o4-^ cuixL U I have not created man and jinn but exclusively for 'Ibadat
all
:

J

(51 56). However, one
:

means

Ma'rifat,

i.e.,

say that 'Ibadat knowledge of God. All

may

the same, in the knowledge of
1

God

consists

M., Vol.
'Ib5dat

Ill,

Ep

110.

2

(O^lx*) may generally be
It
is

called worship but

is

not
in-

exactly that.

rather the consciousness of one's

own

significance and humility in relation to a being whose qualities are incommensurable, and not the consciousness of the qualities of that being. Hence 'Ibadat is any action performed with
' '

a will to be in

harmony with Him. According to Islam Allah is exclusively the Ma'bud (>3*~*\ object of worship. Ma'budiyyat is the quality of being Ma'bud. 'Abd (*?*) is the person

who performs

'Ibadat.

114

Mujaddid' s Conception of Tawhid

the perfection of man and not the perfection of God, who is perfect in Himself and is not
affected by the creation of the world.
as

He was before the He is now just as He

creation,

He is cA U* o^
1

was,

i e.,

Perfect.

Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism is not true, wujnd or Being is not one, insists the MujadThe experience of Wahdat-i-W\ijud or did.
identity of being
jective, it is
is

not objective

;

it is
2

sub-

merely Wahdat-i-S/m/md apparent identity the mystic only feels or sees One. And the Mujaddid traces the origin of

this mistake in mystic experience.
1

How

does

M

,

Vol

I,

Ep 266

2

Wahdat-i-Shuhud
t

C^^X-***

^3
It

(>^^> C^^X^)
of

or

Tawhid-i~Shuhudi
It is the

> -^- )

means unity

appearance

Mujad-

did's interpretation of
is difficult.

Wahdat-i-Wujud The exact

translation

may be translated as apparentism According to him the experience of Wahdat-i-Wujud is only appearance. It appears to be so but is not really so it is mere Shuhud or So Wahdat-i-Shuhud or Tawhid-i-Sjiuhudi may be seeming apparentism however it is generally taken to mean the theory of
, :

creation propounded by the

Mujaddid

(pp. 149, 158, infra)

which

apparently a mistake believe in this theory

Sufiya'-i-Shuhudiyya are the mystics

who

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
this subjective experience arise ?

115

The Mujad-

did

points

out that the source of the ex-

perience is different with different classes of men. With some it originates in cognition; with others in feeling. The former begin with excessive meditation on the Unity of &l ^ *JI V Allah, and come to interpret is no object of worship but Allah) (there
as

equivalent

to <&\

vs

^=^r
of

Y (none
this

exists

but Allah).
is

The dawn

kind of

Tawhid on the consciousness
due to the dominant

of the mystic

cognitive

aspect

consequent on persistent thinking and meditation on the Unity by constant repetition it becomes impressed on his mind and he
;

begins to imagine that he directly apprehends Wahdat-i- Wujud OT unity and identity. With
others the experience originates in excessive
love of the Divine^Being. The mystic is lost in the bbject of his love to such an extent

that he loses sight of everything else. He beholds nothing but the object of his love

116

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

and finds nothing other than Him. Consequently he comes to believe that none but
the Divine Being exists.
in every particle of

When

he turns to

the world he perceives the object of his love
it, and he comes to regard only as a mirror or reflector of multiplicity the beauty of the Beloved. Some of these

mystics

who

are perfectly lost in

the con-

templation of the object of their love pray to

remain always absorbed
their

m

it

and yearn that
i

own

existence

may never
v

their

consciousness.

be brought to /Thcy negS^d #ny redl herq|y. .^Their
lest.

ference to their
ideal
is

own

Wf

annihilation.."*

yhe^o&aVe^ho
ftflfflc

Rest requires oblivion,^fo^erfulnes$^ which
is

impossible

when

ths

ly consuming them. Yet

o'

IQVC

is
'

Cpft^tant-

Hence they must occ
such pursuits as suit
their attention diverted

So some of them, getfulness. and dancing, and others to

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

117

giving expositions of the implications of their
love-consciousness,
viz.,

Wahdat-i-Wujud.
in course of time go

But there are others who
this stage.

forward in their mystic experience and out-

grow
of

In their case the experience
or unity

Wahdat-i-Wujud
all,

disappears once for
again.

and identity and they never get it
of the pantheistic

Then they repent
which
1

beliets to

their

former experience had

misled them.

Taw hid
as
is

this.

advance4 by We cannot
or

kashf-o-sIruVucT
experietiG.
.evelation *a$d
<-za
.

thence

we

t>XUlama-

because thei^ .conception

118
is

Mujaddid' s Conception of Tawhid

1 derived direct from Revelation.

Conse-

quently the Mujaddid discusses dhat-o-sifat or the being and the attributes of God on the
principle of
2

Muslim theologians

;

and there

he follows not the Asharite school but the
Maturidite.

above, the Mujaddid passed through wujudiyyat or unityism and reached zilliyyat or adumberation where the error

As mentioned

involved

in

wujudiyyat
zilliyyat,

was
3

revealed

to

him

;

and

after

adumberation, he
or servitude.

attained the stage of 'abdiyyat

At

this stage

he

is

so thoroughly convinced of

the error of wujudiyyat or unityism that he feels himself compelled to denounce it
emphatically. It
realises that
is

at this stage that

he clearly

mystic experience has no Objective validity with regard to dhat-o-sifat or
1

M., Vol
Ibid
,

I,

Ep

286.

'

Ep. 266.
is

3

'Abdiyyat (t^*^**}

the attitude appropriate to

man

that

he takes towards God.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

119

the being and attributes of God.

Hence he

confesses to the following negative attributes or peculiarity of the Divine Being God is
;

beyond
is

all

such asma'-o-sifat or names and

attributes as can be

beyond

all

comprehended by us. He shuyun-o-i'tibarat or modes and
l

relations, all zuhur-o-butun or externalisation and internahsation, beyond all buruz-o-kumun or projection and introjection, beyond all mawsul-o-mafsul or realisable and explicable, beyond all kashf-o-shuhud or mystic intuition and experience nay even beyond all mahsuso-ma'qul, empirical and rational, and beyond
; '

'

all

mawhum-o-mutakhayyal

or conceivable

1 SJiuyun is plural of Shan (v^)^), literally state, condition The word occurs in rather an exalted condition or state.

a
is

a

verse of the Qur-an new exalted condition
it,

o^

<3
:

3*

-J^. J^

everyday

He

seem to understand by
point of time.

Ibn 'Arab! and others (57 29) Sifat at a phase of theirs, a transverse

section of the World-Process, the Universe or

God

at a certain

But the Mujaddid puts Shan between dhat and sifat. According to him Sh5n is an aspect or phase of the dhat. while sifat are something over and above dhat and denvated from
'

Shan.

Cf. M., Vol.

I,

Ep. 286.

120

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
-b>J l*ltf

and imaginable,
tj^JI

-^

*l

Ji

*b

Holy One is beyond the Beyond, again beyond the Beyond, again Whatever is known beyond the Beyond.

.^

^

He

the

1

through mystic intuition is merely a subjective experience, without any objective validity
whatsoever.
In short,

God

.can

never

be

apprehended through mystic experience, Consequently iman-bil-ghaib or faith in the Unseen is unavoidable. Such a faith is possible only when thought and imagination get tired in their futile efforts, and it becomes
evident that

God

is

unapproachable, inex2

perienceable, inexplicable and unknowable. Such a faith alone is valid in His case, because
it is

in keeping with our limitations and His unapproachableness or Beyondness.

possible for us to get to besides this about God, that thing
If it is
t

know
is

any-

through

1

M., Vol.
Ibid.,

II,

Ep.

1.

*

Ep.

9.

Mujaddi&s Conception
Revelation. Therefore

of Tawhid

121

we ought to follow the

theologians as they derive their conception of the being and attributes of God exclusively

from

revelation.

1

On that basis, the Mujaddid
is

maintains that

God

Khaliq or Creator of

earths and heavens, mountains and oceans,

vegetables and minerals as well as of human beings with all their potentialities. In short

He

is

the Creator of

all

things,

and

He

has

created them out of 'adam-i-mahad or pure
nothing.

He

alone

is

the bestower of

all

blessings, the healer of all ills and the provider He is the Sattar 2 or Conniver of all needs.

who

overlooks

our

sins,

He

is

Halim or

Forbearing who does not take us hastily to account for our wrongs. He deserves all praise

and gratitude for His innumerable benefec1

M.. Vol.

I,

Ep. 287.

Sattar (;&**>) literally means concealer. It is a name of God. Because He knows our sins and our secrets and neither divulges them nor takes us to task there and then, but covers at them and graciously tolerates our sinful being.
8

122
tions.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

Man

does not

know even how

to

goodness and greatness. He is the Hadl or Guide, who through His Anbiyya'
value His
enlightens the ignorant mankind according to their capacity of His existence and essence; and who informs us of what
or Apostles
l

He

approves and what
Hereafter.

He

disapproves, and
in this

of the useful

and the injurious

world
or
3

and the

He

is

the

Ahad

One, the Wahdahu-la-Sharik, has no equal. He is the only Divine Being; there is no
one
else

who
and

possesses

the

same

sifat

or

qualities,
3

He

alone deserves 'ibadat or

worship.

He
is

everything,

encompasses or comprehends everywhere with us, and is
;

1 neither the word Anbiyya' plural of NabI (^j*^) prophet nor the word apostle is a correct equivalent of the term Nab!. It means a person to whom guidance and information is given through sheer grace of God for the good of mankind.
' ' *
'

(^^0

1

Wahdahu-lS-Sliarik
alone
is

means the one who has no

(^.^ V <>Xa^).
co-sharer.

The term The conception

really
is

that

He

No
3

the master of the universe and the object of worship. one else shares these qualities with Him.

M,

Vol.

Ill,

Ep.

17.

Mujaddid' s Conception of Tawhid

123

nearer to us than our
habl-al-warid.

own

life-artery

or

But the nature of His Ihata or 1 comprehension and Ma'iyyat or co-presence, qurb or nearness is beyond our understanding. Hayat or Life, Ilm or Knowledge, Qudrat
4
1

Ma'iyyat (CX^*x)

literally

means togetherness.
:
:

Mystics

have taken it from the Quranic verse j**-> *^V.' j&*** 3^ that He is with you wherever you are (57 4). From togetherness Ibn 'Arab! concludes identity of God and man. The Mujaddid takes exception to this conclusion and holds that we do
not

know

the

nature of Ma'iyyat

literally

means nearness.
.

(^^*x ) Qurb (S->/*) Mystics have taken the term from the

Quranic verse

are ^.^^ J-^*- ex* ^/'^ ^-^sxj nearer to him than his life-artery (50:16). Ibn 'Arab! holds that Qurb of God is identity with God. The Mujaddid
of

^^

We
is

denies this and maintains that the nature

Qurb

not

known.
sion.

Ih5ta

(jUjlaJ)

Mystics
^5***

have
cJ^-?

encompassment or comprehentaken the term from the Qur-Sn
is

:

Allah comprehends everyIbn 'ArabI conceives it as inclusion and thing (4 126). derives identity of God and man from it. The Mujaddid takes exception to it and holds that the nature of Ih5ta is incomprehensible, though at a certain stage he was inclined to hold that IhSta is comprehension by knowledge. Siry an (^jb -*o) literally

L-k^sx.*

<*-^

O^

:

means permeation. Ibn Arab! and others
with reference to the world,
rejects this.
le.

'

ascribe Siry5n to Allah

immanence.

The Mujaddid

124

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
4

or

Power, Irada or Will, Sam -o-Basar or Hearing and Seeing, Kalam or Speech, and
or Creation belong to His attributes,
are like His being bi chun-o-bl chigun

Takwln
which
i.e.,

incommensurable and uncomprehensible

for us. 1

Reflection on the Mujaddid's description of Divine attributes shows that they are of two The negative kinds, negative and positive.
attributes again are of

two kinds
all

;

firstly

those

which
rival,

are

meant
e.g.,

to

deny

God's Being,

that

He

imperfections in has no equal and no

no parents and no children; 2 secondly those which indicate His beyondness, e.g., that

He

is

nor attribute,
relations,

not body or physical, is neither substance is not space or spatial, is not

limited or finite, has neither dimensions nor
i.e.,

He

is

above the application of
of

our categories of thought. Again the positive
attributes are
1

also

two

kinds.

Firstly,

M., Vol
/&id.,

I,

Ep. 266.
III,

Vol

Ep

17.

Aiujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

125

relative attributes

which
or

are relatively true

of

Him,

e.g.,

Qidam

Self-Subsistence,
1

Azaliyyat or Eternity,
these attributes
attributes

Wujub

or Necessity

and Uluhiyyator Worshipability.
of

We

affirm

Him
to

only because the
are
signs

opposite
;

them

of

imperfections and in comparison with these and not because attributes denote perfection describe His nature. Otherthey adequately
;

wise the Divine essence has nothing to do

thought

with necessity and possibility, etc. But human is confined to the three fundamental

categories of being, viz., necessity, possibility and impossibility therefore it is proper to
:

attribute necessity to
tial

attributes

Him. Secondly, essenwhich adequately describe His
is

1

Note

:

According to Islamic thinkers being
(c^*-'
)'

of three

kinds:

Mumkm

Mumtana' (j^-**), Wajib (u-^-l^).

Wajib is that of which the non-existence is inconceivable. Mumtana' is that of which the existence is inconceivable. Mumkm is that of which neither the existence nor the nonexistence is inconceivable. Wujub (S-^ 2"}) is the quality of being Wajib and may well be translated as Necessity.

126

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

nature and are absolutely true of Him. They form part of His essence, e.g. Hayat or Life. 'Ilm or Knowledge, Qudrat or Power, Irada
or Will, Sam or Hearing, Basar or Seeing, Kalam or Speech, and Takwln or Creation.
4

As regards the relations between the dhat or being and the sifat or attributes of God
on one hand and between dhat-o-sifat and the world on the other, the Mujaddid
maintains that His
sifat

or attributes are

other than and in addition to His dhat or being, and that the world is the zill or effect
of

His
is

sifat

or

attributes.

really

a problem of theology.

The problem Hence the

Mujaddid follows here the Maturidite school, However, he corroborates the conception on the basis of his mystic experience as well, and
maintains that according to it too the attributes are not identical with the being and
that the being of God is perfect by and in itself and does not stand in need of the
attributes for its perfection.

God

is

mawjud,

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

127

but he exists by His own being, by His own self, and not in virtue of the quality of wajud or existence which has been added to this being. In the same manner He He is Hayi or Living by His own is Hayl
has existence
;

He is 'Alim or Knowing by His own being He is Qadir or Powerful by His own being He is Murid or voluntary Agent by His own being He is Sami* or Hearing by His own being He is Baslr or Seeing by His own being He is Khaliq or Creator by His own being. His attributes, viz., existence,
being,
;
:

;

;

;

1

life,

knowledge, power, etc., are the ta'yyanat or determinations or the descents of His Indeed the Mujaddid would avoid the
2

being.

or ta'yyun betends to signify identity. According cause to him the sifat or attributes are the azlal or
it

use of the term of tanazzul

effects of the dhat or being
1

;

and the world

is

Ep. 26. 2 The Being is conceived as coming down from the high pedestal of Pure-Being down to determinate existence. Hence tanazzul means Descent or Determination.
Ill,

M., Vol.

128

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
zill

the

or effect of the sifat or attributes.

The

gradation or order of these tanazzulato-ta'yyunat or the azlal in the system of the

Mujaddid

is

that the

Perfect Being

is

the

cause of the quality of wujud or existence. Then follows the sifat-i-hayat or the quality
of
life,

because

life is

not conceivable without

existence.

After

life

comes the
;

sifat-i-'ilm

or the quality of knowledge
sifat-i-qudrat
after
will
;

after

knowledge

power

or the quality of power, and sifat-i-irada or the quality of
1

after will the sif at-i-sam

or the quality

of hearing, after hearing the sifat-i-basar or

the quality of seeing after seeing the sifat-ikalam or the quality of speech, and after speech, the sifat-i-takwm or the quality of
;

creation.

The
is

of creation

sifat-i-takwin or the quality the cause of the creation of
is
i.e.,

the world;
effect,

the world
its tajalli,

its

zill,

i.e.,

its

and not
of

its

mode. These
the

attributes

God

are over and above

being of God, for the Perfect Being brings

Mujadditfs Conception of Tawhid

129

them

into existence one by one for the sake
;

of creating the world the gradation is logical. It is by means of these attributes which He

adds to His being that the Perfect Being who is sufficient unto Himself and needs nothing,
turns to the creation of the world and creates
1

it.

The Mujaddid's theory

of creation

is

this:

God

Wujud-i-Kamil or the Perfect Being, comprehending all sifat-i-kamila or attributes
is

of perfection in His essence.

He

is

sufficient

J That the SifSt or attributes are Olw>Jl ^j* >^.'3, i.e., over and above the dhat or being of God and not identical with it is the doctrine of the Maturidites whom the Mujaddid follows. These are conceived as additional to the SifSt or attributes which go to make the essence of God. They are Idsfi or

relative.

They come

to be in relation to the creation of the

world and are produced by God in His own Self for that purpose. This is a mode of conceiving which avoids the pitfall of Wahdat-i-Wujud or umtyism of which one premise was that these Sifat or attributes are identical with the Dh5t or being (M., Vol. Ill, Ep. 26) that the Sifat are created and not part
of the essence of
zilites,

God was

also the doctrine of certain

Muta-

but on a different ground. They held unity to be the essence of God, and consequently found the Sif5t to be multiplicity incompatible.

9

130

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

besides

unto Himself, needing nothing whatsoever even 'adam or Himself; not nothing as the opposite of His being. He
decides to create the world.

For the sake of
1

this

He

creates

the

sif at-i-wu jud

or the

quality of existence in His being; also He creates other sifat or qualities, e.g., the sifati-hayat or the quality of
life,

the

4

sif at- i-

ilm

or the quality of knowledge, the sif at-i-qudrat or the quality of power, etc., in Himself. These
qualities

are

forms

of

this

sifat-i-wujud.

Now
*

opposed to this wujud or existence is adam-i-mahad or pure nothing, opposed to this Hayat or life is a form of adam called
*

mawt

or

death
is

knowledge

opposed to this Ilm or a form of 'adam called jihl or
;

'

*Thus the Mujaddid holds that Wujud or existence is an is produced by God and does not form part of the essence of God. He thereby seems to mean firstly that the being of God is of another kind, and we cannot call it Wujud or existence of the kind we know and secondly that Wujud or existence of the things is like a quality inasmuch as it has been given to them by God.
attribute which
;

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

131

opposed to this Qudrat or power is form of adam called ijz or powerlessness, 1 etc. God casts an in'ikas or zill reflection or shadow of this pure wujud or existence of His into its adam-i-mutaqabila or opposed nothing, i.e., into pure adam or nothing and there comes to be finite existence. He casts a reflection or shadow of this Hayat or life of His into its adam-i-mutaqabila, viz., into mawt or death and there comes to be finite In the same manner He casts a reflection life. or shadow of this Ilm or knowledge of His
ignorance
;

a

4

4

4

4

4

'

4

4

into its adam-i-mutaqabila, viz., into jihl or ignorance, and finite knowledge comes into Thus the existence, the life, the existence.

4

knowledge,

etc.,

of

the finite being

is

the

result of the mixture of 'adarn or nothing

and

Wujud

or existence, etc.

The

essence of the

*Note that this in'ikas ( t/^*-0 or zill of which the Mujaddid speaks is not conceived by him in the sense of Ibn 'Arabi. By these expressions the Mujaddid really means that the wujud or being, etc., of the finite is produced by this WujQd, etc., of God, as will come out later.

132

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

finite in itself,
*

however,
' '

is

pure "adam' or
*

nothing, the wujud or existence, the hayat or life, the ilm or knowledge, etc., which are
* 4

'

found in

how
be,

That is it, are pure gifts of God. the finite world has actually come to

has come into being out of nothing, and has acquired actual, real existence. So also the various qualities of the world and its
1

objects.
real, actual indepenworld has an existence dent being; and the beside God only as a gift of God. In reality

In truth

God

alone has

the being of the world
appearance,
ality.

is

not more than

And

appearance without genuine reyet the appearance is not such
;

as to

depend on our fancy or imagination
independently
of us.
is

it

exists

The

reality or
like this.

existence of the world

something

Suppose there is a stick of wood. One of its ends is put into fire and catches flame. The
other end of the stick
1

is

held fast and quickly
Ill,

M., Vol.

II,

Ep. 1

;

Ibid..

Vol.

Eps. 58, 60.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

135

moved round

in a circle. This

the appearance of a circle of
this appearance
is
is

would produce fire. Suppose

somehow
itself.

made

to exist by

A

perpetuated, it circle of fire

shall

ence of the world

have been produced thereby. The existis of the kind of the existcircle.
1
/

ence of such a

Or suppose

a juggler

by his magic produces the semblance of a garden the garden bears fruit. Forthwith the king who was watching the trick orders that
;

the juggler be executed for the king believed that if the juggler were killed instantaneously the garden will continue to exist as a real
;

garden.

The

story says that the garden of

magic

still

exists

and bears
is

fruit.

Now
;

the

existence of the world

like the existence

of that garden. It is not real in itself reality has been somehow bestowed on it and it is
;

a very unsubstantial kind of reality.*
M., Vol.

Ill,

Ep.58.

'M.,Vol.II,Ep.44.

134

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
insists that there is

The Mujaddid
lutely

abso-

between the world and its unique Creator except that the world has been created by Him and is a sign that indicates His hidden attributes. All other asserittihad or union or identity, ihata tions, viz., or comprehension and ma'iyyat or co-existence are due to sukr or the ecstatic condition of mystics. Those who have reached the higher state of sahw or sobriety are free from such
relation
so-called ma'arif or cognitions. True, they too

no

came

across suck cognitions in the course of
;

their mystic journey

but they have

left

them

behind and they
Revelation.

criticise

them

in the light of

Indeed, to speak of the relations
6tc.,

of ittihad or union, *ainiyyat or identity,

between God and the world
conception.
sort.

is

an awful mis-

It is a misconception of this Suppose a highly accomplished man invents an alphabet and certain sounds to

display his ingenuity and capacity. Someone comes forward and maintains that the

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

135

alphabet and the sounds are identical with the inventor. 1

As
is

to man, the

Mujaddid holds that the
the soul, and that the soul

essence of

man

is

the creation of God.
4

However, the soul
'

does not belong to 'alam-i-khalq or the universe of process, to which material things
alam-i-amr or the belong it belongs to 2 universe of instantaneous creation. It is
;

*

4

'

bi-chun-o-bl-chigun or incomparable and inIt is something unique which cannot be explained by something else that is, it cannot be derived from anything else.

explicable.

;

1

M M Vol.
'

I.

Eps. 31,287.

Alam-i-khalq (tj^ ^) 1S Universe of process. The distinction is based on the Quranic verse: t^Oy*^ O* ^2/^vJ^ say that the soul is my Lord's command (17 85). This is interpreted to mean that the ruh (^ }j) does not belong to 'Slam-i-khalq to which the material universe belongs, but to another 'alam, viz., The the 'alam-i-amr, the world of instantaneous creation. universe of matter is clearly the world of process things in it gradually come to be in course of time. The rOh is therefore not The such. It belongs to the world of instantaneous creation. distinction suggests a rationalistic background, in which the perceptual is temporal and the conceptual non-temporal. Cf. M.,
:

J

Vol.

I,

Ep. 260.

136

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

Now

the

original

inclination of the

soul

was to seek Divine approval. But the soul has been intertwined with the 'alam-i-khalq it has been given a body. This has aroused
in
it

certain

new

tendencies,

e.g.,

to sin, to

disobey God. This state of things has given rise to the need of purifying the soul and

encouraging and strengthening
inclination.
is

its

original

The tendency

to disobey

God

and vices. 1 The soul begins to hate virtue and indulges
the fountain-head of
all evils

in vice.

The

state

is

called nafs-i-ammara

or the Evil

self.

But
2

in spite of sin

and

dis-

obedience the soul preserves the capacity of

overcoming
repentance.
9

vice.

So through purification
it

there begins gradually to arise in

a state of

This

is

called nafs-i-lawwama

*MM., pp. 19-20. The Mujaddid emphatically maintains moral freedom
For
it is

in

man.

kufr

(y*0
I,

necessity (M.,

Vol.

says

/i5UXi -Ub

^

or heresy to believe in jabr (j**) Ep. 289), firstly, because the Qur-3n

^

CX>Sxi *^
him who

<>**~~ 80

let

him who
:

please believe, and let

please disbelieve (18

29 Cf.
;

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

137

further,

or the Reproaching-self. Having progressed it attains to another stage where it

achieves perfect

Will.

To

act according to

harmony with the Divine any command-

be unpleasant to

ments of commission or omission ceases to it. This stage of spiritual
is

development
the
beatified

called

nafs-i-mutma'inna or
is

self.

This

the zenith of

human perfection and the highest end for man indeed it is the very purpose of the The attainment of nafs-icreation of man.
;

1

mutma'inna or beatified
is

self

is
*

called

the
*

stage of 'abdiyyat or servitude.

'Abdiyyat

attained

free

when man becomes absolutely from bondage to everything other than
I.
;

l^"*^

x> *3!<JO& Ep. 289) secondly, because VI Allah does not impose upon any soul a duty but to the extent of its ability (2 286 Cf. M., Vol. I, Ep. 289) and thirdly, because Islam and reason conceive actions as subject to approval and disapproval and to consequent reward and punishment (M., Vol. I, Ep. 260). He discusses the question fully on theologico-

MM

Vol.

Y

:

;

;

rationalistic
1

grounds in Epistle 289, M., Vol.
II.

I.

M.. Vol.

Ep. 50

;

Cf. Q. 89

:

28-30.

138

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

Allah.

Mark

that love of

God
;

is

not the
a

end-in-itself ,

means from ma-siwa-'llah 1 or things other than Allah and to get to abdiyyat
it is

only a means

it is

to dissociate

oneself

4

or servitude.

The

relation

between man and God

is

ac-

Mujaddid ma'bud or the worshipper and the worshipped. 'Abdiyyat or servitude means that man should change his whole life according to the Divine will and should obey His commandments of commission and omission simply 2 because they are His commands. There is also another relation between man and God, But true ma'rifat viz., ma'rifat or cognition. or cognition only means that man should realise that he is incapable of knowing God.

cording to the

that of *abd and

As Abu

Bakr-as-Siddlq said: 4\j>V 4j>
o

^X iUJ J*AX.-U jj ^r o* j?^* ^ ^*~
1

^

&JM)\
tiMj>1

^

y^*

)

to realise one's

M. Vol.
f

I,

Ep. 30.
I,

*Cf.

M M Vol.

Eps. 30,160.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid
inability

139

to

comprehend
;

Him

is

the

true

comprehension Holy is He 'Who has not kept any road to Himself open to His creatures except by way of realising their incapacity
to

know Him.
*M., Vol.
Ill,

1

Ep. 122.

CHAPTER
The Reception
of the

II

Mujaddid's Conception

of

Tawhid

TpAWHlD
-

istic

or unity of God is a characterIn course of time tenet of Islam.

the Islamic mystics gave it the form of Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism. The influence of

mysticism gradually permeated Islamic society. Wahdat-i-Wujud became an accepted dogma.
influenced the whole of Islamic society from top to bottom. It affected its religious
It

attitude,

it

affected

its
it

moral

attitude,
its

it

affected

its

deeds;
it

affected
its

aesthetic

consciousness,

affected

literature

and

poetry; and it affected its philosophy and outlook. It was the deepest truth to which

man

could have access,

indeed

it

was the

142
real

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

meaning of
and

Islam's

teaching.

It

was

revealed to the initiated, to great and holy
souls,

was

directly

kashf-o-shuhud

or

intuition

apprehended by and mystic

experience. So it was an epoch-making event that a great personality like that of the

Mujaddid, great in religious learning and great
in mystic experience, took

Wahdat-i-Wujud

and evaluation, criticised it unsparingly and trenchantly, and exposed its errors in their very foundations and expressly and unremittingly denied the objective validity of the experience on which it was based; and further advanced a conception diametrically opposed to it, and insisted that his conception, and not Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism, was the genuine Islamic concep-

up

for criticism

the conception which alone is derivable from the revelation granted to the Prophet of God. Thereby the Mujaddid veritably a new turn to the Islamic mysticism and gave
tion

brought

it

nearer to the original teachings of

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
Islam.

143

This was a revolution, and his ideas spread far and wide with such speed that the greater part of the Islamic world acknowledged

him

as the

Renewer

of Islam in his

own life-time. Few had the
did.

courage to oppose the Mujadone in Naqshbandiya school contradicted him. Other schools of mysticism too kept silent, though they seem to have stuck

No

to

important personage who took up the cudgels seems to have been Shah Wali-Ullah a divine of very great eminence and a mystic of the Naqshbandiya school. Shah Wali-Ullah flourished about a century after the Mujaddid. About 1143 A.H. he wrote a small treatise *>^<z*
Decision on the case of and apparentism ". The gist of his unityism contention is that there is no substantial difference between the ideas of Ibn 'Arabl and the Mujaddid; that both mean really the same
>j^^iJ^ jy^Jlo.**.}

Wahdat-i-Wujud.

The

first

"

thing,

viz.,

Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism,

144

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

that their differences
verbal.

are

in

reality only

In

his

treatise

Shah

Wali-Ullah
almighty has
it

begins with the claim that

God

granted to
that he

him the
1

special gift of synthesis or
clear

reconciliation.

Further he makes

was not discussing the problems on

the basis of first-hand mystic experience, but simply as an arbiter, keeping the statements of both Ibn 'Arabi and the Mujaddid in view

and considering and evaluating them rational2 This attempt of Shah Wali-Ullah istically. at a synthesis of Ibn 'Arab! and the Mujaddid led inside the mystic circles, and even outside them to a keen and prolonged controversy

which

lasted

for

following pages its main outlines in important mystics.
FW.,p.3,
2

we

over a century. In shall try to follow

the
it

in

lines 9-15.

Ibid., p. 5, lines

13-15

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

145

2.

Shah Wall-Ullah
holds that

SHAH WALI-ULLAH
or being
is

Wujud

1

something qa'im-bi-nafsihi and

muqawwim-li-ghairihi, existent by itself, and support of the existence of everything other

than itself; and that this is an unequivocal dictum of dhawq-i-sahlh or genuine intuition. Wujud or being is wujud-i-munbasit or selfunfolding being it takes up the forms of
;

things. It has its tanazzulat or descents.

These

tanazzulat or descents are
4

of

two kinds

ilml

and 'aim
first

The
1

conceptual and existential. tanazzul or descent of wujud-iis

Wujud C^ 2*-^)
aj)
is

Being or existence

Wujud-i-munbasit

self-unfolding or self-emanating Being. It has had three stages of its descents. The first stage is Wujud
l3-bashart-as;h-shai

(concept of) pure Being.

(^f **^ ^j*""? The second
1

^
is
,

^^^)
Wujud

indeterminate

bashart l5-shai

(^^
(^*-M
10

k^-iio

minate Being.

>^^^) pure concept, i.e the concept of deterThe third one is Wujud bashart-ash-shai
1

l>j--? a particular existent object.

^^X determinate existent

being, the being of

146

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid
is

munbasit

tajalll-bi-nafsihl
itself.

its

conscious of

As such

it is all

becoming compre-

the

hensive and implicitly contains in itself all The next tanazzul or descent is details.
the explicit or the detailed consciousAfter tanazzulat-i-'ilmi or itself.

tafslll

ness of

conceptual descents come tanazzulat-i-*ainl or existential descents. They in their very

nature cannot be implicit; explicitness or Now according detail is necessary for them. the essence of contingent beings to mystics
are nothing but

modes and

differentiations
self

of the
being.

wujud-i-munbasit or

unfolding

in

its

Consequently, when it is apprehended capacity as mutalabbas or dressed, it is
;

the contingent being

and when
as

hended

in
is

its

capacity

it is appremutalabbis or
1

dresser, it

the necessary being.

For ex-

ample, there is a piece of wax; it is moulded into various forms, e.g., man, horse, etc. All

the same
1

it

remains wax

;

it is

wax which has

FW.,

pp. 12, 13.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

147

taken these different forms.
are simply the wax. 1
says

These formsnothing but At another place Shah Wali-Ullah

modes
the

;

their being

is

that

wujud-i-munbasit

or

self

unfolding being is the common element of the perceptual and the conceptual. As such

wujud-i-munbasit or indeterminate and the opposite of *adam or nonbeing being and is the hayula or matter of all
it is

beings.

the second stage it is wujud bashart la-shai or pure concept, i.e., the

At

concept of determinate beings, e.g., man, horse; and at the third stage it is wujud bashart-ash-shai or determinate or existent
being,
e.g.,

Aristotle,

my

horse.

2

This

is

the

doctrine of Wahdat-i- Wujud.

The doctrine which is called Wahdat-iShuhud or apparentism is this. The asma'o-shuyun or names and phases of the necessary
being reflect themselves in
^W.,?.
6,

their

a'dam-i-

lines 12-18.

'/fetd.,p. 7.

148

Mujaddid' s Conception of Tawhid

mutaqabila or opposite non-beings, thereby 1 the contingent coming into existence. Now, contends Shah Wali-Ullah, if we leave simile

and metaphor

aside, it is essentially the

same

2 doctrine as that of Wahdat-i-Wujud. To that the essence of the contingent beings say

are the asma'-o-sifat or

names and

attributes

of the necessary being differentiated in the

conceptual stage, as Ibn 'Arabi holds, or to say that the contingent beings are the asma'o-sifat of the
k

their a dam-i-mutaqabila

necessary being reflected in or opposite non-

beings as the Mujaddid maintains, is practically the same thing. If there be any difference

between the two positions, it is so insignificant that the critic need not take it into account. 3
Consequently the assertion of the Mujaddid that Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism and

Wahdat-i-Shuhud or apparentism are different
'FW.,p.
23.

'/Znd., p. 7.

'/feui.p. 26.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

149

from one another is simply an error, Ibn 'Arabi too means the same as the Mujaddid does and the controversy of Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism and Wahdat-i-Shuhud or appa;

rentism
one.
all
1

is

only a verbal rather than a real
or apparentism

By Wahdat-i-Shuhud
is

that

intended
of

is

to

the

perfection

the

throw emphasis on necessary and the

imperfection and insignificance of the contingent being. But even in this respect Ibn 'Arabl meets the Mujaddid; he too holds
that the contingent is insignificant and 3 perfection belongs to the necessary being.
all

2.

Khwaja Mir Nasir and Khwaja Mir Dard

THIS

synthesis or reconciliation, which really
29.

'FW.,p.

Ibid., p. 7.

150

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

amounts to a denial of the problem, was however not accepted by mystics who believed
the Mujaddid, e.g., Khwaja Mir Nasir 'Andalib who maintained unequivocally in
in
his

voluminous book Nala-i-'Andalib that
objectively

speaking

Wahdat-i-Wujud or
;

unityism is absolutely invalid it is not the truth about reality. Objectively Wahdat-i-

Shuhud

or apparentism alone
i.e.,

is

valid.

But

bearing speaking subjectively, on the salik, mystic and his spiritual growth, both the doctrines are directed to the same
end,

in

their

him from ma-siwa or other than Allah. Khwaja Mir Dard things
viz.,

to dissociate

1

discussed the problem first in his UtSaridat-i-

Dard (1160 A.H.), and then

at greater length

in his 'Ilm-ul-Kitab (1172 A.H.) which is intended to be a commentary on the Waridat.

may be noted here that both the father and the son discuss the problem on the basis of kashf or mystic experience. Indeed the
It
1

NA.,

pp. 736-773

;

Cf. IK., pp. 183-186.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
latter holds that

151

his

each and every word of Waridat and 'Ilm-ul-Kitab is divinely
1

inspired.

Khwaja Mir Dard holds that the doctrine Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism in its correct and valid significance simply means that God
of

alone

is

the self-existent being.

It

does not

that the essence of the contingent is identical with the necessary and that man and

mean

God

are identical with

one another, or that

God, is immanent in the individuals. For that be rank heresy, ilhad-o-zindiqa. To would
take

like a kulli'-i-tabi'I or natural universal,

Wahdat-i-Wujud
is

or unityism in the

latter sense

due to sheer want of insight into what eminent mystics meant by it. In

the sense that

Wujud

or being

is

immanent

Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism is a doctrine which is of no significance in 9 religion whatsoever. For Wahdat-f i'1-kathrat
in multiplicity,
J

IK.,p. 92.
IK., p. 183.

*

152

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
is

or one-in-many which

on the

lips of

the
is

common

folk and of every

Hindu Yogi
faith in

a

doctrine for which no

iman or

God

and His Prophet is required. It is a very common-place doctrine which everyone can be made to grasp easily. It cannot be something for which prophets had specially to be sent by God with the mission of teaching it
to humanity. i-Shuhud or
1

The other
:

doctrine

is

Wahdatit

apparentism.

What
9
;

really

means
exist

is

this

The contingent being cannot
they exist
necessary being. the

without the necessary being
the light of the

only by

Ignorant people,

who do not understand

meaning of what the Mujaddid meant, wrongly attribute to him the belief that the world is the zill or adumberation of God. This view was taken by him in the course of his progress
towards his
final

position.

Most

of

the

immature mystics, who
'IK., p 465.
/&ui M p. 184.

in their self-conceit

Mujaddids Conception of Tawhid

153

tion,

regard themselves as having attained perfecwhen they go through those works of

duality of

the Mujaddid in which he has discussed the man and God and the doctrine of

hama-az-ust or all is from Him think that he was ignorant of the truth of the matter
' '

;

and that because Wahdat-i- Wujud or unityism is a difficult conception, he could not fully understand or realise it. But they do not
see that according to the verse, <&\
all is
: 1

^

cr J^

from Allah (4 78), the doctrine of hama-az-ust or 'all is from Him is corroborat1

ed by revelation. Consequently hama-az-ust alone is the truth, and hama-ust or 'all-is-

2

He

'

is

absolutely

false.

The net

result

is

that
is

objectively Wahdat-i- Wujud or unityism
false,

and subjectively Wahdat-i- Wajud or unityism and Wahdat-i-Shuhud or apparentism both bring about the same result, viz., liberation of the qalb or soul from the
UK.,
p. 187.

*Ibid., pp. 184-185.

154

MujadduTs Conception of Tawhid

bondage of ma-siwa-'llah or things other than
Allah. Hence if a mystic realises either of the two states, or both of them, that makes no difference. 1 Indeed neither of these

both doctrines descends from the Prophet are products of later times. However, the
;

2

doctrine of

Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism
;

primarily abides by reason and only secondarily by the Qur-an and Hadlth, which it

turns and twists to make them

fit in

with the

requirements of reason

;

while the doctrine of

Wahdat-i-Shuhud or apparentism primarily abides by the Qur-an and Hadlth and only

Dard
and

secondarily by reason. Says Khwaja Mir " Most of the suf lya'-i-wujudiyya or
:

pantheistic mystics follow their
intuition,

own
Only

reason
first

and they rely on the

instance on their

own

findings.

in the

second instance, they try by the way to follow the Holy Prophet also. They mould
J

IK,p.

184.

9

Ibid., pp.

609-610.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

155

the verses of the Qur-an and the sayings of the Prophet according to their own taste, as
if they have nothing to do with the Sharl'at or the law of Islam. That alone is valid which

they come to
intuition.

know by

their

own

reason and

not their real object to follow the religion of Muhammad. They have the
It is
is

conceit that they apprehend truth directly;
their purpose really
to ascertain

whether

the contingent

is

identical

with the necessary

or different from it, or whether the created is identical with its Creator or different from

Him.
guide,

In this quest the reason

is

their only
its

and they go their way by
;

light

alone

only they forcibly

religion along

with them

.

.

drag faith and while most of
.

the sufiya'-i-shuhudiyya or apparentist mystics follow faith and religion in the first
instance.

They

really

believe in religion.

Only

in the

second instance and under the

guidance of faith do they permit their reason to act ... As if they have nothing to do with

156

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

reason, but

what God and His Prophet have
is

affirmed, that alone

the truth for them.

.

.

They

believe in their hearts that the truth

is

that which

is taught by God and the Prophet, and that their object is not to inquire whether the necessary and the contingent are identical or different from each other. They steer their course in the light of faith, and forcibly drag reason along with them. 1

Consequently, urges Khwaja Mir Dard, we should revert to Tawhid-i-Muhmmadl or the
unitarianism of

Muhammad.
;

God

is

eternal

and

self-existent

He
is

is

other than the world
like kulli'-i-tabil
it.

of objects.

He

not

or

natural universal inside

The

truth

is

that

God

by Himself with all His attributes His qualities of perfection and the existence of the contingent beings makes
exists

which

are

;

no addition

in

annihilation take

^
1

***

,*

_^J

His being, nor does their away anything from it. &\ O K God existed and

IK., p. 6io.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

157

nothing existed along with

Him

;

He
before.

is
1

even to-day exactly

as

He was

3.

Mawlwl Ghulam Yahya
of

THE

discourses

Khwaja Mir Nasir and
are not openly

Khwaja Mir Dard
1

directed

IK

,

p.

186
In 1162

Note.

A

H. 'Allama

Mir Muhammad Yusuf

grsml wrote a treatise CXiUJl J^ot CXjlxH^.R-M (The Growing Offshoot fiom a Firm Root), in which he deals with the controversy without directly entering it. He bases his contention exclusively on the Qur-5n and Hadith and rejects Wahdat-i-Wujud, suggesting that the experience of God which unityistic mystics claim is, according to Islam, impossible in His treatise is an exhaustive survey and review of this life. the sources which the two schools claim for their doctrines in Qur-Sn and Haditlj. However the treatise, though able and scholarly, does not seem to have been taken much notice of. There is extant only one copy of it which is in the handwriting
of the author himself, in the SubhSn-Allah Section of the Aligarh

^

Bil-

University Library.

158

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

against

Shah Wali-Ullah.

Ghulam Yahya, 1 a

scholar of great eminence, expressly criticised

Shah Wali-Ullah in his Kalimat-ul-Haqq (The Announcement of Truth 1184 A.H.) which 3 he wrote at the instance of Mirza Mazhar, a
descendant of the Mujaddid. Ghulam Yahya emphatically maintains that Shah Walispiritual

Ullah

is

absolutely wrong in holding that both

Wahdat-i-Wujud and Wahdat-i-Shuhud or
apparentism hold the same views as to the
essence of things and the relation between the temporal and the eternal, and that there is no
1

Mawlwl Ghulam Yahya

(d.

1195

great fame

in the philosophical

A H.) was a scholar of and religious sciences. He

used to give lectures (dars) to students at Lucknow. He has written commentaries on many books of philosophy. In the end he entered mysticism under the guidance of MirzS Mazhar and
gave up philosophy.
* MirzS Mazhar (1111-1195 A.H.), was the fourth spiritual descendant of the Mujaddid. He was the greatest mystic of his time in the Mujaddidi order. Indeed it is in the line of Mirz5 Mazhar alone that the complete SulUk-i-Mujaddidl is preserved. He was a devout follower of the Mujaddid. He was murdered by a fanatic Slji'a in the year 1195 A.H. whom he

forgave before expiring

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

159

difference between the

urges he, the

two doctrines. Indeed, two doctrines can in no way be
For Wahdat-i-Wujud or

1 even reconciled.

unityism

based on complete identity of the created and the Creator, while Wahdat-iis

Shuhud

or apparentism

lute difference
first place, says

is grounded between the two. 2

in abso-

In the

Ghulam Yahya, according to Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism the essence of

yan-i-thabita, i.e., the contingent being are determinations of the Asma'-o-Sifat or names
3 But according to and attributes of Allah. Wahdat-i-Shuhud or apparentism the essence

A

4

the contingent beings are the azlal or adumberations which Asma'-o-Sifat or names and attributes have cast in their a dam-i-mutaof
l

qabila or opposed not-beings. a world of difference between these
KH.,p.23.
'/fcid, pp., 24-26.
Ibid., p. 25.
4

4

Now there

is

two doc-

Ibid., p. 28.

160
trines.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

According to the former the contin-

gent beings are modes of Asma'-o-Sifat or names and attributes and identical with them
;

according to the latter they are the azlal or adumberations of the Asma'-o-Sifat or names

and attributes and the
second
place,

zill or adumberation can never be identical with the asl. In the

Wali-Ullah is totally was a mere oversight wrong on the part of the Mujaddid to oppose the two doctrines. 1 No, the Mujaddid does not do it by the way he is emphatic on the
in saying that
it
;

Shah

opposition.
point.

absolutely clear on the on the difference between the contingent and the necessary over and over again in his epistles, and holds that it is heresy and atheism to identify the two. His
is

He

He

insists

epistles are full of

such emphatic assertions. 2 In the third place, according to Wahdat-i-

Wujud or unityism, change enters in the being
*KH M pp.
Cf.

HM

28,29. pp.26, 28.

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

161

of

God

itself,

for

it is

He who

modifies
;

Him-

and becomes the contingent world l while, according to Wahdat-i-Shuhud or apparentism, by creation of the world no change is
self

wrought
intact.

in the being of

God,

He

remains

Any one who would
two
doctrines,
realise that

carefully study

these

would
of

urges Ghulam Yahya, they are so different from one another that neither can we reduce one

them to the

other, nor

is

possible

between them. 2 remarked that Ghulam
tends to suggest

It

any reconciliation may further be
discourse

Yahya's

that he

had

one

more

objection to Shah Wali-Ullah, namely, that Shah Wali-Ullah had no right to speak on

the question and deny Wahdat-i-Shuhud or apparentism, or identify it with Wahdat-iWujud or unityism because he was not basing
his contention
'

on Kashf or mystic experience.3

KH M pp. 25, 26.
/&u*., Ibid.,

pp. 24-29. pp.
3, 29.

11

162

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

spiritual guide of Ghulam him on the point and wrote Yahya, supports a Foreword to KaliYriat-ul-Haqq and Shah Ghulam 'All (d 1290 A.H.) who was a great

Mirza Mazhar, the

;

mystic, and

who

expressly

says

in

succeeded Mirza Mazhar, connection that this

Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism and Wahdat-iShuhud or apparentism are two different
stages of the mystic journey;

and for those

who have been through both

these stages, it to synthesise or reconcile the is impossible two experiences, the implication thereof

being that Shah Wall-Ullah did not pass beyond the stage of Wahdat-i-Wujud or

unityism and get to the stage of Wahdat-i-

Shuhud

1

or apparentism.

MtM.,p.81.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

163

4.

Shah Rafi-uddln
son of Shah Wali*

SHAH RAFF-UDDIN/

Ullah, forthwith wrote a voluminous book called Damagh-ul~Batil or Crushing of the
False
'

as

an answer to Ghulam Yahya in
All that
is
is
3

the same year (1184).
in this

is

relevant

book
It is

to our

argument

briefly this.

Wahdat-i- Wujud or unityism
trine.
2
4

the true doc-

the truth of Islam.

All eminent

mystics have cherished it, while Wahdati-Shuhud or apparentism is a new doctrine,

advanced by the Mujaddid who had not grasped
1 Shah Rafi'-uddm (d. 1249 A.H.). He was a younger son of Shah Wali-Ullah, one of the very first translators of the Qur-5n He wrote Damagh-ul-Batil in Urdu, and a well-known scholar. (JJaUJl ji*>) against Mawlwl Ghulam Yahya to vindicate his

or unityism and

attempt to synthesise the doctrines of Wahdat-i-Wujud Wahdat-i-Shuhud or apparentism. His argument is based on the commentary of Fusus-ul-Hikam written by Sh5h Sharf-uddin, one of his father's pupils.
father's

DB.,
9
4

p.

8
4

(b).

Ibid.,

pp. 10(a)-15(fc).
(a).

Ibid., p.

164

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

that

the argument of Ibn 'Arabi and believed Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism was alto-

gether different from Wahdat-i-Shuhud or 1 The right course, therefore, is apparentism. to take Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism as the
basic doctrine

and interpret Wahdat-i-Shuhud

or apparentism in its light, as Shah WaliUllah had done. Shah Rafi'-uddin does not
take the argument any further, and his attempt in this field is mainly a heated apology in
2 favour of his great father.

5.

Shah Sayyid

Ahmad

Barelwi

SHAH SAYYID AHMAD BARELWI too contributed to the controversy on Wahdat-i-Wujud
>DB M
a
:

p.

4 (a).

Cf.ifcd.,pp.3(6),4(a). Note Shah IsmS'il Shahid (1194-1247A.H.) was a grandson of Shah Wali-Ullah. He too wrote a book called 'Abaqat U^) or Perfumes on the reconciliation of Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism and Wahdat-i-Shuhud or apparentism. Shah IsmS'il

(O

Mujaaaia s conception of
or unity ism.

L

awma
is

ibD

His whole discourse

based on

Kashf-o-Shuhud or direct mystic experience, and is to be found in Sirat-i-Mustaqim 1 He says that when love domi(1233 A.H.)
.

nates the mystic, the yearning for Taqarrub or nearness and communion with God grows

more and more intense

in his soul.

This state

gradually overpowers him. In this connection he attains to the stages of Fana and Baqa, annihilation

and resuscitation.

Thus

his condi-

expressly acknowledges that his argument is not based on Kasjjf or direct mystic experience (At., p. 33). He holds that Ibn 'ArabI is right and the Mujaddid wrong. The difficulties, which
are attributed to

Shah
is

Isma'Il, squarely

Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism can be, thinks met on his own theory. His theory
It is this.

very

much

the same as Berkeley's later position.

When God
;

chose to rule as an absolute monarch, He created the universe on the best design. The world is for us objectively real it is not imaginary or illusive. But in fact it is not outside
the mind of the Divine

what Nicholson would call Panentheisrn, and distinguishes from But afterwards Shah Isma'il Shahid became a pantheism. follower of Shah Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi. That means that Shah Isma'il changed his views and gave up Wahdat-i-WujQd
(At.,
/vJL*fr

God Mind

;

it is

in

it.

It

exists only

as

an idea
is

in

17,

pp. 26, 27).

That

or unityism. Cf. SM., pp. 12-13.
1

SM.,

p. 95.

166

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

tion becomes that of a piece of iron, which is thrown into the furnace and fire permeates
into
it

its

very being and to such an extent that
all

acquires
its

the characteristics of fire;

even

One

appearance becomes that of fire. could affirm of it all that could be
fire.

affirmed of

While

in this condition,

the piece of iron would, if it could speak, claim that it was fire itself. However the
fact remains that it has not
still

iron as

it

become fire it is was before. In the same
;

manner when love

of

God

takes hold of his

being and he is completely overpowered by it, the mystic too begins to utter such phrases as I am the Truth, and &\ -lr* j^*- * <3 ^.1 U\
5

^^

there

is

none in
if

my

cloak but Allah.

1

But

afterwards

mystic

is

he rises to a higher stage, the blessed with another experience.

He

feels infinite

expansion

;

he finds that

all

the realities of the universe and the contin-

gent beings are dissolved in the being of
1

SM., pp.

12, 13.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

167

Allah, and the relation of identity which he had, at the previous stage realised between

himself and God, obtain between

other existents.
utter

At

this stage

God and all he begins to
First

c^Mj />U^ /^ jyrt^
Last,
:

He is the

and the

and the External and the Inter-

nal (57 3). But, firstly, to adopt the Shughl-i1 nafl or exercise of negation never means that

purpose of the shughl or exercise only is to do away with the consciousness of everything other than That everything else has thereby Allah.
ceased to be
is
is

really everything ceases to exist, the

a

mistaken notion
if

;

indeed

it

absurd.

3

Secondly,

after

Fana or annihila-

tion the mystic attains to the experience of Tawhid-i-SifatI or unison in attributes, he
feels that

He

is

the source of

all

multiplicity,

and that he has expanded to the extent that the whole of the universe is accommodated
1 there is no god,' Shughl-i-nafL It is the Dhikr of *Jl V the practice of which creates the state of negation in the mind of the mystic.
*

8

SM.,

p. 107.

168

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

inside

himself.

Here again

arises the ten-

dency in favour of the doctrine of Wahdat-iWujud or unityism. But he should not be
misguided.
idea
is

He

should remember that the

contrary to the fact and that his condition is merely an indication of the stage l of Tawhld-i-Sifati and after this will come
;

the stage of Sair-fillah the journey inwards Allah. In short, according to Shah Sayyid

Ahmad in whatever manner Wahdat-i-Wujud
or unityism
is

experienced,
it

it is

no objective

experience
ence.

;

actually

That is, become God. 2
is

only a subjective experithereby everything does not
is

Indeed Shah Sayyid

Ahmad Wujud

absolutely opposed to Wahdat-i-

or unityism and regards it as one of the bid'at or innovations of the pantheistic
heretics
as

Howeyer, one must people frequently, know this much that the creatures are not
talk

and not worth discussing.
of
it

*

SM., pp. 109-110.
Ibid.* pp.

12,13,46,107.

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

169

identical with the Creator, though He is undoubtedly their Qayyum or Mainstay. The relation might be conceived on the analogy

of sifat or attributes.

The

sifat or attributes

are not identical with the dhat or being nor are

they apart from it they depend on the dhat. In the same manner, makhluqat or creatures
;

are not identical with the Sifat or attributes, nor independent of the Sifat or attributes they
;

are Mazahir or
attributes.

phenomena
;

of the Sifat or

The

Sifat or attributes are suffi-

cient unto themselves

Yet

in spite of their self-sufficiency,

they need no Mazahir. God has

in His

wisdom chosen to give them phenomenal expression in the forms of created

beings called makhluqat.

And
1

that

is

really

what

great mystics meant. It appears that after Shah Sayyid
1

Ahmad

SM.,
:

p. 46.

Note
up

About

this time the controversy

seems to be taken

also by UlamS'-i-Zahir (y*>U -U-X*), the learned in general. Mawlwi Fadl-i-Haqq of KhairSbad (1212-72 A.H.), who is

regarded as the Ira5m-i-Falsafa

or chief of philosophers of

170

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

Barelwi no mystic of eminence wrote on this controversy while the mystics who belonged to the Naqshbandiya order got into confu;

sion on the point under the influence of Shah Wali-Ullah. The present-day mystics generally have taken to silence on the problem. Some of them do make no difference whatso-

ever between the two doctrines

;

while others

on the controbecause of their allegiance both to Ibn versy 'Arabi and the Mujaddid. They would give
their lips

do not want to open

out that each doctrine is vaild in its place, and that both Ibn Arabl and
4

own
the

Mujaddid
the

are right.
too wrote a

Khatrabadl school of Philosophy in India,

brief treatise called >j=*>^\

O*>

a*} <3
is

>_>*'^

J9^ m

this

connection.

The argument wherein

purely philosophical and

does not concern us here.

THE CONCLUSION
foregoing discussion brings out that those who contradicted or vindicated
a
if

-L

the Mujaddid, assigned

Wahdat-i-Shuhud

as

meaning to the term it were the name

given by the Mujaddid to his doctrine of the creation of the world and its relation to the
Creator.

But that is not correct. What the Mujaddid really meant by the expression was only this that the experience of Wahdat-iWujud or unityism which the mystic acquires
at a certain stage of his spiritual
is

only subjective
;

;

that

it is

development mere Shuhud or

appearance that the Wahdat or unity which the mystic has experienced is only Wahdat-iShuhud or apparent unity. It is not the
experience of objective fact; the experience

172
is

Mujaddid' s Conception of Tawhid
;

not objective

objective reality

is

different

from what the mystic has experienced. In fact the Mujaddid has given no name to his own theory of creation. If a name must
be given to it, then Tathniyya-i-Wufud or the dualism of being, or perhaps Wahdat-i-Wujub
or the unity of the necessary, would be more

appropriate terms.

Another point worthy of notice is that the Mujaddid's denial of Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism is not based on rationalistic argument it is based solely on kashf-o-shuhud or direct

;

The Mujaddid holds mystic experience. that the experience of Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism is a stage in a mystic's evolution. If
the mystic outgrows this stage and attains to still higher stages, he comes to realise that
the experience of

Wahdat-i-Wujud

or unity-

ism was simply a subjective experience, that the Wahdat or unity he experienced

was
that

Shuhud or appearance and Wahdat-i-Wujud or unityism is not an
merely
;

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

173

objectively real

fact.

Consequently those

who
case

intended to contradict the Mujaddid on the point, too, ought to have based their

on kashf-o-shuhud, mystic intuition and

experience. In other words, Shah Wall-Ullah and his followers should have asserted either

that the Mujaddid's statement that there are stages higher than the stage of the experience
of

Wahdat-i-Wujud

or unityism,

is

wrong

;

or that there are

still

higher stages where

Wahdat-i-Wujud

the conviction in the objective validity of or unityism reinstates itself.

But they keep absolutely silent on the point. Indeed they leave it alone and take recourse to logic and reason.
Next, a review of the arguments advanced by Shah Wall-Ullah and others in favour of
or unityism shows that all such arguments are untenable and further that the arguments suffer from a confusion

Wahdat-i-Wujud

;

of the religious unity with the speculative

unity which

is

characteristic of the mystic

174

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

consciousness.

Now

to start with, they are arguments for

a metaphysics of reality, intending to prove that it is one, single, individual, self-identical
being.

But

after Kant,
is

we know

of the world

only a

"

that unity " regulative idea and

not a proved
cription

fact,

and that any further desself-identical, etc., is

of reality as

absolutely beyond the competence of human reason. Taking the arguments in detail, we

find that Shah Wali-Ullah starts with the

blank

assertion
is

that

Wahdat-i-Wujud or

unityism

a

sciousness.

dictum of all sane rational conBut plainly it is not that. Plain

unsophisticated consciousness believes rather
in pluralism than in

monism.
is

It

great effort of abstract

thought to
a

must make a come even

to dualism

;

while monism

requirement

only of the speculative consciousness.

And

even the speculative consciousness does not come to monism so simply as that and when it comes to it, it comes to it by a strained
;

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
effort of abstraction

175
it

and has to affirm

dogmatically. In the case of Shah Wall-Ullah himself let us see what is the Wujud-i- Wahid or unitary being ? It is, in the first instance,

Ahadiyyat-i-ma'qula, i.e., that which is common between the conceptual and the empirical, the universal and the particular. Now to
is something common between two such disparate entities as the universal and the particular, requires the most

conceive that there

strenuous effort of abstract thought indeed it is hardly possible to grasp what the common
;

element

is

between

validity

and

actuality.

In

the second instance, Shah Wall-Ullah speaks of it as Dhat-i-bahat or Wujud-i-Munbasit

being which
tion.

is

absolutely without determina-

Again, such a being is nothing that can be experienced or imagined it can only be conceived by highly abstract thought. And
;

then Ahadiyyat-i-Ma'qula and Dhat-i-bahat both are objects of thought, concepts
universals.

Whence

is

it

that

Wahdat

or

176

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
i.e.,

oneness or numerical unity,
is

actual being,

ascribed to
it

them?

Indeed, one
?

may
it

ask,

can
not,

be ascribed to them

Clearly

can

when

not so long as they are concepts. Only the concept, the universal is, by a leap

over an unbridgeable chasm, turned into a particular, can numerical unity be ascribed
to
it.

But can
?

a universal be turned into a

particular

Or

can

we even
:

say this

much
its

that the concept has but one individual as

Hardly for taken strictly there is no individual being which it denotes and taken loosely it denotes each and every being,
denotation ?
;

actual or possible.

What

has actually hap-

pened

qualitative

was only did not require to be quantitaBut under the stress of religious tive at all. consciousness it has been turned into a
is this.
;

The

speculative unity

it

quantitative unity and has become the one, a numerically single, individual existent.
ask, how does Ahadiyyat-ior conceptual unity, Dhat-i-bahat or Ma'qula

Then we must

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

177

pure being, Wujud-i-Munbasit or being-unfolding itself which is somehow one Individual which is the really real, become Mustajma'-isifat-i-Kamal,

comprehensive of
itself it is

all

perfec-

tions

?
;

For in

the barest shred of
all perfecactually has can at best be said
it

being

how

can
?

we
it.

say that

has
it

tions in itself

Undoubtedly
in

no perfections
of
it,

What

and

said

but only
itself

as a
is

thought requirement of explaining the
it

not

as a necessity of

empirical,

that

has

all

that potentially in

which

later actually

came to

be.

But

what has
tions,

actually

come

to be are not perfec-

can therefore but imperfections. attribute only the potentiality of imperfecHere tions to it, and not of perfections!

We

again

what has happened is this. The requirements of the religious consciousness have un-

consciously pressed the thinker dogmatically to ascribe all that is good to this bare impersonal being and thereby turn it into Mustajma i-sifat-i-Kamal, the all-Perfect, i.e., into the
"12
1

178

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

personal Divine Being of religion. Now coming to the Tanazzulat or descents

by means of which
to be

this Perfect

Being comes
is

the world, no reason whatsoever

advanced

why

the Tanazzulat or descents do

Taken strictly, i e., which it is, it is devoid of all But even taken as principle of movement. actual being which is the common element an between the concept and the percept, or even between the mental and the material, it would be difficult to point out a principle of movement which is common to all these forms of being and which can therefore be ascribed to But what has happened is this. The it. speculative consciousness demands that the world-process must be explained as a manifestation of the assumed unity and hence
take place in this being.
as a concept

a principle of

movement be
is

ascribed to
is

it.

This demand
to to
it.

met.

A

purpose

ascribed

It

know

affirmed that this being wants itself. Now the grounds of this
is

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

179

teleology are at bottom religious. characterisation of the process as

Further
4

ilml or

conceptual and then
tential
is

*aini

or kharijl or exisIf
is

thing,

again hardly speculative. the motif is religious. It

anythe

religious

motif
the

that

is

at

work and has
motif.

modified

speculative

For the

unity has been conceived as God; it must therefore be first self-conscious and then

produce Wujud-i-Khariji or actual existence out of itself. However the speculative motif and that with a vengeance. reasserts itself,

The Wujud-i-Khariji
being
itself in
it.

or actual existence
it
is

is

a manifestation of Divine Being;

that

one of

its

modes

;

it is

identical

with

Now

begins express conflict with the re-

ligious consciousness.

The
;

speculative con-

sciousness

is

monistic

it

will
;

have the Primal
it

Being immanent in the world and

will

have
If

necessity as the principle of its progress.

180
so,

Mujaddid's Conception of Taivhid

then evidently I am He and I am acting under stringent necessity; mysticism would

hardly deny that.
arises:

The question

therefore
in me,

whence want and suffering
;

which

are the very foundation of the religious

consciousness
ponsibility, or

and whence duty and reswhence freedom without which

no higher

religion can survive for a

moment?

Moreover, the doctrine produces that attitude of mind which is characteristic of the
speculative consciousness,
tive
viz.,

the contemplaat
'Irfan

one.

The mystic aims

or

knowledge, and passes his life in muraqibao-mukashifa contemplation and apprehension,

annihilation or

having for his ultimate goal Wasl or absorption in the Primal Being. There is indeed no room left for
it

immortality, though at times he speaks of
at the stress of the religious consciousness.
It

that although here and there elements of religious unity enter important the mystic consciousness, it is the speculative

may be noted

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

181
1

consciousness which holds the sway. And we must inquire further:

Is

Shah

Wali-Ullah right in saying that the position of the Mujaddid is substantially the same
as that of

Ibn 'Arabi,

viz.,

that

it is

Wahdatit

i-Wujud or unityism and all that makes look different is only simile and metaphor,
to

which indeed misled the Mujaddid himself
In justice to the Mujaddid, Shah Wali-Ullah should have
regard
it

as

different?

1 Attention may here be drawn to the fact that Tasawwuf or mysticism in its various aspects bears too much resemblance to

Neo-Platonism to which historically it is indebted. Its doctrine of Wahdat-i-Wujud and tanazzulat unity and its descents, towards life and society, rahb2myyat-o-mziwa its attitude
or asceticism and monasticism, its end (UjJl ^ s_U>oU.A>^) or knowledge, and wasl (J- ^) or of man as 'irfan

(c^/*)

unification and annihilation
intents and purposes the

m

the Primal Being, are to

all

same as we find in Neo-Platomsm. And more, it is grounded the same effort of making a m the same religion out of the speculative consciousness

m

identification of the religious

with the speculative unity, in

which Neo-Platomsm was grounded. It is further interesting to note that Neo-Platonism aimed at becoming a religion to save Hellenism from the onslaught of Christianity and tasaw wuf or mysticism too is acting as an inward religion running inside Islam and really supplanting Islam.
;

182

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

shown in detail that the difference is only apparent and due to metaphorical language. But unfortunately he makes no such attempt.
In truth the difference between the Mujaddid and Ibn 'Arabi is not of mere simile and

as

metaphor it real and
;

is

a very real difference.

It is

as

great

as

that between the

speculative

unity and the religious unity. It appears that the use of the word zill or adumberation in this connection is at the

bottom of Shah Wali-Ullah's assertion. Zill or adumberation is certainly a metaphor. But so is aks or reflection and tajalli or efflu4

ence and talabbus or dressing,
Zill

etc.,

the terms
use.

which Shah Wall-Ullah and Ibn 'Arab!
or adumberation, however,
tajalli
is

a safer
It

metaphor than
indicates
thing,
it

or effluence, etc.

otherwise

from

the

asl

or
asl

the
or

indicates dependence

on the

the thing, and it implies insignificance of the zill or adumberation, while tajalli or effluence
indicates quite the reverse of
it all
;

indeed

it

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
is

183

intended to indicate the reverse.
in

These

differences

implications of zill or adumberation and tajalli or effluence are

the

undoubtedly of fundamental importance. had the inquiry been carefully pursued, it would have become clear that the Mujaddid really meant by zill or adumberation not

And

only something other than the thing, but merely an effect of
only
1

asl

or the

as

indeed it, 1 an act of creation on the part of God.
brief
is

Note A Adumberation
:

note on

Asl-o-Zill

or

the

Thing

and

to be found on page 93 above. But it seems necessary here to trace the meaning of the expression zill in the

Mujaddid more
rise

closely, as

misconception of the term has given

to confusion.
the
first glance,

At
zill

the Mujaddid looks like using the term
( s<

very

much

in the sense of 'aks

^^*)

01

partaw (j^j^),

i.e.,

implying the suggestion that it is, so to say, somehow a part of the asl. While at the stage of Zilhyyat, the Mujaddid tends to think of zill in this sense, though even there zill indicates for him a lower reality than 'aks or partaw
reflection;

(M.. Vol.

II, Ep. 1). Later we find that he uses the term
t

zill

to indicate the

Ghairiyyat ( ^^^f.*) or otherness of the multiplicity from the asl or God (Cf. M., Vol. I, Ep. 160) and that the purpose of mploying it is to express the insignificance of the multiplicity in
;

184

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

What
The

the Mujaddid really means

is

this.

contingent's own essence is nothing but 'adarn or non-being that is, by itself the
;

contingent has no being whatsoever.

Only

gives being and gives it qualities which bear a faint and distant resemblance to the being and attributes of God. In other words, God produces the world, not out of Himself as Wahdat-iWujud or unityism would say, but out of Its being is due to an act of nothing. creation out of nothing, which is creation,
it

Divine grace

something absolutely inconceivable for the
speculative consciousness and
its

offshoot,

viz.,

Wahdat-i-Wujud. And He gives it an existence of its own, which is not God's existence
contrast to the asl or God, as well as to city can not exist without the asl (see

show
,

M

that the multipliII,

Vol.

Eps.

1,

11).

takwln (o^^-*) or creation the Mujaddid strongly tends to use the term only in the sense of an In the end the Mujaddid realises the effect (M., Vol. II, Ep. 4). inadequacy of the term, discards it, and speaks, in its place, of the acts of creation which are incomprehensible to man (M Vol.
in the discussion of
,

However

Ill,

Ep. 122).

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

185
it

but other than

it.

So

also

He

gives

certain

qualities, consciousness,

freedom, etc., which are not God's qualities but its. Thus it

becomes an agent
fore

in its

own

right and there-

responsible

for

its

actions.

Being

a

mixture of
non-being,
it

Wujud
it is

and 'adam

of being and

essentially finite

and limited,

has a yearning for improvement. though Consequently, it needs religion and it needs
;

a religious unity with
perfection.

all

the attributes of

However, being limited it cannot comprehend the infinite it can not see God. if God could be It can only believe in Him,
;

pleased to let

it

know

that

He

exists a

and

wants him to act in such and such

manner.

Revelation performs this function and opens the way to the realisation of the human

yearning to live in harmony with
in
life

Him and
and

His presence.

And

revelation prescribes

of action, of struggle, of endeavour,

indeed of Jihad or fighting in the way of God in order to achieve this end, to achieve

186

MujaddicTs Conception of Tawhid

the state of

mind

called Nafs-i-mutma'inna

or beatified soul, and to attain to 'Abdiyyat
.or

servitude.
4

The Abd
4

or servant remains

the

he was in the beginHe never becomes God. He is never ning. re-absorbed into the being of God he remains
'abd

'

in the

end

as

;

himself and survives death
tality,

;

he has immor-

to annihilate him.
live,

though of course God has the power In life after death he will

by sheer grace of God, in actual conscious

presence of God, and see Him. This is, if anything, the reclamation of the
religious consciousness

the

speculative

consciousness
it.

from the bondage of into which

mysticism had thrown
clearly dualistic

The

doctrine
;

is^

and not monistic holds to a transcendent, qualitative and personal unity, and not to an immanent, unqualitative and
impersonal one its unity not act under compulsion.
;

is

free

and does
this

While the world
with
the

and the human soul are according to
doctrine

not

identical

Primal

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid

187

Being

;

the souls bound in their action and

gazing at it all the while and yearning to be re-absorbed in it. No, they have an existence
of their

own

over against

God

f

however

meagre that existence be; the souls being free agents, actively endeavouring to live the
life

prescribed by Him.
is

Evidently this doc-

trine

as near to religion or Islam as

Wahdat-

away from it. And i-Wujud the Mujaddid seems to have successfully though he brought about this reclamation
or unityism
is
;

is

not wholly out of the clutches of rational-

thought in which his opponents are which probably is the reason why one had had the courage of questioning the value of his truly revolutionary achievement.
istic

revelling,

However
the

there can hardly be any doubt that

call of

the Mujaddid to
is

all

Musalmans
host,

and

Islamic mystics

Away

from Plotinus and his and

BACK TO MUHAMMAD.

INDEX
Abdiyyat,
84, 96, 137, 138, 186

Baqa, 165
Bid'at, 26, 38

Abdul

'Aziz, Shah. 1
49,

Absolute Idea,

54

Abu

Bakr-as-Siddlq, 138

Activity, 72, 74

Contemplation, 72
121, 130

'Adam-i-Mahad,
Ahad, 122

Creation, 55, 105
Creator, 51, 55, 121

'Adam-i-Mutaq5bila, 131, 148
Ahadiyyat-i-Ma'qula, *176
90,

175,

Ahl-i-Hadttb, 39
Ahl-i-Kitab, 109

Democntus, 47
Dhat-i-bahat, 175
Dhdt-o-Sitat, 99, 118, 126
,

'Alam-i-Amr, 135
Alam-i-Khalq, 135, 136 Anaximenes, 47
Anbiyya", 122
Asl-o-ril. 93, 183-184

distinction of, 86

'

Dhikr, 36
Ditferences.
lative

between the Specuand the Religious

Asm3\ 86
Asma'-i-IlShI, 89

unities, 53-74

Divine Being, 60, 63
Duahstic, 58, 61

Asma'-o-Sifat, 159, 160
Aristotle, 48, 73

A'ySn-i-khanji, 107

A'yan-uth Thabita, meaning
91, 102, 159

of,

Fana, 102, 103, 165
Farq, 92

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
Farq
ba'd-al-jara', 92, 109,

189
Speculative

110

Implications

of

Fikr, 36

Consciousness, 46-49
Infinite Spirit, 59, 60
Iqbal, Sir

Forms of Consciousness, 45-46 Freedom, meaning of, 65

Muhammad,

41

Ismail Shahid, Shah, 164-165
Ittibr-i-Sunnat, 23, 28

Ghair Muqallid, 18

Ghulam Ghulam Yahy5, Mawlwl,
'All Shah, 162
'

158,

Jam', 92

159,161

jam!, 76, 87
Jizya,

20

Hadlth, 8-9

Haqq-ul-Yaqin, 79
Hegel, 48, 75 Hayula, 147

Kant. 49, 70,
Kashf,

71.

174
161
78.

5, 79, 98,

Kashf-o-Ilham,
165, 172

79

Kash-o-Shuhud,
'Ibadat. 113
Khilafat, 10
80, 81, 84-89, 91-96,

76, 106, 109, 142,

Ibn 'Arabi, 5,

99. 100, 102, 103, 106-112, 143,
144, 148, 149, 181, 182

Khwaja Baqf Billah. 10-11 Khwaja Mir Dard, 33, 149-151,
154.156,159
Khvvaja Mir Nasir. 32, 149, 150, 157

Taimiyya, 5, 81 Idea of the Good, 48, 53
^311

Ihata, 123
Ij'mS*. 9,

Kitdb-o-Sunnat,

34,

38

17

Kulir-i-Tabri, 156

Ilham, 6

Ilm-i-Batm, 31
Ilm-i-Z3hir, 31

La-Ta'ayyun, stage

of,

i

Im5n-bil-ghaib, 99, 120 Immanent, 56, 57, 109

Immortality, 67-69 Impersonal, 62, 63

Ma'iyyat, 123

Makhluqat, 169

190
Ma'rifat,

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
meaning
of,

13

Personal, 62, 63
Plato, 48, 73

MazShir, 169

Mirza Mazhar,

158, 162

Plotmus, 76, 187

Monism,

qualitative, 59

quantitative, 59

Purpose of creation according to Ibn 'Arabi, 95-96
187

Monistic, 58, 61

Muhammad,

31, 33, 76, 155,

Purpose of creation according to the Mujaddid, 112-114

Muj'addid-i-Alf-i-IhSni,

1, 2, 4,

12, 28, 29, 38, 40-43, 79, 81, 82.

84-86,94,96,99,100,102,106,
107,110, 112, 114, 115.117119, 123, 124, 126-131,

QayyHm, 169
Qiyas.
9.

17

134-

Qur-an,

8, 39,

40

136,

138.

141-144,

148-150,

Qurb, 123

152,

153, 158, 163, 165, 170-

173, 181-184, 187

Mumtana', 125

Mumkin,

125

Refutation of Jabr in Mujaddid, 136, 137
Regulative idea, 49, 174
Religious consciousness, implications
of.

Muqalhd, 17

MusammS, 89
Mustajma'-i-Sifat-i-Kamal, 177 Mystic Consciousness, 42

49-53

Religious unity, 42

Nabuwwat, 29
Nafs-i-AmmSra, 136

Sahw,
136
k

13,

37

Saw, 29
an-Allah, 29

Lawwama,
Necessity, 66, 67

Mutma'inna, 137

fi'llah,

29

ila-'llah,

29

Sajda, 19, 25 SattSr, 121

Pantheism, 42 Parmenides, 48, 56 Perfect Being, 129

Say y id

Ahmad

Barelwl,

Shah,

34, 37, 164, 169

Schellmg, 64

Mujaddid's Conception of Taivhid
Self-conscious, 62

191

Taqlld, 17, 39

Shaikh Ahmad,
'

1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10.

Tariqa-i-Muhammadi, 32

11,

24
,

Nabuwwat, 36
life of,

7-27

WilSyat, 36

Shahsb-uddin
Shaikh, 80

Suharwardi,

Tanqat, meaning of, 13 Tasawwuf and Neo-Platonism
compared, 181
definition of, 12

Shaikh-i-Akbar, 86
Shari'at,

meaning

of,

12

,

Shuhud, 6
huyun, meaning
1

of,

119

Tasawwur-I-Shaikh, 34 Tashblh, meaning of, 93

Sif5t-i-Wujud, 130 Sims 13, 37
,

Tathmyya-i-Wujud, 172
Tawhid-i-Sif5tI, 167, 168

Sir Sayyid, 39

Wujudi, 4

SirySn, 123

Theory of
129-133

creation, Mujaddid's,

Speculative consciousness, 42 Speculative unity, 43, 57, 58
Spinoza, 48, 64, 73, 75

Transcendent, 56-58

Substance, 48, 53
Sukr, 13, 37

Suluk, 29

Uwaisi, 35

Uwaisiyyat, 35

Ta'ayyun-i-jasadi, 89

Wahdat-fil-Kathrat, 151

MithSli, 88

Wahdat-i-ShuhQd,

114, 147-149,

Ruhi, 88
Tajalll,
,

152-154, 158, 159. 161-164, 171,

87
kinds
of,

87

Wahdat-i-Wujub, 172 Wujud, 4, 5,
115. 117,

11, 41, 75,

Tajalll-i-DhSti, 106, 107

80-86, 95-97, 99, 100, 110. 114,

Tanazzul, idea

of,

127

141-143.
154,

147-149,
168,

TanazzulSt, 178

151,
of,

153.

157-165,

Tanzih, meaning

93

171-174, 181, 184, 187

192
Wahl,
6,

Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid
101. 104, 108

WujUd-i-Munbasit, 145-147.
177

175,

Wajib, 125 Wali-Ullah, Shah,
147, 148, 158,

1,

84, 143-145,

,

descents

of,

160-162,

170,

145

173-175, 180. 182

Wujudiyyat,

97, 118

Wilayat. 29 Wujub, 125

Wujud, 130-132
Wujud-I-Kamil, 129
Khanji, 179

Zakat, definition of. 15 Zilhyyat, 96, 97, 118
,

stage of, 83

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