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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the

Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Volume II: Appendices

Table of Contents

APPENDIX 1 BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION............................1


APPENDIX 1.1 CLIMATE AND AIR ............................................................................................2
APPENDIX 1.2 NOISE LEVEL....................................................................................................9
APPENDIX 1.3 WATER QUALITY............................................................................................12
APPENDIX 1.4 HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS ..................................................................19
APPENDIX 1.5 TERRESTRIAL FLORA....................................................................................21
APPENDIX 1.6 TERRESTRIAL FAUNA ...................................................................................43
APPENDIX 1.7 AQUATIC FLORA ............................................................................................53
APPENDIX 1.8 AQUATIC FAUNA (FISHES, MACRO INVERTEBRATES)...............................57
APPENDIX 1.9 LAND USE AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ......................................................70
APPENDIX 1.10 DEMOGRAPHY: SOCIAL SURVEY FORMS ...................................................75
APPENDIX 1.11 PUBLIC / STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS AND ENGAGEMENTS...........76
APPENDIX 1.12 PUBLIC HEALTH ...........................................................................................103
APPENDIX 1.13 BIOMASS REMOVAL ....................................................................................113
APPENDIX 1.14 JKR TRAFFIC CENSUS ................................................................................117
APPENDIX 2 METHODOLOGIES AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ...........................................118
APPENDIX 2.1 SOILS AND GEOLOGY .................................................................................119
APPENDIX 2.2 CLIMATE AND AIR ........................................................................................121
APPENDIX 2.3 GREEN HOUSE GASSES .............................................................................129
APPENDIX 2.4 WATER QUALITY..........................................................................................134
APPENDIX 2.5 HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS ................................................................139
APPENDIX 2.6 TERRESTRIAL FLORA..................................................................................221
APPENDIX 2.7 TERRESTRIAL FAUNA .................................................................................228
APPENDIX 2.8 AQUATIC FLORA ..........................................................................................230
APPENDIX 2.9 AQUATIC FAUNA (FISHES) ..........................................................................231
APPENDIX 2.10 LAND USE AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ....................................................241
APPENDIX 2.11 PUBLIC HEALTH ...........................................................................................243
APPENDIX 2.12 EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN .................................................................245
APPENDIX 3 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................266
APPENDIX 4 SCOPING NOTE, TERMS OF REFERENCE AND APPROVAL LETTERS ..274
APPENDIX 4.1 SCOPING NOTE APPROVAL LETTER .........................................................275
APPENDIX 4.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE AND APPROVAL LETTER...................................276
APPENDIX 4.3 APPROVAL LETTER .....................................................................................278
APPENDIX 5 MALAYSIAN ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS...........................................280
APPENDIX 5.1 MALAYSIAN RECOMMENDED AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES........................287
APPENDIX 5.2 NATIONAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR MALAYSIA .....................288

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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
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APPENDIX 5.3 SCHEDULE OF PERMISSIBLE SOUND LEVELS, DEPARTMENT OF


ENVIRONMENT, 2004...................................................................................291
APPENDIX 5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF
WASTE OIL AND GREASE AT CONSTRUCTION SITES. ............................294
APPENDIX 6 PROJECT DESIGN DRAWINGS ...................................................................296

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In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

APPENDIX 1
BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND
INFORMATION

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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

APPENDIX 1.1 CLIMATE AND AIR


Climate
The climatic characteristics of the Sg Padas basin can be summarised as follows:
Temperature:
Being equatorial, temperature is generally uniform throughout the year (average daily temperature 27oC).
Humidity:
Mean monthly relative humidity is 86% on average.
Wind Speed:
Wind speed is generally light and consistent throughout the year, although influences from the monsoonal
seasons can be seen.
Air Pressure:
As for wind speed, air pressure is generally consistent throughout the year, although influences from the
monsoonal seasons can be seen - greater variations in air pressures will occur on shorter timescales (for
example, during tropical thunderstorms).
Evaporation:
Evaporation data was obtained from Keningau station. Data was available from 1966 to date. The average
daily evaporation rate is 4.4 mm/day (see Figure 1.1-1).

Figure 1.1-1: Average monthly variations in evaporation rates, Station 5361301 (Keningau)

Rainfall:
Twenty four rainfall stations is available in the study area (locations shown in Figure 1.1-2), as detailed in
Table 1.1-1. Monthly averages for each station are shown Figure 1.1-2: Rainfall Stations in the
Catchment

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Table 1.1-1: Available rainfall stations


Average Annual
Name Number Start Date End Date Elevation (m)
Rainfall (mm)
Lanas 5365001 21/04/1991 04/12/2008 - 1908
UluMoyog 5862001 01/01/1969 14/09/2007 480 5095
Tampias 5768001 01/01/1978 04/04/2007 220 2618
TambunanAgrStn 5663001 01/01/1969 11/04/2006 680 1594
Bongawan 5558001 01/01/1983 24/08/2008 15 3119
Apin-Apin 5462001 01/01/1969 26/06/2007 350 1753
Tulid 5364002 01/01/1985 11/07/2007 - 1829
KeningauMetStn 5361002 01/01/1969 13/04/2008 290 1318
BeaufortJPS 5357003 01/01/1971 12/01/2004 9.4 3499
Sook 5163002 01/01/1977 16/05/2006 350 1911
Tenom 5159002 01/01/1985 04/06/2003 - 1640
PangiDamSite 5158001 01/01/1990 15/05/2008 - 2102
Mesapol 5156001 11/06/1992 12/12/2008 - 3236
Kemabong 4959001 04/01/1985 05/06/2008 228 1621
Sindumin 4955001 01/01/1983 20/09/2008 12 3396
Sapulut 4764002 01/01/1979 17/11/2007 280 2690
Pensiangan 4563001 11/02/1993 04/04/2008 183 2701
Sukang, Long 4554001 01/01/2001 17/10/2004 350 2484
Merarap Long 4354001 01/01/2001 08/11/2004 - 2652
Semado, Long 4255006 01/01/2001 16/10/2004 730 2438
Trusan 4752022 01/01/2001 25/10/2004 15 3977
Sukang, Long 4653001 01/01/2001 06/12/2004 350 3583
Sundar 4852002 01/01/2001 28/10/2004 13 2925
Samaha Estate 4854003 01/01/2001 11/05/2004 15 3808

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Table 1.1-2: Monthly Average of Available Rainfall Stations

Elevation Monthly Average (mm)


Name Number Start Date End Date
(m) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Lanas 5365001 21/04/1991 04/12/2008 - 126 123 138 155 189 173 151 149 136 210 168 173
UluMoyog 5862001 01/01/1969 14/09/2007 480 268 231 273 402 540 464 414 378 454 566 551 428
Tampias 5768001 01/01/1978 04/04/2007 220 212 187 171 166 206 258 199 224 223 225 210 247
TambunanAgrStn 5663001 01/01/1969 11/04/2006 680 102 99 109 125 171 143 119 114 128 139 146 135
Bongawan 5558001 01/01/1983 24/08/2008 15 157 117 158 217 320 332 293 280 275 325 324 281
Apin-Apin 5462001 01/01/1969 26/06/2007 350 137 119 118 128 166 132 126 138 146 169 166 153
Tulid 5364002 01/01/1985 11/07/2007 - 121 124 141 161 183 169 135 143 135 170 149 155
KeningauMetStn 5361002 01/01/1969 13/04/2008 290 109 96 89 102 119 103 104 100 108 120 128 119
BeaufortJPS 5357003 01/01/1971 12/01/2004 9.4 190 159 209 292 323 344 260 244 295 329 369 303
Sook 5163002 01/01/1977 16/05/2006 350 125 103 111 158 198 183 152 146 160 166 190 161
Tenom 5159002 01/01/1985 04/06/2003 - 125 113 119 135 137 138 119 129 135 153 166 168
PangiDamSite 5158001 01/01/1990 15/05/2008 - 139 131 133 189 165 171 141 184 194 230 208 187
Mesapol 5156001 11/06/1992 12/12/2008 - 206 192 234 274 261 241 248 285 273 370 330 299
Kemabong 4959001 04/01/1985 05/06/2008 228 118 129 139 119 149 157 114 118 127 125 157 144
Sindumin 4955001 01/01/1983 20/09/2008 12 190 154 151 235 314 290 310 326 338 388 361 306
Sapulut 4764002 01/01/1979 17/11/2007 280 150 154 214 259 282 218 214 227 231 263 212 202
Pensiangan 4563001 11/02/1993 04/04/2008 183 210 162 215 221 250 207 216 228 243 257 213 231
Sukang, Long 4554001 01/01/2001 17/10/2004 350 148 115 251 180 193 216 151 230 225 276 257 243
Merarap Long 4354001 01/01/2001 08/11/2004 - 229 171 223 269 202 179 160 168 274 244 236 268
Semado, Long 4255006 01/01/2001 16/10/2004 730 164 161 201 208 211 176 174 149 265 248 228 247
Trusan 4752022 01/01/2001 25/10/2004 15 371 146 305 321 338 265 268 195 476 421 438 484
Sukang, Long 4653001 01/01/2001 06/12/2004 350 253 180 311 307 319 240 277 236 329 425 373 276
Sundar 4852002 01/01/2001 28/10/2004 13 276 103 197 296 232 158 154 170 317 330 344 412
Samaha Estate 4854003 01/01/2001 11/05/2004 15 237 161 234 231 341 190 245 199 373 496 497 364

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Figure 1.1-2: Rainfall Stations in the Catchment

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Existing Air Quality

Existing air quality was measured at twenty-seven (27) locations which comprise the sensitive receptors
surrounding the proposed sites for powerhouse, access roads, and particularly along the transmission lines
options. The sampled parameters are:

• Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) • SO2


• CO • NO2

Table 1.1-3 describes the air monitoring points and results for the measures TSP (A1-A27). Results for
additional parameters for the proposed powerhouse area is presented in Table 1.1-4 (see following pages
for test results).

Table 1.1-3: Description of Air Monitoring Points and Results


Point GPS Reading Location TSP1 (µg/m3)
MRGGP2 260
A1 E 115°51’30.5” Bridge near powerhouse site, Tomani 16.4
N 04°51’48.5’
A2 E 115°52’05.9” Kg Katambalang Baru, Tomani 22.5
N 04°51’32.9’
A3 E 115°52’40.5” Kg Kaliwata Lama, Tomani 13.3
N 04°51’04.6’
A4 E 115°53’20.6” SK Tomani, Tomani 15.1
N 04°51’00.6”
A5 E 115°51’19.3” Lembaga Industri Getah Tomani 13.7
N 04°49’56.7”
A6 E 115°42’38.0” Kg. Kungkular 9.5
N 04°41’00.5”
A7 E 115°42’38.0” Kg. Maligan 35.6
N 04°41’00.5”
A8 E 115°44’13.6” SFI camp 30.7
N 04°34’08.8”
A9 E 115°52’21.2” Lembaga Industri Getah Tomani 28.5
N 04°50’16.5”
A 10 E 115°41’21.7” Kg Mendolong 17.7
N 04°56’56.6”
A 11 E 115°53’48.5” Kg. Kalibatang 32.5
N 04°51’45.0”
A 12 E 115°54’30.7” Kg. Mamaitom 24.0
N 04°52’54.8”
A 13 E 115°55’25.9” Kg. Kalamatoi Ulu 24.5
N 04°55’31.3”
A 14 E 115°55’11.3” SJK (C) Yuk Hwa, Kemabong 22.4
N 04°57’50.4”
A 15 E 115°55’21.5” Klinik Desa Kg. Paal 22.5
N 05°00’18.2”
A 16 E 115°57’01.7” Kg. Sapong @ SK Ladang Sapong 22.2
N 05°03’42.7”
A 17 E 115°56’45.8” SK Chinta Mata 23.1
N 05°05’19.2”

1
Averaging time: 24 hour
2
Malaysian Recommended Guidelines for Gaseous Pollutant

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1 3
Point GPS Reading Location TSP (µg/m )
MRGGP2 260
A 18 E 115°56’25.7” Housing Area. Tenom 20.1
N 05°06’37.5”
A 19 E 115°41’23.7” Lembaga Industri Getah, Sipitang 26.6
N 04°57’52.6”
A 20 E 115°40’28.9” Kg. Muaya 16.7
N 04°57’37.8”
A 21 E 115°37’56.6” Kg. Marau 25.4
N 04°58’27.1”
A 22 E 115°36’39.2” Kg. Melamam 26.7
N 04°59’23.5”
A 23 E 115°35’58.5” Kg. Kaban 22.5
N 04°59’41.3”
A 24 E 115°34’49.0” SK Lubang Buaya 25.5
N 04°59’38.4”
A 25 E 115°33’59.9” Kg. Bangsal 25.2
N 04°59’42.6”
A 26 E 115°31’50.0” SK Padang Berampah 25.0
N 05°00’56.0
A 27 E 115°32’55 SIB Church 23.2
N 05°03’35.0”

Table 1.1-4: NO2, CO and SO2 Results

Additional Parameters at Powerhouse Area


Point
NO23, µg/m3 CO4, ppm SO2, µg/m3

MRGGP 320 9 105


A1 21.7 < 2.0 124
A2 9.4 < 2.0 65
A3 8.5 < 2.0 105

3
Averaging time: 1 hour
4
Averaging time: 8 hour

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Air Quality Test Results

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APPENDIX 1.2 NOISE LEVEL


Existing Noise Level

Noise measurements were measured at thirty-three (33) locations within the project area as well as outside.
The measuring points included the proposed areas for power house, access roads and transmission lines
covering both Sipitang and Tenom areas. Noise level was measured during day time (15 hours) and night
time (9 hours) at each location. The results and description of sampling locations are shown in Table 1.2.1
below while the noise measurement report is appended in the following pages.

Table 1.2.1: Description of Noise Measurement Points and Results


Results (Leq, dB)
Points GPS Reading Description
Day time5 Night time
N1 E 115°51’30.5” Bridge near powerhouse site, Tomani 56.7 52.5
N 04°51’48.5’
N2 E 115°52’05.9” Residential area, Kg Katambalang Baru, 54.4 50.8
N 04°51’32.9’ Tomani
N3 E 115°52’40.5” Residential area, Kg Kaliwata Lama, Tomani 54.7 56.2
N 04°51’04.6’
N4 E 115°52’40.0” Residential area, Kg Marrais, Tomani 58.4 53.8
N 04°51’46.9”
N5 E 115°53’20.6” School area, SK Tomani, Tomani 59.5 55.0
N 04°51’00.6”
N6 E 115°51’19.3” Proposed access road area, Lembaga Industri 55.3 55.3
N 04°49’56.7” Getah Tomani
N7 E 115°42’38.0” Residential area, Kg. Kungkular 59.6 52.3
N 04°41’00.5”
N8 E 115°42’38.0” Residential area, Kg. Maligan 59.0 41.2
N 04°41’00.5”
N9 E 115°44’13.6” Logging camp, SFI camp 50.3 46.6
N 04°34’08.8”
N10 E 115°52’21.2” Proposed access road area, Lembaga Industri 58.4 53.4
N 04°50’16.5” Getah Tomani
N11 E 115°41’21.7” Residential area, Kg Mendolong 54.9 53.5
N 04°56’56.6”
N12 E 115°53’48.5” Residential area, Kg Kalibatang 56.3 54.6
N 04°51’45.0”
N13 E 115°54’30.7” Residential area, Kg. Mamaitom 55.5 53.8
N 04°52’54.8”
N14 E 115°55’11.1” Commercial and residential area, Kemabong 57.9 57.7
N 04°54’43.1” Town
N15 E 115°55’25.9” Residential area, Kg. Kalamatoi Ulu 56.6 54.3
N 04°55’31.3”
N16 E 115°55’00.5” Health center, Klinik Desa Baru Jumpa 56.2 57.8
N 04°56’40.1”
N17 E 115°55’11.3” School area, SJK (C) Yuk Hwa Kemabong 57.3 56.5
N 04°57’50.4”
N18 E 115°55’21.5” Health center, Klinik Desa Kg. Paal 63.9 59.1

5
Average value for day time sampling results.

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Results (Leq, dB)


Points GPS Reading Description 5
Day time Night time
N 05°00’18.2”
N19 E 115°57’01.7” School area, SK Ladang Sapong 58.4 52.9
N 05°03’42.7”
N20 E 115°57’04.2” Health center, Klinik Desa Sapong 62.8 59.7
N 05°03’53.3”
N21 E 115°56’45.8” School area, SK Chinta Mata 59.5 54.5
N 05°05’19.2”
N22 E 115°56’25.7” Housing Area 55.3 50.4
N 05°06’37.5”
N23 E 115°41’23.7” Residential area, Lembaga Industri Getah, 60.4 53.6
N 04°57’52.6” Sipitang
N24 E 115°40’28.9” Residential area, Kg. Muaya 56.0 57.3
N 04°57’37.8”
N25 E 115°37’56.6” Residential area, Kg. Marau 57.0 50.8
N 04°58’27.1”
N26 E 115°36’39.2” Residential area, Kg. Melamam 69.0 59.8
N 04°59’23.5”
N27 E 115°35’58.8” Residential area, Kg. Kaban 57.7 66.8
N 04°59’41.3”
N28 E 115°34’49.0” School area, SK. Lubang Buaya 61.0 57.3
N 04°59’38.4”
N29 E 115°33’59.9” Residential area, Kg. Bangsal 55.8 54.8
N 04°59’42.6”
N30 E 115°31’46.0” Religious building, Masjid Pantai 60.4 59.6
N 05°01’7.0”
N31 E 115°31’50.0” School area, SK Padang Berampah 57.5 57.6
N 05°00’56.0”
N32 E 115°32’52.0” School area, SK Merintaman 59.2 58.2
N 05°02’44.0”
N33 E 115°32’55” SIB Church 56.4 57.6
N 05°03’35.0”

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Noise Level Measurement Report

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APPENDIX 1.3 WATER QUALITY


Stage / Discharge

Seven river stations are available from DID with discharge and stage (plus Tomani Bridge, stage only).
Locations are shown in Figure 1.3-1 and a summary is provided in Table 1.3-1.

Of the available data sets, the discharge gauge at Kemabong and Beaufort are of direct relevance to the
study as these stations are located within our main study area. In addition runoff data from Ansip and Biah
stations were also applied in calibrating the hydrological rainfall runoff model.

Figure 1.3-1: Available Stage and Discharge Data

Of the available data sets, the discharge gauge at Kemabong and Beaufort are of direct relevance to the
study (i.e. used for calibration within the study area of interest). Note that Ansip and Biah stations were also
considered to support the hydrological assessment.

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Table 1.3-1: Available Stage and Discharge Data

Station Catchment Elevation Average Average 10% Flow 90% Flow


Name 2 Start Date End Date 3 3 3
ID Area (km ) (m) WL (m) Q (m /s) (m /s) (m /s)

Sg. Padas at 4959401 3159 Jan-1969 Dec-2004 228 20 118 23 243


Kemabong
Sg. Pegalan at 5261401 2198 Jan-1969 Apr-2003 262 18 53 13 109
Ansip
Sg. Sook at Biah 5261402 1893 Jan-1969 Nov-2003 258 26 23 3 57

Sg. Padas at 5357403 8700 Apr-1981 Mar-2007 9.4 3 231 49 499


Beaufort JPS
Sg. Baiayo at 5461401 176 Aug-1993 Feb-2008 460 32 6 2 11
Bandukan
Sg. Apin-Apin at 5462402 214 Jan-1996 Apr-2003 340 4 2 7
Waterworks
Sg. Pegalan at 5663402 304 Jan-2000 Oct-2007 - 564 7 2 14
Karanaan P.H.
Sg Padas at Tomani 4858401 Jan-1992 Feb-2005 76

In addition to the above data sets, flow and water level measurement was conducted at Tomani Bridge. Flow
and water level measurement was conducted at Tomani Bridge from late August till late October 2008.

Table 1.3-2: Recorded Flow Data at Tomani Bridge


Average Flow (m/s)
Time Time Left Side of Bridge Centre of Bridge Right Side of Bridge
Date
(Start) (End)
Surface Mid Bottom Surface Mid Bottom Surface Mid Bottom
Depth Depth Depth Depth Depth Depth Depth Depth Depth
27-Aug-08 15:28:18 17:07:23 0.93 0.93 0.91 0.94 0.90 0.71 0.97 0.97 0.52
27-Aug-08 17:09:34 18:57:58 - - - 0.57 0.60 0.39 0.64 0.50 0.49
28-Aug-08 10:55:27 13:29:41 0.51 0.52 0.48 0.47 0.51 0.37 0.49 0.44 0.38
28-Aug-08 13:30:41 15:50:54 0.47 0.50 0.38 0.47 0.45 0.34 0.48 0.42 0.37
28-Aug-08 15:51:54 18:23:48 0.47 0.46 0.32 0.47 0.46 0.32 0.39 0.45 0.35
24-Sep-08 12:32:56 14:57:47 0.31 0.22 0.16 0.26 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.20
24-Sep-08 15:01:34 17:35:40 0.33 0.28 0.18 0.26 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.21 0.20
24-Sep-08 17:38:35 18:28:35 - - - - - - 0.18 0.18 0.18
25-Sep-08 8:10:49 10:49:44 0.32 0.25 0.15 0.23 0.24 0.22 0.17 0.17 0.16
25-Sep-08 10:52:42 11:40:42 - - - - - - 0.19 0.18 0.16
28-Oct-08 14:21:20 17:00:23 0.59 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.53 0.43 0.64 0.55 0.45
29-Oct-08 8:04:01 10:32:45 0.50 0.48 0.37 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.53 0.47 0.25

29-Oct-08 10:35:58 12:59:47 0.53 0.46 0.33 0.41 0.42 0.35 0.48 0.38 0.20

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Figure 1.3-2: Recorded Water Level Data at Tomani Bridge

Water Quality Sampling

Introduction

The water quality samples were collected over two climatic periods, i.e. dry and wet seasons. Sampling for
dry season started on June 2008, whereas sampling for wet season was on October 2008. The parameters
are outlined in Table 1.3-3.

Table 1.3-3: Water Sampling Parameters


Temperature Potassium
pH value Iron
Dissolved Oxygen Manganese
Turbidity (NTU) Lead
Salinity (NaCl) Aluminium
Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD Arsenic
Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD Selenium
Total Suspended Solids, TSS Cadmium
Conductivity Nickel
Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N) Chromium
Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3-N) Sulphide
Total Nitrogen Oil and Grease
Chloride Heterotrophic Plate Count
Phosphate (PO4-P) Total Coliform Count
Total Phosphorous Faecal Coliform Count
Calcium

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Sampling Locations

Sampling locations were chosen to represent the water quality of Padas River and its tributaries upstream
and downstream of the proposed dam site, power station area and along the transmission line alignment.
The location of sampling is shown in the attached map. The number of samples for each location is shown in
Table 1.3-4 and the description of sampling points is shown in Table 1.3-5.

Table 1.3-4: Sampling Locations and Quantity


Location Quantity
Upstream of Proposed Dam Site 6
Downstream of Proposed Dam Site (between the dam and the tail race outlet) 11
Downstream of Proposed Dam Site (between the tail race outlet to pass Kuala Tomani) 6
Construction of access roads 3
Transmission Lines (Tenom) 9
Transmission Lines (L1) 1
Transmission Lines (L2) 5
Transmission Lines (L3) 3
Total 44

Table 1.3-5: Sampling Points Description


Locations Date Weather Description
Upper dam - dam
W1 (Sg. Maligan, at the cement bridge) 17/06/08 Fine Water flowing very rapidly; turbid.
15/10/08 Fine
W2 (Sg. Padas, at the cement bridge) 17/06/08 Fine Water flowing very rapidly; turbid.
14/10/08 Fine
W3 (Sg. Pa Sia) 22/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly, brownish and
slightly turbid
15/10/08 Fine
W4 (Upstream of Sg Padas and Sg Maligan) 22/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly, turbid
15/10/08 Fine
W5 (Sg. Padas.Upstream of dam site) 24/07/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river.
29/10/08 Fine
W6 (Sg Padas near dam site) 24/07/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river. Steep
29/10/08 Fine slopes both sides.
Dam - Tailrace
W7 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing; turbid; rocky formation on
both sides of river. Steep slopes on both
26/09/08 Fine sides.
W8 (Tributary into Sg Padas) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing slowly.
26/09/08 Fine
W9 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river. Steep
26/09/08 Fine slopes on both sides.
W10 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river. Steep
26/09/08 Fine slopes on both sides.
W11 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky

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Locations Date Weather Description


formation on both sides of river. Steep
26/09/08 Fine slopes on both sides.
W12 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river. Steep
26/09/08 Fine slopes on both sides.
W13 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river. Steep
26/09/08 Fine slopes on both sides.
W14 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river. Steep
26/09/08 Fine slopes on both sides.
W15 (Tributary into Sg Padas) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing slowly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river.
26/09/08 Fine
W16 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river.
26/09/08 Fine
W17 (Tributary into Sg Padas) 24/09/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid; rocky
formation on both sides of river. Steep
26/09/08 Fine slopes on both sides.
Powerhouse-Tomani
W18 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse; 10/07/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid
after the bridge)
30/10/08 Fine
W19 (Sg Padas upstream of powerhouse; 08/07/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly; turbid
before the bridge)
30/10/08 Fine
W20 (Tributary into Sg Padas) 08/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly; slightly turbid
30/10/08 Fine
W21 (Sg Padas downstream of powerhouse) 08/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and turbid
30/10/08 Fine
W22 (Unnamed tributary into Sg. Padas) 08/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid
30/10/08 Fine
W23 (Sg Tomani) 09/07/08 Fine Water flowing slightly rapid and turbid
30/10/08 Fine
Access road @ LIGS
W24 (Tributary into Sg Tomani) 08/07/08 Fine Water flowing slightly rapid and slightly
turbid
30/10/08 Fine
W25 (Tributary into Sg Tomani) 08/07/08 Fine Water flowing slightly rapid and slightly
turbid
30/10/08 Fine
W26 (Tributary into Sg, Tomani) 08/07/08 Fine Water flowing slightly rapid and turbid
30/10/08 Fine
Transmission Lines (Tomani-Tenom)
W27 (Sg. Tomani) 14/07/08 Fine Water flowing slightly rapid and turbid
30/10/08 Fine
W28 (Sg Padas) 15/07/08 Fine Water flowing slightly rapid and turbid.
Agriculture and settlements on both sides.
30/10/08 Fine
W29 (Sg Padas) 15/07/08 Fine Water flowing slightly rapid and turbid.
Agriculture and settlements on both sides.
30/10/08 Fine
W30 (Sg Padas) 15/07/08 Fine Water flowing rapidly and turbid. River
sand and stone mining downstream.
30/10/08 Fine Agriculture and settlements on both sides.

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Locations Date Weather Description


W31 (Sg Padas) 15/07/08 Fine Water flowing slightly rapid and turbid.
Agriculture and settlements on both sides.
30/10/08 Fine
W32 (Unnamed tributary into Sg Padas, 15/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid.
beside intersection to Sipitang) Settlements located nearby.
30/10/08 Fine
W33 (Sg Padas) 15/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and turbid.
Agriculture area.
30/10/08 Fine
W34 (Sg Padas) 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and turbid.
Agriculture and settlement area.
30/10/08 Fine
W35 (Sg Padas) 29/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and turbid.
Agriculture and settlement area.
30/10/08 Fine
Transmission Lines (Tenom-Sipitang Highway)
W36 (Bridge crossing, Tributary into Sg 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid.
Menggalong, beside the Sipitang-Tenom
Road) 23/10/08 Cloudy
W37 (Bridge crossing, Tributary into Sg 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and clear water.
Menggalong, beside the Sipitang-Tenom
Road) 23/10/08 Cloudy

W38 (Bridge crossing, Tributary into Sg 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and clear water.
Menggalong, beside the Sipitang-Tenom
Road) 23/10/08 Cloudy

W39 (Bridge crossing, Sg Muaya, beside the 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid.
Sipitang-Tenom Road) Surrounded by settlements.
23/10/08 Cloudy
W40 (Tributary into Sg Menggalong, beside 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid.
the Sipitang-Tenom Road) Surrounded by settlements.
23/10/08 Cloudy
W41 (Tributary into Sg Menggalong, beside 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid.
the Sipitang-Tenom Road) Surrounded by settlements.
23/10/08 Cloudy
W42 (Bridge crossing; Tributary into Sg 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid.
Menggalong, beside the Sipitang-Tenom Surrounded by settlements.
Road) 23/10/08 Cloudy
W43 (Sg Menggalong, beside the Sipitang- 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid.
Tenom Road) Surrounded by settlements.
23/10/08 Cloudy
W44 (Bridge crossing; Sg Menggalong, 28/07/08 Fine Water flowing slowly and slightly turbid.
beside the Sipitang-Tenom Road) Surrounded by settlements.
23/10/08 Cloudy

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Water Quality Test Results

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APPENDIX 1.4 HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS


Terrain Analysis

SRTM data provided a general layout of the terrain in the study area. This was used to estimate catchment
areas and delineate sub-catchments for the hydrologic modelling.

A more rigorous analysis of terrain within the reservoir impoundment area was done by combining the SRTM
data with available topographic data and breaklines along river channels. The SRTM data was applied for
terrain higher than 400 m, and a river profile from SWECO (2000) was used to incorporate a low flow
channel along the river reach. The reservoir terrain (Figure 1.4-1) was used to estimate impoundment
surface areas and volumes, shown in Figure 1.4-2.

Figure 1.4-1: Reservoir terrain, generated from SRTM, topographic maps and river profile from
SWECO

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Figure 1.4-2: Impoundment Surface Area (top) and Volume (below)

Cross Section Data

Cross-section data were obtained from several sources:

• Cross-section survey (river and floodplain) of Sg. Padas and Sg.Pegalan in the Tenom area,
conducted on behalf of DID Sabah;
• Cross-section surveys from the Surveyor in the vicinity of the potential dam site;

• Cross-sections extracted from SRTM terrain data: this data is inaccurate at low elevations where the
river bed lies, but applicable for reservoir modelling.

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APPENDIX 1.5 TERRESTRIAL FLORA


Flora Survey Stations

Location of survey stations and its coordinates are shown in Table 1.5-1: Coordinates of Survey Stations
and Figure 1.5-1: Location of Survey Stations.

Table 1.5-1: Coordinates of Survey Stations


Station No. Longitude Latitude Type of Vegetation Location in Proposed Project
1 115°47’36.8” 4°41’17.42” Logged-over forest Upstream of proposed reservoir
2 115°49’5.38” 4°42’42.31” Primary forest (undisturbed) Inside proposed reservoir
3 115°48’9.0” 4°45’52.86” Logged-over forest
4 115°50’5.51” 4°46’28.17” Primary forest (undisturbed)
5 115°48’12.9” 4°40’20.69” Logged-over forest Upstream of proposed reservoir
6 115°49’23.3” 4°40’20.69” Primary forest (undisturbed) Inside proposed reservoir
7 115°41’52.2” 4°37’51.22” Plantation Upstream of proposed reservoir

Figure 1.5-1: Location of Survey Stations

Flora Survey Results

List of Plants

The recorded plant species at each station are tabulated in Table 1.5-2: Plant Species Recorded at Each
Station.

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Table 1.5-2: Plant Species Recorded at Each Station


Station
FAMILY/GENUS/SPECIES
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
MELIACEAE
Lansium domesticum 1 5 4
Aglaia rivularis
Toona calantas 2 4 1
Toona Sureni 2
Aglaia tomentosa 7
GUTTIFERAE
Calophyllum sp. 5 4 4 2 2
Garcinia sp. 7 1 1
Garcinia hombroniana 1 1
Garcinia mangostana 1
MYRISTICACEAE
Knema hookeriana 1
FAGACEAE
Lithocarpus sp. 5 1 1 4
Castanopsis foxworthyi 1
EUPHORBIACEAE
Macaranga sp. 4 7 9 2
Baccaurea macrocarpa 11 1 1 5
Macaranga beccariana 9
Neoscortechinia kingii 1
Macaranga hosei 1
Macaranga triloba 25
ANACARDIACEAE
Mangifera indica 1
Gluta sp. 2 2
Mangifera foetida 3 2 3
DIPTEROCARPACEAE
Vatica umbonata 5 2 2 4
Shorea angentifolia 1 2
Shorea pauciflora 1 1 13 1 5
Shorea curtisii 4 1 10 2 7
Shorea inappendiculata 5 1
Shorea faguetoides 1 3
Parashorea malaanonan 1
Parashorea sp.
Dipterocarpus sp. 4 2
Shorea sp. 1 2
Shorea orchraceae 3 6
SAPINDACEAE
Dimorcarpus longan 3 4 1 1 2
Nephelium lappaceum 2 4 1 1
RHIZOPHORACEAE
Gynotroches axillaris 2
LAURACEAE
Alseodaphne bancana 5
Litsea sp. 3 3
LEGUMINOSAE
Koompassia excelsa 1
Parkia sp. 1 4 2 3
MORACEAE
Ficus carica 1
Artocarpus sp. 1 2
Artocarpus odoratissimus 4 1
VERBENACEAE
Vitex pubescens 1 3

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THYMELAEACEAE
Aquilaria malaccensis 2 1 1
FABACEAE
Mucuna pruriens 2
ALANGIACEAE
Alangium javanicum 8
STERCULIACEAE
Pterocymbium sp. 2
Pterospermum sp. 1
BURSERACEAE
Santiria rubiginosa 7
LECYTHIDACEAE
Barringtonia ashtonii 1
DILLENIACEAE
Dillenia sp. 2
Dillenia borneensis 8
PEBENACEAE
Diopyrus perfida 1
POLYGALACEAE
Xanthophyllum sp. 1
DATISCACEAE
Octomeles sumatrana 5 1 2
MYRTACEAE
Eucalyptus sp. 34
Tristaniopsis merguensis 1 1
PODOCARPACEAE
Podocarpus imbricatus 5
ARAUCARIACEAE
Agathis Borneensis 1 7
CELTIDACEAE
Trema orientalis 3
MALVACEAE
Durio sp. 1
THEACEAE
Schima sp. 1
ASTERACEAE
Elephantopus scaber L. 2
EBENACEAE
Diospyros discocalyx 1
LAMIACEAE
Vitex pinnata 4
CTENOLOPHONACEAE
Ctenolophon parvifolius 2
MUSACEAE
Musa spp. 8
ASTERACEAE
Eupatorium odoratum 2
MELASTOMATACEAE
Melastoma malabathricum 3

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Plot Raw Data


Station 1

Table 1.5-3: Plot Raw Data for Station 1


Station 1
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²

1 Langsat T 56 17.83 160.07 249.55


2 Bintangor T 60 19.10 191.39 286.48
3 Knema T 46 14.64 96.18 168.39
4 Mempening T 170 54.11 2840.08 2299.79
5 Lulus T 29.5 9.39 30.44 69.25
6 Mahang T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
7 Mango hutan T 30 9.55 31.79 71.62

8 Resak Batu T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74


9 Mata Kucing T 171 54.43 2883.55 2326.92
10 Sedaman T 80 25.46 403.18 509.30
1
11 Tampoi T 31 9.87 34.61 76.47
12 Palampung T 47 14.96 101.69 175.79

13 Tampoi T 28.5 9.07 27.84 64.64


14 Pelaid T 68 21.65 264.67 367.97

15 Kandis T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52


16 Kandis T 43 13.69 80.76 147.14
17 Kandis T 24 7.64 17.84 45.84

18 Mata Keli T 23 7.32 15.97 42.10


19 Kandis T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74

20 Mata Keli T 18 5.73 8.47 25.78


2 1 Tampoi T 42 13.37 75.99 140.37

2 Kayu Asam T 29 9.23 29.12 66.92


3 Mempening (Buah Gadong) T 19 6.05 9.74 28.73
4 Mempening (Buah Gadong) T 18 5.73 8.47 25.78
5 Resak Batu T 28 8.91 26.59 62.39
6 Medang Merah T 95 30.24 629.21 718.19

7 Sedaman T 66 21.01 244.98 346.64


8 Saraman (Lampakon) T 45 14.32 90.85 161.14
9 Bimang (Kayu Mas) T 91 28.97 562.88 658.98
10 Kumpat (Kompas) T 24 7.64 17.84 45.84
11 Bintangor T 33 10.50 40.69 86.66

12 Kandis T 29 9.23 29.12 66.92


13 Saraman T 133 42.34 1504.02 1407.65

14 Saraman T 29 9.23 29.12 66.92


15 Saraman T 43 13.69 80.76 147.14
16 Saraman T 26 8.28 21.94 53.79

17 Tampoi T 29 9.23 29.12 66.92


18 Kayu Asam T 26 8.28 21.94 53.79

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Station 1
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
19 Surian T 240 76.39 6937.46 4583.66

20 Surian T 126 40.11 1307.50 1263.37


21 Rambutan Hutan T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01
22 Saraman T 18 5.73 8.47 25.78

23 Tampoi T 32 10.19 37.57 81.49


1 Ara T 305 97.08 12905.63 7402.69
2 Rambutan Hutan T 40 12.73 66.97 127.32
3 Medang T 11 3.50 2.36 9.63
4 Kulimpapa T 140 44.56 1717.70 1559.72

5 Kayu Asam T 17 5.41 7.30 23.00


6 Bintangor T 34 10.82 43.96 91.99

7 Medang T 51 16.23 125.64 206.98


8 Mata Kucing T 138 43.93 1654.87 1515.47
9 Sedaman T 7 2.23 0.73 3.90
10 Sedaman T 65 20.69 235.48 336.21
11 Medang T 86 27.37 486.24 588.55

12 Tampoi T 55 17.51 152.78 240.72


13 Mempening T 126 40.11 1307.50 1263.37

14 Petai T 33 10.50 40.69 86.66


15 Tampoi T 44 14.01 85.72 154.06
16 Tampoi T 34 10.82 43.96 91.99

17 Saraman T 62 19.74 208.36 305.90


3 18 Bintangor T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60

19 Bisuluk T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01


20 Resak Batu T 38 12.10 58.64 114.91
21 Tampoi T 50 15.92 119.36 198.94

22 Mempening T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01


23 Resak Batu T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60
24 Tampoi T 26 8.28 21.94 53.79
25 Terap T 77 24.51 365.19 471.81
26 Kandis(Buah Asam) T 51 16.23 125.64 206.98
27 Tampoi T 43 13.69 80.76 147.14
28 Saraman T 23 7.32 15.97 42.10
29 Medang T 150 47.75 2053.76 1790.49
30 Mata Kucing T 55 17.51 152.78 240.72

31 Bintangor T 84 26.74 457.49 561.50


32 Akar Kalaid T 34 10.82 43.96 91.99
33 Kandis(Buah Asam) T 42 13.37 75.99 140.37
34 Saraman T 50 15.92 119.36 198.94
35 Resak Batu T 74 23.55 329.47 435.77

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Station 2

Table 1.5-4: Plot Raw Data for Station 2


Station 2
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
1 Langsat T 61 19.42 199.76 296.11

2 Bintangor T 150 47.75 2053.76 1790.49


3 Surian T 200 63.66 4326.42 3183.10
4 Seraya T 350 111.41 18432.02 9748.24
5 Mata Kucing T 80 25.46 403.18 509.30
6 Basuluk T 250 79.58 7711.09 4973.59
7 Langsat T 50 15.92 119.36 198.94
8 Kayu Garuh T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83

9 Binuang T 60 19.10 191.39 286.48


10 Sadaman T 125 39.79 1280.79 1243.40
11 Seraya T 98 31.19 681.97 764.26
1
12 Mata Kucing T 74 23.55 329.47 435.77
13 Kayu Lampang T 131 41.70 1446.15 1365.63

14 Kalimpapa T 110 35.01 919.80 962.89


15 Durian Hutan T 77 24.51 365.19 471.81

16 Buah Asam T 81 25.78 416.37 522.11


17 Tampui T 75 23.87 341.12 447.62
18 Rambutan Hutan T 114 36.29 1008.95 1034.19
19 Petai T 121 38.52 1177.33 1165.09
20 Binuang T 87 27.69 501.02 602.32
21 Bintangor T 161 51.25 2466.89 2062.73
22 Sadaman T 99 31.51 700.14 779.94
2 1 Tarap Hutan T 30 9.55 31.79 71.62
2 Rambutan Hutan T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83
3 Mata Kucing T 40 12.73 66.97 127.32
4 Kalimpapa Sa 10 3.18 1.85 7.96
5 Bintangor T 60 19.10 191.39 286.48

6 Sadaman T 15 4.77 5.28 17.90


7 Binuang T 50 15.92 119.36 198.94
8 Surian T 230 73.21 6213.41 4209.65
9 Utih T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74
10 Kayu Rangas T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83

11 Mata Kucing T 35 11.14 47.39 97.48


12 Buah Patai T 15 4.77 5.28 17.90

13 Sadaman T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74


14 Binuang T 280 89.13 10341.55 6238.87
15 Utih T 16 5.09 6.24 20.37

16 Rambutan Hutan T 19 6.05 9.74 28.73


17 Kayu Gaharu T 120 38.20 1152.29 1145.92

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Station 2
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
18 Surian T 160 50.93 2427.40 2037.18

19 Tarap Hutan T 198 63.03 4215.26 3119.76


20 Langsat T 112 35.65 963.74 998.22
21 Jambu-jambu T 140 44.56 1717.70 1559.72

22 Garasak T 200 63.66 4326.42 3183.10


23 Buah Patai T 211 67.16 4969.93 3542.87
24 Bintangor T 160 50.93 2427.40 2037.18
25 Langsat T 120 38.20 1152.29 1145.92
26 Kandis T 146 46.47 1914.91 1696.27

27 Surian T 260 82.76 8535.53 5379.44


28 Rambutan Hutan T 180 57.30 3293.23 2578.31

29 Sadaman T 104 33.10 795.44 860.71


30 Agatis T 300 95.49 12364.81 7161.97
1 Saraya T 140 44.56 1717.70 1559.72
2 Langsat Hutan T 108 34.38 877.11 928.19
3 Sandaman T 200 63.66 4326.42 3183.10

4 Garasak Batu T 99 31.51 700.14 779.94


5 Mampaning T 111 35.33 941.61 980.47

6 Binuang T 140 44.56 1717.70 1559.72


7 Buah Asam T 80 25.46 403.18 509.30
8 Tarap Hutan T 175 55.70 3061.51 2437.06

9 Sarungan T 126 40.11 1307.50 1263.37


3 10 Kayu Baduri T 60 19.10 191.39 286.48

11 Enatu T 97 30.88 664.10 748.74


12 Rangas T 40 12.73 66.97 127.32
13 Kayu Gatal T 42 13.37 75.99 140.37

14 Kayu Malam T 180 57.30 3293.23 2578.31


15 Amboi T 77 24.51 365.19 471.81
16 Tambailik T 97 30.88 664.10 748.74
17 Tarap Hutan T 180 57.30 3293.23 2578.31
18 Kalimpapa T 144 45.84 1847.71 1650.12
19 Buah Patai T 190 60.48 3788.22 2872.75

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Station 3

Table 1.5-5: Plot Raw Data for Station 3


Station 3
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
1 Sadaman T 80 25.46 403.18 509.30
2 Bintangor T 100 31.83 718.61 795.77

3 Malapi T 60 19.10 191.39 286.48


4 Hantungul T 70 22.28 285.31 389.93

5 Karuing T 108 34.38 877.11 928.19


6 Kayu malam T 90 28.65 547.00 644.58
7 Sadaman T 96 30.56 646.51 733.39
8 Mempening T 62 19.74 208.36 305.90
9 Kayu Minyak T 40 12.73 66.97 127.32
1
10 Sadaman T 30 9.55 31.79 71.62
11 Sadaman T 32 10.19 37.57 81.49

12 Simpoh T 24 7.64 17.84 45.84


13 Sadaman T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09
14 Sadaman T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52

15 Sadaman T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74


16 Sadaman T 23 7.32 15.97 42.10

17 Simpoh T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60


18 Simpoh T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
2 1 Karuing T 60 19.10 191.39 286.48
2 Malapi T 76 24.19 353.03 459.64
3 Sadaman T 54 17.19 145.69 232.05

4 Binuang T 31 9.87 34.61 76.47


5 Litih T 91 28.97 562.88 658.98
6 Sadaman T 88 28.01 516.07 616.25
7 Bintangor T 75 23.87 341.12 447.62
8 Karuing T 59 18.78 183.24 277.01
9 Malapi T 41 13.05 71.39 133.77
10 Bintangor T 100 31.83 718.61 795.77
11 Sadaman T 46 14.64 96.18 168.39
12 Kayu Madang T 70 22.28 285.31 389.93
13 Kayu Palampung T 73 23.24 318.06 424.07

14 Simpoh T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52


15 Simpoh T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83
16 Sadaman T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01
17 Sadaman T 29 9.23 29.12 66.92
18 Sadaman T 16 5.09 6.24 20.37
19 Sadaman T 23 7.32 15.97 42.10
20 Sadaman T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09

21 Sadaman T 17 5.41 7.30 23.00

28
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 3
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
22 Sadaman T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52

1 Kayu madang T 80 25.46 403.18 509.30


2 Sadaman T 89 28.33 531.39 630.33
3 Tampui T 73 23.24 318.06 424.07

4 Karuing Sa 86 27.37 486.24 588.55


5 Sadaman T 47 14.96 101.69 175.79
6 Utih T 60 19.10 191.39 286.48
7 Bintangor T 60 19.10 191.39 286.48
8 Tarap hutan T 96 30.56 646.51 733.39
3 9 Simpoh T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
10 Kayu Madang T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74

11 Sadaman T 18 5.73 8.47 25.78


12 Sadaman T 35 11.14 47.39 97.48
13 Simpoh T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
14 Sadaman T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83
15 Simpoh T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83

16 Sadaman T 17 5.41 7.30 23.00


17 Sadaman T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52

29
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 4

Table 1.5-6: Plot Raw Data for Station 4


Station 4
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
1 Mempalong T 19 6.05 9.74 28.73
2 Kalambiau T 11 3.50 2.36 9.63

3 Akumarang Sa 13 4.14 3.64 13.45


4 Akumarang T 65 20.69 235.48 336.21

5 Akumarang T 42 13.37 75.99 140.37


6 Telutu T 228 72.57 6074.45 4136.76
7 Lampasik Sa 12 3.82 2.96 11.46
8 Lampasik T 28 8.91 26.59 62.39
9 Petai T 266 84.67 9055.08 5630.58

10 Telutu T 141 44.88 1749.66 1582.08


11 Meransat T 65 20.69 235.48 336.21

12 Meransat T 100 31.83 718.61 795.77


13 Mempalong T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09
14 Lampasik T 36 11.46 50.98 103.13

15 Mempalong T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83


16 Mempalong T 18 5.73 8.47 25.78
1 17 Terap T 299 95.17 12258.35 7114.31
18 Ambalong T 77 24.51 365.19 471.81
19 Ambalong T 31 9.87 34.61 76.47
20 Mempalong T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60
21 Kalambiau T 59 18.78 183.24 277.01

22 Akumarang T 23 7.32 15.97 42.10


23 Lampasik T 16 5.09 6.24 20.37
24 Akumarang T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83
25 Akumarang T 53 16.87 138.80 223.53
26 Lapak T 120 38.20 1152.29 1145.92
27 Seraya Putih T 148 47.11 1983.59 1743.06
28 Merangsat T 37 11.78 54.72 108.94
29 Menghanis T 170 54.11 2840.08 2299.79
30 Melapi T 53 16.87 138.80 223.53
31 Tampalang T 140 44.56 1717.70 1559.72

32 LAmpasik T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60


33 Mempalong T 48 15.28 107.38 183.35
2 1 Simpoh T 183 58.25 3437.27 2664.97
2 Kalambiau T 13 4.14 3.64 13.45
3 Bantas T 19 6.05 9.74 28.73
4 Lapokan Sa 12 3.82 2.96 11.46
5 Seraya Putih T 28 8.91 26.59 62.39

6 Lapokan T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60

30
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 4
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
7 Macaranga T 28 8.91 26.59 62.39

8 Macaranga T 16 5.09 6.24 20.37


9 Macaranga T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01
10 Kalipapan T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74

11 Malinsar T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60


12 Kumarang T 24 7.64 17.84 45.84
13 Kumarang T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
14 Ambal besi T 47 14.96 101.69 175.79
15 Umini T 132 42.02 1474.91 1386.56

16 Seraya Putih T 34 10.82 43.96 91.99


17 Seraya Putih T 31 9.87 34.61 76.47

18 Petai T 105 33.42 815.40 877.34


19 Mempelang T 63 20.05 217.17 315.84
20 Seraya Merah T 253 80.53 7953.04 5093.67
21 Kumarang T 51 16.23 125.64 206.98
22 Merangsat T 63 20.05 217.17 315.84

23 Tarap hutan T 57 18.14 167.58 258.55


24 Seraya Putih T 55 17.51 152.78 240.72

25 Lampasik T 36 11.46 50.98 103.13


26 Seraya Putih T 17 5.41 7.30 23.00
27 Kalipapan T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60

28 Lampasik T 15 4.77 5.28 17.90


29 Lampasik T 82 26.10 429.81 535.08

30 Melangsat T 65 20.69 235.48 336.21


31 Kalambiau T 45 14.32 90.85 161.14
32 Kalambiau T 19 6.05 9.74 28.73

33 Simpoh T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52


34 Gerutu T 206 65.57 4670.63 3376.95
35 Mempelang T 36 11.46 50.98 103.13
36 Ambal besi T 79 25.15 390.26 496.64
37 Lapokan T 55 17.51 152.78 240.72
3 1 Lampasik T 32 10.19 37.57 81.49
2 Lampasik T 29 9.23 29.12 66.92
3 Maruit(Maruwit) T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
4 Kalipapan T 15 4.77 5.28 17.90

5 Melangsi T 90 28.65 547.00 644.58


6 Merangsat T 49 15.60 113.27 191.07
7 Kalipapan T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60
8 Lapokan T 103 32.79 775.78 844.24
9 Lampasik T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74
10 Kumarang T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09
11 Mata Kucing T 15 4.77 5.28 17.90

31
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 4
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
12 Lampasik T 28 8.91 26.59 62.39

13 Lapokan T 56 17.83 160.07 249.55


14 Bambarinas T 74 23.55 329.47 435.77
15 Kumarang T 43 13.69 80.76 147.14

16 Ampalong T 41 13.05 71.39 133.77


17 Kalambian T 32 10.19 37.57 81.49
18 Seraya Putih T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83
19 Pilanus T 144 45.84 1847.71 1650.12
20 Litak T 28 8.91 26.59 62.39

21 Ampalung T 15 4.77 5.28 17.90


22 Kalambiau/Seraya Putih T 23 7.32 15.97 42.10

23 Rengas T 19 6.05 9.74 28.73


24 Kumarang T 52 16.55 132.12 215.18
25 Lampasik T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01
26 Lampasik T 63 20.05 217.17 315.84
27 Lampasik T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74

28 Rengas T 46 14.64 96.18 168.39


29 Seraya Merah T 209 66.53 4848.84 3476.02

30 Seraya Putih T 44 14.01 85.72 154.06


31 Merangsat T 51 16.23 125.64 206.98
32 Lampasik T 63 20.05 217.17 315.84

33 Lampasik T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74


34 Urat mata T 210 66.85 4909.16 3509.37

35 Kumarang T 104 33.10 795.44 860.71


36 Lampasik T 67 21.33 254.71 357.22
37 Lantang T 52 16.55 132.12 215.18

38 Lantang T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09

32
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 5

Table 1.5-7: Plot Raw Data for Station 5


Station 5
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
1 Mata Kucing T 126 40.11 1307.50 1263.37

2 Tampoi (Boi/Amboi) T 36 11.46 50.98 103.13


3 Langsat T 57 18.14 167.58 258.55
4 (Pekulob) T 14 4.46 4.42 15.60
5 Manggis hutan T 16 5.09 6.24 20.37
6 Langsat T 59 18.78 183.24 277.01
1
7 Langsat T 59 18.78 183.24 277.01
8 Langsat T 69 21.96 274.87 378.87

9 Rambutan hutan T 450 143.24 35338.35 16114.44


10 Buah Asam T 86 27.37 486.24 588.55
11 Gaharu T 73 23.24 318.06 424.07
12 Tampoi (Boi/Amboi) T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01
1 Tampoi T 81 25.78 416.37 522.11

2 Tampoi T 41 13.05 71.39 133.77


2 3 Kayu asam T 50 15.92 119.36 198.94

4 Saraman T 17 5.41 7.30 23.00


5 Resak batu T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
1 Bintangor T 23 7.32 15.97 42.10
2 Limbakas T 35 11.14 47.39 97.48
3 Limbakas T 36 11.46 50.98 103.13
4 Gatal daun (Jerapai) T 28 8.91 26.59 62.39
5 Gatal daun (Jerapai) T 24 7.64 17.84 45.84

6 Seraya merah T 124 39.47 1254.42 1223.58


7 Seraya merah T 160 50.93 2427.40 2037.18
8 Saraman T 49 15.60 113.27 191.07
9 Selangan batu T 82 26.10 429.81 535.08
10 Manggis T 26 8.28 21.94 53.79
3 11 Kayu asam T 46 14.64 96.18 168.39
12 Bintangor T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09
13 Kayu asam T 19 6.05 9.74 28.73
14 Seraya kuning T 139 44.25 1686.11 1537.52
15 Resak batu T 63 20.05 217.17 315.84

16 Selagan batu T 75 23.87 341.12 447.62


17 Selagan batu T 87 27.69 501.02 602.32

18 Bisuluk T 94 29.92 612.20 703.15


19 Tampoi T 47 14.96 101.69 175.79
20 Selagan batu T 87 27.69 501.02 602.32

21 Selagan batu T 130 41.38 1417.73 1344.86

33
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 6

Table 1.5-8: Plot Raw Data for Station 6


Station 6
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
1 Basuluk T 227 72.26 6005.68 4100.55

2 Saraya Merah T 163 51.88 2547.04 2114.29


3 Enatu (Seraya) T 247 78.62 7473.72 4854.94
4 Malapi T 154 49.02 2198.62 1887.26
5 Ruing T 149 47.43 2018.49 1766.70
6 Surian T 211 67.16 4969.93 3542.87
7 Mata Kucing T 183 58.25 3437.27 2664.97
8 Garasak Batu T 120 38.20 1152.29 1145.92
1
9 Agatis T 120 38.20 1152.29 1145.92
10 Jambu-jambu T 119 37.88 1127.59 1126.90
11 Mampaning T 170 54.11 2840.08 2299.79
12 Patai T 190 60.48 3788.22 2872.75
13 Kayu Mas T 200 63.66 4326.42 3183.10

14 Kayu Cina T 170 54.11 2840.08 2299.79


15 Saraya Kuning T 213 67.80 5092.86 3610.35
16 Garasak Batu T 120 38.20 1152.29 1145.92
1 Agatis T 150 47.75 2053.76 1790.49
2 Madang T 110 35.01 919.80 962.89
3 Bintangor T 130 41.38 1417.73 1344.86
4 Garasak Batu T 190 60.48 3788.22 2872.75
5 Mampaning T 200 63.66 4326.42 3183.10
6 Binuang T 119 37.88 1127.59 1126.90

7 Mampaning T 160 50.93 2427.40 2037.18


8 Agatis T 220 70.03 5537.73 3851.55
9 Madang T 170 54.11 2840.08 2299.79
10 Saraya Putih T 190 60.48 3788.22 2872.75
11 Malapi T 112 35.65 963.74 998.22
2
12 Manggis Hutan T 100 31.83 718.61 795.77
13 Malapi T 90 28.65 547.00 644.58
14 Basuluk T 88 28.01 516.07 616.25
15 Bintangor T 120 38.20 1152.29 1145.92
16 Saraya Kuning T 180 57.30 3293.23 2578.31

17 Basuluk T 200 63.66 4326.42 3183.10


18 Kayu Cina (Podo) T 144 45.84 1847.71 1650.12

19 Malapi T 74 23.55 329.47 435.77


20 Binuang T 123 39.15 1228.39 1203.93
21 Kayu Mas T 148 47.11 1983.59 1743.06

22 Salangan Batu T 213 67.80 5092.86 3610.35


3 1 Saraya Merah T 127 40.43 1334.54 1283.51

34
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 6
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
2 Barsuluk T 94 29.92 612.20 703.15

3 Agatis T 111 35.33 941.61 980.47


4 Saraya Kuning T 23 7.32 15.97 42.10
5 Sarungan T 84 26.74 457.49 561.50

6 Enatu T 126 40.11 1307.50 1263.37


7 Mampaning T 174 55.39 3016.41 2409.29
8 Garasak Batu T 95 30.24 629.21 718.19
9 Kayu Cina T 144 45.84 1847.71 1650.12
10 Madang T 131 41.70 1446.15 1365.63

11 Patai T 71 22.60 295.98 401.15


12 Sarungan T 89 28.33 531.39 630.33

13 Malapi T 113 35.97 986.19 1016.12


14 Skaruing T 124 39.47 1254.42 1223.58
15 Agatis T 126 40.11 1307.50 1263.37
16 Saraya Merah T 144 45.84 1847.71 1650.12
17 Saraya Putih T 117 37.24 1079.16 1089.34

18 Barsuluk T 136 43.29 1593.47 1471.86


19 Altatis T 91 28.97 562.88 658.98

20 Kayu Cina T 151 48.06 2089.41 1814.45


21 Tambiokik T 81 25.78 416.37 522.11
22 Malapi T 117 37.24 1079.16 1089.34

23 Kayu Cina T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09


24 Mata Kucing T 66 21.01 244.98 346.64

25 Rambutan Hutan T 31 9.87 34.61 76.47


26 Kayu Gaharu T 57 18.14 167.58 258.55
27 Buah Maritom T 193 61.43 3945.08 2964.18

28 Patai T 94 29.92 612.20 703.15

35
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 7

Table 1.5-9: Plot Raw Data for Station 7


Station 7
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
1 Grandis T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74

2 Grandis T 23.5 7.48 16.89 43.95


3 Grandis T 24 7.64 17.84 45.84
4 Grandis T 36 11.46 50.98 103.13
5 Grandis T 34.3 10.92 44.97 93.62
6 Grandis T 30 9.55 31.79 71.62
7 Grandis T 42 13.37 75.99 140.37
8 Grandis T 44.7 14.23 89.29 159.00
1 9 Grandis T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09
10 Grandis T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83
11 Grandis T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01
12 Grandis T 25.6 8.15 21.08 52.15
13 Pisang hutan T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74

14 Pisang hutan T 18 5.73 8.47 25.78


15 Pisang hutan T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52

16 Pokok kapal terbang 14 4.46 4.42 15.60


17 Menarong T 15 4.77 5.28 17.90
1 Grandis T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74
2 Grandis T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
3 Grandis T 24 7.64 17.84 45.84
4 Pisang hutan T 16 5.09 6.24 20.37
5 Grandis T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09

6 Pokok kapal terbang Sa 12 3.82 2.96 11.46


7 Grandis T 42 13.37 75.99 140.37
8 Grandis T 42 13.37 75.99 140.37
2 9 Grandis T 34.3 10.92 44.97 93.62
10 Grandis T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83

11 Grandis T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01


12 Grandis T 25.6 8.15 21.08 52.15
13 Pisang hutan T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74
14 Grandis T 20 6.37 11.12 31.83
15 Pisang hutan T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52

16 Senduduk Sa 9 2.86 1.41 6.45


17 Senduduk Sa 10 3.18 1.85 7.96

3 1 Grandis T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74


2 Grandis T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52
3 Senduduk Sa 9 2.86 1.41 6.45

4 Grandis T 30 9.55 31.79 71.62


5 Grandis T 21 6.68 12.62 35.09

36
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Station 7
Plot Tag Species Habit GBH (cm) DBH BMS (kg) BA cm²
6 Grandis T 30 9.55 31.79 71.62

7 Senduduk Sa 7 2.23 0.73 3.90


8 Grandis T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74
9 Grandis T 31 9.87 34.61 76.47

10 Grandis T 27 8.59 24.20 58.01


11 Grandis T 25.6 8.15 21.08 52.15
12 Pisang hutan T 25 7.96 19.83 49.74
13 Grandis T 42 13.37 75.99 140.37
14 Pisang hutan T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52

15 Grandis T 22 7.00 14.24 38.52


16 Senduduk Sa 10 3.18 1.85 7.96

Data of 5m x 5m plot

Species List and Height

Table 1.5-10: Species List and Height for Station 1


Station 1: Maligan River Upstream
No. Scientific Name Size (0.01-0.50cm) Size (0.51-1.00cm) Size (>1.00cm)
Plot A

1 Phaeomeria imperialis 2 4
2 Selaginella 9

3 Bambusa spp. 3
4 Cucurligo Latifolia 1 2
5 Mimosa diplotricha 4
Plot B
6 Selaginella 6

7 Phaeomeria imperialis 4
8 Cucurligo Latifolia 3

9 Macaranga sp. 2 1
Plot C
10 Selaginella 9
11 Phaeomeria imperialis 2 6
12 Cucurligo Latifolia 3
13 Mimosa diplotricha 4

37
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
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CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Table 1.5-11: Species List and Height for Station 2


Station 2: Maligan River Downstream
No. Scientific Name Size (0.01-0.50cm) Size (0.51-1.00cm) Size (>1.00cm)
Plot A

1 Selaginella 13
2 Bambusa spp. 4 1
3 Phaeomeria imperialis 11 2
Plot B
4 Phaeomeria imperialis 9 2
5 Selaginella 16
6 Bambusa spp. 4

Plot C
7 Phaeomeria imperialis 6 2 1
8 Nephelium lappaceum L. 3 2
9 Selaginella 6

Table 1.5-12: Species List and Height for Station 3


Station 3: Ketanun River
No. Scientific Name Size (0.01-0.50cm) Size (0.51-1.00cm) Size (>1.00cm)

Plot A
1 Taenitis blechnoides 2

2 Etlingera elatior 1
3 Selaginella 4
4 Mallothus sp. 2 1
5 Maccaranga sp 3
Plot B

6 Maccaranga sp 3
7 Selaginella 4
8 Mallothus sp 3 1
Plot C
9 Ficus sp. 1
10 Etlingera elatior 2
11 Selaginella 2
12 Orchidaceae 1
13 Mallothus sp 3
14 Bambusa vulgaris 2

15 Lygodium Circinnatum 1
16 Anthocephalus chinensis 2

38
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
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CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Table 1.5-13: Species List and Height for Station 4


Station 4: Dam Site
No. Scientific Name Size (0.01-0.50cm) Size (0.51-1.00cm) Size (>1.00cm)
Plot A

1 Lygodium Circinnatum 2 4
2 Bambusa vulgaris 1 2
3 Etlingera elatior 3
4 Bambusa vulgaris 2 2
5 Selaginella 4
6 Macrothelypteris torresiana 11
Plot B

7 Parkia speciosa 4
8 Bambusa vulgaris 3
9 Macrothelypteris torresiana 5
10 Lygodium Circinnatum 5
Plot C
11 Lygodium Circinnatum 7 2
12 Macrothelypteris torresiana 4

13 Selaginella 1 7

Table 1.5-14: Species List and Height for Station 5


Station 5: Padas River Upstream
No. Scientific Name Size (0.01-0.50cm) Size (0.51-1.00cm) Size (>1.00cm)
Plot A
1 Selaginella 7 0
2 Bambusa spp. 3 0

3 Phaeomeria imperialis 1 3
4 Macaranga sp. 4 0
Plot B
5 Phaeomeria imperialis 1 3
6 Bambusa spp. 3 0
7 Mimosa Pudica L. 2 0
Plot C
8 Lygodium Circinnatum 4
9 Phaeomeria imperialis 3 2

39
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Table 1.5-15: Species List and Height for Station 6


Station 6: Padas River Downstream
No. Scientific Name Size (0.01-0.50cm) Size (0.51-1.00cm) Size (>1.00cm)
Plot A

1 Bambusa spp. 4 3
2 Phaeomeria imperialis 2
Plot B
3 Phaeomeria imperialis 3 4
4 Bambusa spp. 3
Plot C
5 Phaeomeria imperialis 3 2

6 Selaginella 7 0

Table 1.5-16: Species List and Height for Station 7


Station 7: Plantation
No. Scientific Name Size (0.01-0.50cm) Size (0.51-1.00cm) Size (>1.00cm)

Plot A
1 Cucurligo latifolia 7 0
2 Lianas spp 7

Plot B
3 Macaranga sp. 8
4 Lianas spp 4 6
5 Selaginella 7
6 Cucurligo latifolia 8
Plot C

7 Cucurligo latifolia 4
8 Lianas spp 3 5 3

40
Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd
In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Biomass

The estimated biomass for each survey station is shown in the following Table 1.5-17.

Table 1.5-17: Estimated Biomass at Survey Station


Biomass = TDW
Station Plot Wet (kg) Dry (kg) Dry (tonne) Dry (tonne) / 75m²
(tonne) / ha

STN 1 A 5.6000 2.0150 0.0020

Sg.Maligan B 2.1000 1.0720 0.0011


upstream C 3.2000 1.1590 0.0012 0.0042 0.5661

STN 2 A 2.7000 1.1410 0.0011

Sg.Maligan B 1.9000 0.9760 0.0010


downstream C 2.0000 0.9260 0.0009 0.0030 0.4057

STN 3 A 2.4000 1.2400 0.0012


B 2.1000 1.2480 0.0012
Ketanun
C 2.6000 1.3900 0.0014 0.0039 0.5171

STN 4 A 4.7000 2.0050 0.0020


B 1.3000 0.6400 0.0006
Dam
C 2.9500 1.1690 0.0012 0.0038 0.5085

STN 5 A 4.6000 2.1950 0.0022

Sg.Padas B 2.5000 1.2480 0.0012


upstream
C 2.6000 1.1920 0.0012 0.0046 0.6180

STN 6 A 2.4000 1.2150 0.0012

Sg.Padas B 3.0000 1.2140 0.0012


downstream C 2.2000 1.1580 0.0012 0.0036 0.4783

STN 7 A 6.0000 2.0500 0.0021

B 4.7000 1.4660 0.0015


Plantation
C 6.1000 1.8550 0.0019 0.0054 0.7161

41
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CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Plates 1.5.1: Terrestrial Flora Survey

View of high density forest within the Dam site area Eucalyptus plantation with high density of ground
(Station 4); within the conservation area demarcated by vegetation such as Alstonia scholaris also known as
SFI. Pulai.

Tree stump found at upstream of Sg. Maligan (Station 1), Preparing the survey plot at upstream of Sg. Padas
evidence that this area has been logged long time ago. which is also Station 5.

Kantan Flower or known as Red torch (Etlingera elatior) View of secondary forest near Sg. Ketanun which is
can be found commonly along the main logging road and also Station 3.
logged forest.

42
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Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

APPENDIX 1.6 TERRESTRIAL FAUNA


Mammals and Birds

The lists of species found in the reservoir area are shown in the tables below with species marked √ denote
the species listed as Protected Species under the Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997.

Table 1.6-1: List of Mammals


Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species

Cercopithecidae Long-tailed (Crab-eating) Macaque Macaca fascicularis √

Pig-tailed Macaque Macaca nemestrina √

Cervidae Sambar Deer (Rusa or Payau) Cervus unicolor √

Red Muntjac (Common Barking Deer) Muntiacus muntjac √

Cyanocephalidae Flying Lemur Cynocephalus variegatus √

Emballonuridae Greater Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto

Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura monticola

Erinaceidae Moonrat Echinosorex gymnurus

Felidae Leopard Cat Felis bengalensis √

Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa √

Hipposideridae Ashy Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros cineraceus √

Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema

Ridley's Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ridleyi

Hylobatidae Bornean Gibbon Hylobates muelleri √

Hystricidae Common Porcupine Hystrix brachyura √

Lorisidae Slow Loris Nyctibus coucang √

Manidae Pangolin or Scaly Anteater Manis javanica √

Molossidae Naked Bat Cheiromeles torquotus

Muridae Red Spiny Rat Maxomys surifer

Mustelidae Oriental Small-clawed Otter Aonyx cinerea √

Yellow-throated Marten Martes flavigula √

Teludu or Malay Badger Mydaus javanensis √

Pteropodidae Large Flying Fox Pteropus vampyrus √

Rhinolophidae Bornean Horseshoe Bat Rhinolopus borneensis

Lesser Wooly Horseshoe Bat Rhinolopus luctus

Trefoil Horseshoe Bat Rhinolopus trifoliatus

Sciuridae Plantain Squirrel Callosciurus notatus

Bornean Black-banded Squirrel Callosciurus orestes

Prevost's Squirrel Callosciurus prevostii

Plain Pigmy Squirrel Exilisciurus exilis

Four-striped Ground Squirrel Lariscus hosei

Tufted Ground Squirrel Rheithrosciurus macrotis √

Shrew-faced Ground Squirrel Rhinosciurus laticaudatus

Horse-tailed Squirrel Sundasciurus hippurus

43
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Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species

Low's Squirrel Sundasciurus lowii

Soricidae Sunda Shrew Crocidura monticola

Suidae Bearded Pig Sus barbatus √

Tragulidae Greater Mouse-deer Tragulus napu √

Lesser Mouse-deer Tragulus javanicus √

Tupaiidae Common Treeshrew Tupaia glis

Large Treeshrew Tupaia tana

Ursidae Sun Bear Hellarctos malayanus √

Vespertilionidae Small Wooly Bat Kerivoula intermedia √

Viverridae Binturong or Bearcat Arctitis binturong √

Small-toothed Palm Civet Arctogalidia trivirgata √

Banded Palm Civet Hemigalus derbyanus √

Table 1.6-2: List of Bird Species


Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species
Accipiteridae Bat hawk Machaerhamphus alcinus √

Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis √


Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus √
Crested Honey-Buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus √
Crested Serpent-Eagle Spilornis cheela √
Grey-faced Buzzard Butastur indicus

Lesser Fish-Eagle Icthyophaga humillis √


Ruffous-bellied Eagle Hieraaetus kienerii

Alcedinidae Banded Kingfisher Lacedo pulchella


Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona
Blue-eared Kingfisher Alcedo meninting

Collared Kingfisher Halcyon chloris


Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis

Rufous-backed Kingfisher Ceyx rufidorsa


Stork-billed Kingfisher Halcyon capensis
Apodidae Black-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus maximus √
Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta
Mossy-nest Swiftlet Collacalia vanikorensis
Silver-rumped Swift Rhaphidura leucopygialis
Ardeidae Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana √
Little Heron Butorides striatus √
Bucerotidae Bushy-crested Hornbill Anorrhinus galeritus √
Helmeted Hornbill Rhinoplax vigil √
Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris √
Rhinoceros Hornbill Buceros rhinoceros √

White-crowned Hornbill Berenicornis comatus √


Wreathed Hornbill Rhyticeros undulatus √

44
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Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species

Campephagidae Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike Coracina striata


Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike Hemipus picatus
Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike Hemipus hirundinaceus

Fiery Minivet Pericrocotus igneus

Large Wood-shrike Tephrodornis virgatus

Lesser Cuckoo-shrike Coracina fimbriata


Pied Triller Lalage nigra

Scarlet Minivet Pericrocotus flammeus


Capitonidae Black-throated Barbet Megalaima eximia
Blue-eared Barbet Megalaima australis

Brown Barbet Calorhamphus fuliginosus


Gold-whiskered Barbet Megalaima chrysopogon

Mountain Barbet Megalaima monticola

Red-crowned Barbet Megalaima rafflesii


Red-throated Barbet Megalaima mystacophanos

Yellow-crowned Barbet Megalaima henricii

Caprimulgidae Large-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus

Malaysian Eared Nightjar Eurostopodus termickii


Chloropseidae Common Iora Aeghitina tiphia

Greater Green Leafbird Chloropsis sonnerati

Green Iora Aeghitina viridissima

Lesser Green Leafbird Chloropsis cyanopogon

Columbidae Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica √


Green Imperial Pigeon Ducula aenea

Little Green Pigeon Treron olax

Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ducula badia


Coraciidae Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis

Corvidae Black Magpie Platysmurus leucopterus √


Bornean Bristle-head Pityriasis gymnocephala √

Crested Jay Platylophus galericullatus

Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos


Cuculidae Banded Bay Cuckoo Cacomantis sonneratii

Black-bellied Malkoha Phaenicophaeus diardi

Chestnut-breasted Malkoha Phaenicophaeus curvirostris

Drongo Cuckoo Surniculus lugubris


Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis

Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo Cuculus fugax


Indian Cuckoo Cuculus micropterus

Lesser Coucal Centropus bengalensis

Plaintive Cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus


Raffle's Malkoha Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus

Violet Cuckoo Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus √


Dicaeidae Black-sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum monticolum

45
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Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species

Brown-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum everetti √


Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus percussus
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum trigonostigma

Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum

Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus thoracicus

Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker Dicaeum trochileum


Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus maculatus

Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker Prionochilus xanthopygius


Yellow-vented Flowerpecker Dicaeum chrysorrheum
Dicruridae Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus aeneus

Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus


Spangled Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus

Eurylaimidae Banded Broadbill Eurylaimus javanicus

Black-and-Red Broadbill Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchus


Black-and-Yellow Broadbill Eurylaimus ochromalus

Dusky Broadbill Corydon Broadbill

Green Broadbill Calyptomena viridis

Falconidae Peregrine Falcon Falcon peregrinus √


Hemiprocnidae Grey-rumped Treeswift Hemiprocne longipennis

Whiskered Treeswift Hemiprocne comata

Hirundinidae Pacific Swallow Hirundo tahitica

Laniidae Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus

Tiger Shrike Lanius tigrinus


Meropidae Blue-throated Bee-eater Merops viridis

Red-bearded Bee-eater Nyctyornis amictus

Motacillidae White Wagtail Motacilla alba


Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava

Muscicapidae Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa latirostris

Asian Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi √

Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea

Bornean Blue Flycatcher Cyornis superba


Chestnut-tailed Flycatcher Rhinomyias ruficauda

Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica

Grey-chested Flycatcher Rhinomyias umbratilis

Grey-headed Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis


Hill Blue Flycatcher Cyornis banyumas

Indigo Flycatcher Muscicapa indigo


Little Pied Flycatcher Ficedula westermanni

Pied Fantail Rhipidura javanica

Rufous-chested Flycatcher Ficedula dumetoria


Rufous-winged Philentoma Philentoma pyrhopterum

Spotted Fantail Rhipidura perlata

Sunda Blue Flycatcher Cyornis caerulata √

46
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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
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Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species

Verditer Flycatcher Muscicapa thalassina


White-tailed Flycatcher Cyornis concreta
White-throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis

Nectariniidae Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja

Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra

Long-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera robusta


Olive-backed Sunbird Nectarinia jugularis

Plain Sunbird Anthreptes simplex


Purple-naped Sunbird Hypogramma hypogrammicum
Scarlet Sunbird Aethopyga mystacalis

Spectacled Spiderhunter Arachnothera flavigaster


Thick-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera crassirostris

Yellow-eared Spiderhunter Arachnothera chrysogenys

Oriolidae Asian Fairy-Bluebird Irena puella


Dark-throated Oriole Oriolus xanthonotus

Phalaropidae Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus

Phasianidae Blue-breasted Quail Coturnix chinensis √

Bulwer's Pheasant Lophura bulweri √


Crested Fireback Lophura ignita √

Crested Partridge Rollulus rouloul √


Crimson-headed Partridge Haematortyx sanguiniceps √
Great Argus Argusianus argus √
Picidae Buff-necked Woodpecker Meiglyptes tukki
Buff-rumped Woodpecker Meiglyptes tristis

Checker-throated Woodpecker Picus mentalis

Common Goldenback Dinopium javansese


Crimson-winged Woodpecker Picus puniceus

Great Slaty Woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus

Grey-and-Buff Woodpecker Hemicircus concretus

Grey-capped Woodpecker Picoides canicapillus

Maroon Woodpecker Blythipicus rubiginosus


Olive-backed Woodpecker Dinopium rafflesii

Orange-backed Woodpecker Reinwardtipicus validus

Rufous Piculet Sasia abnormis

Rufous Woodpecker Celeus brachyurus √


Speckled Piculet Picumnus innominatus √

White-bellied Woodpecker Drycocopus javenensis √


Pittidae Banded Pitta Pitta gaujana √
Blue-banded Pitta Pitta arquata √

Blue-headed Pitta Pitta baudi √


Garnet Pitta Pitta granatina

Ploceidae Chestnut Munia Lonchura malacca

Dusky Munia Lonchura fuscans

47
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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
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Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species

Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus


Podargidae Large Frogmouth Batrachostomus auritus √
Psittacidae Blue-crowned Hanging-Parrot Loriculus galgulus √

Blue-rumped Parrot Psittinus cyanurus √


Long-tailed Parakeet Psittacula longicauda √

Pycnonotidae Ashy Bulbul Hypsipetes flavala


Black-and-White Bulbul Pycnonotus melanoleucos

Black-crested Bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus


Black-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps
Buff-vented Bulbul Iole olivacea

Cream-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus simplex


Grey-bellied Bulbul Pycnonotus cyaniventris

Grey-cheeked Bulbul Criniger bres

Hairy-backed Bulbul Hypsipetes criniger


Ochraceous Bulbul Criniger ochraceus

Olive-winged Bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus

Puff-backed Bulbul Pycnonotus eutilotus

Red-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus brunneus


Spectacled Bulbul Pycnonotus erythroptalmos

Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus √


Streaked Bulbul Hypsipetes malaccensis

Yellow-bellied Bulbul Criniger phaeocephalus

Yellow-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus goiavier


Ralidae White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus

Sittidae Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Sitta frontalis

Strigidae Brown Wood-Owl Strix leptogrammica √


Buffy Fish-Owl Ketupa ketupu √

Sturnidae Hill Myna Gracula religiosa √


Philippine Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis

Sylviidae Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis

Ashy Tailorbird Orthotomus ruficeps


Dark-necked Tailorbird Orthotomus atrogularis

Flyeater Gerygone sulphurea

Mountain Leaf-Warbler Phylloscopus trivirgatus

Rufous-tailed Tailorbird Orthotomus sericeus


Yellow-bellied Prinia Prinia flaviventris

Yellow-bellied Warbler Abroscopus supercilliaris


Timaliidae Black Laughingthrush Garrulax lugubris

Black-capped Babbler Pellorneum capistratum

Black-throated Babbler Stachyris nigricollis


Black-throated Wren-Babbler Napothera atrigularis

Bornean Wren-Babbler Ptilocichla leucogrammica √


Brown Fulvetta Alcippe brunneicauda

48
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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
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Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species

Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler Pomathorinus montanus


Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush Garrulax mitratus
Chestnut-crested Yuhina Yuhina everetti

Chestnut-rumped Babbler Stachyris maculata

Chestnut-winged Babbler Stachyris erythroptera

Eye-browed Wren-Babbler Napothera epilepidota


Ferruginous Babbler Trichastoma bicolor √

Fluffy-backed Tit-Babbler Macronous ptilosus


Grey-headed Babbler Stachyris poliocephala
Grey-throated Babbler Stachyris nigriceps

Horsfield's Babbler Trichastoma sepiarium


Moustached Babbler Malacopteron magnirostre

Rufous-crowned Babbler Malacopteron magnum

Scaly-crowned Babbler Malacopteron cinereum


Sooty-capped Babbler Malacopteron affine

Striped Tit-Babbler Macronous gularis

Striped Wren-Babbler Kenopia striata

Sunda Laughingthrush Garrulax palliatus


Temminck's Babbler Pellorneum malaccense

White-bellied Yuhina Yuhina zantholeuca

White-browed Shrike-Babbler Pteruthius flaviscapis

White-chested Babbler Trichastoma rostratum √


Trogonidae Diard's Trogon Harpactes diardii
Orange-breasted Trogon Harpactes oreskios

Red-naped Trogon Harpactes kasumba

Scarlet-rumped Trogon Harpactes duvaucelli


Turdidae Chestnut-capped Thrush Zoothera intrpres

Chestnut-naped Forktail Enicurus ruficapillus

Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis √

Rufous-tailed Shama Copsychus pyrropygus

Siberian Blue Robin Erithacus cyane


White-browed Shortwing Brachypteryx montana

White-crowned Forktail Enicurus leschenaulti √


White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus √

Tytonidae Bay Owl Phodilus badius √


Zosteropidae Black-capped White-eye Zosterops atricapilla

Everett's White-eye Zosterops everetti


Pygmy White-eye Oculocincta squamifrons

49
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Herpeto Fauna

The species list for reptiles and amphibia are shown in Table 1.6-3 and Table 1.6-4.

Table 1.6-3: List of Reptiles


Family Vernacular Name Species Protected Species
Colubridae Common Racer Elaphe flavolineata
Common Wolf Snake Lycodon aulicus
Elegant Bronzed-Back Dendrelaphis formosus
Green Vine Snake Ahaetulla prasina
Grey-Tailed Racer Gonyosoma oxycephalum
Malaysian Brown Snake Xenelaphis hexagonotus
Painted Bronze-Back Dendrelaphis pictus
Smooth Slug-Eating Snake Pareas laevis
Striped Bronzed-Back Dendrelaphis caudolineatus
Striped kukri Snake Oligodon octolineatus
White-Bellied Rat Snake Zaocys fuscus
Yellow-Ringed Cat Snake Boiga dendrophila
Crotalidae Wagler's Pit-viper Tropidolaemus wagleri
Elapidae Sumatran Cobra Naja sumatrana
Pythonidae Blood Python Python curtus √
Pythonidae Reticulated Python Python reticulatus √
Short or Blood Python Python curtus √
Scincidae Common Skink Mabuya multifaciata
Lesser Skink Riopa bowerinngi
Striped Tree Skink Aptergodon vitatus
Varanidae Common Monitor Lizard Varanus salvator √

Table 1.6-4: List of Amphibia


Family Vernacular Name Species
Bufonidae Brown Slender Toad Ansonia leptopus

River Toad Bufo asper


Giant River Toad Bufo juxtasper

Common Sunda Toad Bufo melanostictus

Brown Tree Toad Pedostibes hosii

Megophryidae Dring's Slender Litter Frog Leptolalax dringi

Bornean Horned Frog Megophrys nasuta


Ranidae Poisonous Rock Frog Rana hosii

Kuhl's Creek Frog Rana kuhlii

Giant River Frog Rana leporina


Cricket Frog Rana nicobariensis

Spotted Stream Frog Rana picturata


Striped Stream Frog Rana signata

White-lipped Frog Rana chalconota

Rock Skipper Staurois latopalmatus


Black-spotted Rock Frog Staurois natator

Rhacophoridae Hose's Bush Frog Philautus hosii

50
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Family Vernacular Name Species

Four-lined Tree Frog Polypedates leucomystax


Dark-eared Tree Frog Polypedates macrotis
File-eared Tree Frog Polypedates otilophus

Short-nosed Tree Frog Rhacophorus gauni

51
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Plates 1.6-1: Terrestrial Fauna

A white-lipped Frog on a tree branch overlooking Carcass of a Blood Python on the road into the
Ketanun River. Project area.

A fresh foot print of a Sambar deer on the bank of A fresh foot print of a Bearded pig on the bank of
Ketanun River. Ketanun River

Butt of a home made gun at an abandoned hut near A Striped Bronze-Back snake on a rock at Ketanun
Ketanun River. River.

52
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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
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APPENDIX 1.7 AQUATIC FLORA


Proposed sampling locations for the twelve stations are as follows: four stations at area not inundated, i.e.
two at upper Sungai Padas and two stations at Sg. Maligan; three stations at area that will be inundated; two
stations at area between the dam site and power house; and lastly three stations below power house.
Description of habitat for each station is shown in Table 1.7-1: Description of Habitat.

Table 1.7-1: Description of Habitat


Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
st
1 Tributary of NA NA A small stream (1 order), flows into a Inundated
Padas River at floodplain before discharging to Padas
Menaung area River. The sampling area was about 40 m
stretch. The wetted width was about 1 m
and less than 0.5 m deep. Dominated by
riffles with bottom substrates consist of
boulders and rocks. The water was fast
flowing and slightly turbid. Water
catchment of the stream was primary
mixed dipterocarp forest. River canopy was
shaded with riparian vegetation consist of
trees. Habitat category for the stream was
excellent (site in nature or virtually natural
condition; excellent condition).
o st
2 Tributary of N 04 46’ 30.8” 331 A small stream (1 order), flows into Padas Inundated
Padas River, o
E 115 49’ 56.8” River. The sampling area was about 90 m
at Hunting stretch located at the mouth of the stream.
Camp nearby The wetted width was about 1 m and less
Padas River than 0.5 m deep. Dominated by riffle with
bottom substrates consist of gravels and
boulders. The water was fast flowing and
slightly turbid due to heavy rain day before
the survey. Water catchment of the stream
was primary mixed dipterocarp forest.
River canopy at the sampling area was
shaded where riparian vegetation
comprises of trees. Habitat category for the
stream was excellent (site in nature or
virtually natural condition; excellent
condition).

3 Padas River - NA NA The sampling area was located at the Inundated


th
proposed dam proposed dam site in Padas River (4
site order), about 2 km downstream of
sampling station 2. The wetted width was
about 20 m and the maximum depth was
more than 5 m. Dominated by pool and
riffle with bottom substrates consist of
boulders and bedrock. The water was very
fast flowing and muddy due to heavy rain
day before the survey. Water catchment of
the stream was primary mixed dipterocarp
forest. River canopy at the sampling area
was partly shaded, and riparian vegetation
comprises of trees. Habitat category for the
area was excellent (site in nature or
virtually natural condition; excellent
condition).
o
4 Katambalang N 04 51’ 39.8” 202 The sampling area (approximately 40 m Below dam site
Baru area - o
E 115 52’ 02.3” stretch) was located on the left bank of the
below the second small island in Padas River. The
proposed wetted width was about 12 m and the

53
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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
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Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
power house maximum depth was about 1.5 m.
site Dominated by run with bottom substrates
consist of gravels and sand. The water was
fast flowing and very muddy due to heavy
rain day before the survey. Slight bottom
sedimentation was occurred in the river.
Water catchment of the area was
agricultural lands. River canopy at the
sampling area was open with riparian
vegetation comprises of grasses. Habitat
category for the area was poor (significant
alterations from the natural state, with
reduced habitat value; may have erosion
and sedimentation problems).
o
5 Batu Paya N 04 51’ 50.3” 230 The sampling area (approximately 20 m Below dam site
area (at SFI’s o
E 115 51’ 30.6” stretch) was located on left bank of Padas
cement River. The wetted width was about 25 m
bridge) - upper and the maximum depth more than 1 m.
the proposed Dominated by run with bottom substrates
power house consist of gravels and sand. The water was
site fast flowing and very turbid due to heavy
rain day before the survey. Slight bottom
sedimentation was occurred in the river.
Water catchment of the area was logged
over forest and small agricultural land.
River canopy at the sampling area was
open with riparian vegetation comprises of
grasses. Habitat category for the area was
fair (significant alterations from the natural
state but still offering moderate habitat;
stable).
rd
6 Marrais River, NA NA A 3 order river flowing into Padas River. Below dam site
tributary of The sampling area was about 60 m stretch
Padas River located at upper part of the river. The
wetted width was about 15 m and the
maximum depth was about 1 m.
Dominated by riffle with bottom substrates
consist of boulders and bedrock. The water
was very fast flowing and muddy probably
due to heavy rain day before the survey.
Water catchment of the stream was logged
over forest and farming land. River canopy
at the sampling area was partly shaded
where riparian vegetation comprises of
trees. Habitat category for the stream was
excellent (site in nature or virtually natural
condition; excellent condition).
o nd
7 Paal River, N 05 00’ 30.1” 184 A 2 order river, flows into Padas River. Below dam site
tributary of o
E 115 55’ 16.6” The sampling area was about 40 m stretch
Padas River located at the middle part of the stream.
The wetted width was about 6 m and the
maximum depth was less than 1 m.
Dominated by run with bottom substrates
consist of sand and gravels. The water was
moderate flowing and muddy. Slight bottom
sedimentation was occurred in the river.
Water catchment of the stream was
agricultural land and settlements. River
canopy at the sampling area was open with
riparian vegetation comprises of grasses
and shrubs. Habitat category for the area
was poor (significant alterations from the
natural state, with reduced habitat value;

54
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CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
may have erosion and sedimentation
problems).
o st
8 Tributary of N 04 29’ 06.3” 941 A 1 order stream, flows into upper part of Not inundated
upper Padas o
E 115 45’ 36.7” Padas River. The sampling reach was
River about 100 m, located at lower part of the
(near to a stream. The wetted width was between 1 –
cement bridge 2 m and the maximum depth was less than
crossing 1 m. Dominant habitat was runs alternated
Padas River) with pools. Bottom substrate consists of
boulders and cobbles. The water was fast
flowing and muddy. The catchment of both
sides of the stream was a logged over mix
dipterocarp forest. River canopy was partly
shaded which comprising of small trees
and shrubs. Habitat category of the area
was fair (significant alterations from the
natural state but still offering moderate
habitat; stable).
o st
9 Tributary of N 05 32’ 47.6” 1,212 A 1 order and high elevation stream, Not inundated
upper Padas o
E 115 44’ 06.1” flowing to upper part of Padas River. The
River sampling reach was about 20 m at upper
(high elevation part of the stream. The wetted width was
stream) about 2 m while the maximum depth was
less than 1 m. The habitat was dominated
by high waterfalls alternated with pools.
Bottom substrate consists of bedrocks,
boulders and cobbles. The water current
was strong and tea-coloured. Water
catchment was a logged over mix
dipterocarp forest. The river was shaded
with trees. Habitat category of the area was
good (some alterations from natural state;
good condition). No fish was caught from
the stream.
o nd
10 Tributary of N 04 41’ 17.0” 613 A 2 order stream, flows into upper part of Not inundated
upper Maligan o
E 115 42’ 28.5” Maligan River. The sampling reach was
River about 15 m at middle part of the stream.
(near to a The wetted width was about 10 m while the
sand mining maximum depth was between 1 - 2 m. The
operator & habitat was dominated by deep pools
Maligan alternated with fast flowing runs. Bottom
village) substrate consists of gravels, pebbles and
sand. The water current was moderately
strong and muddy. Water catchment
comprises of logged over mix dipterocarp
forest and “temuda”. River canopy was
opened and the vegetation comprises of
grasses and shrubs. Habitat category of
the sampling area was poor (significant
alterations from the natural state, with
reduced habitat value; may have erosion or
sedimentation problems).
o
11 Lower of N 05 08’ 19.6” 116 The surveyed site was located at run of a Below Pangi
Padas River o
E 115 51’ 42.0” natural island of lower Padas River. The Dam
(bridge at Kg. wetted width was between 8 – 35 m while
Pangi) the maximum depth was between 0.5 – 2
m. Bottom substrate was dominated by
pebbles, cobbles and boulders. The water
current was strong and very turbid. Water
catchment was mainly agricultural lands
and settlement areas. The sampling site
was exposed to sunlight with riparian
vegetation comprises of grasses. Habitat

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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
category of the sampling area was poor
(significant alterations from the natural
state, with reduced habitat value; may have
erosion or sedimentation problems).
o
12 Mouth of N 05 08’ 07.9” 134 The sampling site was located at the mouth Below Pangi
Pangi River o
E 115 51’ 47.6” of Pangie River. The wetted width was Dam
(tributary of about 20 m and the maximum depth was
lower Padas between 1 – 2.5 m. Bottom substrate was
River) dominated by sand and gravel. The water
current was slow and turbid. Water
catchment was logged over forest and
agricultural lands. The sampling site was
exposed to sunlight with riparian vegetation
comprises of grasses. Habitat category of
the area was fair (significant alterations
from the natural state but still offering
moderate habitat; stable).

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APPENDIX 1.8 AQUATIC FAUNA (FISHES, MACRO INVERTEBRATES)


Fish Fauna

Sampling of fish fauna was carried out from 8 – 10 September and 14 – 16 October, and 29 October 2008. A
total of 15 sampling stations were selected as described in Table 1.8-1.

Table 1.8-1: Location of Fish Sampling Location


Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
o
1 Padas River N 04 46’ 07.1” 338 The sampling area was about 40 m stretch, Inundated
at Menaung o
E 115 49’ 49.3” a floodplain on right bank of Padas River.
Area Width of the floodplain was about 20 m and
(floodplain) is shallow (< 0.5 m). A pool of about 1.5 m
deep and 10 m wide of very muddy water
was also present in the floodplain during
this survey. The floodplain seems to be
very important as a shelter and breeding
ground for fish fauna. Water catchment of
the area was primary mixed dipterocarp
forest. Canopy at the sampling area was
open with riparian vegetation comprising
grasses and shrubs. Bottom substrates
consist of gravels and rocks.
st
2 Tributary of NA NA A small stream (1 order), flowing into a Inundated
Padas River floodplain before discharging to Padas
at Menaung River. The sampling area was about 40 m
area stretch. The wetted width was about 1 m
and less than 0.5 m deep. Dominated by
riffles with bottom substrates consisting of
boulders and rocks. The water was fast
flowing and slightly turbid. Water
catchment of the stream was primary
mixed dipterocarp forest. River canopy was
shaded with riparian vegetation consisting
of trees. Habitat category for the stream
was excellent (site in nature or virtually
natural condition; excellent condition).
o st
3 Tributary of N 04 46’ 30.8” 331 A small stream (1 order), flowing into Inundated
Padas River, o
E 115 49’ 56.8” Padas River. The sampling area was about
at Hunting 90 m stretch located at the mouth of the
Camp nearby stream. The wetted width was about 1 m
Padas River and less than 0.5 m deep. Dominated by
riffle with bottom substrates consisting of
gravels and boulders. Current was fast
flowing and water was slightly turbid due to
heavy rain the day before the survey.
Water catchment of the stream was
primary mixed dipterocarp forest. River
canopy at the sampling area was shaded
where riparian vegetation comprises trees.
Habitat category for the stream was
excellent (site in nature or virtually natural
condition; excellent condition).

4 Padas River – NA NA The sampling area was located at the Inundated


th
right at the proposed dam site in Padas River (4
proposed dam order), about 2 km downstream of
site sampling station 2. The wetted width was
about 20 m and the maximum depth was
more than 5 m. Dominated by pool and
riffle with bottom substrates consist of
boulders and bedrock. Current was very

57
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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
fast flowing and water was muddy due to
heavy rain the day before the survey.
Water catchment of the stream was
primary mixed dipterocarp forest. River
canopy at the sampling area was partly
shaded, and riparian vegetation comprises
trees. Habitat category for the area was
excellent (site in nature or virtually natural
condition; excellent condition).
o
5 Padas River – N 04 46’ 52” 370 The sampling area was located right below Right below dam
th
right below the o
E 115 49’ 51” the proposed dam site in Padas River (4 site
proposed dam order), about 2.2 km downstream of
site sampling station 2. The wetted width was
about 20 m and the maximum depth was
more than 5 m. Dominated by pool and
riffle with bottom substrates consist of
boulders and bedrock. The water was very
fast flowing and muddy due to heavy rain
the day before the survey. Water
catchment of the stream was primary
mixed dipterocarp forest. River canopy at
the sampling area was partly shaded, and
riparian vegetation comprises trees.
Habitat category for the area was excellent
(site in nature or virtually natural condition;
excellent condition).
o
6 Batu Paya N 04 51’ 50.3” 230 The sampling area (approximately 20 m Below dam site
area (slightly o
E 115 51’ 30.6” stretch) was located on right bank of Padas
above SFI’s River. The wetted width was about 25 m
cement and the maximum depth more than 1 m.
bridge) – Dominated by run with bottom substrates
above the consist of gravels and sand. The water was
proposed fast flowing and very turbid due to heavy
power house rain the day before the survey. Slight
site bottom sedimentation was observed at the
bottom of the river. Water catchment of the
area was logged over forest and small
agricultural land. River canopy at the
sampling area was open with riparian
vegetation comprising grasses. Habitat
category for the area was fair (significant
alterations from the natural state but still
offering moderate habitat; stable).
o
7 Katambalang N 04 51’ 39.8” 215 The sampling area (approximately 40 m Below dam site
Baru area - o
E 115 52’ 02.3” stretch) was located on the right bank of
below the the second small island in Padas River.
proposed The wetted width was about 12 m and the
power house maximum depth was about 1.5 m.
site Dominated by run with bottom substrates
consisting of gravels and sand. The water
was fast flowing and very muddy due to
heavy rain the day before the survey. Slight
bottom sedimentation was observed at the
bottom of the river. Water catchment of the
area was agricultural lands. River canopy
at the sampling area was open with
riparian vegetation comprising grasses.
Habitat category for the area was poor
(significant alterations from the natural
state, with reduced habitat value; may have
erosion and sedimentation problems).
rd
8 Marrais River, NA NA A 3 order river flowing into Padas River. Below dam site
tributary of The sampling area was about 60 m stretch

58
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Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
Padas River located at the upper part of the river. The (Not affected)
wetted width was about 15 m and the
maximum depth was about 1 m.
Dominated by riffle with bottom substrates
consisting of boulders and bedrock. The
water was very fast flowing and muddy
probably due to heavy rain the day before
the survey. Water catchment of the stream
was logged over forest and farming land.
River canopy at the sampling area was
partly shaded where riparian vegetation
comprises trees. Habitat category for the
stream was excellent (site in nature or
virtually natural condition; excellent
condition).
o nd
9 Pal River, N 05 00’ 30.1” 184 A 2 order river, flows into Padas River. Below dam site
tributary of o
E 115 55’ 16.6” The sampling area was about 40 m stretch (Not affected)
Padas River located at the middle part of the stream.
The wetted width was about 6 m and the
maximum depth was less than 1 m.
Dominated by run with bottom substrates
consist of sand and gravels. The water was
moderately flowing and muddy. Slight
bottom sedimentation was observed in the
river. Water catchment of the stream was
agricultural land and settlements. River
canopy at the sampling area was open with
riparian vegetation comprises grasses and
shrubs. Habitat category for the area was
poor (significant alterations from the natural
state, with reduced habitat value; may have
erosion and sedimentation problems).
o st
10 Tributary of N 04 29’ 06.3” 941 A 1 order stream, flows into upper part of Not inundated
upper Padas o
E 115 45’ 36.7” Padas River. The sampling reach was
River about 100 m, located at lower part of the
(near to a stream. The wetted width was between 1 –
cement bridge 2 m and the maximum depth was less than
crossing 1 m. Dominant habitat was runs alternated
Padas River) with pools. Bottom substrate consists of
boulders and cobbles. The water was fast
flowing and muddy. The catchment of both
sides of the stream was a logged over mix
dipterocarp forest. River canopy was partly
shaded which comprises small trees and
shrubs. Habitat category of the area was
fair (significant alterations from the natural
state but still offering moderate habitat;
stable).
o st
11 Tributary of N 04 36’ 12.4” 910 A 1 order stream, flows into upper part of Not inundated
upper Maligan o
E 115 44’ 30.5” Maligan River. The sampling reach was
River about 25 m at upper part of the stream.
(about 1 km The wetted width was about 4 m while the
from a logging maximum depth was between 0.5 - 1 m.
camp) The habitat was dominated by riffles
alternated with pools. Bottom substrate
consists of boulders, cobbles and pebbles.
The water current was very strong and
muddy. Water catchment was a logged
over mix dipterocarp forest. River canopy
was open which comprises small trees and
shrubs. Habitat category of the area was
fair (significant alterations from the natural
state but still offering moderate habitat;

59
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Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
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Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
stable). Only two species of fish were
collected namely, the Rasbora sp. and
Glaniopsis sp.
o st
12 Tributary of N 05 32’ 47.6” 1,212 A 1 order and high elevation stream, Not inundated
upper Padas o
E 115 44’ 06.1” flowing to upper part of Padas River. The
River sampling reach was about 20 m at upper
(high elevation part of the stream. The wetted width was
stream) about 2 m while the maximum depth was
less than 1 m. The habitat was dominated
by high waterfalls alternated with pools.
Bottom substrate consists of bedrocks,
boulders and cobbles. The water current
was strong and tea-coloured. Water
catchment was a logged over mix
dipterocarp forest. The river was shaded
with trees. Habitat category of the area was
good (some alterations from natural state;
good condition). No fish was caught from
the stream.
o nd
13 Tributary of N 04 41’ 17.0” 613 A 2 order stream, flows into upper part of Not inundated
upper Maligan o
E 115 42’ 28.5” Maligan River. The sampling reach was
River about 15 m at middle part of the stream.
(near to a The wetted width was about 10 m while the
sand mining maximum depth was between 1 - 2 m. The
operator & habitat was dominated by deep pools
Maligan alternated with fast flowing runs. Bottom
village) substrate consists of gravels, pebbles and
sand. The water current was moderately
strong and muddy. Water catchment
comprises logged over mix dipterocarp
forest and “temuda”. River canopy was
opened and the vegetation comprises
grasses and shrubs. Habitat category of
the sampling area was poor (significant
alterations from the natural state, with
reduced habitat value; may have erosion or
sedimentation problems).
o
14 Lower of N 05 08’ 19.6” 116 The surveyed site was located at run of a Below Pangie
Padas River o
E 115 51’ 42.0” natural island of lower Padas River. The Dam
(at a bride of wetted width was between 8 – 35 m while
Pangie the maximum depth was between 0.5 – 2
village) m. Bottom substrate was dominated by
pebbles, cobbles, and boulders. The water
current was strong and very turbid. Water
catchment was mainly agricultural lands
and settlement areas. The sampling site
was exposed to sunlight with riparian
vegetation comprising grasses. Habitat
category of the sampling area was poor
(significant alterations from the natural
state, with reduced habitat value; may have
erosion or sedimentation problems).
o
15 Mouth of N 05 08’ 07.9” 134 The sampling site was located at the mouth Below Pangi
Pangie River o
E 115 51’ 47.6” of Pangie River. The wetted width was Dam
(tributary of about 20 m and the maximum depth was
lower Padas between 1 – 2.5 m. Bottom substrate was
River) dominated by sand and gravel. The water
current was slow and turbid. Water
catchment was logged over forest and
agricultural lands. The sampling site was
exposed to sunlight with riparian vegetation
comprising grasses. Habitat category of the
area was fair (significant alterations from

60
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Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

Name of Relation to
Station GPS Coordinate Altitude (m) Description of Habitat
River Proposed Dam
the natural state but still offering moderate
habitat; stable).

There are 16 species recorded from the area below the dam, 21 species recorded from the area to be
inundated, 27 species from the area that will not be flooded and 12 species caught from sampling stations at
Kampung Pangi area. More species is present in the area that will not be flooded compared to the area to be
inundated (see Table 1.8-2).

Table 1.8-2: List of Fish Species Present at the area below the proposed dam, inundated area, area
not flooded and stations at Kg. Pangi. (x) denote present and (-) denote absent
Inundated Not flooded Kampung
Family Species Below Dam
Area Area Pangi

Bagridae Mystus baramensis x x x x

Balitoridae Gastromyzon borneensis - x x -

Gastromyzon fasciatus - - x -

Gastromyzon lepidogaster x - x -

Gastromyzon monticola - x x -
Glaniopsis denudata - x - -

Glaniopsis hanitschi x x x -

Glaniopsis multiradiata - x x -
Glaniopsis sp. - x x -

Homaloptera nebulosa x - x -

Nemacheilus olivaceus x x - -

Parhomaloptera microstoma x - - -

Channidae Channa striata - - x -

Clariidae Clarias leiacanthus - x x -

Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. x x x x

Chela sp. - - - x

Hampala macrolepidota x x - x

Lobocheilos bo x x x x
Nematabramis everetti - x x -
Osteochilus chini x x x x

Paracrossochilus acerus x x x -
Paracrossochilus vittatus - - x -

Puntius binotatus x x x x

Puntius sealei - x x -
Rasbora argyrotaenia - x x -

Tor tambra x x x x

Tor tambroides x x x x

Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus cf. unicolor - - x x


Mastacembelus maculatus - - x -

Siluridae Kryptopterus macrocephalus - - - x

Kryptopterus sp. x x - -

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Inundated Not flooded Kampung


Family Species Below Dam
Area Area Pangi

Sisoridae Glyptothorax major - - x -

Glyptothorax platypogon x - x -
Glyptothorax platypogonoides - - x -

Synbranchidae Monopterus albus - - - x

TOTAL : 9 35 16 21 27 12

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Plates 1.8.1: Fish Fauna Survey

Sampling at Station 1 Gill netting at Station 4

Fishing at Station 4 Sampling at Station 10

Sampling at Station 12 Habitat at Station 14

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Children fishing at Sungai Pangi Fish caught at Station 1

Tor tambra Clarias leiacanthus

Macro Invertebrates

There are five stations for macro invertebrates survey which were selected based on their location in relation
to the dam site, reservoir area and power station location.

The data in Table 1.8-3 indicates that a total of 36 different families / genera that belongs to 10 different
orders were found within the samples. The density of invertebrates within the study area varied considerably
with a high of 96 individual per sample at station MB3 with lows of four (4) individuals were found at stations
MB5.

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Table 1.8-3: Benthic Invertebrate Taxa and Density Found Along Padas River
Taxa/Station MB1 MB2 MB3 MB4 MB5
Anisoptera
Libellulid sp1. 0 0 1 0 0
Libellulid sp2. 0 0 1 0 0
Crustacea
Macrobrachium sp. 3 0 0 0 3
Potamidae 0 0 1 0 0
Cardina sp. 0 0 0 3 0
Coleoptera
Hydrophilidae 1 1 0 0 0
Noteridae 1 0 0 0 0
Eulichadidae 0 1 0 0 0
Neptosternus sp. 0 0 2 0 0
Coleoptera sp1. 0 0 1 0 0
Coleoptera sp2. 0 2 0 1 0
Coleoptera sp3. 1 0 0 0 0
Coleoptera sp4. 0 0 0 2 0
Ephemeroptera
Thalerosphyrus sp. 3 0 0 0 0
Campsoneuria sp. 73 0 0 0 0
Ephemeroptera sp1. 0 0 12 0 0
Ephemeroptera sp2. 5 0 18 0 0
Ephemeroptera sp3. 0 0 0 5 0
Caenis sp. 0 0 0 3 0
Ephemeroptera sp4. 0 0 0 2 0
Rheonanthus sp. 0 0 0 13 0
Hemiptera
Rhagodotarsus kraepelini 3 0 0 0 0
Hemiptera sp. 0 1 0 0 0
Ochterus sp. 0 0 2 0 0
Odonata
Odonata sp. 1 0 0 0 1
Neurobasis longipes 0 0 1 0 0
Neoperla sp. 0 0 0 1 0
Plecoptera
Eutrocerma 0 0 1 0 0
Tabanidae
Tabanidae sp. 2 0 0 2 0
Trichoptera

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Taxa/Station MB1 MB2 MB3 MB4 MB5


Micrasema sp. 0 0 1 0 0
Hydropsyche sp1. 1 0 0 3 0
Hydropsyche sp2. 0 0 34 0 0
Hydropsyche sp3. 0 0 3 0 0
Pseudoneureclipsis sp. 0 0 0 3 0
Dipseudopsis sp. 0 0 0 17 0
Zygoptera
Devadatta argyoides 0 0 18 0 0
Individuals per sample 94 5 96 55 4
Species per sample 11 4 14 12 2

Species Composition

Ephemeroptera (mayfly) were the most dominant taxa of macro-invertebrates in the sampling area, and
comprised 53% of total invertebrates identified over all stations. Eight different species from five genera were
found. Ephemeroptera or mayfly is a typical insect discovered in the most rivers of Sabah6.

Another Malaysian study indicates the existence of Ephemeroptera is often associated with high water
quality index7. This organism is classified as a sensitive group in water quality monitoring. Mayfly (nymph)
occurs in a variety of aquatic habitats ranging from standing to running waters. They are absent in severely
polluted waters but they are very common in running waters especially in hill streams where the oxygen
concentration is high due to the relatively low temperature and water turbulence.

There are also mayflies that live in lower water flow environments and some are able to burrow into sandy
8
substrates . Many mayfly nymphs collected in this survey were from the fast flowing sections of the river and
one in gravel-sandy bottom.

Six species of Trichoptera comprised 24% of the total benthos count which makes it the second most
dominant taxa while Zygoptera comprised 7% of the total count. The least dominant taxa were Plecoptera,
compromising 0.4% of the total count.

The highest percentage frequency of the benthos found was only 40%. They were Macrobrachium sp.,
Hydrophilidae, Coleoptera sp., Ephemeroptera sp, Odonata sp., Tabanidae sp. and Hydropsyche sp (see
Table 1.8-4).

6
Shabdin M. L., Fatimah A., and Khairul A. A. R. 2002. The Macroinvertebrate community of The Fast Flowing Rivers in the Crocker
Range National Park Sabah, Malaysia
7
Ahmad A., Maimon A., Othman M. S. and Mohd Pauzi A. 2002. Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on Environmental and
th
Natural Resources 10-11 April 2002,, Hotel Renaissance Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol 464-471
8
Khoo Soo Ghee. Insecta: Ephemeroptera by in “Freshwater invertebrate of the Malaysia Region, Academy of Science Malaysia. Pp
395.

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Table 1.8-4: Species List and Percentage Dominance and Frequency of Macrobenthos at the Study
Area
Groups Genus % Dominance % Frequency

Anisoptera Libellulid sp1. 0.39 20

Libellulid sp2. 0.39 20

Crustacea Macrobrachium sp. 2.36 40

Potamidae 0.39 20

Cardina sp. 1.18 20

Coleoptera Hydrophilidae 0.79 40

Noteridae 0.39 20

Eulichadidae 0.39 20

Neptosternus sp. 0.79 20

Coleoptera sp1. 0.39 20

Coleoptera sp2. 1.18 40

Coleoptera sp3. 0.39 20

Coleoptera sp4. 0.79 20

Ephemeroptera Thalerosphyrus sp. 1.18 20

Campsoneuria sp. 28.74 20

Ephemeroptera sp1. 4.72 20

Ephemeroptera sp2. 9.06 40

Ephemeroptera sp3. 1.97 20

Caenis sp. 1.18 20

Ephemeroptera sp4. 0.79 20

Rheonanthus sp. 5.12 20

Hemiptera Rhagodotarsus kraepelini 1.18 20

Hemiptera sp. 0.39 20

Ochterus sp. 0.79 20

Odonata Odonata sp. 0.79 40

Neurobasis longipes 0.39 20

Neoperla sp. 0.39 20

Plecoptera Eutrocerma 0.39 20

Tabanidae Tabanidae sp. 1.57 40

Trichoptera Micrasema sp. 0.39 20

Hydropsyche sp1. 1.57 40

Hydropsyche sp2. 13.39 20

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Groups Genus % Dominance % Frequency

Hydropsyche sp3. 1.18 20

Pseudoneureclipsis sp. 1.18 20

Dipseudopsis sp. 6.69 20

Zygoptera Devadatta argyoides 7.09 20

Ephemeroptera had the highest abundance of the 10 taxa of macrobenthos identified in this survey,
3789.593 individual/m3 followed by Trichoptera (1753.394 individual/m3) and Zygoptera (509.050
individual/m3) (see Figure 1.8-1).

Figure 1.8-1: Density of Macrobenthos by Taxa

Biological Indicator Indices

Monitoring the richness of invertebrates is normally carried out using the EPT taxa richness classification
(Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera). The recognition of EPT is widely used to evaluate water quality
9
worldwide . These EPT can also be used as an indicator group of species which are unique environmental
indicators as they offer a signal of the biological condition in a water habitat.

The Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) score was used for measuring water quality using species
of macro invertebrates as biological indicators. The method is based on the principle that different aquatic
invertebrates have different tolerance to pollutants. The presence of mayflies or stoneflies for instance
indicate the cleanest waterways and are given a tolerance score of 10 (see Table 1.8-5). The lowest scoring
invertebrate are worms (Oligochaeta) which score 1. The number of different macro invertebrates is also an
important factor, because a better water quality is assumed to result in a higher diversity.

The scores for each family represented in the sample are them summed to give the BMWP score. A BMWP
score greater than 100 generally indicates good water quality.

9
Lenat, D.R. and Penrose, D.L. 1996. History of the EPT taxa richness metric. Bulletin of the North American Benthological Society Vol
13(2).

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Table 1.8-5: BMWP Score Table10


Group Families Score

Mayflies, Stoneflies, Siphlonuridae, Heptageniidae, Leptophlebiidae, Ephemerellidae, 10


Riverbug, Caddisflies or Potamanthidae, Ephemeridae, Taeniopterygidae, Leuctridae, Caprniidae,
Sedgeflies Perlodidae, Perlidae, Chloroperlidae, Aphelocheridae, Phryganeidae,
Molannidae, Beraeidae, Odontoceridae, Leptoceridae, Goeridae,
Lepidostomatidae, Brachycentridae, Sericostomatidae

Crayfish, Dragonflies Astacidae, Lestidae, Agriidae, Gomphidae, Cordulegasteridae, Aeshnidae, 8


Corduliidae, Libelluiidae

Mayflies, Stoneflies, Caenidae, Nemouridae, Rhyacophilidae, Polycentropidae, Limnephilidae 7


Caddisflies or Sedge
flies

Snails, Caddisflies or Neritidae, Viviparidae, Ancylidae, Hydroptilidae, Unionidae, Corophiidae, 6


Sedge flies, Mussels, Gammaridae, Platycnemididae, Coenagriidae
Shrimps, Dragonflies

Bugs, Beetles, Mesoveliidae, Hydrometridae, Gerridae, Nepidae, Naucoridae, 5


Caddisflies or Notonectidae, Pleidae, Corixidae, Haliplidae, Hygrobiidae, Dytiscidae,
Sedgeflies, Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae, Clambidae, Helodidae, Dryopidae, Elmidae,
Craneflies/Blackflies, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Hydropsychidae, Tipulidae, Simuliidae,
Flatworms Planariidae, Dendrocoelida

Mayflies, Alderflies, Baetidae, Sialidae, Piscicolidae 4


Leeches

Snails, Cockles, Valvatidae, Hydrobiidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Planorbidae, Sphaeriidae, 3


Leeches, Hog louse Glossiphoniidae, Hirudidae, Erpobdellidae, Asellidae

Midges Chironomidae 2

Worms Oligochaeta (whole class) 1

The EPT richness index is based on the total number of individual from the taxa Ephemoroptera, Plecoptera
and Tricoptera over the total number of macrobenthic individual found in the sampled area. From the study,
Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera were the most abundant species found in MB1, MB3 and MB4 with 0.872,
0.708 and 0.873 respectively. There was no species from the taxa Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and
Trichoptera found in MB2 and MB5 thereby the index is 0 for both stations.

Macrobenthos caught were given score based on BMWP. The high scores at MB1, MB3 and MB4 would
indicate that the water quality at these stations may be better compared to the others.

10
The amended DoE/NWC ‘Biological Monitoring Working Party’ score system. Retrieved from http://www.nethan-
valley.co.uk/insectgroups.doc

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APPENDIX 1.9 LAND USE AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES


Riverine Fisheries

Fishing activities are mainly carried out at Padas River and its major tributary, Maligan River. The pools
found along the two rivers are important fishing sites for the local people. The popular fishing sites in Padas
River are located mainly above the proposed power house area up to the tributary of Maligan River (see
Figure 1.9-1).

The fishing sites along the stretch of Padas River are allocated among the different villages. The stretches of
Padas River from Lubok Laamukon up to Lubok Ansaiangkinam are fishing sites for the villagers from Kpg
Kemabong up to Kpg Katambalang Baru. The stretches of Padas River from Lubok Pungiton up to Lubok
Puta are fishing ground for villagers from Kpg Kungkular. The stretches of the river from Lubok Maulor
upstream are fishing ground for villagers from Kpg Lelang, Kpg Ulu Tomani and Kpg Melutut (Table 1.9-1).

Table 1.9-1: Fishing Sites along Sg. Padas


No. Fishing Sites Villagers Allocated to Fishing Sites
1 Lubok Laamukon
2 Lubok Batu Paya
Kg Kemabong,
3 Lubok Luhan Kg Mamaitom,
4 Lubok Lingguangon Kg Bangkulin, Kalibatang,
5 Lubok Tingkaluron Kg Tomani, Kg Kaliwata and
Kg Katambalang Baru
6 Lubok Pena’awan
7 Lubok Ansaiangkinam
8 Lubok Pungiton
9 Lubok Tohokon Aningka
10 Lubok Karaamoh
Kg Kungkular
11 Lubok Mansam
12 Binaung
13 Lubok Puta
14 Lubok Maulor
Kg Lelang, Kg Ulu Tomani and Kg Melutut
15 Lubok Pomotoran

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Figure 1.9-1: Fishing Sites in Padas River

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Fisheries at the Stretches from Lubok Laamukon to Lubok Ansaiangkinam

There are seven popular fishing sites at the stretches of the Padas River from Lubok Laamukon to Lubok
Ansaiangkinam. These sites are assigned to be the fishing ground for the villagers from Kg. Kemabong up to
Kg. Katambalang Baru.

Fishing is normally carried out during dry season when the water level is low. During normal fishing time, up
to four groups would go to this area to fish (and hunt for wildlife) and normally stay for one to two nights.
Each group would consist of 3 - 4 persons and the catch could be up to 20 kg of fish. However, during
certain occasion such as marriage ceremony, up to 14 persons would come to this area to fish. They would
stay here for up to 12 days and normally would catch up to 400 kg of fish. Fish caught are degutted, cut into
smaller pieces and salted before they are placed in containers for transportation.

The commonly used fishing methods are gill net of mesh sizes 7.5 cm, 10.0 cm and 12.5 cm and each trip
10 - 20 gill nets were used. Other fishing methods used include cast net, hook and line and spear fishing.
Catch per unit effort (CPUE) varies depending on the purpose of fishing. During normal fishing time, CPUE
range from 5 to 7 kg per person per day. However, during certain occasion the intensity of fishing increases
and CPUE increase to 8 to 11 kg per person per day.

The dominant species caught are Tor spp. and Barbonymus sp. The other species caught are Mystus
baramensis, Lobocheilus bo, Osteochilus chini and Kryptopterus sp.

Fisheries at the Immediate Vicinity of the Proposed Dam Site

There are five popular fishing sites within the immediate vicinity of the proposed dam site from Lubok
Pungiton up to Lubok Puta. There are five groups from Kg. Kungkular who fish at this stretch of Padas River
during dry season when the water level is low. Each group consists of 4 - 5 persons and they would spend 4
- 5 days per trip. Due to the distance of these fishing sites from the village (about 5 hours walk), most of the
fishing trips are carried out in preparation for certain occasions such as marriage ceremony or memorial
service for the death.

The commonly used fishing methods are gill net of mesh sizes 7.5 cm, 10.0 cm and 12.5 cm and each trip
10 - 15 gill nets were used. Other fishing methods used include cast net, hook and line and spear fishing.

The dominant species caught are Tor spp. and Barbonymus sp. The weight of most of the Tor spp. caught
ranged from 0.8 – 1.0 kg. However, fish of up to 5 kg can be occasionally caught from the area. Other
species caught are Mystus baramensis, Lobocheilus bo, Osteochilus chini and Kryptopterus sp. During each
trip, approximately 150 kg of fish of different species was caught. The catch per unit effort at this site is
approximated at 7.5 to 9.4 kg per person per day.

Fish caught are degutted, cut into smaller pieces and salted before they are placed in containers. They are
sold at the village for RM150 – RM180 per container.

Fisheries from Lubok Maulor upstream

There are two popular fishing sites for the villages from Kg. Lelang, Kg. Ulu Tomani and Kg. Melutut namely
Lubok Maulor and Lubok Pomotoran. Fishing is also carried out during dry season when the water level is
low. Due to the distance of these fishing sites from the village, most of the fishing trips are carried out in
preparation for certain occasions such as marriage ceremony. The commonly used fishing methods are gill
net of mesh sizes 7.5 cm, 10.0 cm and 12.5 cm and each trip 10 - 15 gill nets were used. Other fishing

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methods used include cast net, hook and line and spear fishing. The dominant species caught are Tor spp.
and Barbonymus sp. The catch per unit effort at this site is approximated at 7 to 9 kg per person per day.

Fisheries at Kampung Pangi

Fishing activities are normally carried out during drier season when the water level is low. On average, there
are only 4 – 5 fishing days monthly. However, once or twice a year when the power station ceased operation
during drought season for about 6 - 7 hours, almost all families in Kg. Pangi and other villages downstream
would go to the river to fish.

Due to its close proximity to Tenom town, fish caught from Padas River are sold in the town normally about
two days a week, on Wednesday and Sunday. There are five regular fishermen in Kg. Pangi and three in Kg.
Rayu who fished and sold their catches regularly in Tenom town. Gill net of mesh sizes 4.2 cm, 5.0 cm, 7.5
cm and 10.0 cm is the most popular method of fishing used in this area. The other fishing methods include
long lines fishing, hook and line, and cast net.

Each fishing trip would normally yield about 10 – 15 kg of fish. These will be sold in Tenom town for about
RM15 per kg. The commonly caught species are Lobocheilos bo, Barbonymus sp., Mystus baramensis,
Hampala macrolepidota, Osteochilus chini and Tor spp. Other species that are occasionally caught are
Chela sp., Puntius binotatus, Kryptopterus macrocephalus and Monopterus albus. Catch per unit effort at
this site is about 5 to 7 kg per person per day.

However, when the power station ceased operation, water level at Padas River would be exceptionally low
and deeper water would only be found at the pools. Fish would therefore congregate at these pools and
during this time they could be easily caught. During this time almost all families from Kg. Pangi, Kg. Rayu as
well as Kg. Alau Gilat, Kg. Saliwangon and Kg. Batu 60 would go fishing at Padas River. Each family would
normally use three gill nets, each net about 90 m long and 3.5 m deep with mesh size of 6.2 cm. Each family
could catch about 60 – 120 kg of fish during this time. However, the dam has not ceased operation for the
last two years, in 2007 and 2008. Catch per unit effort at this site when the dam cease operation is about 20
to 40 kg per person per fishing trip.

Estimated Fish Yield

Based on the information gathered from the local inhabitants, the estimated annual yield of riverine fisheries
in the area to be inundated due to the Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project is 1,104 kg. The annual value of
the riverine fisheries is estimated at RM15, 180.00 (see Table 1.9-2).

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Table 1.9-2: Estimation of Fish Yield


1. Based on the feedback from the local inhabitants, the estimated yield of riverine fisheries in the
area to be inundated by the proposed hydroelectric project is based on the following
assumptions:
i. Fishing manpower: There are 5 active fishermen in each of the 11 villages. On one fishing
day, about 15% of the active fishermen are operating (8 men).
ii. Fishing frequency: During dry season when the water level is right for fishing, the frequency
of fishing is 20 days. The duration of the dry period is 3 months a year. Thus, the total
number of fishing days during the dry season is 60 days. During the wet season when the
river condition is unfavourable, the fishing frequency is 2 days per month. Therefore, the
total number of fishing days during the wet season is 24 days.
iii. Catch per man-day: The average catch per man day during dry season is 2.0 kg. During the
wet season, the catch is 0.5 kg.
2. Based on the above set of parameters, the fish yield for the year is as follows:
Dry seasons: 2.0 kg x 53 men x 60 days = 960 kg
Wet season: 0.5 kg x 53 men x 36 days = 144 kg
Total = 1,104 kg
3. The estimated total annual fish yield from rivers to be inundated to form the Upper Padas
Hydroelectric Project Reservoir is 1,104 kg.
4. Value of Catch: On the average, the catch composition by weight has a ratio of 3:1 for cyprinid:
other fish species. Based on the average wholesale price of RM15/kg for cyprinid and RM10/kg
for other species, the value of the annual catch of riverine fish is RM15, 180.00.

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APPENDIX 1.10 DEMOGRAPHY: SOCIAL SURVEY FORMS


The social survey forms in appended in the following pages. In total, there are 300 respondents involved in
the survey excercise (see Table 1.10-1). Due to the large volume, 10 survey forms each from Kemabong
and Sipitang are appended as reference. Copies of the complete survey forms are available upon request.

Table 1.10-1: Survey Data


District Name of Kampong Number of Respondents
Kemabong 1. Amboi 1 6
2. Baab 1
3. Baru Jumpa 2
4. Chinta Mata 22
5. Kalamatoi 3
6. Kalibatang 2
7. Kalibatang Baru 29
8. Kapulu 1
9. Katambalang Baru 16
10. Kemabong Lama 1
11. Ladang Sapong 30
12. Mamaitom 10
13. Marais Baru 11
14. Marais Lama 9
15. Melalap 1
16. Pantungan 18
17. Skim LIGS 15
18. Sugiang baru 1
19. Sugiang Lama 1
20. Sugiang Tengah 13
21. Tenom Lama 8
Sipitang 1. Bamban 5
2. Bangsal 26
3. Kaban 19
4. Lubang Buaya 2
5. Malamam 2
6. Marau 5
7. Mendulong 14
8. Pakiak 1
9. Solob 9
10. Tanah Merah 5
11. Tanjung Nipis 7
12. Tunas Baru 5
Total 300

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APPENDIX 1.11 PUBLIC / STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS AND


ENGAGEMENTS
Kemabong/Kuala Tomani Engagement Activities, 27 November 2008

Introduction

The public dialogue was held onthe 27th November 2008 focusing on the villagers from Kuala Tomani and
Kemabong area. This dialogue was conducted in the presence of representative from Project Proponent.
Table 1.11-1 presents the comments and findings from the villagers.

Table 1.11-1: Public Comments and Response from Proponent and Consultant
Name / From Comment Respond from SESB / Chemsain
1. Overall remarked that they have to
request permission from SFI to
enter forest to collect rotan or wood.
2. The dam will not bring about any
change to their situation.
3. Fully support the proposed dam
project.

Respondent 1
1. JKKK have met and decided to SESB
support the project. Affect on agricultural land
2. Two areas of concern: Will try to minimise impacts on
• Affect of dam on agricultural vegetation e.g during access road
land construction/ general access during
• Dam break construction. No impacts expected
during operations. Will use existing
roads as far as possible and construct
small roads when necessary.
Dam break
Seismology carried out as part of
feasibility study
CHEMSAIN
Dam break
Modelling study of heavy rainfall
Respondent 2: JKKK event, effect of flooding and effect of
other possible environmental changes
are underway, expected to complete
next year.

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Name / From Comment Respond from SESB / Chemsain


SESB mentioned about employment SESB
opportunities (1000 jobs) created by Employment opportunities offered to
this project. Request to be given locals are sub-contracts of building,
examples of employment opportunities access roads construction, tourism
created. (campsites), etc.

Respondent 3
1. Complained about the lack of Pemimpin Kemajuan Rakyat
electricity supply in his village 5 Kemabong
miles from Kemabong. This issue Connection is in process.
has been mentioned in 2 othe
SESB
similar forums non-related to this
Project. Delay probably caused by
administrative issues.

Respondent 4: JKKK
1. Kampungs around the dam (Tomani, SESB (Jait)
Kemabong Lama, etc) are flood Inundated area is 12km in length and
prone areas. Cited example of Pangi widest is 500m, total of 600ha, which
dam: shut during low flow, open is small compared to Liwagu. The
during high water; when drought – reservoir area is also very steep
dry. When dam is opened, Beaufort (valley), thus water will not spill to its
is affected by flood. Used to rain for vicinity
2 – 3 months before water level
become high, but now 2 weeks and Erosion occurs due to natural factors
water level becomes very high. and human activities. He advised not
Pangi also affected by to disturb the riparian reserve of Sg
sedimentation. Padas to eliminate erosion by human
activity.
He is concerned that new dam will
affect Tomani and flood could be When tender is given, there will be a
further backed up by Pangi dam. So condition for only 1 level of sub-
what is the guarantee that there will contracting, otherwise SESB is to be
informed.
be flow after the dam?
2. Give priority to Tenom and SESB (Felix, Pangi Station Manager)
Kemabong population for jobs as Pangi does not store water, hence it
Respondent 5: Pemimpin there are a lot of unemployed in has to be released. However, Pangi is
Kemajuan Rakyat Kemabong shallower than it used to be.
Kemabong. During construction,
contractors hire illegal or foreign Sometimes have to open all gates to
workers instead of the locals, which flush water away. They coordinate
will lead to social problems. with district officers to try and control
3. Request SESB to produce a flooding. However, Padas dam can
statement on the benefits, impacts of help attenuate flooding downstream
the dam and mitigation measures as there is greater control over water
that will be taken to attenuate the release due to its storage capacity.
impacts as well as an agreement/
guarantee for the locals, especially

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Name / From Comment Respond from SESB / Chemsain


for the leaders in affected areas.
This statement will be used as a
reference in the future.
He is withholding his support for
construction of the dam until all
mentioned above are affirmed.
1. Request Chemsain to carry out CHEMSAIN
their study carefully and include Urge the villagers to give feedback on
monitoring to ensure all proposed the report of their detail study in case
measures are implemented. there are any areas of concern that
2. Nearby villages should be given Chemsain overlooked.
priority in providing electricity
supply. Scenarios where dam is in
Tenom yet electricity goes directly
to other districts are not
acceptable.

Respondent 6: MP of
Kemabong (on panel)
1. Proposed that since the hydro dam SESB (Jait)
is in Tenom, residents in Tenom SESB is a company controlled by the
and Kemabong should get lower government, thus tariff issues are
electricity tariffs. under Suruhanjaya Tenaga.
2. As this is a mega project, to whom If there are signs of early damage to
and where do we refer to if the the access roads used to transport
roads used to transport construction material, please inform us
construction materials are as soon as possible and we will take
damaged? immediate action to rectify the
3. When will the disruption of problem.
electricity supply be overcome as
they are experiencing disruption on
monthly basis. Will the frequency of
disruption be increased to weekly
basis?

Respondent 7: Kg. Gumisi


Respondent 8 The dam project brings risk to the SESB (Jait)
villagers if dam breaks. There are risks SESB will aim to design and build the
that dam failure will occur not only dam to ensure no failure. SESB will
caused by the water, but potentially by take out insurance policy against dam
malicious acts. What is SESB/ failure.
government’s guarantee to the locals if
ALAN
disaster happens? SESB and
government must have an agreement Explained low risks of dam failure.
with the villagers living near the river
that they will be compensated if any
problem occurs.
If dam breaks, rice fields and etc are
damaged, what are the guarantees
given by SESB? This long term

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Name / From Comment Respond from SESB / Chemsain


agreement is very important to
safeguard the locals’ rights.
SESB should take into consideration of
what the villagers ask for as
compensation when transmission lines
are constructed through their lands/
plantations, and not negotiate about the
requested compensation. Villagers
should make decision on the value of
compensation for their land.

Respondent 9 1. The reservoir will impact cemetery SESB (Jait)


at Sg. Maligan. Studies from research show that there
2. Risk of cancer due to transmission is no clear connection/ link between
lines. transmission lines and cancer. It is
indisputable that there is radiation, but
the level is very much lower than
hazardous level to humans.

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List of Attendance

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Focus Group Discussion, 20 May 2009

Introduction

The focus group discussion was held on the 20th May 2009 which concentrates mainly on the villagers
located near the proposed powerhouse and access road areas. Table 1.11-2 presents the comments and
findings from the villagers. While some comments are not related to this Project, the Consultant are obliged
to include every comments recorded during the discussion.

Table 1.11-2: Public Comments from Focus Group Discussion


Name / From Comment
1. There should not be any village at the water output area of the dam (or 2km
from any villages)
2. To ensure that there will be compensation to all residences that are affected
by the project.
3. To ensure that there will be no harms on the graveyard (not disturb or
relocate properly)

Unggi Malnam /
Kg.Mamaitom
1. Free electricity from K.Mamaitom to K.Tomani
2. Water department to be relocated to Kuala Maligan

Sawang Bin Aginso / Ketua


Kampung Kg.Tomani

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Name / From Comment


1. Give compensation to residences even though project still under land
application.
2. Affected road to be asphalt, road lamp to be installed even though there are
no house at that area.

Salam B. Sulutan / WKAN –


Kg. Kalibatang
1. The planned road to project site will include the road to Kg.Kungkular,
Kg.Ponok, Kg. Nanturan and Kg.Lohot. This activity will pollute the catchment
area. Therefore, it is better to use other road and not the village road.

JKK Kg.Kungkular
1. Compensation must not go through the employer but direct to affected
individual ( approximately 20 people)
2. Drains beside the road should be improved, repaired or cemented.
3. Compensation must be discussed together with the villagers and agreed by
everyone.

Amat (Kumpulan LGIS


Peneroka)

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Name / From Comment


st
1. Agree with Unggi Malnam from Kg.Mamaitom (1 speaker) comment

Bunsiloh Latif / KK K.Tomani


1. Road that involve Kg. Skim area should be asphalt and drainage system
should also be repair to avoid pollution.

Naib / Kg.Skim
1. A dead body was thrown downstream. Sensitivity of site equivalent to grave
site; compensation should be given to the family.

Racha Tikau / Kg. Kungkular

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Name / From Comment


1. Employment should prioritize the local

Sigoh Tulding / Ketua


Peneroka Skim Tomani
1. Utilize area that does not interfere with the catchment area.
2. To improve supply of electric locally.

Martin Lingkong / KK
Kalibatang Baru
1. Agree that the powerhouse should be moved to Ulu Kotonon (the
proposed site has a lot of farms and afraid that will disturb the farm
activities).

Titus Sakai / (Mantan JKK


Kalibatang Baru)

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Name / From Comment


1. Compensation should be given to all areas involved (from K.Tomani until
K.Kalibatang Baru).
2. Employment should prioritize the local.

Abas Bin Moto /


Kg.Mamaitom
1. Give compensation before the operations starts.
2. Moved the powerhouse approximately 2km away from its proposed site.

Murin Siayun / KK Kg.


Katambalang Baru
1. To provide clean water or water tank for few poor villagers who still uses
the river as their daily water source.

Hariebon Kumpas Wakil


Belia / Skim Kg.Tomani

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Name / From Comment


1. To appoint one of the local as a public relation officer between the villagers
and the developers.

Apoi Luba AJK / JKK Kg.


Skim
1. To ensure that the graveyard is not damaged.
2. To suggest on a new location for powerhouse – make survey visit to decide
on the perfect place (possible proposed site in SFI area).
3. Compensation direct to affected individuals not through middle person.

Taniou Mungkar / KK
Kg.Marais
1. There’s no objection on the development as long as it brings improvement
and positive impacts to the people.
2. Have to think of long term risk in environment and social; environmental
consultant need to think on the effects of the project
3. To prioritize villages that has no electricity.

Ampalang Payu / LIGS


Kg.Tomani

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List of Attendance

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Dialogue Session In Kg Kungkular (28 October 2009)

Introduction

Dialogue session with Kg Kungkular was initiated on 28 October 2009 to discuss primarily on the road
access to the dam site. The proposed access road to the dam site cross over the catchment area of Kg
Kungkular source of gravity water at two points affecting an area of approximately 0.6 ha and 4.7 ha,
respectively. At the end of the session, the Proponent and its contractor will carry out a site survey with the
villagers to check the viability for an alternative route to avert from going through the catchment area.

Table 1.11-3: Public Comments from Dialogue Session


Name / From Comment Panel Response

Maha Undi Raised his concerns should the temporary The contractor will be responsible for 6 months
access road construction materialize: upon completion of site investigation and
1. Can the contractor ensure that the subsequently it will be the responsibility of
earth drains and batu kelikir will be SESB. SESB will be responsible to anything
maintained forever? If not then the risk that happens to that affected area including
will be borne by the villagers; after the expiry of contractor commitment.
2. Trees of substantial size will be SESB assures will be responsible.
chopped down hence, source of water
will reduce.
3. Please save our only source of clean
water.

Department of Forestry, Tenom mentioned that


the Ketua Kampung of Kg Kungkular made
application for the catchment area to be turned
into forest reserve for protection some time
ago. As of now, the status of the application is
pending gazettement from the higher authority.
DOF supports for the catchment to be
protected and requested that DOF do the
monitoring. Before start of work, DOF must do
inventory of trees to be felled. Although, width
of temporary access road is 4-6m, just enough
for 1 vehicle to enter, but there will be
allowances made for road reserves so that too
must inform DOF so that they can include the
inventory up to the road reserves.
Jab. Air or JPS: He added that the processing
of the catchment gazettement will have to go
through the CM first for approval then
endorsed by the TYT. Application for
catchment is for protection meaning no activity
whatsoever within the watershed. Any
temporary activity must obtain approval. At the
moment, the gazettement is still pending.

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Anonymous SESB (Jait): Supports the gazettement of the


water catchment since any activity within it will
affect the dam operational later. Drainage
system will be included during the construction
for the temporary access road.
ADO: accessibility of the access road will be
restricted. DOF will mark trees that need to be
felled and conduct the monitoring as well.
JKKK of Kg Kungkular Query directed to the contractor. Based on Contractor: They don’t have anything against
the plan, the area affected is located on a the alternative route, all they need is an access
hill hence, the 13 feet clearings for the road road that is accessible for a vehicle to enter.
will actually required more cutting given that
have to cut the slopes. That was not taken SESB: SESB has visited the site with DOF and
into consideration. Jabatan Air. However, the alternative road is
deemed not suitable and dangerous due to
Secondly, the cost having all the earth steep terrain. Cost of cutting the hillslope is
drains have the contractor accounted it? also considered more expensive compared to
Especially when you can opt for alternative installation of drains and kelikir.
route that is shorter that goes into Sipitang
side and without any settlements depending Should the claim made by SESB is true, the
on the water source. JKKK suggested to look for another route and
this time to go with someone from Kg
Kungkular. Jait (SESB) reckons that this
should be done immediately i.e. the next week.
Racha Object the access road crossing into the ADO: Even though the catchment is gazetted
catchment. He is not convinced with the Class 1 (Protection), still can enter provided
‘assurances’ made by the contractor and there is approval from relevant persons.
SESB. He gave an example that the
Kimanis road is on steep land while the Land & Survey (Simon Motigal): Aware of the
proposed alternative road is relatively flat. area application to be a catchment hence,
But the previous was given the approval to individual land application on the said area will
proceed even when there are a lot of not be entertained.
casualties so he does not see how the
issue of ‘dangerous’ should be used as an
excuse.

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STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATION

The chronological consultations with relevant stakeholders are summarized in Table 1.11-4.

Table 1.11-4: Stakeholder Consultation


Stakeholder/Key Persons Date Agenda
SFI 12 December 2008 • Highlighted the concerns of the Project on the land
• Mr. K.L Ho use activities in the reservoir and catchment area
which are part of the Sabah Forest concession area.
• Mr. Wayne Woof
Meeting with the study team were the Sipitang
• Mr. Edmund Gan Forestry Officer and Sabah Forest Industries
• Mr. Junextopher Maing representatives. However, the team was unable to
visit the logging area on this occasion due to bad
• Mr. George Tham
condition of the logging track.
• Mr. Guy Thornton
23 December 2008 • SFI suggested that the SEIA report to be in dual
• Mr. Michael Jukim
languages, i.e. English and BM. As per requirement
• Madam Angelica Suimin of EPD, Chemsain informed only the Executive
Summary shall be translated to BM and not the
whole report.
• SFI also suggested that the report should be
displayed at Sipitang and Tenom libraries for the
public to comment. Chemsain informed that the
location of where the report would be sent to is
decided by EPD, however, SFI can write-in to EPD
to request for it.
• SFI also suggested that the community dialogue
should also be conducted in Sipitang. SESB
informed that the dialogue will be organized if there
is a request from the public.
• SESB informed that monetary compensation shall
be discussed with Economic Planning Unit.
2 April 2009 • Discussion on the issue of Sabah Forest Industries’s
operations’ influence on water quantity and turbidity
of water flowing into the planned reservoir. Site visit
were also carried out on the following day.
19 March 2010 • Via email to request for further information on SFI
areas which are then included in the land use
description in the SEIA report.
8 June 2010 • SFI prefers that areas within their plantation/logging
areas that will be taken for the project is replaced
with new land areas to cater for their pulp and paper
mill expansion needs.
• Biomass from the reservoir clearing can be used as
fuel in the SFI proposed biomass boiler.
• SFI suggested joint cooperation between SFI, SESB
and kampong people to ensure proper catchment
management plan. State Government can facilitate
this idea.
• SFI is socially concern that the kampong community
would point fingers to them because of this project
although it is not implemented by them.

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Stakeholder/Key Persons Date Agenda


EPD 30 October 2008 • One stop agency meeting which was also to formally
• Mr Yabi Yangkat present the TOR to other departments involve as
panel members.
• Mr Vitalis J. Moduying
• Madam Elin Empau March 2009 • Discussion on capacity of the department and
aspects that requires additional strengthening.
24 February 2010 • Discussion on the Table of Content for the SEIA.
EPD acknowledge that there will be additional
sections more than what is required for a normal
EIA. EPD also request that the human environment
and social impacts are put under a separate
chapter.
DID March 2009 • Discussion on capacity of the department and
• Mr Yap Siew Fah aspects that requires additional strengthening. The
department foresees minimal involvement in the
• Mr Joseph Dinor
management of catchment as the area is already
under the jurisdiction of Forestry Dept for forest
activities and EPD for environmental aspects.
Wildlife Dept March 2009 • Discussion on capacity of the department and
• Dr. Laurentius Ambu aspects that requires additional strengthening.
• Mr. Augustine Tuuga 2 March 2010 • The Dept confirmed that there are no
endangered/protected species in the reservoir area.
• Tembadau are scattered around the catchment and
not concentrated at any certain areas.
• The Dept also foresees no severe impact on wildlife
from the transmission lines construction.
DOE March 2009 • Discussion on capacity of the department and
aspects that requires additional strengthening.
• As this is a prescribed activity under the State’s law,
DOE foresee their role would only be in the
management of schedule waste.
WWF 17 March 2010 • WWF has indicated their views of concern have
• Madam Lanash Tanda been addressed in their comments on the TOR
document. As of now, they do not have other
concerns but highlighted that as part of the panel
member, they give comments based on the final
SEIA report at a later stage.
• WWF mentioned there was a community Project
carried out in Long Pa Sia however, the funding has
stopped since 2005. Since then, no further works
have been carried out in the catchment area.
• WWF main concern now is for the Heart of Borneo
program and is trying to get further commitment
from the relevant countries.
District Office of Tenom and 12 June 2008 • Engagement with related government offices of
Sipitang and Sub-District of Tenom and Sipitang to scope issues in the affected
Kemabong districts.
Kemabong community 27 November 2008 • Briefing and dialogue held at the sub-district of
Kemabong to gain overall feedback and concerns
on the project.

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Stakeholder/Key Persons Date Agenda


Kuala Tomani community 20 May 2009 • Focus Group discussion with the community to get
further feedback about the project.
Kg Kungkular villagers 28 October 2009 • A dialogue session to discuss on the road access to
the dam site which crosses over the catchment area
of Kg. Kungkular source of gravity water.

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APPENDIX 1.12 PUBLIC HEALTH


The existing public health facilities are summarized in Table 1.12-1 below.

Table 1.12-1: Survey Data


Public Health Facility Location
Tenom Hospital (92 beds) Tenom Town
Status: District Hospital
Services Provided: Outpatient services; Inpatient services; Emergency services; General Practice; Pathology;
Radiology; Maternity; Minor surgery; Pharmacy; Dialysis
Sipitang Hospital (93 beds) Sipitang Town
Status: District Hospital
Services Provided: Outpatient services; Inpatient services; Emergency services; General Practice; Pathology;
Radiology; Maternity; Minor surgery
Beaufort Hospital (275 beds) Beaufort Town
Status: District Hospital
Services Provided: Outpatient services; Inpatient services; General Practice; Pathology; Radiology; Physiotherapy;
Occupational therapy; Patient Education; Pharmacy and supply; Blood Bank; Emergency Services
Queen Elizabeth Hospital (589 beds) Kota Kinabalu
Status: Main Hospital
Services Provided: Outpatient services; Inpatient services; General Practice; Emergency Services; Pathology;
Radiology; Physiotherapy; Occupational therapy; Patient Education; Pharmacy and supply; Blood Bank; Paediatrics;
General Surgery; Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Orthopaedics; Ophthalmology; Oral Surgery; Anaesthesiology;
Dermatology; Cardiology; Nephrology; Paediatric Surgery; Urology; Vascular surgery; Neurosurgery; Neurology;
Haematology
Various public and private clinics Townships surrounding the proposed project site
including Tomani, Kemabong, Sapong, Tenom, and
Sipitang.
(At least 10km from the proposed project site)
Services Provided: General Practice; First Aid services; Distribution of general medication

List of known medically significant mosquitoes which are or can be disease carrying vectors are listed in
Table 1.12.2.

Table 1.12.2: Medically Significant Mosquitoes in Malaysia


Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding
Aedes Aegypti In developed areas, aegypti will use
natural and artificial containers for
breeding. Away from developed
areas the species tends to favour
pools in river beds, tree stumps, tree
holes and natural containers.
Females are primarily day biters and
readily enter buildings to feed.

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Albopictus Immature larvae are found in natural
containers, including tree holes,
bamboo stumps, coconut shells, rock
holes, palm fronds, and leaf axils.
They are also found in all varieties of
artificial containers and will breed
indoors. Females readily bite man.

Poicilius Immature larvae are commonly found


in the axils of aroid-type plants,
banana, and abaca plants. Females
feed readily on humans, entering
habitations if necessary, at all hours.

Togoi Larvae are common in coastal


regions. Larvae usually occur in tidal
pools or rock pools of salt and
brackish water, also occasionally in
containers with fresh water. Females
readily bite man throughout the day.

Vexans Immature larvae are found in


unshaded fresh water flood pools in
secondary scrub, but have also been
collected in ditches, swamps, rice
fields, and elephant foot prints.
Habitats usually have little aquatic
vegetation or algae. Females are
night biters and readily feed on man
and cattle.

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Vigilax Larvae are found primarily in brackish
water, mangrove swamps and salt
marshes, but have also been
collected from rock holes and fresh
water ground pools.
Females bite at any time and will bite
man. They are strong fliers and can
be found some distance from the
coast.

Anopheles Aconitus Larvae found primarily in flooded rice


fields, grassy ponds and stream
margins. Also found in Nippa palm
swamps, stream pools, fresh water
swamps, rock pools, seepage pools,
and ditches.

Annularis Larvae found in clear, still water with


abundant vegetation. Habitats include
ponds, swamps, and rice fields.
Adults are zoophilic.

Barbirostris Larvae found in open sunny to light


shade habitats with all types of
vegetation. Habitats include stream
and river margins and pools, flowing
and stagnant ditches, lakes, rice
fields, temporary and permanent
ground pools, seepage springs,
animal footprints, canals, marshes,
fish and rock pools. Adults are
zoophilic.

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Campestris Larvae found in deeper-water
habitats with some vegetation and
some light shade from trees. Habitats
include the corners of rice fields,
stagnant ditches between rows of
coconut palms and earth wells. Adults
strongly anthropophagous and bite
more indoors than out.

Donaldi Larvae found in ground water habitats


with some emergent vegetation and
partial to heavy shade such as jungle
pools, swamp forest, sedge swamps,
also overgrown drains, rice fields and
river swamps. Adults will bite during
the day in shady locations and will
enter houses to bite at night.

Karwari Larvae found in seepages and small


streams in open and under light
shade in hilly areas. Adults are
zoophilic.

Letifer Larvae found in still, shaded, dark,


acidic water with emergent vegetation
or numerous leaves in the water.
Habitats include freshwater swamps,
jungle pools, large isolated stream
pools. Adults are exophagic night
biters.

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Minimus Larvae found in small- to moderate-
sized streams of clear, cool
unpolluted water with partial shade
and grassy margins. Other larval
habitats include rock pools, sand
pools next to streams, seepage pools
and springs, stream pools and fallow
rice fields with seepage. Females are
anthropophilic and endophagus.

Nigerrimus A lowland and valley species that


prefers deep, cool, semi-open large
bodies of water with some emergent
or floating vegetation in open sunlight
to moderate shade. Habitats include
canals, large open marshes, large
stream pools and rice fields.

Philippinensis Larvae found in clean still or slowly


moving water with vegetation.
Habitats include grassy edges of rice
fields, ponds, swamps and irrigation
channels. Adults are zoophilic.

Sinensis Larvae are found in shallow habitats,


fresh water usually with emergent
vegetation and exposed to direct
sunlight. They are characteristic of
open agricultural lands (chiefly rice
fields). They have also been collected
in ground pools, pools beside a river,
marshes, stream margins, ditches,
seepages, shallow ponds, and
sumps. In mountainous areas they
are confined to the valleys. Females
are zoophilic but rarely bite humans.
Females are exophilic and are rarely
taken in indoor resting collections.

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Subpictus Larvae are typically found in muddy
pools often near houses. Also found
in barrow pits, animal wallows and
artificial containers.

Sundaicus A primarily coastal species, the larvae


are found in sunlit brackish pools with
algae. Adults bite primarily cattle but
readily bite man.

Tessellatus Larvae are widely distributed but


rarely abundant. Larval habitats are
collections of dirty stagnant water in
sun or shade. Adults are primarily
zoophilic but will enter houses to bite
man.

Whartoni Larvae are found in dark peaty water


with deep shade. Habitats also
include clear water shaded swamps,
seepage pools. Adults bite man
outside generally in the two hours
after sunset (dusk).

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Armigeres Subalbatus Immature larvae are found in various
container habitats that contain
polluted water. Females bite
throughout the day, with peaks at
dawn and dusk.

Coquillettidia Crassipes Larvae are found primarily in and at


the edges of open swamp in
association with Isachne and
Panicum grasses. Larvae use a
specialized siphon to attach to plant
roots. Females feed primarily on birds
but will bite cattle.

Culex Bitaeniorhynchus Larvae are restricted to ground water


habitats containing Spirogyra.

Gelidus Larvae are found in a variety of


temporary and semi-permanent
ground water habitats such as pools,
puddles and small streams. Larvae
are also occasionally found in artificial
containers such as barrels and water
tanks. Females are vicious biters,
preferring large domestic animals to
man.

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Quinquefasciatus Larvae can be found in bodies of
water containing a high degree of
organic pollution and close to human
habitation. Females readily enter
houses at night and bite man in
preference to other mammals.

Sitiens Larvae are found in brackish, salt and


fresh groundwater habitats and some
artificial containers in coastal areas.
Females feed primarily on birds and
pigs, but will bite man.

Tritaeniorhynchus Larvae are found in many temporary,


semi-permanent and permanent
ground water habitats that are sunlit
and contain vegetation. Habitats
include, but are not limited to, ground
pools, streams, swamps, and low-
salinity tidal marshes. Females are
primarily cattle- and pig-biters, but will
feed on man in their absence.

Vishnui Larvae are typically found in ground


pool habitats that include puddles,
ditches, ponds, animal and wheel
tracks, and rice fields in open
situations containing emergent and
aquatic vegetation.
Females feed primarily on pigs and
birds, but in their absence will readily
bite man.

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Mansonia Annulata Larvae are usually found at the edge
of swamp forest. Larvae use specially
modified siphons to pierce stems and
roots of aquatic vegetation to obtain
air. Females are crepuscular and
prefer cattle but will bite man.

Bonneae Larvae, generally found in shaded


pools in the interior of swamp forest,
use specially modified siphons to
pierce stems and roots of aquatic
vegetation to obtain air. Females
prefer cattle but do enter houses to
bite man.

Dives Larvae, found in shaded pools in the


interior swamp forest, use specially
modified siphons to pierce stems and
roots of aquatic vegetation to obtain
air. Females are crepuscular and
prefer cattle but will enter houses to
bite man.

Indiana Larvae, found in open swamps and


coastal rice fields, use specially
modified siphons to pierce stems and
roots of aquatic vegetation to obtain
air. Females are crepuscular and bite
man.

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Genus Species Image Habitat and Feeding


Uniformis Larvae are found in open swamp
unshaded by trees. Larvae use
specially modified siphons to pierce
stems and roots of aquatic vegetation
to obtain air. Females are crepuscular
and prefer cattle, but will readily feed
on man.

Source – Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, 2008.

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APPENDIX 1.13 BIOMASS REMOVAL


Planning Guidelines for Removing Biomass from Reservoir

Objectives

There are 4 main objectives for removing forest biomass from the reservoir area:

• To avoid loss of economic value from valuable timber in the area to be inundated;
• To reduce forest biomass inundated, therefore reduce oxygen depletion due to decomposition of this
material, and thus reduce loss of aquatic life in the reservoir.

• To ensure that the reservoir shoreline is free of dead vegetation which may impede marine transport
and future tourism development in the reservoir area.

• To remove the biomass in a timely manner, consistent with the schedule for dam construction and
reservoir filling operations.

Scope

These guidelines were developed as responses to the following 4 questions:

• What types of biomass should be removed?


• Over what time period the biomass should be removed?

• From what part of the reservoir should biomass be removed?

• How should the biomass be disposed of?

These guidelines address the four objectives and questions listed above.

Step 1: Harvest Timber and Small Diameter Pulpwood of Commercial Value

• Commercial timber and pulpwood should be harvested first, from all of the 590 ha reservoir area (up
to—but not exceeding)—the maximum flood level 470 m).
• This should be done during the years preceding dam construction and can continue during the early
years of the dam construction period.

• Sabah Forest Industries would be the logical entity to plan and implement this work as they are the
concession holder; and they have the experience and access to sub contractors; as well as wood
processing mills (at Sipitang) to utilize the timber, pulpwood and wood waste for fuel.

• Timber and pulpwood should be harvested using the conventional harvesting methods, equipment and
manpower used by SFI and their sub-contractors, and as governed by existing forest legislation,
regulated by staff of the Sabah Forestry Department (SFD).

Step 2: Collect and Dispose of Residual Forest Biomass and Logging Residues

• Following harvest of timber and pulpwood, selective removal of residual biomass (trees, shrubs and
logging residues that cannot be used in SFI’s mills) from the reservoir.

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• This can either be done over the entire 590 ha reservoir area, or it can be limited to the area between
the maximum water line (470 m)11 and the minimum reservoir operating level (430 m) adjusted for a
tree hight (30 m) and and 5 m as being the depth of the aerobic layer. This area is estimated to cover
a strip about 130 m wide and 30 kilometers long around the shoreline of the reservoir. The area can
be calculated to cover about 390 ha.

• If the cleared biomass is to be removed physically from the area, then clearing of residual biomass
from the reservoir area should not commence until the reservoir filling (impoundment) period, as
biomass re-grows quickly and may have to be cleared again if clearing operations commence too
early. Clearing of residual forest biomass should be timed to keep pace with the impoundment. On the
other hand, biomass to be decomposed in the reservoir area require substantial time crushed and in
close contact with the ground while biomass to be burned require at least a year for proper drying.

Planning Parameters and Assumptions for Biomass Removal Plan for Ulu Padas Reservoir

• Elevation difference between high (470 m) and low (430 m) water levels: 40 m.
• Additional clearing elevation equivalent to a tree height (30 m) and the depth of the aerobic layer in the
reservoir (5 m).

• Approximate length of reservoir shore line (including all of the tributaries): 33 km

• Approximate average width of interzone between high and low water levels adjusted for the tree height
and aerobic layer: 130 m12

• Estimated area to be cleared of residual biomass:

• Alternative 1: remove biomass from river to reservoir high water (470 m): 590 ha

• Alternative 2: remove biomass between high (470 m) and low (430 m) level 390 ha (66% of 590 ha
reservoir area)

• Assumed clearing time from start to finish of reservoir filling (impoundment): 2 years

• Average dry weight of above ground biomass: 100 t/ha (dry weight);

o Estimated Commercial Timber - 50 m3/ha; Commercial Pulpwood - 50 m3/ha


3
o Sub-total – Commercial wood to harvest/utilize: 100 m +/- 50 t/ha (dry weight)

o Residual (non commercial) biomass to collect/dispose of: 50 t/ha (dry weight)

• Method of Harvest/Transporting Commercial timber & pulpwood – Utilize SFI’s current timber and
pulpwood harvesting systems.

• Method of Clearing and Disposing of Residual Forest Biomass;

11
Maximum biomass decomposition (and related oxygen depletion) occur when biomass is alternately exposed to air and water (430-
470 m elev.). Areas below the reservoir’s minimum water level (430 m) where biomass is permanently inundated, will remain sound for
long periods, eg Wood in Nam Ngum reservoir in Laos did not decay in 30 years (1976-2006)
12 Based on an estimated average shore-line slope, the average horizontal distance between high (470 m) and low (430 m) water
levels is estimated to be about 100 m .The total length of shoreline is estimated to be 33 km. The area of a 100 m wide strip along the33
km shoreline is 340 ha. Residual forest biomass on this area is estimated at 4 Should burning of biomass not be acceptable, the
material should be chipped using mobile chippers and trucked to a site where it can be utilized for manufacture of reconstituted wood
products. Although this option will be more costly, a portion of the cost may be recovered through the sale of the chipped material.

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o Prior to impoundment: fell, cut, pile with excavators and leave to decompose; or Burn during
periods of suitable climatic conditions (to minimize air pollution). The small, broken pieces that
cannot be collected and disposed of will be collected from the surface of the reservoir as
described in the following bullet point.

o Post impoundment, collect floating debris from reservoir surface using boats & booms, tow to
shore, pile on shore and await decomposition; or burn during periods of suitable climatic
conditions (to minimize air pollution).

• Average rate of Clearing/Disposing of Residual Forest Biomass:

o Alternative 1: 590 ha/24 months = 25 ha / month (2,500 t/month; 83 t/day)

o Alternative 2: 390 ha/24 months = 16 ha / month (1,600 t/month; 53 t/day)

• It should be noted that these planning guidelines are only a preliminary step in biomass removal
planning. A detailed operational plan should be prepared to manage reservoir clearing operations.

The following section includes an Outline for Preparing of a Biomass Removal Plan (BRP).

Outline of Planning Process for Ulu Padas Biomass Removal Plan (BRP)

There is a well developed process for planning and implementation for biomass removal. It entails
preparation of a Biomass Removal Plan (BRP) according to an established series of steps. The BRP
addresses and integrates procedures of least environmental impact to the physical, biological and the human
components of the reservoir affected by the activities. The BRP is responsive to the spatial and temporal
variations in the environment of the reservoir in order to meet the objective of optimum biomass removal. In
the case of the Ulu Padas Hydro Electric Power Project, the objective is consistent with conservation of
project resources. The BRP will include detailed information on access, location and quantities of biomass,
and the deployment of equipment and labour, and scheduling of work. The BRP is based on standards for
compliance and guidelines for implementation. ¶The BRP steps are listed in chronological order as follows:

Step 1 - The BRP should be based on study and inventory of physical conditions in the reservoir:
• Forest and vegetation, including commercial & non commercial species and sizes of trees;

• Terrain, soil and surface hydrology;

• Wildlife and fisheries;

• Forest concession, Virgin Jungle Reserves and other conservation areas.

• Existing land use, agriculture, settlements, infrastructure, etc.

Step 2 - The BRP will employ the information from the studies and inventory to delineate operational areas
(blocks or compartments) within the reservoir for implementation of specific procedures and practices for
harvesting, utilizing and disposing of the various biomass components.

• For example: Different compartments and biomass components (saw/plywood logs; pulpwood, non-
commercial trees, shrubs, etc.) will be assigned to different work groups (contractors), depending on
equipment and manpower requirements for that particular compartment and biomass component.

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Implementation of the Ulu Padas Biomass Removal Plan (BRP)

Implementation involves translating the BRP into actions. To implement the BRP, rules, standards and
guidelines must be established and responsibilities assigned for each of the following activities:
• Surveying standards and guidelines

• Timber salvage standards for cut, skid, pile, sort and transport

• Residue clearing standards and guidelines for slashing and piling

• Residue disposal standards and guidelines for burning

• Standards & guidelines for construction of access tracks – sub-grade, grade and drainage

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APPENDIX 1.14 JKR TRAFFIC CENSUS


Table 1.14-1: Recorded Traffic Volumes at JKR Traffic Census (Year 2007)
% of Vehicle Composition Peak
16-Hour Hour vph /
Station Location Traffic Medium Heavy Traffic vpd
(vpd) Cars Van Bus Motorcycle Volume (%)
Truck Truck
(vph)
HR101 Beaufort-Sindumin 10,772 36.4% 27.6 18.0% 13.7% 0.3% 4.0% 892 8.3%
%
HR103 KK-Sapulut 2,282 38.0% 28.8 13.0% 11.7% 1.5% 6.8% 209 9.2%
%
HR104 Tenom-Tomani 3,879 26.3% 25.7 20.0% 1.7% 3.0% 22.8% 311 8.0%
%
HR106 KK-Sindumin 5,240 57.9% 21.0 9.0% 3.1% 0.2% 9.0% 510 9.7%
%
HR201 KK-Papar 4,932 53.5% 22.5 11.8% 4.8% 0.9% 6.5% 580 11.8%
%
HR202 Donggongon- 4,685 32.3% 26.9 17.0% 13.0% 4.7% 6.0% 416 8.9%
Tambunan %
HR209 KK-Sindumin 4,638 56.1% 23.3 10.0% 2.6% 1.2% 6.2% 795 17.1%
(near Bongawan) %
Source: RTVM 2007

Table 1.14-2: Average Annual Growth Rate and 16-Hour Traffic Volumes
16-Hour Traffic Volumes (vpd) Normal
Station Location Growth
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 (%)
HR101 Beaufort- 3,240 3,058 2,608 2,689 3,856 4,077 4,902 5,805 7,042 10773 14.62
Sindumin
HR103 KK-Sapulut 2,197 2,102 2,163 2,308 2,202 2,360 2,727 2,839 3,039 2,282 2.98
HR104 Tenom-Tomani 2,327 2,743 2,545 2,963 3,081 2,501 2,796 2,662 4,196 3,879 4.60
HR106 KK-Sindumin 2,664 2,887 2,939 3,622 3,738 4,320 4,507 4,412 4,565 5,240 7.63
HR201 KK-Papar 2,599 1,861 2,261 2,831 2,800 3,029 3,124 3,416 3,541 4,932 8.01
HR202 Donggongon- 3,732 3,726 3,668 4,006 3,189 3,836 4,123 4,326 4,751 4,685 2.98
Tambunan
HR209 KK-Sindumin 3,863 3,486 4,115 4,246 4,532 6,368 6,876 6,609 8,757 4,639 7.71
(near
Bongawan)
Source: RTVM 2007

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APPENDIX 2
METHODOLOGIES AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

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APPENDIX 2.1 SOILS AND GEOLOGY


Review of Seismicity

The seismic analysis for the site is normally based on statistical data obtained from Perkhidmatan Kajicuaca
Malaysia. The data consist of estimates of earthquake magnitudes, locations and focal depths. Seismic risks
are evaluated from the following data:

• Maximum observed intensity map over Sabah and Sarawak


• Record of felt earthquake in Sabah and Sarawak

• Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931 (abridged)

The felt intensities are higher in Sabah with Modified Mercalli (MM) scale of VI, and much lower in Sarawak.

Intensity attenuation expressions can be used to relate intensity characteristic with earthquake magnitude
and distance from site to source, and the most widely used in Civil Engineering design is the Modified
Mercalli (MM) intensity which has a scale of 1(I) to 12(XII). The structure of MM is not linear. The intensity
from I to V is irrelevant in terms of earthquake risk, but from MM intensities VI, VII and VIII almost 90% of the
seismic damage take place with horizontal velocities ranging from 5 to 50 cm/sec.

The assessment of earthquake potential depends mainly on the seismicity of the area. The assessment of
acceptable risk and the determination of design ground motion is a subject for engineering judgment.

The seismicity around the area of the Hydropower project is regarded as intra-plate seismicity, with the
Philippine Plate boundary approximately 1000 km away. A search of earthquakes with magnitudes mb ≥ 4
within a radius of 500 km was undertaken using USGS earthquake data and the results plotted in the sketch
shown below. It is noted here that there was an outbreak of seismic energy in the Ranau earthquake swarm
in May to July 1991. The epicentres of the swarm were around 140 km from the project area. The maximum
magnitude of mb= 5.1 was recorded twice during the swarm.

A probabilistic analysis according to the method by McGuire and Cornell was undertaken during the
feasibility stage by SWECO. The method took into account three relations:

• The stochastic process;


• The distribution of magnitudes from a specific source; and

• The attenuation of ground movements.

The stochastic process that generates the earthquake is assumed to be poissonian. It relates the probability
of producing an earthquake within a time period with an estimated magnitude.

The second relation is the Gutenberg-Richter relation, which describes the distribution of magnitudes for
each specific source. In the feasibility study, it was reported that the seismicity is dispersed and no obvious
source can be identified, and thus the project area is considered as homogenous earthquake source, rather
than a specific earthquake source.

The third relation, the peak ground velocity is attenuated from the epicentre of the earthquake to the project
area.

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It was concluded in the feasibility study that for a return period of 1000 years, the peak ground acceleration
(PGA) of 0.082g was obtained for a homogenous earthquake source.

A new study conducted by Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) in 2009 used 2 approaches to assess the
seismicity of the site. The first approach is the above-mentioned Probabilistic method (PSHA), and the
second approach, the Deterministic method (DSHA). In the deterministic method, the earthquake source is
from specified areas such as seismically active fault zones in Ranau.

USMS estimated the PGA for a return period of 10,000 years using the probability method for the
homogenous source at 0.099g. For the DSHA approach, the PGA largest value obtained was 0.026g

Practically 99% of all earthquakes occur along plate boundaries. Other causes could be reactivation of faults
not connected to plate boundaries and dam reservoir induced seismicity (RIS). The magnitude of the shock
due to activation of a fault will depend on the size of the fault and its distance from the site. There are no
very large active faults near the site. West of the site, there is an inferred fault with a strike length of over 15
km. This fault can be considered as potentially active due to their relationship with the Tenom Graben and
the Crocker Fault zone in the north. However, there are no records of seismicity related to the Tenom
Graben or the fault.

Reservoir loadings alone are not a cause of reservoir induced seismicity (RIS); dams of 50 m height can
produce earthquake events as large as dams of 200 m height. RIS typically requires an environment that is
already highly stressed. When impounding of a reservoir occurs, this raises the pore pressures in the
underlying and ambient rock masses and consequently reduces the effective stresses along favourably
orientated discontinuities in the rock. If the rock mass is in a condition of incipient failure, through the
magnitude of the in-situ stress condition, rupture along a discontinuity may occur, causing an earthquake.

The folded rocks of the present dam site/reservoir suggest that these have been subjected to high horizontal
stresses in the past. However, without monitoring it is not possible to predict the intensity of any RIS that
might result from impounding here, or whether the area will remain seismically quiet. If a micro-seismic
network is set up, this should be done before well before impounding, in order to establish background
conditions. Normally, the absence of micro-seismic activity over a period of six months to a year (before
impounding) indicates that RIS will not be a problem.

Since there are no known active faults, and the generally impermeable and plastic greywacke and argillite
rock mass have no residual stresses of significant magnitude, RIS is unlikely. However, the shape of the
reservoir may favour stress concentrations, and together with rapid impounding of the reservoir may produce
conditions favouring RIS.

The new study by USMS emphasized on the significance of reservoir induced seismicity. In a worst case
scenario, the estimated R.I.S. of mb=4.5 located 3 km from the dam site at a depth of 10 km, gave an
estimated PGA of 0.18g, which is a rather high value. On the other hand, USMS stated that possibility of RIS
with mb ≥ 4.5 is very low, since there were no records of seismic events in the reservoir area.

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APPENDIX 2.2 CLIMATE AND AIR


Air Quality Modelling

Dust is expected to be generated during the construction phase, during the clearing of the Project area and
any other earthworks operations required for the construction of the dam and access roads. Stockpiles of
topsoil, uncovered loads on construction vehicles and unprotected cleared areas are other potential dust
sources. In addition, dust could be generated during unsealed road use by construction traffic. Dust
emissions often vary substantially from day to day, depending on the level of activity, the specific operations,
and the prevailing meteorological conditions.

A more significant potential cause of increased particulate levels during construction will be inappropriate
disposal of vegetation during site clearance. It is common practice in the past to open burn cleared
vegetation. This method of disposal can lead to significant emissions of pollutants, not only particulate matter
but also oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Besides this,
incomplete combustion often leaves a large amount of residual matter (ashes) for disposal which may be re-
suspended by strong winds, thus further contributing to dust emissions. Overall, open burning of the
vegetation may lead to significant worsening of the air quality at the project site.

As there will be no open burning of vegetation during site clearance, air pollution from this source and the
inappropriate disposal of vegetation is non-existent. Hence, the only air pollutant of concern is total
suspended particulate (TSP).

Although the dam occupies a huge area, the area where construction activity is conducted at any one time is
conservatively estimated at about 30 hectares.

Based on a construction period of 18 to 24 months and the main construction area of 30 hectares, the
amount of dust emitted is:-

= 2.69 X 24 X 30 = 1,936.8 Mg

The assumption is made there are 26 working days in a month, and construction activity is active during day
time and last approximately 10 hours a day, from 7.00 am. to 5.00 pm. The 1,936.8 Mg reduces to an
emission rate of 86.2 g/s (worst case) when there are no control measures. This emission rate is used in the
modelling study to predict the total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration in ambient air.

However, when there are control measures to reduce dust emissions such as those mentioned above, the
emission rate could be reduced by 95 to 98 percent. In this assessment, it was assumed that the removal
efficiency was 95 percent, thus the emission rate of TSP when there are control measures to reduce dust
emission is 4.31 g/s.

Modelling

As fugitive dust is a major concern during the construction phase of the dam, refined modelling of its impact
was conducted. The model used in the study was the Industrial Source Complex Short Term Version Three
(ISCST3) model.

Model Description

The Industrial Source Complex Short Term Version 3 (ISCST3) model is the US EPA’s current regulatory
model for many New Source Review (NSR) and other air permitting applications. The ISCST3 model is

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based on a steady-state Gaussian plume algorithm, and is applicable for estimating ambient impacts from a
wide variety of sources such as point, area, and volume sources out to a distance of about 50 kilometers.
The ISCST3 model includes algorithms for addressing building downwash influences, dry and wet deposition
algorithms, and also incorporates the complex terrain screening algorithms from the COMPLEX1 model (US
EPA, 1995). The ISCST3 model utilizes hourly meteorological data that have been preprocessed using the
PCRAMMET program for meteorological data, and the Meteorological Processor for Regulatory Models
(MPRM) for on-site data. The ISCST3 model includes a wide range of options for modelling air quality
impacts of pollution sources, making them popular choices among the modelling community for a variety of
applications. Among the options available are the source option, receptor option, meteorological option,
dispersion option and output options.

Source Input Data

Input for the ISCST3 model includes emission and source parameter data for the sources in the study area.
The sources at the construction site were modelled as area sources as these are fugitive dust sources. The
length of the source was set at 100 metres in length and 50 metres in width depending the location and size
of the construction area worked on.

Receptor Grid and Discrete Receptors

In order to simulate the impact of emissions from ground and elevated sources, receptors must be chosen,
and ground level ambient concentrations determined for each of the receptor locations.

In this assessment study, a 6 km by 6 km receptor grid (3 km radius) was chosen to assess the impact of
fugitive dust emissions from the construction site of the project. The centre of the project site was set as the
origin of the receptor grid.

As the hydroelectric project is located in a remote and sparsely inhabited area, there are no sensitive
receptors in the grid.

Meteorology

The ISCST3 model "reads" the meteorological information on an hour-by-hour basis. The hourly weather
data contains wind speed, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and mixing heights. If data on
wind profile exponents and vertical potential temperature gradient are available, the user can assign these
data to the model for computation, otherwise default values are automatically used by the ISCST3
programme.

The surface weather and upper air data used in the ISCST3 modelling input were from collected from the
Labuan Airport Meteorological Station (Lat. 05 deg. 18' N, Long. 115 deg. 15' E, elevation 29.3m above
MSL) and Kota Kinabalu International Airport Meteorological Station (Lat. 05° 56' N, Long. 116° 03' E,
elevation 2.3m above MSL) respectively. Data from these stations were chosen because these are the
nearest meteorological stations with the necessary data for the modelling. The stations are operated by the
Malaysian Meteorological Department. At least 12 months of representative hourly meteorological data is
needed. In this case, one year of latest data was used in the analysis.

The hourly mixing heights were computed according to the generally accepted formula (US EPA, 1992a):

Mixing Height (m) = wind speed (m/s) X 320.

Dispersion Options

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The ISCST3 model is especially designed to support the regulatory modelling assessments. The regulatory
modelling options were selected for the mode of operation for the model. These include the use of stack-tip
downwash, buoyancy-induced dispersion, final plume rise, routine for processing averages when calm winds
occur, values for wind profile exponents and for the vertical potential temperature gradients.

The model has a rural and three urban options. Depending on the options selected, the mixing heights and
diffusion coefficient values for the indicated stability category are used in the calculation such as urban
mixing heights are used in urban modes. The rural mode is usually selected for industrial source complexes
located in rural areas. However the urban option may also be considered in modelling an industrial source
complex located in a rural area if the complex is large and contains tall buildings and/or large heat sources.
This is to account for the enhanced turbulence generated during stable meteorological conditions by surface
roughness and/or heat sources.

In this study the rural option was chosen as the project is located a remote area covered with vegetation.

Model Output

The types of output available with the model are:

i. Summaries of high values (highest, second highest, etc.) by receptor for each averaging period and
source group combination;

ii. Summaries of overall maximum values for each averaging period and source group combination;
and

iii. Tables of concurrent values summarized by receptor for each averaging period and source group
combination for each day of data processed.

In this assessment, the maximum incremental concentration for the period was computed. This means that
for the 24-hour average concentration, the maximum 24-hour average concentration is the highest computed
24-hour average concentration over the entire meteorological data period.

In the case of the long-term average or the seasonal average concentration, the computed average
concentration is the average of all the hourly concentration over the entire meteorological data period.

Output Parameters

The following parameters were predicted;

i. Maximum 24-hour average TSP concentration;

ii. Long term average TSP concentration;

For the with control dust measures scenario and without dust measures control scenario.

Results

Predicted TSP concentrations during the construction phase of the Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project are
shown in Figure 2.2-1 and Figure 2.2-2 for the maximum 24-hour with control measures and without control
measres scenarios and Figure 2.2-3 and Figure 2.2-4 for the long term average concentration with control
measures and without control measures respectively.

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Figure 2.2-1: Maximum 24-Hour Average TSP Incremental Concentration (µg/m3) During Construction
Stage-With Control Measures

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Figure 2.2-2: Maximum 24-Hour Average TSP Incremental Concentration (µg/m3) During Construction
Stage-Without Control Measures

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Figure 2.2-3: Long Term Average TSP Incremental Concentration (µg/m3) during Construction Stage-
With Control Measures

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Figure 2.2-4: Long Term Average TSP Incremental Concentration (µg/m3) during Construction Stage-
Without Control Measures

For the 24-hour average concentration when there are dust control measures, higher concentrations are
found within the construction/dam site. However, these incremental concentrations which are below 40
3 3
µg/m do not exceed the standard level of 260 µg/m when the existing baseline concentration of between
3 3
9.5 µg/m at A6 and 22.5 µg/m at A2 are added to it.

3
Predicted long term average incremental concentrations which are below 6 µg/m are well within the
standard level of 90 µg/m3 when the existing baseline concentrations which are between 9.5 and 22.5 µg/m3
are added to it. The higher levels are found within the dam area.

In the event when there are no dust control measures to reduce dust emissions during the construction
3
phase, the increase in TSP concentration can be as much as 1,000 µg/m near the project site for the 24-
3
hour average concentration. This is well above the guideline of 260 µg/m .

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On a long term basis, if there are no control measures, the long term average TSP concentration increases
by 100 µg/m3 near the project site and decreases to 3 µg/m3 about three kilometres away. The 100 µg/m3
level exceed the guideline level of 90 µg/m3 in areas near the project site.

As the construction phase of the project will be over a period of 12 to 24 months, the impact of TSP pollution
on ambient air is minimal once construction activity ceases.

Operational Phase

Insignificant air quality impact is expected during normal operation of the dam as there are no significant
sources of dust or air pollutants during this phase of operation. The source of air pollution during the
operational phase of the Project is the water pumps which are considered insignificant.

Other Gaseous Pollutants

As for the other criteria air pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone, the
activities of this Project does not release any of these air pollutants and therefore the Project do not have
any impact on the concentration of these gases in ambient air. Measured concentrations of these gases are
well within the Malaysian Ambient Air Guideline levels.

Conclusion

Suspended particulate matter as TSP is the main air pollutant emitted during the construction phase of the
hydroelectric Project. Modelling of the ambient air concentration of TSP during the construction phase of the
3 3
Project showed that the standard level of 260 µg/m for the 24-hour average concentration and 90 µg/m for
the long term average was not exceeded when there are control measures to reduce dust emissions.
However, when there are no dust control measures, the predicted TSP concentration is above the guideline
levels in areas close to the Project.

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APPENDIX 2.3 GREEN HOUSE GASSES


The methodology for this estimation was based on the 2006 IPCC (Inter-governmental Panel on Climate
Change) Guidelines for national Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

Methodology

The following methodology was employed to compute the net carbon dioxide balance resulting from activities
of the Project.

i. The total amount of dry matter in above ground biomass (existing biomass stock) is calculated based
on the type of existing forest at the project site, the size of the forest as measured during the
inventories of the existing forest for this assessment. In this case, the existing vegetation at the site is
generally undisturbed mixed dipterocarp forest with above-ground dry matter biomass of 100 tons per
hectare.

ii. A harvesting estimate has been made for there reservoir area as the project will require harvesting of
commercial volumes of the reservoir area before the filling of the reservoir. It is estimated that 50% of
the standing volume may be salvaged as commercial and that half of this will go into long term
products and the remainder for short term products such as pulp.

iii. A total clearing of a 130-metre strip along the shoreline (app. 390 hectares) is required. It is estimated
that the effectiveness of the clearing is 90%, meaning that 10% of the volume will be left for
inundation.

iv. During the inundation phase of the project, the remaining above ground biomass is inundated. With
the estimated rate of decay and the amount of biomass remaining under water, the rate of carbon
released is also computed based on this rate. However, to represent the worst case scenario, it is
assumed that since this biomass is deprived of oxygen, the decay process is anaerobic releasing
methane which has 22 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) instead of just CO2
if the decay process is aerobic.

v. Finally the net carbon removed from the atmosphere or emitted into the atmosphere over the Project
period is computed and this is then converted to the amount of CO2 and CO2 equivalent for methane
emission.

CO2 Computation

The amount of carbon emitted into or removed from the atmosphere was computed based on data provided
by the Consultant’s forest inventories:

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Carbon release
Dipterocarp
Forest type forest
Reservoir Area ha 590.00
Boundary (Shore) line(m) 30,000.00
With of buffer (shore) band to be cleared (m) 130.00 Shore line band area (ha): 390
Area not cleared 200.00
Above ground Tons Dry Weight Biomass / ha 100.00 Chemsain inventories
Carbon : dry weight biomass Ratio 0.50
salvageable proportion (%) 50%
Of this conversion into:
Long t erm products (%) 50% years for decomposition: 20
Short term products (%) 50% years for decomposition: 2
Of the wasted material in the cleared area:

Proportion cleared and piled for decomposition (%) 90% years for decomposition: 10
Proportion left standing for inundation (%) 10% years for decomposition: 20

Of the wasted material in the inundated area:

Proportion cleared and piled for decomposition (%) 0% years for decomposition: 10
Proportion left standing for inundation (%) 100% years for decomposition: 20

Biomass stored in the vegetation 59,000 Tons


Salvagable biomass, all areas 29,500 Tons
Carbon stored in t he non salvagable biomass, all
areas 29,500 Tons
Carbon stored in t he non salvagable biomass,
cleared area 19,500 Tons
Carbon stored in t he non salvagable biomass,
inundated area 10,000 Tons

Carbon released per year from long term products 738 t /y over 20 years, eqv to 2,704 tons CO2/year

Carbon released per year from short term products 7,375 t /y over 2 years, eqv. to 27,042 tons CO2/year

Carbon released per year from piled-up biomass 878 t ons per year over 10 years as CO2
t ons Cper year over 20 years as Tonnes met hane
Carbon released per year from inundated biomass 536 715
met hane (CH4): per year

Harvested wood releases its carbon at rates dependent upon its method of processing and its end-use,
waste wood in this case is left to decay and is estimated to oxidise in roughly a decade (IPCC) and the end
product of the timber decays in 10 years as well (IPCC).

Results

Based on the average of 350 tons dry weight biomass per hectare, the biomass involved in the calculations
are:
Biomass st ored in t he vegetat ion 59,000 Tons
Salvagable biomass, all areas 29,500 Tons
Carbon st ored in t he non salvagable biomass, all
areas 29,500 Tons
Carbon st ored in t he non salvagable biomass,
cleared area 19,500 Tons
Carbon st ored in t he non salvagable biomass,
inundat ed area 10,000 Tons

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Based on 50% carbon content in the dry weight biomass, the carbon and CO2 equivalents released from log
salvage and clearing are:
Carbon released per year from long term products 738 t/y over 20 years, eqv to 2,704 tons CO2/year

Carbon released per year from short term products 7,375 t/y over 2 years, eqv. to 27,042 tons CO2/year

Carbon released per year from piled-up biomass 878 tons per year over 10 years as CO2
tons Cper year over 20 years as Tonnes methane
Carbon released per year from inundated biomass 536 715
methane (CH4): per year

The net amount of carbon dioxide equivalents released into the atmosphere that have been converted into
release per year:
CO2 equivalent release, years 1-2: 48,693 tonnes per year
CO2 equivalent release, years 3-10: 21,652 tonnes per year
CO2 equivalent release, years 11-20: 18,434 tonnes per year
Total CO2 equivalent release: 454,942 tonnes

This means that on average, about 23,000 tons of CO2 equivalents are released annually over a 20 year
period. The project will not release any greenhouse gasses due to the energy production per se and neither
will it absorb any atmospheric carbon (see Figure 2.3-1).

Figure 2.3-1: Annual Release of GHG Converted to CO2 Equivalent Mass (tonnes)

Annual release of GHG converted to CO2


equivalent mass(tonnes)
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000 Annual release of GHG
20,000 converted to CO2 equivalent
10,000 mass (tonnes)
-
- 2 4 6 8 10 12

Discussions

As a general guide to the economic implication of this project, conclusions based on a report prepared for
the Asian Development Bank by the Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy of Denmark was
referred to (K. Halsnæs, 1999). The report concluded that greenhouse gas emission reductions in the energy
sector in the order of magnitude of 10 to 15 percent of future baseline emissions can be achieved at a cost of
below US$ 25 per ton of carbon dioxide and in some cases, as low as US$3 per ton.

As the project involves the release of 23,000 tons of CO2 equivalent a year, this amounts to a cost of
approximately US$ 69,000 per annum over ten years for the best case scenario and US$ 575,000 per
annum for the other extreme.

As Malaysia is not subjected to any carbon dioxide emission limits or ceilings, the economic impact of the
carbon dioxide released is not considered.

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Other Greenhouse Gases

The carbon and other greenhouse gases such as methane flux from below ground were not computed as the
amount is considered insignificant because there will be very little soil tillage and over turning of the soil at
the project site. However, methane from the decay of disposed under water vegetation from the anaerobic
process is accounted for in the assessment.

As there will be minimal or no burning of the wood waste at the site, non-carbon dioxide trace gases such as
methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and oxides of nitrogen which are greenhouse gases as well will
not be emitted in this case.

Greenhouse Gas Inventory for No Project Option

In the case of "no project option", the amount of carbon removed or sequestered from the atmosphere is
computed based on the methodology recommended in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines, Volume 4, Forest Land
Remaining Forest Land.

The estimation was based on the Gain-Loss Method for determining the biomass gains and losses. Gains
include total biomass growth and losses are wood removals, harvest, gathering and disturbances by fire,
insects, diseases and other disturbances. In this estimation, equation 2.7, annual change in carbon stocks in
13
biomass in land remaining in particular land-use category (gain-loss method) was used.
Cb = Cg - Cl

where

Cb = annual change in carbon stocks in tons per year for the total area

Cg = annual increase in carbon stocks due to biomass growth for the total area

Cl = annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass loss for the total area

The annual increase in biomass carbon stock is estimated by multiplying the mean annual increment in tons
of dry matter per hectare per year with the area under forest. The mean annual increment in tons of dry
matter per hectare per year for natural tropical rain forest is 13 tons per hectare per year for forest of less
than 20 years and 3.4 tons for forest older than 20 years. In this instance, as the forest is undisturbed mixed
dipterocarp, the annual increment is 3.4 tons per hectare per year14. With a land area of 590 hectares, the
annual increase in carbon stocks due to biomass growth for the total area;

Cg = 590 X 3.4 = 2,006 tons per year

and annual decrease in carbon stocks due to biomass loss for the total area

Cl = 0, worst case.

Therefore, annual change in carbon stocks in tons per year for the total area is

Cb = 2,006 - 0 = 2,006 tons per year biomass carbon stock.

In terms of carbon, this 2,006 tons of biomass is


2,006 X 0.5 = 1,003 tons of carbon

Converting the carbon to CO2,

13
Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. 2006. IPCC. Volume 4.
14
Forest Land. Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. 2006. IPCC. Volume 4.

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1,003 X 44/12 = 3,677 tons of CO2 per year.

In ten years, the amount of CO2 sequestered is 3,677 X 10 = 36,770 tons.

This means that with the "no project option" the amount of CO2 sequestered is 36,770 tons over ten years.
The amount is small in relation to the amount of CO2 sequestered or released. The amount is expected to be
less as it was assumed that the biomass loss is zero while realistically, in such a matured and undisturbed
forest, the biomass gain and loss is in equilibrium. Added to the amount "not released or save", of 511,088
tons due to the construction of the dam, the total CO2 "gained" is 547,864 tons under the "No project option".

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APPENDIX 2.4 WATER QUALITY


Sampling Equipments and Test Methods

The samples were collected using three types of bottles as shown in Table 2.4-1: Sampling Equipments
and test methods are outlined in Table 2.4-2: Test Methods.

Table 2.4-1: Sampling Equipments


DO meter 200 mL plastic bottle (Bacto)
pH meter 5.0 L plastic container
1.2 L glass bottle

Table 2.4-2: Test Methods


Parameter Test Method
Temperature °C (in-situ) APHA 2550 B, 1998
+
pH (in-situ) APHA 4500-H B, 1998
Dissolved Oxygen (in-situ) APHA 4500-O G, 1998
Biological Oxygen Demand in 5 days @ 20°C APHA 5210 B && 4500-O G, 1998
Chemical Oxygen Demand APHA 5220 C, 1998
Total Suspended Solids APHA 2540 D, 1998
Conductivity APHA 2510 B, 1998
-
Chloride APHA 4500-CL B, 1998
Total Chromium APHA 3500-Cr B, 1998
Oil & Grease APHA 5520 B, 1998

Ammoniacal-Nitrogen (as NH3-N) APHA 4500-NH3 C, 1998


Turbidity APHA 2130 B, 1998
Salinity APHA 210 C, 1985
Iron APHA 3111 B, 1998
Total Nitrogen APHA 4500-Norg B, 1998

Nitrate Nitrogen APHA 4110 B, 1998


Phosphate APHA 4500 P-D, 1998
Lead APHA 3111 B, 1998
Nickel APHA 3111 B, 1998
Cadmium APHA 3111 B, 1998

Calcium OSHA 188


Potassium OSHA 188
Manganese APHA 3111 B, 1998
Aluminium APHA 3111 D, 1998
Total Phosphorus APHA 4500-P D, 1998

Selenium APHA 3114 B & C, 1998


Arsenic APHA 3114 B, & C 1998
2-
Sulphide APHA 4500-S D, 1998
Heterotrophic Plate Count APHA 9215B, 1998
Total Coliform Count APHA 9221B, 1998

Fecal Coliform Count APHA 9221E, 1998

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Riverine Water Quality

Background

The water quality modelling uses an advection dispersion (AD) model based on the one-dimensional
equation of conservation of mass of a dissolved or suspended material. Advection and dispersion are the
two mechanisms for movement of water borne material:

• Advection due to the flow of water through the river system


• Dispersion (or spreading) due to concentration gradients

The module uses output from the hydrodynamic module, in space and time, of discharge and water level,
cross-sectional area and hydraulic radius. The advection-dispersion equation is solved numerically using an
implicit finite difference scheme which has negligible numerical dispersion. Concentration profiles with very
steep fronts can be simulated accurately.

The water quality module (ECOLAB) simulates the reaction processes of multi-compound systems including
the degradation of organic matter, the photosynthesis and respiration of plants, nitrification and the exchange
of oxygen with the atmosphere. The mass balance for the parameters involved is calculated for all grid points
at all time steps using a rational extrapolation method in an integrated two-step procedure with the AD
module.

The ECOLAB interface is an open equation environment that provides full access to all process equations
that allows description of a large number of chemical and biological reaction processes, ranging from simple
BOD/DO descriptions to complex multi-compound eutrophication models.

Model development

Model layout and boundary

The model layout is the same as the river hydraulic model (Refer Section 0). The modules are directly
coupled to the HD and RR modules and use the calculations of water level and flow. Boundary conditions to
the model consist of the following:

• Constant ocean concentrations of various pollutants at the river entrance to the ocean
• Links to the pollution LOAD and SEAGIS models (Refer Sections 0 and 0), providing concentrations
of various pollutants from the runoff generated within each of the sub-catchment

Water quality parameters

For the purposes of the riverine water quality assessment, the following parameters were considered:

• Dissolved Oxygen
• Temperature

• NH3-N (ammonia)

• Nitrate

• BOD (biochemical oxygen demand)

• Orthophosphate

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• Faecal Coliform Bacteria

• TSS (total suspended solids)

• COD (chemical oxygen demand)

Application of catchment pollution loads to water quality model

The outputs from the LOAD and SEAGIS models are applied as input sources to the MIKE 11 water quality
model. The sources are divided into:

• Point sources, which are applied as a constant concentration and discharge rate (load independent
of runoff).
• Non-point sources, which are assumed to apply as a load proportional to runoff. Thus, a constant
concentration is applied to the time varying runoff hydrographs.

Specific to suspended sediments (non-point source), loads are assumed to apply proportional to discharge.
This accounts for the physical processes that cause soil erosion, which are generally much greater during
higher runoff events.

There is no LOAD model inputs of COD, an initial estimate of 2.5 to 10 times the loads of BOD were applied
as boundary conditions.

Water quality process

The ECOLAB module setup includes the following variables, processes and constants:
Variables and Forcings:
Dissolved oxygen Total Suspended Solids
Temperature COD
Ammonia Salinity
Nitrate Water depth
BOD Flow velocity
Orthophosphate Slope
Faecal coliform bacteria pH

Processes:
BOD degradation Nitrification process eg transformation of ammonia to nitrate
Reaeration Uptake of ammonia in plants
Photosynthesis in water column Uptake of ammonia in bacteria
Oxygen consumption from respiration of plants Oxygen consumption from nitrification process
Radiation into water Denitrification process
Radiation out of water Faecal coli decay
Sediment oxygen demand release of Orthophosphate from BOD decay
Sedimentation of BOD Plant uptake of phosphorus
Resuspension of organic matter from bed COD Degradation (same description and parameters as for BOD)
Ammonia release from degradation of BOD

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Constants:

Constant Unit Value

Temperature: Latitude Degrees 5

Temperature: Maximum absorbed solar radiation per day 5000

Temperature: Displacement of solar radiation max. from 12 pm hours 0

Temperature: Emitted heat radiation per day 2000

Oxygen Processes: No. of reaeration expression dimensionless 2

Oxygen Processes: Reaeration temperature coefficient dimensionless 1.02

Oxygen Processes: Respiration of animals and plants per day 0.2

Oxygen Processes: Respiration temperature coefficient dimensionless 1.02

Oxygen Processes: Max. oxygen production by photosynthesis per day 0.3

Oxygen Processes: Production/respiration per m2 (=1) or per m 3 (=2) 1

Degradation: 1. order decay rate at 20 deg. C per day 0.075

Degradation: Temperature coefficient for decay rate dimensionless 1.02

Degradation: Half-saturation oxygen concentration mg/l 2

Oxygen Processes: Own #1 Reaeration constant per day 1

Oxygen Processes: Own #1 Exponent, flow velocity dimensionless 0

Oxygen Processes: Own #1 Exponent, water depth dimensionless 0

Oxygen Processes: Own #1 Exponent, river slope dimensionless 0

Oxygen Processes: Own #2 Reaeration constant per day 1

Oxygen Processes: Own #2 Exponent, flow velocity dimensionless 0

Oxygen Processes: Own #2 Exponent, flow velocity dimensionless 0

Oxygen Processes: Own #2 Exponent, river slope dimensionless 0

Oxygen Processes: Own #3 Reaeration constant per day 1

Oxygen Processes: Own #3 Exponent, flow velocity dimensionless 0

Oxygen Processes: Own #3 Exponent, flow velocity dimensionless 0

Oxygen Processes: Own #3 Exponent, river slope dimensionless 0


2
Sediment processes: Sediment oxygen demand g/m /day 2.5

Sediment processes: Temperature coefficient SOD Dimensionless 1

Sediment processes: Resuspension of organic matter g/m2/day 0.2

Sediment processes: sedimentation rate for organic matter m/day 0.07

Sediment processes: Critical flow velocity m/s 1

Nitrogen Content: Ratio of ammonia released at BOD decay gNH4/gBOD 0.29

Nitrogen Content: Uptake of ammonia in plants Dimensionless 0.066

Nitrogen Content: Uptake of ammonia in bacteria Dimensionless 0.109

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Constant Unit Value

Nitrification: Reaction order 1 = first order process 2 = half order process Dimensionless 1

Nitrification: Ammonia decay rate at 20 deg Celsius per day 0.15

Nitrification: Temperature coefficient for nitrification dimensionless 1.13

Denitrification: Oxygen demand by nitrification gO2/gHN4 4.47

Denitrification: Half saturation constant mg/l 0.05

Denitrification: Reaction order 1 = first order process 2 = half order process Dimensionless 1

Denitrification: Denitrification rate, conversion of nitrate into free nitrogen N2 1/day 0.15

Denitrification: Temperature coefficient for Denitrification Dimensionless 1.16

Coliforms: 1. Order decay Faecal coliforms per day 0.7

Coliforms: 1. Order decay Total coliforms per day 0.8

Coliforms: Arrhenius temperature coefficient Dimensionless 1.07

Coliforms: Salinity coefficient of decay rate Dimensionless 1.01

Coliforms: Light coefficient of decay rate Dimensionless 7.4

Coliforms: Light Extinction Coefficient 1/m 1.4

Phosphorus content: Ratio of phosphorus released at BOD decay gP/gBOD 0.009

Phosphorus content: Uptake of P in plants Dimensionless 0.009

Phosphorus exchange with bed: Resuspension of particulate phosphorus g/m2/day 0.5

Phosphorus exchange with bed: Deposition of particulate phosphorus m/day 0.8

Phosphorus exchange with bed: Critical velocity of flow m/s 1

Phosphorus processes: Decay constant for particulate phosphorus per day 0.1

Phosphorus processes: Temperature coefficient for decay Dimensionless 1

Phosphorus processes: Formation constant for particulate phosphorus per day 0.1

Phosphorus processes: Temperature coefficient for formation Dimensionless 1

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APPENDIX 2.5 HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS


Numerical Modelling

Modelling Complex Overview

The modelling complex developed for the Impact Assessment consists of the following components:

• Hydrologic model (i.e. Rainfall Runoff, RR): Simulating rainfall on the catchments and the
subsequent runoff into the river system.
• River hydraulic model (1D HD): Simulating water levels and flows in the river system downstream of
the proposed dam site.

• Reservoir hydraulic model (1D HD): Simulating water levels and flows in the reservoir, including the
dam structure and hydropower operations.

• Catchment pollution model (LOAD): Simulating the pollution loadings from the catchments and their
transport to the river system.

• Soil Erosion model (SEAGIS): Simulating soil erosion generation in the catchments and the transport
to the river system.

• River water quality model (1D WQ): Simulating the movement and interactions of water quality
concentrations in the river system downstream of the proposed dam site. This includes simulation of
suspended sediments.

• Reservoir water quality model (3D HD+WQ+ST): Simulating water movement and stratification
(vertical currents and mixing due to temperature and density variations) and water quality
concentrations in the reservoir. Also included is a simulation to assess sediment entrainment in the
reservoir.

• Overland flow model (2D HD): Simulating overland inundation during dambreak.

Hydrological Modelling

Model Description

Rainfall Runoff modelling for the study was carried out using the NAM hydrological model. NAM forms part of
MIKE 11’s rainfall-runoff (RR) module and is often used to represent catchment runoff generating lateral
inflows to a river network. The NAM model is a lumped, conceptual rainfall-runoff model simulating overland
flow, interflow and baseflow as a function of precipitation, evaporation and the water storage in each of four
mutually interrelated storages representing the total storage capacity of the catchment.

The basic input requirements for the NAM model consist of model parameters, initial conditions and
meteorological data such as precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Add to this streamflow data for
the model calibration (see Figure 2.5-1 and Figure 2.5-2).

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Figure 2.5-1: Overview of the MIKE 11 Rainfall / Runoff Processes

Figure 2.5-2: NAM Model Components

The hydrological parameters in NAM are related to the catchment topography, rainfall intensity, vegetation,
landuse, soil type, geology and are as follows:

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• Maximum water content in surface storage (UMAX): interpreted as the water content in the
interception storage, surface depressions and the top few cm’s of ground.
• Maximum water content in the root zone storage (LMAX): interpreted as the maximum soil moisture
content in the root zone available for vegetative transpiration.

• Overland flow runoff coefficient (CQOF): determines the fraction of excess rainfall that generates
overland flow.

• Time constant for interflow (CKIF): this determines the rate at which surface water (U) drains into
interflow storage.

• Time constant for routing interflow and overland flow (CK12): determines the shape of the
hydrographs for the overland and interflow components.

• Root zone threshold value for overland flow (TOF): no overland flow occurs until the relative
moisture content of the lower zone storage (L) is above this value.

• Root zone threshold value for interflow (TIF): as for TOF, except applicable to interflow.

• Baseflow time constant (CKBF): this determines the shape of the baseflow hydrograph (similar to
CK12).

• Root zone threshold value for groundwater recharge (TG): as for TOF, except applicable to
groundwater flow.

Model Sub-Catchments

The Upper Padas river basin was divided into a series of catchments, each representing in-flows into the
Padas river system. The catchment delineation reflects the runoff pattern from the individual catchments.

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Figure 2.5-3: Padas River Basin Sub-Catchments

Model Calibration

In the NAM model the parameters represent average values for each catchment. While in some cases a
range of likely values can be estimated based on the physical conditions within the catchment, it is not
possible, in general, to determine the values of the NAM parameters on the basis of the catchments
physiographic, climatic and soil physical character-istics. Thus the parameter estimation must be performed
by calibration against time series of hydrological observations

For calibration of the basic NAM model, including the 9 model parameters listed in the NAM model
components, an automatic optimization routine is available. The automatic calibration routine is based on a
multi-objective optimization strategy in which up to four different calibration objectives can be optimized
simultaneously. The calibration objectives have to be formulated as numerical goodness-of fit measures that
are optimized automatically. The four calibration objectives used are listed below:

• Agreement between average simulated and observed catchment runoff: overall volume error.
• Overall agreement of the shape of the hydrograph: overall root mean square error (RMSE).

• Agreement of peak flows: average RMSE of peak flow events.

• Agreement of low flows: average RMSE of low flow events.

Initial calibration was executed for the Kemabong, the Ansip and the Biah catchments. Following this, the
downstream sub-catchments were calibrated merging the runoff and us-ing the observed discharges from
Beaufort as reference in this calibration.

The calibration process concentrates on simulations from 2001 to 2004, during which the most complete
coverage of rainfall data was available. Evapotranspiration rates were applied from the Keningau station.

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Figure 2.5-4 to Figure 2.5-7 present water balance calibration, showing accumulated runoff. It can be seen
that Kemabong and Ansip gauges show good correlation to water balance (-6% variation in Kemabong
gauge and 4% variation in Ansip gauge). This suggests that the adopted rainfall distributions and model
parameters accurately reproduce the water balance. There is, however, a minor deviation in the Kemabong
gauge in November 2001, where the gauge shows a noticeable jump in flows; if this period is ignored,
variation is less than 2%.

Biah gauge exhibits a large incongruity between the modelled and the observed values with the predicted
runoff significantly higher than that simulated. This is unexpected considering the good correlation at the two
other gauges. Possible sources to this discrepancy could non-accounted water extraction for irrigation, a
higher evapotranspiration than specified in the input files or a precipitation pattern different from what has
been defined.

Comparison of simulated and gauged runoff hydrographs from 2001 to 2004 is shown in Figure 2.5-5,
Figure 2.5-7, Figure 2.5-9 and Figure 2.5-11 for Kemabong, Ansip, Biah and Beaufort gauges respectively.

Overall, a reasonably good comparison can be seen between simulated and observed runoff hydro-graphs.
Biah gauge shows inconsistencies in hydrograph shape and frequency.

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Figure 2.5-4: Cumulative Runoff Volume (water balance), Kemabong gauge

Figure 2.5-5: Runoff hydrograph from Kemabong gauge; 2001 to 2004 (top) and 2001 only (bottom)

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Figure 2.5-6: Cumulative runoff volume (water balance), Ansip gauge

Figure 2.5-7: Runoff hydrograph from Ansip gauge; 2001 to 2004 (top) and 2001 only (bottom)

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Figure 2.5-8: Cumulative runoff volume (water balance), Biah gauge

Figure 2.5-9: Runoff hydrograph from Biah gauge; 2001 to 2004

Figure 2.5-10: Cumulative runoff volume (water balance), Beaufort gauge

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Figure 2.5-11: Runoff hydrograph from Beaufort gauge; 2001 to 2004

Assignment of Model Parameters

For each catchment in the NAM model a single set of parameters is defined that is representative of the
conditions for that particular sub-catchment. The parameters are dependent upon many different factors,
including topography, rainfall intensity, vegetation, land use, soil type and geology. In catchments where
discharge measurements are available (gauged catchments), there parameters can be determined using
calibration. In catchments where no discharge measurements are available (ungauged catchments), these
parameters are inferred from the gauged catchments and apportioned using land use and terrain.

Hydrodynamic Modelling

Model Description

MIKE 11 is an engineering software package for the simulation of flows, water quality and sediment transport
in estuaries, rivers, irrigation systems, channels and other water bodies. It is a dynamic one-dimensional
modelling tool for detailed design, management and operation of both simple and complex river and channel
systems.

The MIKE 11 hydrodynamic module (HD) uses an implicit, finite difference scheme for the computation of
unsteady flows in rivers and estuaries. The formulations can be applied to looped networks and quasi two-
dimensional flow simulation on flood plains. Both subcritical and supercritical flow can be described by
means of a numerical scheme which adapts according to the local flow conditions (in time and space).

The complete non-linear equations of open channel flow (Saint-Venant) are solved numerically between all
grid points at specified time intervals for given boundary conditions. Within the standard HD module
advanced computational formulations enable flow over a variety of structures to be simulated, including
weirs, culverts, flood controls, etc. A full description is available in the MIKE 11 Reference Manual (DHI,
2009).

Model Geometry

The MIKE 11 HD model of the Padas river system includes a fully dynamic flow description of rivers and
tributaries including Maligan and the Upper Padas located upstream of the proposed reservoir. The HD
model also includes (part of) Sg. Pegalan and extends downstream through the Crocker to the Beaufort
floodplain. The model network then extends further to the South China Sea.

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River cross sections used in the present study can be grouped into 4 areas as listed below:
• Reservoir, including Maligan and Upper Padas section
• Tomani
• Tenom, including sections of Sg. Pegalan and Sg. Padas
• Beaufort, within the town area

Model Boundary

All upstream boundaries are located within closed catchments and consequently defined by simulated
catchment runoff. The downstream boundaries (the South China Sea) are defined as a constant value set to
the mean sea level.

Reservoir Modelling

The purpose of the MIKE 11 HD 1D reservoir model is to simulate dam operations, the resulting reservoir
water level variations and the effect of this operation on the downstream flows and levels.

The reservoir was schematized to accommodate a maximum water level of 475 meter. The most important
parameter to match in a reservoir schematisation is the stage-area or the stage-volume relation. In order to
match the surface areas calculated by MIKE 11 with “observed” data, selected cross-sections upstream of
the proposed dam were modified.

Because the dam has not yet been constructed there are no additional data or methods with which to
calibrate or verify the reservoir model. The model’s purpose is to simulate the hydraulic response of the
reservoir inflow and hydropower operations. Hydraulically, this is a relatively straightforward task and using
model without verification is considered appropriate in this case.

Reservoir Layout
• The dam is assumed to be constructed as a Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) dam.
15
• The layout of the dam includes the main characteristics from the Feasibility Study report .
• Main gated spillways in the central part of the dam with un-gated overflow sections on either side of
the gated spillway.
• The total length of the dam crest is 440 meter.
• Main spillway with 4 gates, each 14 m x 18 m, with spillway crest at elevation 455 m.
• 3 + 3 overflow sections with a width of 17.5 m and the crest at elevation 470.5 m.

Headrace Tunnel and Power House

The dimensions of the Headrace Tunnel and the location of the Power House are implemented in the MIKE
11. Detailed flow conditions in the headrace tunnel are not considered in this study, however the location of
the power house and the outlet from the turbines are of importance and are included in the MIKE 11 model.

Combined 1D –2D overbank flow model

To be able to simulate a realistic overbank flooding caused by a dambreak a combined 1D-2D hydrodynamic
model was developed using MIKE FLOOD modelling complex.

MIKE FLOOD is a comprehensive modelling package covering all the major aspects of flood modelling. It
integrates flood plains, rivers and sewer/storm water systems into one package. Using this integrated

15
Feasibility Study on Upper Padas River Hydropower Project – Final Report”, SWECO International, November 2000.

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approach enables the best engineering practices to be used. MIKE FLOOD integrates the most widely used
hydrodynamic models namely the MIKE 11 1-D river flow component and the MIKE 21 2-D overland flow
component applying either a single grid or a flexible mesh into one package. The philosophy being that the
appropriate spatial resolution is applied where needed e.g. pipes and narrow rivers are modelled using one-
dimensional solvers whereas the overland flow is modelled using two spatial dimensions. In addition MIKE
FLOOD offers easy to access semi automatic coupling features.

All flood prone areas along the Padas River system were identified and a computational mesh with a
resolution sufficient to resolve the wave propagation on these flood plains was developed. The Padas
Gorges and other areas where a 1D flow propagation is dominating remained schematized in MIKE 11. The
combined 1D-2D model is shown below in Figure 2.5-12 and Figure 2.5-13.
Figure 2.5-12: MIKE FLOOD model layout

Figure 2.5-13: Detailed MIKE 11 branch and MIKE 21 mesh

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Dambreak Modelling

Approach

The MIKE 11 Dam Break module was used forprovides features for fast and convenient definition of dam
geometry, breach development in time and space and failure mode. The time of dam failure can be defined
by the user e.g. on the basis of a hydraulic condition such as the reservoir water level and the development
in time of the breach can be defined as time dependent or based on the structural properties of the dam. The
breach was defined as time dependent as shown below.

Figure 2.5-14: Time dependent breach development

Peak water levels downstream of the dam predicted by the model are not considered to be particularly
reliable given the accuracy of the DEM used in the present study. However, the extent of flooding and
especially the wave celerity and related timing of the inundations are considered to be realistic. The model is
considered appropriate for the purpose of providing a broad indication of extents of inundation as a result of
a dam break.

Pollution LOAD Modelling

Modelling Approach

The pollution load modelling was carried out using the DHI LOAD calculator (part of the DHI’s Mike Basin
package), which describes pollutant loads either on an annual basis or other alternative time resolutions. The
LOAD calculator calculates the pollution load from each sub-catchment based on information on:
1. Population statistics,
2. Point source data,
3. Landuse / Agricultural practices (non-point source).

To consider retention and decay of pollutants within each sub-catchment before the pollutants are
discharged into the river empirical factors can be applied to reduce loads and thus calibrate the pollution. For
the present assessment, these relations include:

• 1st order distance decay (e.g. how much of the pollutant is retained on the way from the origin of the
source until it reaches the river drainage network)

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• Fixed time variable correction factors (e.g. known seasonal variations in non point leaching) and
runoff coefficients (e.g. how much of applied fertilizer and manure are leaching)

All pollutant loads are calculated as total annual loads (e.g. kg/year) accumulated through the river system.
Average annual concentrations are simulated and the model can be calibrated to average annual
concentration levels measured in the river system. The calculated pollution loads can be extracted and
summarised for individual sub-catchments (the NAM catchments applied for the hydrological modelling) and
exported to provide input for the MIKE 11 WQ model. In the LOAD model, the following water quality
parameters are assigned to quantify non-point and point pollution loads (see Figure 2.5-15):

• Total Nitrogen (TN): The various forms of inorganic and organic nitrogen. It is noted that the
distinction can be made between Ammonia-Nitrogen and Nitrate-Nitrogen in the LOAD calculator;
• Total Phosphorus (TP): Various forms of inorganic and organic phosphorus;

• Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): Measure of biodegradable organics in the water;

• E-Coli: Bacteria present in the intestines or faeces of humans and warm-blooded animals

Figure 2.5-15: Pollution LOAD Model Overview

Model Development

The LOAD model accommodates various types of sources and transport / decay of pollutants. This is
detailed in the following sub-sections. In the present assessment, the main source of pollutant is related to
landuse / agricultural practices.

Point Sources

Point sources typically represents pollutant sources with a well defined outlet location such as industries,
waste water treatment plants, urban centres, individual households and other types of individual sewage
outlets.

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Pollution point sources within Padas catchment were identified and grouped into 2 major categories:

• Industries
• Pig farms

In some instances the precise locations of the point sources were unknown (but district locations were
provided). In such cases, their positions were located at the nearest town, village or industrial area.

Unless stated otherwise, an effluent discharge rate of 0.1 L/s is assumed for all point sources.

There are approximately 64 in total number of industries point source that can be found within the Padas
catchment. The pollutant discharge from the industry source is calculated based on the following
assumptions.

An effluent discharge rate of 0.1 L/s is assumed for all type of industries (see Table 2.5-1 and Figure 2.5-
16).

Industries

• Pesticide and agro chemical:


• BOD concentration is 30 mg/L

• Detergent and other chemical industry:

• BOD concentration is 30 mg/L

• TN concentration is 10 mg/L

• Textile industry:

• All factories produce 50 mg/L of BOD

• E-Coli concentration is 400 MPN / 100mL

• Factories that produce concrete, cement, brick and ceramic component:

• TP, TN (10 mg/L) and BOD (30 mg/L)

• Factories that produce food:

• BOD, TN, TP and E-Coli for fruit and vegetable processing industry is 50 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 5 mg/L

• BOD, TN, TP and E-Coli for dairy industry is 50 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 2 mg/L and 400 MPN/100mL

• BOD, TN, TP and E-Coli for meat processing and rendering industry is 50 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 5 mg/L
and 400 MPN/100mL

• BOD, TN, TP and E-Coli for breweries industry is 50 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 5 mg/L

• Factories that produce rubber and plastic components:

• BOD, TN is 30 mg/L and 10 mg/L

• BOD, TN is 30 mg/L and 10 mg/L for factories that produce petroleum related products

• Printing industry:

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• BOD concentration is 30 mg/L

• Pulp - paper mill industry

• TN released from factory is 400 mg/L

• TP released from factory is 50 mg/L

• Oil Palm industry:

• Different district plus the difference in plantation area will provide different amount of BOD and TN
being released from respective factories within districts

• The total amount of pollutant BOD (9159 kg/yr) and TN (14734 kg/yr) being released from two mills
found in Keningau

• BOD (1519 kg/yr) and TN (2443 kg/yr) was being released from a mill in Tenom

Table 2.5-1: Breakdown of number of industries in Padas catchment


Type of Industry No
Brick 2
Concrete & Brick 1
Food 9
Metal 2
Metal & Glass 1
Petroleum 2
Plastic 1
Wood / Timber 43
Palm Oil 3

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Figure 2.5-16: Point sources identified in Padas Catchment - Industries

Pig Farms

Eleven farms were identified in the study area with the estimated number of pig population based on data
provided by Sabah Environmental Dept in 2001. Effluent loadings generated from each individual farm are
summarised in Table 2.5-2. Assumptions made for each pig:

Loads per capital applied for each individual pig16:

TN = 12.05 kg/yr

BOD = 156 mg/l per farm

TP = 9.49 kg/yr

E-coli = 640,000*106 counts/100ml

16
Source: Environment Protection Department, Sabah.

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Table 2.5-2: Estimated loads of BOD, TN, TP and E-Coli for pig farms
ID Farm Code No of pigs TN (kg/yr) BOD (kg/yr) TP (kg/yr) E Coli (No/yr)
1 H003, H108 5404 65095 15433170 51287 3.46E+15
2 H004 36 428 4574 337 2.27E+13
3 H083 27 328 672 259 1.74E+13
4 H085 68 813 476 641 4.32E+13
5 H087, H091 114 1370 3054 1079 7.28E+13
6 H090 62 742 1938 585 3.94E+13
7 H092 195 2354 34591 1855 1.25E+14
8 H094 107 1284 7916 1012 6.82E+13
9 H095 76 913 801 720 4.85E+13

Figure 2.5-17: Point sources identified in Padas Catchment – Pig farms

Domestic Pollution Sources

The domestic sources typically represent pollutants originating from human populations, for example sewage
and waste water from households. The domestic loads are estimated using annual per-capita loads which
are based on literature and previous studies. Per capita loads were adjusted via model calibration.

Table 2.5-3: Loads per-capita applied for the domestic sources given in terms of BOD, Total Nitrogen,
Total Phosphorus and E-Coli. Values for BOD, TN and TP are given in kg/yr and in 1012 counts/yr for
E-Coli
BOD TN TP E-Coli

10 3 0.25 2

10 4 0.40 2

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Livestock
Livestock identified in the study area include:

- Kerbau / Buffalo
- Lembu / Cattle
- Kambing / Goats
- Berbiri / Sheep
- Unggas / Poultry
- Itik / Duck

The number of livestock was calculated based on average growth of livestock data (year 1995-2005) from
the Department of Vetenary, Sabah. The estimated livestock is listed in Table 2.5-4 below.
Table 2.5-4: Estimated livestock within Padas catchment
Kerbau / Lembu / Kambing / Berbiri / Unggas / Itik / Duck
Buffalo Cattle Goat Sheep Poultry

5,126 5,627 3,449 232 803,982 6,626

Loads from livestock were estimated by considering animal units, where 1 animal unit is equivalent to a cow.
The equivalent animal units for other livestock are listed in Table 2.5-5.
Table 2.5-5: Equivalent animal units for livestock (US Dept of Agriculture)
Animal Unit
Livestock
(1 animal unit = 1 cow)
Khinzir/Pig 0.18
Kambing/Goat 0.10
Kerbau/Buffalo 1.00
Lembu/Cattle 1.30
Itik/Duck 0.003
Berbiri/Sheep 0.10
Unggas/Poultry 0.003

Loads from pigs were estimated initially. From these, loads for other livestock were derived according to their
relative animal unit. Assumptions and information relating to loads from individual pigs is provided in Table
2.5-6.
Table 2.5-6: Estimated loads per pig from previous studies and literature17
Parameter Load per pig Comment

Discharge 1.84 x 10-7 m3/s A pig produces 5,800 l/yr of liquid waste

TN 12 kg/yr

TP 9 kg/yr

BOD 42 kg/yr

E-Coli 0.64 x 1012 No/yr 1 animal unit produces 3.5 x 1012 No/yr of E Coli, assuming 14 ton/yr of manure and
E Coli contents of manure of 0.25 x 106 No/g wet weight. Thus, 1 pig produces 0.64
x 1012 No/yr.

17
EPD, Sabah and EPA, Ireland.

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Considering these uncertainties, the approach to estimate loads per livestock was as follows:

Untreated loads per livestock were generated from the untreated load estimates for pigs (Table 2.5-6),
scaled according to the specific animal units listed in Table 2.5-5.

No treatment factors were applied, representative of no waste discharge treatment were done for all animal
farms in the catchment.

A summary of the loads per individual livestock are shown in Table 2.5-7.

Table 2.5-7: Estimated loads of BOD, TN, TP and E-Coli for individual livestock
Livestock TN 6 Animal Unit
TP (Kg/yr) BOD (Kg/yr) E coli (No/yr x 10 )
(per animal) (Kg/yr) (1 animal unit = 1 cow)
Kerbau/Buffalo 66.92 52.72 233.33 3,555,556 1.00
Lembu/Cattle 86.99 68.54 303.33 4,622,222 1.30
Kambing/Goat 6.69 5.27 23.33 355,556 0.10
Berbiri/Sheep 6.69 5.27 23.33 355,556 0.10
Unggas/Poultry 0.20 0.16 0.70 10,667 0.003
Itik/Duck 0.20 0.16 0.70 10,667 0.003

Landuse Pollution Sources (Agricultural Practices)

Typical landuse specific concentrations were estimated for BOD, TN and TP based on previous studies
carried out by DHI (see Table 2.5-8).

Table 2.5-8: Typical mean runoff concentrations for BOD, TN and TP. Concentrations are given per
landuse type in mg/L
Landuse BOD TN TP

Forest 0.20 0.20 0.05

Urban 13.5 1.00 0.10

Open Space/Hill-Side 1.50 0.20 0.10

Crops 0.35 0.60 0.125

Mature Oil Palm 1.00 2.00 0.15

Travel Distance / Decay Rates of Pollutants within the Catchment

The distance decay assumes that the amount of pollutants reaching the river depends on the transport
distance, i.e. the sources closest to the river contributing to the most pollutants. Distance decay is calculated
as a simple first-order distance specific retention depending on the distance to the nearest river, a decay rate
and the water temperature. The water temperature was set to 30˚C. 1st order decay rate for each pollutants
are given in Table 2.5-9.

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Table 2.5-9: 1st order decay rates applied in the LOAD model (km-1)
BOD TN TP

0.5 0.2 0.2

Model Calibration

Calibration of the LOAD model was achieved by comparing annual pollutant loads to available measured
water quality. Simulated pollutant concentration for BOD, Nitrate, Ammonia, Phosphorus and E-Coli were
compared to measured average concentrations from water quality station located along Sungai Padas over
the period: 14th to 30th October 2008.

Table 2.5-10: Comparison between simulated and measured pollutant concentrations in Padas DS2
sub-catchment along Sg Padas averaged over a single period (14th October 2008 to 30th October
2008)

Pollutant Measured18 Simulated


BOD (mg/l) < 2.00 0.35
Ammonia (mg/l) 0.20 0.17
Nitrate (mg/l) 0.03 0.01
Phosphorus (mg/l) 0.19 0.10
E-Coli (1/100ml) 410 732

Table 2.5-11: Comparison between simulated and measured pollutant concentrations in Kemabong
sub-catchment along Sg Padas averaged over a single period (14th October 2008 to 30th October
2008)

Pollutant Measured19 Simulated

BOD (mg/l) < 2.00 0.26


Ammonia (mg/l) 0.20 0.10
Nitrate (mg/l) 0.44 0.17
Phosphorus (mg/l) 0.26 0.10
E-Coli (1/100ml) 1300 1145

Table 2.5-12: Comparison between simulated and measured pollutant concentrations in Padas DS3
sub-catchment along Sg Padas averaged over a single period (14th October 2008 to 30th October
2008

Pollutant Measured20 Simulated


BOD (mg/l) < 2.00 0.49
Ammonia (mg/l) 0.20 0.33
Nitrate (mg/l) 0.04 0.06
Phosphorus (mg/l) 0.23 0.12
E-Coli (1/100ml) 2097 2785

18
Measured data at Water Quality Station W24 & W25
19
Measured data at Water Quality Station W28
20
Measured data at Water Quality Station W29, W30, W31, W32, W33 & W34

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Table 2.5-10 to Table 2.5-12 indicate a good agreement between simulated and measured average
pollutant concentrations.

Soil Erosion Modelling

Modelling Approach

The likely amount of sediment entering the river system was estimated using DHI’s Soil Erosion Assessment
module, SEAGIS. SEAGIS is a GIS based application for the assessment of soil erosion risk. The application
comprises two different terms for describing the soil erosion (Figure 2.5-18):

• Source erosion: Estimated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) combined with the revised
version of this model (RUSLE),
• Transported erosion: Estimated by multiplying source erosion by the delivery ratio. The transported
erosion describes the eroded soil reaching the outlet of the catchment.

Figure 2.5-18: SEAGIS model overview

Model Development

Source and transported erosion are estimated for all the catchments in the study area using USLE and
RUSLE equations. The source erosion is estimated using the following equation:

A=RxKxLxSxCxP

Where:

A: Soil Loss, given in kg/m2

R: Rainfall erosivity factor

K: Soil erodibility factor

L: Slope length factor

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S: Slope gradient factor

C: Cropping management factor

P: Erosion control practice factor

The description of these parameters is provided in the following sub-sections.

Rainfall Erosivity

The rainfall erosivity (R factor) reflects the erosive energy of the rainfall. R varies with the climate and
generally given for a certain location/region. The following formula has been applied for the present study
(Harper in Thailand - 1987):

R = 0.35 P + 28.5 where P is the annual rainfall in mm.

Soil Erodibility

The soil erodibility factor depends on the soil texture and composition. It indicates how the soil is apt to
erode. Soil erodibility factors for each soil type were determined using the nomograph method, whereby
analysis of the site soils were taken from a publication which adopted values recommended by Department
of Agriculture.

Estimated K factors were then applied to each soil type represented in the soil map (see Figure 2.5-19).

Figure 2.5-19: K value map

Topographic Factor: Slope Length and Gradient

The topographic factors used in SEAGIS consist of Slope Length and Slope Gradient factors which are
based on topographic information provided by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM).

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Cropping Management

The cropping management factor (C factor) is related to land use characteristics. Values of the C factor
(Table 2.5-13) are based on literature reviews and previous studies. It is noted that C factor values for the
existing condition were adjusted for the SEAGIS model calibration.

Table 2.5-13: Cropping management factors applied in the SEAGIS model setup
Landuse Type C Factor

Cleared Land 0.05

Coconut 0.01

Fish Pond 0.0001

Forest 0.001

Grasslands 0.001

Logging 0.05

Mining Area 0.05

Mixed Horticulture 0.05

Oil Palm 0.1

Other Crops 0.05

Paddy 0.01

Rubber 0.01

Urban 0.15

Water 0.0001

Wetlands 0.001

Erosion Control Practice

The erosion practice factor takes into account practices that reduce erosion such as contouring and
terracing. Values of the erosion practice factor also depend on the slope. P value of 1 was adopted in the
Padas study (assuming that no soil erosion prevention practices were applied).

Model Calibration

The soil erosion process is a degree of magnitude more complex compared to the rainfall runoff process.
Soil erosion processes include the detachment of soil particles by raindrops or overland flow and the
transport of the detached material to the rivers. Physically-based soil erosion modelling at catchment and
basin scale is not yet feasible, which is the reason that simpler and largely empirically based approaches are
used. This implies that soil erosion modelling in time and space cannot attain the same degree of precision
as hydrological modelling. This is important to bear in mind when considering model calibration results.

Calibration was performed by comparing simulated suspended sediment concentrations from Kemabong
catchment with observed suspended sediment concentrations from DID station (4959501). The calibration
plot (year 2001 to 2003) is shown in Figure 2.5-20.

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Figure 2.5-20: SEAGIS model calibration

Reservoir Hydrodynamic Modelling (3D)

Introduction

Computational Scheme

The Mike 3 modelling system used in this study is based on the numerical solution of three-dimensional
incompressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations invoking the assumptions of Boussinesq and
hydrostatic pressure. Thus, the model consists of continuity, momentum, temperature, salinity and density
equations and is closed by a turbulent closure scheme. In the horizontal domain both Cartesian and
spherical coordinates can be used. The free surface is taken into account using a sigma-coordinate
transformation approach.

The spatial discretization of the primitive equations is performed using a cell-centred finite volume method.
The spatial domain is divided by subdivision of the continuum into non-overlapping element/cells. In the
horizontal plane an unstructured grid is used while in the vertical domain a structured spacing is used. The
elements can be prisms or bricks whose horizontal faces are triangles and quadrilateral elements,
respectively. An approximate Riemann solver is used for computation of the convective fluxes, which makes
it possible to handle discontinuous solutions.

For the time integration a semi-implicit approach is used where the horizontal terms are treated explicitly and
the vertical terms are treated implicitly.

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Modelling Complex

The hydrodynamic module is mainly used to simulate current flows in the domain according to specified
boundaries. As a consequence, using continuity and momentum equations, the model requires several
inputs to compute the state variables in each of the elements in horizontal and vertical directions.

MIKE3 FM also comprises a temperature and salinity model – interactively run with the former module.
Salinity in the case of the reservoir modelling is of little interest. However, the heat exchange facility allows
the model to simulate the heat transfer from the atmosphere to the water body through four physical
processes (sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, net short and long wave radiations).

In order to simulate the local conditions, the following inputs are required by the model:

• Bathymetry: The shape of channels and variation in depth plays an important role in defining the
current speeds and direction of the reservoir model
• HD Boundaries: Usually specified to drive discharge or water levels into the domain. None have
been used in this model (closed domain), as these are more suitable for open coastal or estuarine
environments i.e. to follow variation in tidal levels over time.

• Sources: like the HD boundaries, the sources contribute to the reservoir’s water balance. Both inputs
as well as outputs of the reservoir have been defined as sources. The source formulation also gives
additional stability to the model. Additionally, temperature information is required for reservoir water
mixing – warmer water stays near the water surface while colder water sinks.

• Precipitation/Evaporation: these parameters mainly have an effect on water elevation. Indirectly the
temperature set for these will also have an impact on the lake dynamics by potentially changing
water temperature gradients when mixing.

• Wind conditions: Wind may drive surface currents which is different behaviour than of those driven
purely by the flow inputs. Wind also plays a role in generating the stratification and controlling the
temperature of the upper layers.

Modelling Scenarios

Data available to model the real condition of the reservoir is rather limited. Consequently, assessments of
the baseline conditions have been based on scenarios. Three scenarios with specific purpose have been
established to give a fair range of potential events affecting the reservoir:

• A standard conditions scenario (hydrodynamics, ecological modelling and deposition models:

o Aimed at representing the average conditions as seen at Upper Padas Reservoir on an


almost daily basis. This is modelled to represent average conditions derived from the data
available, most of it being either long-term monthly means or from in-situ measurements
taken during site visits.

• Extreme Scenario A (hydrodynamics and deposition models):

o Designed to simulate a low discharge (25 cumecs) into the reservoir and it’s effect on
reservoir sedimentation t and water quality.

• Extreme Scenario B (hydrodynamics and deposition models):

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o Established to model a high discharge (850 cumecs) into the reservoir and it consequence
towards deposition of sediment near the dam.

The corresponding parameters and variables used to simulate these conditions are described as follows.

Inputs

Bathymetry

The bathymetry was defined by utilising topographical maps, see Figure 2.5-21, on the scale of 1:50,000
with contours of 250 feet, which were available for the project area. A river profile from SWECO (2000) was
used to incorporate a low flow channel along the river reach. The resulting bathymetry for Upper Padas
Reservoir is shown in Figure 2.5-22. The reservoir terrain was then used to estimate the impoundment
surface areas and volumes as shown in Figure 2.5-22.

The comparison as shown in Figure 2.5-23 with SWECO (2000) is consistent for volume, but not for surface
area. Surface area is largely dependent upon the data from 1:50000 topographical maps of 250 feet contour
intervals; this differs slightly from the 1:10,000 photogrammetric maps of the Upper Padas reservoir area
with contour intervals of 10m (which SWECO 2000 applied in their estimates). For the model analyses, the
consistency in the volume estimates is of more importance.

Figure 2.5-21: Extent of the bathymetry domain for Upper Padas Reservoir

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Figure 2.5-22: Upper Padas Reservoir Bathymetry

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Figure 2.5-23: Surface Area and Volume of Upper Padas Reservoir

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The reservoir area included in the model is around 7.1km2 as of the calculations from the created mesh. To
simulate the given large area with 3D model would require substantial amount of computational time and
disk space, especially if regular grid is utilised. Moreover, the classic grid only allows for a fixed spacing in
the vertical direction. Experience showed that stratification patterns like those measured in similar reservoir
require small vertical grid spacing of between 1 to 5 m, resulting in high computational demand.

For the above reasons, it has been decided to apply a flexible mesh grid spacing. With this, refinement on
areas of interest can be made while reducing the computational demand in remote areas. The obtained
mesh is shown in Figure 2.5-24.

Figure 2.5-24: Upper Padas Reservoir Mesh

The use of an unstructured mesh allows some extra flexibility in the vertical direction, which is not available
in the classic grid. The sigma layer system features a relative percentage of the actual water depth to a user

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defined number of layers – summation of layer thickness should be equal to one. Accordingly, the actual
layer thickness will change according to the real water depth. A sample longitudinal profile extracted from a
3D result file: layer thickness varies with depths while relative ratio of the water column remains constant, is
shown in Figure 2.5-25.

Figure 2.5-25: Sample profile extracted from 3D results file illustrating the Sigma layer application – x
axis shows the arbitrary distance in the horizontal plane, y axis represents the depth

The mesh used for the studies has been designed to have 17 combined sigma layers and z-level to
represent the vertical axis with individual layer thicknesses as shown in Table 2.5-14 with the illustration
shown in Figure 2.5-25.

Table 2.5-14: Individual relative vertical layer thicknesses (Bathymetry)


Combined sigma Relative Layer Absolute Layer Layer Top Layer Bottom
and z-level Thickness Thickness (m) Depth Depth
Sigma 17 0.03125 1 0 1

16 0.03125 1 1 2

15 0.03125 1 2 3

14 0.03125 1 3 4

13 0.0625 2 4 6

12 0.09375 3 6 9

11 0.125 4 9 13

10 0.15625 5 13 18

9 0.1875 6 18 24

8 0.25 8 24 32

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z-level 7 0.019 5 33 38

6 0.019 5 38 43

5 0.019 5 43 48

4 0.038 10 48 58

3 0.038 10 58 68

2 0.076 15 68 83

1 0.076 20 83 103

There is a general problem related to the modelling of temperature in 3D numerical schemes used in modern
modelling packages called numerical diffusion. The transport of particles in actual diffusion moves from
region of higher concentrations to lower concentrations. This is mainly related to the flow conditions amid
other parameters. However in models, numerical diffusion adds to the real one, causing the steep gradients
found in the reservoir to homogenize more quickly than reality even with insignificant general simulated
mixing.

This setback cannot be avoided completely, especially for long-term simulation runs – the original gradients
specified in initial conditions will steadily decrease. And as for reservoirs, this causes the thermal
stratification generally observed to slowly fade away which consequently affect the vertical distribution of the
biological processes.

It is possible to limit this phenomenon by removing discrepancies in the reservoir bed and depth-averaging
the bathymetry as artificial mixing is partially caused by irregularities and steep gradients in the bathymetry.
This technique has been used in order to keep numerical diffusion in control for our long term simulations, in
order to get the best possible results in the eutrophication component. A depth of 34m has been used, so as
to maintain the overall volume of the lake.

Sources

Two main sources contributing to the overall inflow into the Upper Padas Reservoir are mainly the Maligan
River and the Upper Padas River. These two rivers has been taken into consideration as inputs to the
modelled reservoir, see Figure 2.5-26. The only known outlet of the reservoir, the Upper Padas Dam, is also
indicated in the same figure.

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Figure 2.5-26: Location of the inflow sources (Maligan and Upper Padas) and outflow dam

Normal Conditions

The only reservoir outflow is through the Upper Padas Hydroelectric Dam outlet. Based on the daily average
discharge data at Kemabong (which have been scaled to the Dam site) for the period 1969-2008, the mean
discharge, during natural conditions have been calculated as follows:
3
Discharge Upper Padas Dam Site (m /s)
Mean 73

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The outlet data set was used to gain an average outflow value, and an equivalent constant inflow, resulting
in a constant reservoir elevation (inflow equals outflow). The individual contribution of the sources was
weighted (Table 2.5-15) according to each source catchment delineation.

Table 2.5-15: Individual Contribution of the river sources to the reservoir inflow Q(mean)=73 m3/s
Source Individual Contribution Mean Discharge (m 3/s)
Maligan 1/3 24.33
Upper Padas 2/3 48.67
Total 73

Scenario A: Low Discharge

The discharges for the two types of stream (individual contribution of 1/3 and 2/3 of the total flow) have been
estimated according to the discharge data available at Kemabong station. An exceedence analysis has been
processed based on the 39 years data available at the Kemabong station which was scaled to the dam site,
see Figure 2.5-27. A discharge at 90% duration during the natural conditions has been calculated as set out
in Table 2.5-16 to represent low inflows into the reservoir.

Table 2.5-16: Individual contribution of the river sources to the reservoir inflow Q (90%)=25 m3/s
Source Individual Contribution 90% Discharge
Maligan 1/3 8.33
Upper Padas 2/3 16.67
Total 25

Figure 2.5-27: Exceedence analysis based on discharge data at Kemabong station

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Scenario B: High Discharge

Based on the exceedence analysis of the daily average discharge data at Kemabong, a discharge for return
period of 10 years was selected to represent an extreme high inflow into the reservoir. The high inflows were
defined as in Figure 2.5-28 with a flow at 850 m3/s.

Figure 2.5-28: Scenario B inflow for the two rivers (Maligan and Upper Padas)

Wind Conditions

Wind was derived from available data (in terms of long term monthly averages). This data was then
incorporated with local knowledge of the site to generate a daily wind time series which is applied on the
model domain. In terms of wind direction, a single direction (North East, 45°N) has been chosen as
representative of the dominating NE monsoon.

Figure 2.5-29: Baseline daily wind time series

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Temperature

Initial Conditions

The hydrodynamic models normally will have a so called ‘warm-up” period during which the model adjusts to
the provided boundary conditions. Until the model reaches equilibrium, it may provide inaccurate solution
during this iterative process. A typical 2D hydrodynamics model will take about three days of simulation time
for warm-up. If simulation were to start from unrealistic conditions, warm-up could take from months to years
to reach equilibrium state. For this reason, to start off with adequate temperature in prudent in order to
minimise the duration of the simulation runs.

The horizontal gradients across the domain are assumed to be negligible compared to vertical direction
since little inflow introduced into the reservoir. Thus, a single temperature profile was allocated to the whole
domain, discretized across depth according to the sigma layers scheme. These values were chosen
according to the in-situ temperature available from water samples taken near the Dam site and correlated
with measured temperature profiles available from other reservoirs in Malaysia

Nevertheless, due to the sigma layer formulation, individual depths of the assigned temperatures will vary
according to the bottom depth at each element, see Table 2.5-17.

Table 2.5-17: Initial temperature conditions for combined sigma layers and z-level (highest numbers
are closer to the surface): Bathymetry

Combined sigma Temperature Absolute Layer Layer Top Layer Bottom


and z-level (oC) Thickness (m) Depth Depth
Sigma 17 31.00 1 0 1
16 30.97 1 1 2
15 30.89 1 2 3
14 30.82 1 3 4
13 30.68 2 4 6
12 30.45 3 6 9
11 30.29 4 9 13
10 30.19 5 13 18
9 30.11 6 18 24
8 29.77 8 24 32
z-level 7 28.73 5 33 38
6 27.79 5 38 43
5 26.24 5 43 48
4 25.35 10 48 58
3 24.75 10 58 68
2 24.43 15 68 83
1 24.24 20 83 103

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These initial conditions were used for all of the simulations.

Air Temperature

Air temperature has a direct impact on the water temperature of the upper layers of the lake, in relation with
the wind blowing. It is therefore important to input the right values to the model. In tropical conditions, the
yearly variation would be subtle compared to the daily changes. A time series (Figure 2.5-30) was thus
created from local observations associated with meteorological hind casts for Kota Kinabalu available on the
Internet (www.wunderground.com : Temperature History for Kota Kinabalu). It is assumed to be
representative of the average daily temperature variation at Upper Padas Reservoir.

Figure 2.5-30: Daily average temperature time series at Kota Kinabalu

Sources Temperature

According to estimation on site, the temperature of the rivers discharging into the reservoir has been set to a
constant value of 24°C.

Results

Calibration

Currents

No measurements were available to calibrate the current profile of the hydrodynamic results.

Temperature

Similar to current, no data were available to calibrate the model (reservoir is not in existence). As an
alternative, modelled profiles of temperatures were compared to data and analyses from previous studies as
shown in Figure 2.5-31. A location near the dam site was extracted from the model, as shown in Figure 2.5-
3
32. The extracted result provided by the model with the normal condition (Q=73 m /s) were then compared to
measurements available from previous studies.

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The modelled profiles do not exactly match stratification patterns of the other reservoirs. This may be
consequence of modelling inaccuracies – existence of numerical diffusion (however model parameters are
reasonable and within scientifically justifiable values) or lack of data (for example, temperature of catchment
inflows, BOD, sedimentation and DO loads, etc).

Most of the artificial heating caused by numerical diffusion occurs between 7 to 14 m depth, where the
gradient is the strongest. At depths lower than 22m, the differences are non-significant. There was a trade-
off in the simulation parameters, and it was chosen to have slightly higher temperatures, especially at the
surface, but to preserve the thermal stratification as much as possible. Overall, the differences experienced
in the model are seen to be in the order of 2 degrees.

Figure 2.5-31: Comparison of modelled vertical temperature profile with other reservoirs

Normal Conditions

Currents

Concerning the assessment of the current patterns and speed, it is necessary to mention that the provided
plots (see below) show layers in the sigma system. The corresponding depths can be found in Table 2.5-31.
Several locations around the reservoir (see Figure 2.5-32) were randomly selected in order to assess the
corresponding horizontal and vertical current patterns in the water body.

As can be seen in the 2D simulation plots (Figure 2.5-33 – 2.5-36), the overall current speed in the reservoir
is relatively small (approximately 3cm/s). Higher currents are experienced around the confluence of the
Maligan and Upper Padas rivers, where two current flows are combined and ‘forced’ to flow through a
narrower channel.

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Nonetheless, it is necessary to mention that these flow rates could be slightly different from the real
conditions, provided that the discharge from the Ketanun River which is not included in this model plays a
significant role in the fluxes affecting the domain.

During the normal conditions scenario, wind conditions are applied as a daily time series, with wind only
occurring during a few hours every day. The effects of these winds on currents are notable in the surface
layers i.e. Sigma layer 17, Figure 2.5-32 and Sigma layer 16 Figure 2.5-33, which – as expected - are
mostly wind-driven. Therefore, in the case of these North East wind conditions, the flow reaches it maximum
in the upper layers. With depth, flow decreases (Figure 2.5-32-2.5-35).

Figure 2.5-32: Location of extraction points for assessment

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Figure 2.5-33: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (normal conditions = 73m3/s scenario), sigma layer 16 (-1m water depth and above)

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Figure 2.5-34: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (normal conditions = 73m3/s scenario), sigma layer 14 (-3m water depth and above)

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Figure 2.5-35: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (normal conditions = 73m3/s scenario), sigma layer 13 (-5m water depth)

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Figure 2.5-36: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (normal conditions = 73m3/s scenario), sigma layer 10 (-15m water depth)

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The analysis of 2D patterns needs to be completed by quantitative description. The dam Site, Point 4 and
Point 3 were selected to show current speeds (Figure 2.5-37). A look at the minimum, average and
maximum current speeds at these locations naturally suggest that most of the variation is a direct
consequence of the wind affecting the upper few meters of the lake.

Figure 2.5-37: Average (blue), minimum (black), and maximum (red), current speeds from Dam Site,
Point 4 and Point 3

Temperature

Temperature profiles shown in Figure 2.5-38 for normal conditions at Dam Site, Point 4 and Point 3 show
that there is a steep thermocline with little spatial variation. The theromcline extends approximately 10m,
beneath which there is a thick layer of cooler denser water. Temperature curves are virtually identical from
one location to another within the reservoir. Moreover, the timely evolution of these is also very similar
regardless of the location, with the same progressive increase in temperature over time due to numerical
diffusion inherent to such models. The model results indicate no sign of any vertical turn over in the water
column i.e. flopping where cool deep water mixes with warmer shallow water, resulting in a removal of the
thermocline.

Figure 2.5-38: Temperature variation over time with water depth at Dam Site, Point 4 and Point 3

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Scenario A : Low Discharge

Currents

This scenario involves a constant low combined discharge of 25 m3/s into the reservoir from Maligan and
Upper Padas rivers. As anticipated, the velocity field generated at the surface (see Figure 2.5-39 to Figure
2.5-42) are lower than the flows seen during normal conditions. In general, the current speeds in the
reservoir are low (less than 3cm/s), with average current speeds often below 1cm/s. Flows were found to be
highest near the mouth of both rivers and considerably less near the dam site itself. This difference is likely
to be a combination of incoming river flow and the available fetch which is obviously greatest at the southern
end of the reservoir during a northerly or north easterly wind.

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Figure 2.5-39: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (normal conditions = 25m3/s scenario), sigma layer 16 (-1m water depth and above).

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Figure 2.5-40: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (Scenario A = 25m3/s ), sigma layer 14 (-3m water depth and above)

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Figure 2.5-41: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (Scenario A = 25m3/s ), sigma layer 13 (-5m water depth)

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Figure 2.5-42: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (Scenario A = 25m3/s ), sigma layer 10 (-15m water depth)

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Figure 2.5-43: Average (blue), minimum (black), and maximum (red), current speeds from Dam Site,
Point 4 and Point 3

Temperature

The reservoir temperature was found to increase in the upper 15m by 1 degree compared to normal
conditions. However, this change in temperature was observed to decrease with depth. At approximately 16
m below the surface, the reservoir temperature was found to be comparable as during normal conditions.
Generally it can be said that reservoir temperature is similar to the temperature profile from normal
conditions, Figure 2.5-44 illustrates little spatial thermal variation in the model. Again there is a steep
therocline beneath which is a cooler denser water. The temperature profiles at Dam Site, Point 4 and Point 3
are almost identical, regardless of the location. There is no indication of lake mixing or flopping – where
surface layers mix with bottom layers.

Figure 2.5-44: Temperature variation over time with water depth at Dam Site, Point 4 and Point 3

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Scenario B: High Discharge

Currents

In this scenario, a relatively high inflows (Q=850m3/s) were introduced to the reservoir. As indicated in
Figure 2.5-48, the high discharge was set to flow into the reservoir for two days. The rest of the days will
remain as normal condition.

During the high inflow event, current speed were observed to be greatest in the few surface layers with
maximums flows of approximately 6-8cm/s (Figure 2.5-45 to Figure 2.5-48). As with the previous two
scenarios, with distance from the river sources flow was also found to decrease particularly near the dam
site. Flows were found to be highest near the mouth of both rivers and along the banks of the dam, where it
is shallower and lower near the dam site itself. This difference is likely to be a combination of incoming river
flow and the available fetch which is obviously greatest at the southern end of the reservoir during a northerly
or north easterly wind.

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Figure 2.5-45: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with
wind blowing (Scenario B = 850m3/s ), sigma layer 16 (-1m water depth and above)

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Figure 2.5-46: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (Scenario B = 850m3/s ), sigma layer 14 (-3m water depth and above)

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Figure 2.5-47: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (Scenario B = 850m3/s ), sigma layer 13 (-5m water depth)

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Figure 2.5-48: Instantaneous current flow and direction during a North East wind event – with wind
blowing (Scenario B = 850m3/s ), sigma layer 10 (-15m water depth)

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Figure 2.5-49: Average (blue), minimum (black), and maximum (red), current speeds from Dam Site,
Point 4 and Point 3

Temperature

Temperature profile at Dam Site, Point 4 and Point 3 are almost identical, regardless of the location. In
reverse to what was observed in Scenario A, the reservoir temperature was found to decrease by 1 degree
at the surface compared to normal conditions. But this change in temperature was found to decrease with
depth. The reservoir temperature was found to be the same during normal conditions at about 16m water
depth. As with the previous two scenarios, a strong thermocline is present to approximately 10-12 m water
depth, beneath which lies a cooler deeper layer. Even during these high flows there appears not to have
been a great deal of mixing.

Figure 2.5-50: Temperature variation over time with water depth at Dam Site, Point 4 and Point 3

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Ecological Modelling

Introduction

Module Description

The aim of the ecological modelling is to simulate water quality processes in the Proposed Upper Padas
Reservoir Hydroelectric project and assess the potential impacts on its operation on the reservoir ecosystem
– eutrophication. In order to simulate the evolution of the bio-chemical parameters in the model, an extra
add-on module to the core hydrodynamics model is necessary.

ECO Lab is a piece of numerical simulation software for Ecological Modelling developed by DHI Water and
Environment. It is an open and generic tool for customising aquatic ecosystem models to simulate for
instance water quality, eutrophication, heavy metals and ecology.

The module is developed to describe processes and interactions between chemical and ecosystem state
variables. Also the physical process of sedimentation of state variables can be described (moves the state
variable physically down the water column).

The module is coupled to the Advection-Dispersion Modules of the DHI hydrodynamic flow models, so that
transport mechanisms based on advection-dispersion can be integrated in the ECO Lab simulation. Using a
COM interface (Figure 2.5-51) with the hydrodynamic simulation, the key variables (water levels, current
velocities) are retrieved at each timestep for ECO Lab to process the updates in concentrations of each of
the involved bio-chemical parameters.
Figure 2.5-51: ECO Lab interface with the hydrodynamic module

The description of the ecosystem state variables in ECO Lab is formulated as a set of ordinary coupled
differential equations describing the rate of change for each state variable based on processes taking place

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in the ecosystem. All information about ECO Lab state variables, processes and their interaction are stored
in a so-called generic ECO Lab template. A few templates are available to simulate different situations
involving ecological processes, among which is a specific eutrophication template. ECO Lab is coupled with
the main hydrodynamic module to provide information about the primary production, nutrient output and
predation on phytoplankton, etc.

Two template selections for the ecological modelling has been used: “Eutrophication Model 1” and “MIKE
21/3 WQ with nutrients and chlorophyll-a”.

Eutrophication Model 1 template is utilised to simulate specifically for the Dissolved Oxygen and Chlorophyll-
a of the reservoir. MIKE 21/3 WQ with nutrients and chlorophyll-a template on the other hand is used to
simulate the Ammonia levels in the reservoir.

The “Eutrophication Model 1” template enables calculation of the following parameters:


3
• Phytoplankton carbon (PC) [gC/m ]
• Phytoplankton nitrogen (PN) [gN/m3]
• Phytoplankton phosphorus (PP) [gP/m3]
• Chlorophyll-a (CH) [g/m3]
• Zooplankton (ZC) [gC/m3]
• Detritus carbon (DC) [gC/m3]
• Detritus nitrogen (DN) [gN/m3]
• Detritus phosphorus (DP) [gP/m3]
• Inorganic nitrogen(IN) [gN/m3]
• Inorganic phosphorus (IP) [gP/m3]
3
• Dissolved oxygen (DO) [g/m ]
• Benthic vegetation carbon (BC) [gC/m2]

The “MIKE 21/3 WQ with nutrients and chlorophyll-a” template enables calculation of the following
parameters:

• Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD ) [gC/m2]


• Dissolved Oxygen (DO) [gC/m2]
2
• Chlorophyll-a (CHL) [gC/m ]
2
• Ammonia (NH4) [gC/m ]
• Nitrite (NO2) [gC/m2]
• Nitrate (NO3) [gC/m2]
• Phosphate PO4 [gC/m2]
• Faecal Coliforms (FC) [gC/m2]
• Total Coliforms (TC) [gC/m2]

Modelling Scenarios

The Eco Lab module relies on the hydrodynamics module for the provision of three dimensional flow fields,
and then superimposes an Advection Dispersion based calculation layer to derive the evolution of

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chemical/biological components. Hence, the scenarios should be similar to those derived for the hydraulics
investigation.

However, if the two extreme scenarios are analysed to determine the ecological impacts involved, there are
limitations induced by the provided module. For instance, an increase in nutrients in the environment
followed by a prolonged period of solar radiation could result in a stronger algal bloom. However, this
condition is subject to a number of optimal conditions being reached for the growth of algae to occur, beyond
nutrients availability and temperature. This kind of complex behaviour is not natively supported in the basic
eutrophication template, and would require some longer development associated to extensive
measurements in order to accurately reproduce the ecological response to extreme scenarios. Hence,
modelling of the extreme scenarios at this stage would provide no useful information without further tweaking
of the underlying equations involved in the eutrophication model.

Inputs

Precipitation

The precipitation time series are specified in the hydrodynamics module. However, the model can be set to
incorporate nutrients through increasing rain and subsequent river flow input. In this model so keep track of
the basic lake inputs, all the variables are defined to reflect ambient concentrations. Therefore, neither
dilution nor increase in concentrations would occur with rainfall.

Sources

The sources used in the hydrodynamic model (characterized in terms of volume) now carry some nutrients to
the model domain. The relevant concentrations are reported in Table 2.5-18 for Eutrophication Model 1 and
in Table 2.5-19 for the other template. It is noted that benthic vegetation (flora living on the bottom of water
bodies) is included in the model by default but cannot be included in the sources.

Table 2.5-18: Eco Lab parameters defining concentrations of the source flows discharging into the
model domain (Eutrophication Model 1)

Eco Lab Parameter Value (mg/L)


Phytoplankton carbon (PC) 0.02
Phytoplankton nitrogen (PN) 0.018
Phytoplankton phosphorus (PP) 0.002
Chlorophyll-a (CH) 0.002
Zooplankton (ZC) 0.0022
Detritus carbon (DC) 0.8
Detritus nitrogen (DN) 0.1
Detritus phosphorus (DP) 0.002
Inorganic nitrogen(IN) 0.5
Inorganic phosphorus (IP) 0.02
Dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.2

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Table 2.5-19: Eco Lab parameters defining concentrations of the source flows discharging into the
model domain (MIKE 21/3 WQ with nutrients and chlorophyll-a)

Eco Lab Parameter Value (mg/L)


Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 1
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 6.2
Chlorophyll-a (CHL) 0.0004
Ammonia (NH4) 0.0005
Nitrite (NO2) 0.01
Nitrate (NO3) 0.2
Phosphate (PO4) 0.015
Faecal Coliforms (FC) 2
Total Coliforms (TC) 20

Results

Calibration

Dissolved oxygen

Since no data is available to calibrate the model, profile of dissolved oxygen (DO) extracted from the
ecological model is compared to data from previous studies, see Figure 2.5-52. The modelled profiles does
not match exactly to stratification patterns of other reservoirs. This is related to the numerical diffusion also
experienced with temperature (the values drift where gradient is stronger and additional vertical resolution
would be required). However, the model seem to be able to replicate the general DO profile of other
reservoirs – DO concentration decreases towards zero as depth increases. The vertical variation in DO,
which shows a rather high concentration at a depth of 15m below the surface, suggests that the catchment
inflows has a strong influence on the vertical profile.

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Figure 2.5-52: Comparison of modelled vertical DO profile with other reservoirs

Normal conditions

Dissolved oxygen (typical scenario)

When modelling eutrophication for the biological processes e.g. DO, it should be noted that the model is
dependent on temperature. Atmospheric pressure also has an effect on DO. Oxygen gets into water in
several ways: (i) diffusion from the atmosphere, (ii) aeration and (iii) by-product of photosynthesis. Vertical
profiles at the dam site, Point 4 and Point 3 are presented in Figure 2.5-53. DO concentrations are between
3-6.5 mg/l in the first 5m depth of the water column at all extraction points for both the typical condition
scenario and low flow scenario (Figure 2.5-55).

The model shows that after 1 month of simulation, the DO concentration reduced significantly with increasing
depths (may due to numerical diffusion). Nonetheless, it is interesting to relate this result with the nature of
the proposed reservoir.

When a dam is built, the flow of water is slowed down. This, in turn affect the DO concentration of water
downstream. Oxygen may enter the top layer of water through its interaction with surrounding air. The
deeper water, on the other hand, is expected to have lower DO concentration due to the breakdown of
organic matter by bacteria that live near the bottom of the reservoir.

The location of the spillway plays an important role in determining the DO concentration downstream. If
water from the reservoir is to be released from the top, it can be warmer as the water has been slowed by
the dam (more time to warm up and lose oxygen). If water is released from the bottom of the reservoir, the
water may be cooler, but may be low in DO concentration as bacteria is decomposing organic matter .
Oxygen levels in the upper few meters of the reservoir are within the Malaysia Interim National Water Quality
Standard for a healthy water body Class IIA (INWQ).

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Figure 2.5-53: Simulated DO vertical profile results and basic statistics from the Dam Site, Point 3
and Point 4

Figure 2.5-54: 2D plot showing average DO at 6m water depth

Scenario A

Generally oxygen levels in the reservoir during low flow conditions are lower than those predicted during
typical flow conditions by approximately 0.5mg/l. Surface values start below 6mg/l and quickly decrease with

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depth to below 4mg/l below 10m water depth. Again surface values are within the Malaysia Interim National
Water Quality Standard for a healthy water body class IIA.

Figure 2.5-55: Simulated DO vertical profile results and basic statistics from the Dam Site, Point 3
and Point 4 during low flow conditions

Figure 2.5-56: 2D plot showing average DO at 2m water depth

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Chlorophyll-a

The model predicts Chlorophyll-a concentrations of 2-6 µg/L (0.002-0.006mg/l) during normal river flow
periods in the first 10m of the reservoirs water column (Figure 2.5-57).

It can be seen that the vertical profiles show nearly equal Chlorophyll-a concentrations beneath the first few
meters, whereas expected results would have strongly decreasing values with depth due to the death and
decay of planktonic chlorophyll carrying organisms and a reduction in available light. It appears the model
only removes the chlorophyll-a from the system after deposition, and thus dead organisms sinking are still
considered to carry Chlorophyll a during the sedimentation process. The limitation is not considered an
issue, as dissolved oxygen and light rapidly decrease with depth, therefore preventing any biological
processes below a certain threshold.

Figure 2.5-57: Simulated chlorophyll-a vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 during
typical flow conditions 73 cumecs

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Figure 2.5-58: 2D plot showing average Chlorophyll a at 2m water depth during typical river flow
conditions

Scenario A

Chlorophyll a levels within the reservoir during low flow periods are similar to those predicted during normal
flow conditions and range between 2-6ug/l from 0-10m (Figure 2.5-59 and Figure 2.5-60).

Figure 2.5-59: Simulated chlorophyll-a vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 during
low flow conditions, 25 cumecs

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Figure 2.5-60: 2D plot showing average Chlorophyll a at 2m water depth during a period of low river
flow

Ammonia

The Interim National Water Quality Class IIA and IIB standards for the protection of aquatic life for ammonia
levels is 0.3 mg/l. Ammonia levels predicted by the model during normal river flow periods are well below the
0.3 mg/l limit as shown in Figure 2.5-61. Maximum ammonia levels within the reservoir are predicted to be
less than 0.12mg/l. While the levels found within the reservoir are below those as classified by the Malaysian
Interim National Water Quality Standards they may pose a problem for aquaculture production and general
fish life within the reservoir as long term exposure to Ammonia will lead to an increase in stress levels and
subsequent associated mortality. If the reservoir was to be used for future aquaculture activity these levels
would need to be carefully monitored.

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Figure 2.5-61: Simulated ammonia vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 during a
period of normal river flow, 73 cumecs

Scenario A

Ammonia levels during low river flow periods were predicted to be less than 0.1mg/l.

Figure 2.5-62: Simulated ammonia vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 during a
period of low river flow, 25 cumecs

Phosphate

Phosphate within the reservoir during normal river flow periods vary between approximately 0.01-0.05 mg/l
(Figure 2.5-63 and Figure 2.5-64). These levels are well below any adverse water quality guideline
thresholds – maximum allowable concentration in Class IIA/IIB, INWQ (0.2mg/l).

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Figure 2.5-63: Simulated phosphate vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 during a
period of normal river flow, 73 cumecs

Figure 2.5-64: 2D plot showing average Phosphate at 2m water depth during a period of low river
flow

Scenario A

Phosphate levels were simulated to be slight lower during periods of low river flow than during normal flow
conditions (Figure 2.5-65).

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Figure 2.5-65: Simulated phosphate vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 during a
period of low river flow, 25 cumecs

Nitrite

Nitrite is highly soluble in water and is one of the dissolved forms of nitrogen used as an indicator in water
quality analysis. Under natural conditions, the primary source of nitrite and nitrate comes from decomposition
of terrestrial organic matter.

Simulation results indicate that nitrite concentrations during normal river flow conditions within the upper part
of the reservoir water column are very low and are less than 0.01mg/l (Figure 2.5-66). The Nitrite
concentration limit as set by the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standard is 0.4 mg/l for Class IIA
water. During low river flow periods nitrate concentrations were found to be almost identical to those during
normal river flow.

Figure 2.5-66: Simulated nitrite vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4

Nitrate

Nitrate is one of the components found in fertilizers, sewage effluent and manure. The nitrate concentrations
predicted by the model simulation during periods of normal and low (Scenario A) river flow are <0.1mg/l

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(Figure 2.5-67- Figure 2.5-69). The Nitrate limit set by the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality
Standard is 7 mg/l.

Figure 2.5-67: Simulated nitrate vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 during a
period of normal river flow

Figure 2.5-68: 2D plot showing average Nitrate at 2m water depth during a period of normal river
flow, 73 cumecs

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Figure 2.5-69: Simulated nitrate vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 during a
period of low river flow

Total Nitrogen

Total nitrogen during normal and low (Scenario A) river flow periods was simulated to be <0.6mg/l
throughout the entire upper 10m of the reservoir water column (Figure 2.5-70-Figure 2.5-73). These values
are well below the acceptable limits of Total Nitrogen as set by the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality
Standard Class IIA of 7 mg/l.

Figure 2.5-70: Simulated total nitrogen vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 as
simulated during a period of normal river flow, 73 cumecs

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Figure 2.5-71: 2D plot showing average Total Nitrogen at 2m water depth during a period of normal
river flow, 73 cumecs

Figure 2.5-72: Simulated total nitrogen vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 3 and Point 4 as
simulated during a period of low river flow, 25 cumecs

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Figure 2.5-73: 2D plot showing average Total Nitrogen at 2m water depth during a period of low river
flow, 25 cumecs

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

BOD is a chemical method in determining the uptake rate of DO by biological life forms in a water body - a
measurement of organic pollution of both waste and surface water. High BOD reading indicates of poor
water quality due to the breakdown of organic matter by bacteria. BOD standard limit according to the
Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standard for Class IIA/IIB is 3 mg/l.

The BOD reading for the reservoir are well below 1mg/l (FFigure 2.5-74) at all extraction locations (Dam
Site, Point 4 and Point 3).

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Figure 2.5-74: Simulated BOD vertical profile results at Dam Site, Point 4 and Point 5

Below (Table 2.5-20) is a summary of the main water quality results as simulated by the Ecolab/water quality
model. Included in this table are predictions of Faecal Coliform and Total Coliform counts. All simulated
results are below the acceptable levels of Class IIA water bodies in Malaysia. Indicating that the reservoir
water is expected to be of good quality and suitable for aquatic organisms to live and breed in. However, the
TSS within the reservoir is expected to be high – simulated TSS indicates slight higher concentration than
the acceptable levels of Class IIA water bodies in Malaysia.

Table 2.5-20: A summary of the main water quality finding as predicted by simulations during typical
river flow (73cumecs), and low river flow (25cumecs) periods.
CLASSES Q73 Q25
PARAMETERS UNIT
IIA IIB 2m 8m 2m 8m

BOD mg/l 3 3 <1 <1 <1 <1


DO mg/l 7-May 7-May 5.54 3.37 5.43 2.14
Total Suspended Solid mg/l 50 50 53.81 54.27 - -
o 0
Temperature (C) C Normal +2 C 28.48 24.78 28.18 26.08
Faecal Coliform ** counts/100mL 100 400 <10 <10 <10 <10
Total Coliform counts/100mL 5000 5000 <500 <500 <500 <500
NO2 mg/l 0.4 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
NO3 mg/l 7 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1

Reservoir Sedimentation

The Sg Padas is highly turbid due to the fact that land use activities in the catchment (logging and land
clearing for agricultural purposes) generate large quantities of suspended sediment. A paper by Dinor et al
(2007)21 estimated the deforested area (or large scale agriculture) in the Padas catchment to Kemabong
over the period 1984 to 1995 at 23%, with resultant effects on both the increase in the peak flood discharge
and runoff volume. The Upper Padas dam will act as barrier to the movement of these sediments
downstream with sediment accumulation in the reservoir. Figure 2.5-75 shows approximate source erosion
rates across the Upper Padas catchment.

21
“Deforestation Effect to the Runoff Hydrograph at Sungai Padas Catchment”, Dinor et al, Paper to Rivers 07 Conference, June 2007,
Kucking, Sarawak, Malaysia (http://redac.eng.usm.my/html/publish/2007_18.pdf).

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Figure 2.5-75: Source erosion (t/ha/yr), with lumped source erosion and sediment yield per sub-
catchment (t/year)

Sediment accumulation from the two river catchments is predicted not to spread uniformly across the
reservoir (Figure 2.5-76 & Figure 2.5-77). Initial sediment accumulation will occur within the upper reaches
of the reservoir due to a reduction in flow as the river enters the reservoir; this is where deposition of
suspended sediments onto the bed occurs as grains drop out of suspension. The bed load and coarser
fraction e.g. fine sand will deposit near the very top of the reservoir while finer sediments e.g. silt and clay
are transported further downstream. Most of this deposition will occur within 1km of the Padas River mouth.
Figure 2.5-76 shows the distribution of sedimentation rate along the reservoir centreline. Across much of the
reservoir there is very little deposition (<5mm per year).

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Figure 2.5-76: Annual sedimentation rate along the reservoir centreline (Dam Site to Upper Padas
River (based on 2006 and 2007 simulation periods)

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Figure 2.5-77: Distribution of sedimentation in the reservoir after a two month simulation period

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Suspended Sediment Concentrations

Average suspended sediment concentrations during mean river discharge are shown in Figure 2.5-78.
Suspended sediment concentrations vary from 70 mg/l near the mouth of the entry point of the Padas River,
to less than 5 mg/l near the dam wall. Such suspended sediments levels are well within those deemed
suitable for fresh water fin-fish aquaculture i.e. Tilapia and/or fish species that may be introduced into the
reservoir for recreational/food supplement purposes.

Figure 2.5-78: Vertical profile of suspended sediment concentration along the reservoir centreline
(Dam Site to Upper Padas River) during mean flow conditions

Scenario B: High Discharge Flood Results

Deposition rates

As with the normal conditions scenario sediment accumulation from the two river catchments is predicted not
to spread uniformly across the reservoir (Figure 2.5-79 and Figure 2.5-80). Initial sediment accumulation will
again occur within the upper reaches of the reservoir. Unlike the normal conditions scenario there are two
main peaks in the deposition. The smaller peak representing the deposition during the flood event
(850cumecs), which forces finer silts and clays further into the reservoir before being deposited
approximately 1-2km from the river mouth. During the normal flow period the bed load and coarser fraction
e.g. fine sand will deposit near the very top of the reservoir while finer sediments e.g. silt and clay are
transported further downstream. Most of this deposition will occur within 1km of the Padas River mouth.

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Figure 2.5-79: Annual sedimentation rate along the reservoir centreline (Dam Site to Upper Padas
River (based on a 1 year simulation period with high river discharges)

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Figure 2.5-80: Distribution of sedimentation in the reservoir after a two month simulation period

In addition model results indicate that the total reservoir volume is much greater than total sedimentation
accumulation even after 50 years of deposition (Figure 2.5-81 and Figure 2.5-82). While the upstream end
of the reservoir will fill in relatively quickly the remaining reservoir volume is vast and well beyond the life
span of the dam itself.

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Figure 2.5-81: Cross section locations for calculating total volume within the main reservoir channel

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Figure 2.5-82: Cross section locations for calculating total volume within the main reservoir channel

Suspended Sediment Concentrations

Average suspended sediment concentrations during high river discharge periods are shown in Figure 2.5-
83. Suspended sediment concentrations vary from 55 mg/l near the mouth of the entry point of the Padas
River, to more than 15 mg/l near the dam wall. Suspended sediment concentrations near the river mouth are
similar to those predicted during normal flow conditions, concentrations near the dam wall are significantly
higher than those predicted during normal flow conditions. While they are considerably higher than those
predicted during normal flow conditions they are still within levels deemed suitable for fresh water fin-fish
aquaculture. These higher TSS levels are also infrequent and do not represent typical conditions expected
in the reservoir.

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Figure 2.5-83: Vertical profile of suspended sediment concentration along the reservoir centreline
(Dam Site to Upper Padas River) during high flow conditions

The potential effects of sediment capture and through flow include:

• A progressive reduction in active storage capacity, which would serve to reduce the capability of the
reservoir to generate hydropower in the long-term

• The flood response in the reservoir can change, albeit by only a small amount in this case (were it to
be more pronounced, this could affect dam operation and safety)

• Turbines and other underwater structures can be damaged due to the abrasive action of silt carried
through the reservoir

• A change in the downstream sediment yields, with a corresponding impact on river morphology and
potentially river entrance conditions.

• A potentially beneficial effect, albeit of quite small proportions, on the sediment problems
experienced at the Tenom Pangi hydro station.

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APPENDIX 2.6 TERRESTRIAL FLORA


The vegetation surveys were conducted over the period from September 2008 until December 2008. The
survey of the vegetation was done based on the method developed in Pengukuran Hutan Edisi Ketiga22 with
some modifications. A set inventory plots were set up on a systematic basis for each of the station. GPS
position was taken at each station at an open area where satellite signal is accessible. At every station, three
survey plots with the size of 20m x 20m were established at 65m intervals along the transect. The first
survey plot was about 1-5 meter away from the river. The second and third plot was established
perpendicular from the river into the site using compass from first plot.

In each survey plot, trees with a diameter at breast-height (DBH) of 4cm or higher were enumerated. Local
name, species name, tree height, and diameter of trees were recorded. Tree species with height more than
1.5 meter and GBH more than 13 cm were identified and recorded for height, and GBH, for both timber and
non-timber species. In this study, 4cm DBH was used to ensure biomass of the overstorey was more
accurately obtained. Plants within the plots, which have economics and cultural importance, endangered or
protected were specially noted, grouped and listed accordingly.

Figure 2.6-1: Method for Establishing Survey Plots at Each Station

Herb/Shrub Layer and Biomass Estimation

22
Bertham Husch, Charles I.Miller, Thomas W.Beers Pengukuran Hutan Edisi Ketiga Penerbitan Universiti Pertanian Malaysia 1995.
(page 167-213).

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Inventory of species by using 5m x 5m quadrats in the survey plots allowed the characterisation of
understorey vegetation. The sub- plots (5m x 5m) were located at the centre of each survey plots (20m x
20m) (See Figure 2.6-1). Parameters recorded from these subplots were height and DBH. In order to
calculate the actual biomass content, all understorey plants were harvested and placed in a bag. The
harvested plant were then measured for wet weight, and compared after drying process. Height and GBH of
larger trees which cannot be harvested were recorded for weight estimation.

Figure 2.6-2: Subsurvey Plots for Biomass Estimation

Canopy Coverage

Four quadrats were defined within the survey plot (20m x 20m), and photos were taken directly upwards of
the canopy to estimate canopy closure. The digital camera was converted to binary images, and kept in a
vertical position before capture.

Equations and Indices

Diameter at Breast Height (DBH)

DBH is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk of a tree. DBH is used in estimating the
amount of wood volume in a stand of trees. The diameter is measured with a girthing tape, and actually
measures the girth of the tree; the girthing tape is calibrated in divisions of π centimetres (3.14159 cm), thus

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giving a directly converted reading of the diameter. This assumes the trunk has a circular cross-section,
which is typically accurate for most plantation trees.

The photographs were later analysed to calculate the percent of black (canopy) and white (gaps).

Basal Area

Figure 2.6-3: Basal Area of an Individual Tree

πdbh h
Basal Area = (cm2)
4

Above Ground Biomass

Biomass refers to the cumulation of living matter. That is, it is the total living biological material in a given
area or of a biological community or group. Biomass is measured by weight per given area (kg/m²).

Tree Biomass

Individual tree biomass is calculated using the dbh to weight conversion factor of the following:
Y= 0.0921*(dbh)2.5899

Understorey Biomass

Understorey biomass/ station / 75m2 = Sum of all plants dry weight (kg)/ (no. Plots = 3).

Then each biomass (BM; t dry matter/ha) is calculated as follows:

BM = Station biomass (t) X 1000/A;

where A: Plot area (m2)

Shannon-Weiner Index

Shannon-Weiner Index is one of several diversity indices used to measure biodiversity. The advantage of
this index is that it takes into account the number of species and the evenness of the species. The index is
increased either by having more unique species, or by having greater species evenness.

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Species Richness

Species Richness is defined as the total number of species in sample. The vegetation survey results are
shown in Appendix 1.5: Terrestrial Flora.

Canopy Cover Data

Based on the vegetation survey results, the canopy cover data for each station is shown in the tables below.
Table 2.6-1: Station 1 – Sg. Maligan Upstream
Plot Sub Plot % bright %dark
1 19 81
2 22 78
3 23 77
4 28 72
Total 92 308
A Average 23 77
1 17 83
2 22 78
3 34 66
4 10 90
Total 83 317
B Average 20.75 79.25
1 19 81
2 9 91
3 8 92
4 20 80
Total 56 344
C Average 14 86

Table 2.6-2: Station 2 – Sg. Maligan Downstream


Plot Sub Plot % bright %dark
1 18 82
2 23 77
3 9 91
4 21 79
Total 71 329
A Average 17.75 82.25
B 1 9 91

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Plot Sub Plot % bright %dark


2 8 92
3 12 88
4 11 89
Total 40 360
Average 10 90
1 12 88
2 9 91
3 7 93
4 9 91
Total 37 363
C Average 9.25 90.75

Table 2.6-3: Station 3 – Sg. Ketanun


Plot Sub Plot % bright %dark
1 19 81
2 35 65
3 15 85
4 13 87
Total 82 318
A Average 20.5 79.5
1 20 80
2 11 89
3 15 85
4 15 85
Total 61 339
B Average 15.25 84.75
1 19 81
2 22 78
3 19 81
4 21 79
Total 81 319
C Average 20.25 79.75

Table 2.6-4: Station 4 – Dam site


Plot Sub Plot % bright %dark
A 1 18 82
2 21 79
3 14 86
4 14 86

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Total 67 333
Average 16.75 83.25
1 15 85
2 14 86
3 17 83
4 16 84
Total 62 338
B Average 15.5 84.5
1 11 89
2 15 85
3 24 76
4 38 62
Total 88 312
C Average 22 78

Table 2.6-5: Station 5 – Sg. Padas Upstream


Plot Sub Plot % bright %dark
1 14 86
2 20 80
3 19 81
4 22 78
Total 75 325
A Average 18.75 81.25
1 21 79
2 20 80
3 19 81
4 20 80
Total 80 320
B Average 20 80
1 20 80
2 23 77
3 20 80
4 22 78
Total 85 315
C Average 21.25 78.75

Table 2.6-6: Station 6 – Sg. Maligan Downstream


Plot Sub Plot % bright %dark
A 1 10 90

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2 9 91
3 9 91
4 12 88
Total 40 360
Average 10 90
1 21 79
2 15 85
3 17 83
4 20 80
Total 73 327
B Average 18.25 81.75
1 17 83
2 21 79
3 18 82
4 18 82
Total 74 326
C Average 18.5 81.5

Table 2.6-7: Station 7 – SFI Plantation


Plot SubPlot % bright %dark
1 88 12
2 91 9
3 91 9
4 88 12
Total 358 42
A Average 89.5 10.5
1 93 7
2 87 13
3 90 10
4 89 11
Total 359 41
B Average 89.75 10.25
1 85 15
2 82 18
3 90 10
4 88 12
Total 345 55
C Average 86.25 13.75

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APPENDIX 2.7 TERRESTRIAL FAUNA


The surveys were conducted at four sites located within and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed
reservoir area and the proposed transmission lines. Due to steep nature of the topography of the Project
area and its surrounding, it was not practically possible to establish proper line transects to conduct wildlife
census. Therefore, wildlife surveys were carried out by walking along passable hill ridges or following steams
and rivers which were selected based on their accessibility from the nearest accessible entry points.
However, the numbers of such sites were also limited due to their remote locations from nearest accessible
roads where entry could be made. Description of the surveyed areas is shown in Table 2.7-1.

Table 2.7-1: Survey Area

Survey Area Description


Eastern area (2 areas) Accessible via trekking through thick secondary forest. Survey areas
are within the conservation area demarcated by SFI which is a steep
area. Surveys were carried out by following the steep ridges towards
Sg. Padas.
Upstream of Sg. Padas Survey area is near the confluence of Sg. Padas and Sg. Maligan and
is accessible via logging road. Survey covers up to the confluence of
Sg. Basio and Sg. Sundip.
Sg. Ketanun-Sg Padas Survey area accessible from the abandoned logging road near
Mendolong-Long Pa Sia. Survey area covers mainly along the Sg..
Ketanun and its confluence with Sg. Padas.

Surveys were conducted simultaneously by three observers by walking along the survey routes at a rate of
1-1.5 km/hour, and recording sightings of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibia and also evidences of their
presence based on signs such as vocalization, footprints, faeces, feeding signs, nests and wallows in
prepared survey forms. Where possible, the number of individuals was counted when directly observed.

The collected data was also supplemented by other sources such as past survey reports23 conducted by
government and non-government agencies within the SFI area. Oral interviews were also conducted to get
information on the wildlife species in the surrounding areas from the villagers.

Mammals

It is not possible to do any population or density estimation of any mammal species based on data obtained
from the survey. Generally, most mammal species occur at very low density where very few direct sighting
was obtained. Even indirect evidence of their presence was found to be very low throughout the surveyed
areas. Therefore, estimation of the population abundance is not attempted.

Birds

All bird species recorded during the survey except for larger birds such as the hornbills and pheasant were
found to be fairly common throughout the surveyed areas. However, estimate of their abundance is also not
attempted but there appeared to be a healthy population of most species recorded based on encounter rate.
The same observation is also noted for the reptilian and amphibian population in the surveyed areas.

23
EIA reports for SFI Logging and Plantation.

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Herpeto Fauna

Reptiles

Record of reptiles for the area was obtained from reports of previous studies. Only two species were
recorded from this study. One carcass of blood python was found lying on the road as a result of road kill.
The other species was that of the striped bronze-back which was found on a boulder at Ketanun river.
Although there was no other species encountered during the survey, it is believed that the presence of other
species recorded in previous studies is still applicable for this area at the time of this survey.

Amphibia

A total of twenty one species of anuran were recorded in the survey area. Most of the species were found
along rivers and smaller stream during night and daytime surveys. Most of the species found in the survey
area are widely distributed in the surveyed area and generally in Sabah both in primary and secondary
forests with similar habitat type.

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APPENDIX 2.8 AQUATIC FLORA


Sampling was carried out at twelve stations as described in Appendix 1.7: Aquatic Flora. Sampling stations
were selected based on the areas subjected to changes in river water levels at both upstream and
downstream of the dam. Sg. Paal, Marais and Tomani were expected to experience reduction of river water
level due to the control of outflow from the dam. Three stations were selected at the flooded areas to assess
the potential impact to phytoplankton and periphyton of the areas due to reduced in flow rates and increase
in water depths. Sampling was also carried out at Sungai Ulu Padas dan Sg. Maligan at upper stream of the
dam site that will not be inundated.

Phytoplantkon composition

For quantitative analysis, water samples at 0.5m or secchi disc depth was collected using van-dorn water
samplers. All samples was preserved in Lugol’s solution and observed using a Sedqwick rafter counting
chamber under high magnification light microscope (Olympus IX51). Identification of diatom and flagellates
was carried out to the lowest taxa possible according to Graham and Wilcox (2000).

Periphyton composition

Submerged stones were picked randomly and placed in a tray with a small amount of filtered water.
Periphyton attached to the stone was scraped off using a scalpel and wash onto the tray using minimal water
from the squirt bottle. The stone was scrub thoroughly by using brush and rinsed periodically into the tray to
remove as much periphyton as possible. The content in the tray was transferred into a sample container.
Samples were preserved in Lugol’s solution and brought back to the lab for identification. Identification was
carried out to the lowest taxa possible based on Graham and Wilcox (2000) and Biggs and Kilroy (2000).

Chlorophyll a

Water samples for chlorophyll a measurement was collected using van-dorn water sampler at subsurface at
the selected stations. One liter of water samples was filtered using 47mm diameter glass fibre filter (GF/C).
Filter papers wrapped in aluminum foil was kept at cool condition and brought back to the laboratory for
analysis. Chlorophyll a was extracted in 10ml of 90% acetone and kept at 4°C in dark for 4-18 hrs.
Chlorophyll a was determined using absorbance at wavelength 664, 647 and 630nm with a
spectrophotometer. Concentration of Chlorophyll a will be determined using the appropriate equations.

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APPENDIX 2.9 AQUATIC FAUNA (FISHES)


Sampling of fish fauna were carried out using various sampling methods such as monofilament gill net, cast
net, hook and line, and electroshocker. Sampling of fish fauna using gill nets were carried out using three
different mesh sizes, that is, 2.5 cm, 3.8 cm, and 5.0 cm. Electroshocking device used consisted of two
copper electrodes on wooden handles powered by a 900-watt portable AC generator. Fishes were later
collected using small mesh size seine net, dip nets or caught by hands. Cast net was also employed in this
study. At each sampling station, more than one method could be employed depending on the type of habitat
and the depth of the water. Gill net and hook and line were normally employed in deeper and slower flowing
water whereas electroshocker was used in shallow and fast flowing water. Cast net were used to sample
pools or shallow fast flowing sections of the river. The use of each fishing method is described in the
following paragraphs.

Gill nets were left in the water for a period of 12 hours (from 1600 hr to 0600 hr the next day). When cast net
was used, approximately 20 throws of cast nets were made at each station. Fishing using a 30 lbs nylon
monofilament gill line and a small hook that was baited with earthworm was carried out for three hours.
Electroshocking was normally carried out for a distance of 40 m.

Fish species were identified either in situ or in the laboratory. Specimens that could not be identified in the
field were preserved in 10% formalin and later transferred to 70% ethanol for identification in the laboratory.
Fish identification followed those of Tan (2006), Inger and Chin (2002), Kottelat et al. (1993), Roberts (1989),
and Mohsin and Ambak (1983).

The values of diversity index, richness index and similarity index were calculated for each station. Shannon-
Weiner diversity index (Shannon and Weaver 1963) was calculated based on the formula:

H’ = -∑Pi ln Pi

where H’ = a measure of species diversity

Pi = ni/N

ni = the number of individuals of species i

N = the total number of individuals collected

Species evenness (J) (Pielou, 1966) was calculated based on the formula:

J = H’/Hmax = H’/ln S

where H’ = a measure of species diversity

S = the total number of species collected

Species richness (D) (Margalef, 1968) was calculated based on the formula:

D = (S – 1)/(ln N)

where S = the total number of species collected

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N = the total number of individuals collected

Surveys on riverine fishing activities and interviews were also carried out on part time fishermen mainly from
Kg. Kungkular, Kg. Katambalang Baru and Kg. Pangi. The method of capture and list of fish family and
species caught from each of the study station is shown in Table 2.9-1. N is the number of individuals caught.

Table 2.9-1: Method of Capture and List of Family and Species from Each Station
Station Method of Capture Family Species N
1 Electroshocking Bagridae Mystus baramensis 2
Balitoridae Gastromyzon borneensis 2
Gastromyzon monticola 5
Nemacheilus olivaceus 1
Clariidae Clarias leiacanthus 2
Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. 1
Hampala macrolepidota 2
Lobocheilos bo 3
Nematabramis everetti 5
Osteochilus chini 9
Paracrossochilus acerus 26
Puntius binotatus 39
Puntius sealei 6
Rasbora argyrotaenia 4
Tor tambra 86
Total 5 15 193
2 Electroshocking Balitoridae Gastromyzon monticola 1
Cyprinidae Puntius binotatus 4
Tor tambra 1
Total 2 3 6
3 Electroshocking Balitoridae Gastromyzon monticola 7
Glaniopsis denudata 13
Glaniopsis hanitschi 19
Glaniopsis multiradiata 29
Glaniopsis sp. 5
Cyprinidae Puntius binotatus 4
Puntius sealei 1
Tor tambra 1
Tor tambroides 30
Total 2 9 109
4 Hook and line Bagridae Mystus baramensis 11
Cast net Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. 4

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Station Method of Capture Family Species N


Lobocheilus bo 1
Osteochilus chini 3
Tor tambra 2
Siluridae Kryptopterus sp. 2
Total 3 6 23
5 Hook and line Bagridae Mystus baramensis 5
Cast net Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. 4
Lobocheilus bo 1
Osteochilus chini 3
Tor tambra 2
Tor tambroides 1
Siluridae Kryptopterus sp. 2
Total 3 7 18
6 Electroshocking Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. 2
Lobocheilos bo 17
Nematabramis everetti 4
Paracrossochilus vittatus 1
Puntius binotatus 1
Tor tambra 3
Total 1 6 28
7 Electroshocking Balitoridae Gastromyzon lepidogaster 3
Cast net Glaniopsis hanitschi 2
Homaloptera nebulosa 14
Nemacheilus olivaceus 2
Parhomaloptera microstoma 2
Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. 2
Hampala macrolepidota 1
Lobocheilos bo 47
Paracrossochilus acerus 27
Puntius binotatus 1
Tor tambra 9
Tor tambroides 3
Sisoridae Glyptothorax platypogon 2
Total 3 13 115
8 Electroshocking Balitoridae Gastromyzon borneensis 26
Gastromyzon fasciatus 1
Gastromyzon lepidogaster 14
Gastromyzon monticola 7

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Station Method of Capture Family Species N


Glaniopsis hanitschi 4
Glaniopsis multiradiata 2
Homaloptera nebulosa 3
Cyprinidae Lobocheilos bo 7
Nematabramis everetti 1
Paracrossochilus acerus 19
Tor tambra 2
Sisoridae Glyptothorax major 2
Total 3 12 88
9 Electroshocking Balitoridae Gastromyzon lepidogaster 1
Homaloptera nebulosa 17
Cyprinidae Lobocheilos bo 59
Nematabramis everetti 2
Osteochilus chini 19
Paracrossochilus acerus 11
Paracrossochilus vittatus 2
Puntius binotatus 2
Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus cf. unicolor 1
Sisoridae Glyptothorax major 1
Glyptothorax platypogon 13
Glyptothorax platypogonoides 1
Total 4 12 129
10 Electroshocking Bagridae Mystus baramensis 2
Gill net Balitoridae Gastromyzon borneensis 24
Gastromyzon lepidogaster 27
Gastromyzon monticola 12
Glaniopsis hanitschi 15
Clariidae Clarias leiacanthus 6
Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. 15
Nematabramis everetti 27
Osteochilus chini 2
Paracrossochilus acerus 7
Puntius binotatus 4
Rasbora argyrotaenia 13
Tor tambra 17
Tor tambroides 2
Sisoridae Glyptothorax platypogonoides 6
Total 5 15 179

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Station Method of Capture Family Species N


11 Electroshocking Balitoridae Nemacheilus olivaceus 1
Cyprinidae Rasbora argyrotaenia 1
Total 2 2 2
12 Electroshocking - - 0
Total - - 0
13 Electroshocking Balitoridae Gastromyzon borneensis 8
Gastromyzon fasciatus 3
Gastromyzon lepidogaster 10
Gastromyzon monticola 8
Channidae Channa striata 1
Cyprinidae Nematabramis everetti 3
Osteochilus chini 3
Paracrossochilus acerus 24
Puntius binotatus 3
Puntius sealei 5
Tor tambra 2
Tor tambroides 1
Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus maculatus 1
Sisoridae Glyptothorax platypogonoides 1
Total 5 14 73
14 Gill net Bagridae Mystus baramensis 2
Cast net Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. 2
Chela sp. 1
Hampala macrolepidota 2
Lobocheilos bo 5
Osteochilus chini 2
Puntius binotatus 1
Tor tambra 1
Tor tambroides 1
Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus cf. unicolor 1
Siluridae Kryptopterus macrocephalus 1
Synbranchidae Monopterus albus 2
Total 5 12 21
15 Gill net Bagridae Mystus baramensis 1
Cast net Cyprinidae Barbonymus sp. 3
Chela sp. 2
Hampala macrolepidota 2
Lobocheilos bo 3

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Station Method of Capture Family Species N


Osteochilus chini 4
Puntius binotatus 2
Tor tambra 3
Synbranchidae Monopterus albus 1
Total 3 9 21

POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS

Various environmental impacts on the fish fauna and riverine fisheries are postulated to occur as a result of
the construction of the upper Padas Hydroelectric project. Some species of fish will disappear from certain
portion of the river (inundated area) due to the changes in the newly formed water bodies (lake
environment). However, with the exception of one species which is neither unique nor endangered, all the
other species can found in the area that will not be inundated.

These impacts may differ at different stages of the construction, namely (1) reservoir preparation stage, (2)
dam and ancillary facilities construction stage, (3) impoundment stage, and (4) operational stage.

Reservoir Preparation Stage

Reservoir preparation stage will involve the construction of access road and other related activities such as
clearing of vegetation in the reservoir area. These activities will result in an increase in the turbidity and will
impair fish movement. Deposition of sediment on the river bottom will affect fish habitats including loss of
nursery grounds, effect on survival of fish larvae, and loss of aquatic food sources for the fish. The level of
dissolved oxygen (DO) is expected to vary depending on the weather condition. During rainy days when the
river condition is turbulent, the DO level is not expected to drop significantly. However, during drought period
when the water level is low and slow flowing, the DO level may drop. Fish kills occur if the oxygen level
drops to a certain critical concentration. Studies24 show that warm water fish species die after a short term
exposure to less than 0.3 mg/l of dissolved oxygen and survived for several hours at 1.0 mg/l and could
survive for several days at 1.5 mg/l of dissolved oxygen. The critical DO concentration differs among
25
different species; 1.2 mg/l for Cyprinus carpio and 2.0 for Tilapia mossambica . DO concentration below 4
mg/l is also found to severely impact survival of Piaractus brachypomus embryos26.

Although fish could survive below 5.0 mg/l of dissolved oxygen level, growth will be slowed if exposed to
lower concentration of dissolved oxygen for long period of time. Fish perform better and are healthiest when
DO concentrations are near saturation. However, it is postulated that it will not drop below the critical oxygen
concentration level.

The removal of riverside vegetation especially trees that bear fruits and seeds used by fish as sources of
food as well as loss of leaf litter into the river will reduce food sources available for fish. The increased
number of workers needed for reservoir construction as well as for subsequent stages of construction may
also lead to an increase in fishing activities.

24
Lawson, T.B. 1995. Fundamentals of Aquacultural Engineering. Chapman and Hall, New York.
25
Liu, W.C., S.Y. Liu, M.H. Hsu and A.Y. Kuo. 2005. Water quality modeling to determine minimum instream flow for fish survival in tidal
rivers. Journal of Environmental Engineering 76:293-308.
26
Dabrowski, K., J. Rinchard, J.S. Ottobre, F. Alcantara, P. Padilla, M.J.D. Ciereszko and C.C. Kohler. 2007. Effect of oxygen saturation
in water on reproductive performances of pacu Piaractus brachypomus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34(4):441-449.

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Dam and Ancillary Facilities Construction Stage

Leaf litter which is critical for the production of earthworms along the river banks would be significantly
reduced following the clearing of the dam site. Subsequent siltation downstream will affect fish habitats
including loss of nursery grounds, affecting the survival of fish larvae, loss of food source for the fish and
may result in loss of fish species. The level of dissolved oxygen (DO) is expected to vary depending on the
weather condition. During rainy days when the water condition in the river is turbulent, the DO level is not
expected to drop significantly. However, during period of drought when the water level is low and slow
flowing, the DO level may drop. However, it is postulated that it will not drop below the critical oxygen
concentration level.

Impoundment Stage

Aspects of the natural flow regime including magnitude, frequency, timing, duration and rate of change and
the predictability of flow events are thought to be linked to critical components of the life history strategies of
many riverine fishes, including spawning and recruitment27. Once impoundment of the dam starts, the natural
hydrological regime would be greatly affected. Therefore, major impacts will be expected to take place during
the impoundment stage. Impounding the water following the completion of dam construction may take two
(2) months before the dam can be operational depending on the amount of rainfall and the flow volume of
water released from the dam to sustain the river downstream. Different impacts will be felt on the aquatic
fauna in the area downstream of the dam and in the reservoir.

Downstream Area (between the dam/outlet of the secondary powerhouse and the main powerhouse)

In the downstream area between the dam and the power house, there will be a reduction in water flow and
volume depending on the impoundment stages. This will lead to a reduction in the depth of the water and
many rapids area will become very shallow or dry. Some of the exposed sand banks may be colonized by
earthworms during this period when there will be minimum flushing effects even during the rainy period.

During the impoundment stage, fish in the river between the dam and powerhouse will experience less of the
natural flow variability. The quantity of the water will also be very much reduced. As there are strong
evidence linking environmental flood to fish spawning and recruitment, it is postulated that there will be less
spawning and recruitment taking place at this stretch of the river.

Depending on the species and size of fish, reduction in water depth may impair localized movement of fish.
However, most species including medium sized Tor spp. are able to swim at ease at minimum depth of 20 to
30 cm. However, reduction in water volume and flow will lead to congregation of larger sized fish at certain
parts of the river, mainly at the pool areas. Without proper regulation and enforcement by the relevant
authorities, they are vulnerable to overexploitation.

Water flowing downstream will have reduced suspended solids and leaf litter. Rivers in the higher order are
strongly influenced by riparian vegetation28 and although primary production is low because of shading,
vegetation provides large amounts of allochtonous detritus which are food web base for stream invertebrates
and subsequently fish29.

27
King, A.J., Z. Tonkin and J. Mahoney. 2008. Environmental flow enhances native fish spawning and recruitment in the murray river,
Australia. River Research and Applications.
28
Vannote, R.L., G.W. Minshall, K.W. Cummins, J.R. Sedell and C.E. Cushing. 1980. The River Continuum Concept. Canadian Journal
of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37:130-137.
29
Cummins, K.W. and G.H. Lauff. 1969. The influence of substrate particle size on the microdistribution of stream macrobenthos.
Hydrobiologia 34:145-181.

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Downstream Area below the Main Powerhouse

Reduction in water flow and volume at downstream area below the main powerhouse depends on the
impoundment stage. Fish in the river below the main powerhouse will experience lesser natural flow
variability. The quantity of the water will also be very much reduced. As there are strong evidence linking
environmental flood to fish spawning and recruitment, it is postulated that there will be less spawning and
recruitment taking place at this stretch of the river.

Depending on the species and size of fish, reduction in water depth may impair localized movement of fish.
However, most species including medium sized Tor spp. are able to swim at ease at minimum depth of 20 to
30 cm. However, reduction in water volume and flow will lead to congregation of larger sized fish at certain
parts of the river, mainly at the pool areas. Without proper regulation and enforcement by the relevant
authorities, they are vulnerable to overexploitation.

Water flowing downstream will have reduced suspended solids and leaf litter. Rivers in the higher order are
strongly influenced by riparian vegetation and although primary production is low because of shading,
vegetation provides large amounts of allochtonous detritus which are food web base for stream invertebrates
and subsequently fish.

Reservoir Area

As the reservoir is being formed during the impoundment stage, fish species will gradually start to change.
All species from the family Balitoridae and some species from the family Cyprinidae such as Tor sp. that are
well adapted to swift flowing waters will either move upstream or into the smaller tributaries and some will die
due to unsuitable new habitat.

The reduced water velocity in the reservoir will encourage the deposition of suspended solids especially
around the areas of the inflowing water supply. The water will be more transparent, thus encouraging the
growth of phytoplankton in the newly developed lacustrine environment. Enhanced primary productivity in the
lacustrine environment will lead to rapid increase in selected fish species, particularly planktivorous and
herbivorous species. These species will be preyed upon by carnivorous species particularly Mystus spp.
Movement of fish downstream will be restricted depending on the volume discharged downstream during this
period.

Operational Stage

The Project can be put into commercial operation (power generation from both powerhouses) when the
reservoir level reaches the minimum operating level (MOL) of 430 m asl. The secondary powerhouse will
3
produce energy from, what will essentially be, a continuous release of 16 m /s, which is the requirement for
the minimum residual flow.

The main powerhouse will release water according to instructions received from SESB’s load dispatch center
on the amount of power (MW) that is required to be provided to the SESB network. This power (and
therefore the generation discharge) will vary according to the power demand on the network, which will vary
daily, throughout the day and night time. Generation releases to meet power demand will additionally vary
according to the hydraulic head available for generation purposes, i.e. the reservoir level at any one point in
time. For any given required power output, generation releases will be relatively higher for lower reservoir
levels. If the powerhouse is required to deliver the maximum output, all three turbines would release a total
of some 70 m3/s / 105 m3/s (for 150 MW / 210 MW installed capacity options respectively) to the downstream

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river channel. The potential impacts at the operational stage can be categorized into (i) downstream area
between the outlet of the secondary powerhouse and the main powerhouse, (ii) downstream area below the
main powerhouse, (iii) reservoir area, (iv) areas upstream that is not flooded and (v) power station
temporarily ceases operation.

Downstream Area (between the dam/outlet of the secondary powerhouse and the main powerhouse)

In the downstream area between the outlet of the secondary powerhouse and the main powerhouse, there
will be a reduction in flow and volume of water. Controlled release of water from the dam will reduce the
marked changes in water level of the river during rainy season. This will lead to a reduction in the depth of
the water and many rapids area will become very shallow or dry. Some of the exposed sand banks may be
colonized by earthworms during this period when there will be minimum flushing effects even during the
rainy period. Local fish movement will be impaired and this will lead to congregation of fish at certain parts of
the river. Without proper regulation and enforcement by the relevant authorities, they are vulnerable to
overexploitation.

The water that will be discharged from both powerhouses would have reduced suspended solids and organic
matter, as water for power generation would be drawn from the lower levels of the live storage volume of the
reservoir, which is above the design 100-year sediment accretion level. The water releases would have
minimal level of dissolved hydrogen sulphide as it is the intent to clear the vegetation in the areas to be
inundated ahead of reservoir impounding.

Downstream Area below the Main Powerhouse

As the water intake structure is about 50 m below the full service level of 470 m, it is postulated that the
discharged water from the turbines would have reduce suspended solids and organic matter and may also
have negligible level of hydrogen sulphide. Similarly, very little leaf litter (if any) would be transported below
the dam.

Reservoir Area

The formation of lacustrine habitat will undergo a period of stabilization as the reservoir is being filled up.
With the reduction of water flow, the primary productivity of the lake will increase. Certain species of fish that
are well adapted to lacustrine habitat will flourish while other species that have specialized adaptations for
living in fast flowing waters will either move to other suitable areas upstream or perish. Therefore, species
composition and relative abundance of fish species will change. The relatively deep nature of the reservoir
(mean depth about 470 m at full service level) would mean that benthic organisms important as one of the
sources of food will only thrive in shallow areas of less than 10 m. Food resources for fish will be limited at
the main reservoir area. However, the reservoir needs to be monitored so that appropriate management
strategies could be implemented if aquatic weeds start to grow in the area.

Areas Upstream That is Not Flooded

Species that prefer or are well adapted to living in fast flowing waters such as Tor spp. and those from the
family Balitoridae and Sisoridae will move to the areas upstream that are not flooded.

Powerhouse Temporarily Ceases Operation

Almost all run-of-river power stations such as Tenom Pangi cause river flow to be disrupted from time to
time. When this happen fish are stranded at two sites; (i) below the spill way at the upstream end of

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bypassed channel and in the bypassed channel on occasions when the spillway gates are fully closed to
force all flows through the headrace tunnel, and (ii) at the tailrace on occasions when the power station
ceases operation (e.g., for essential maintenance) and tailrace flows are reduced to zero. During these
times, many fishes are stranded and if not captured, most of them would also be dead. Similar incidences
may be expected at the proposed Project although there may be some variations.

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APPENDIX 2.10 LAND USE AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES


Riverine Fisheries

Field studies carried out at 15 sampling stations in September and October 2008 recorded 35 species of fish
from 22 genera and 9 families. In terms of the number of individuals caught by family, out of 1,005 fish
samples collected from the study area, 65 percent is represented by the family Cyprinidae and 29% by the
family Balitoridae.

In terms of the number of species caught in relation to the proposed dam, 16 species were recorded from the
area below the dam, 21 species recorded from the area to be inundated and 27 species from the area that
will not be flooded.

Assuming that all the species present in the study area have been caught, only one species Glaniopsis
denudata may be lost as a result of the proposed dam. However, Glaniopsis denudate is not listed as
threatened in the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, 2008). This species is also found in
other fast flowing and shallow rivers in Sabah (Inger and Chin, 2002) and north Borneo (Kottelat et al.,
1993). None of the other 34 fish species recorded in this study are listed as threatened in the 2008 IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species.

Movement of fish in the area is postulated to be localized only and is associated with spawning season.

Fishing activities is important not only as a source of protein for the local inhabitants especially during certain
occasion such as marriage ceremony, but also as an occasional source of income to the local inhabitants
during peak fishing period. However, the productivity of the river, catch per unit effort and yield is relatively
low and are most probably due the degradation of the habitat as a result of logging activities within the
watershed. Although most cyprinids can thrive in most riverine habitats, the Tor spp. prefer clear and cool
running water. Many of the fish species from the families Balitoridae and Sisoridae are adapted to clear and
fast flowing water and stays on rock surfaces and crevices devoid of sedimentation.

No Build Scenario (Present River Conditions)

Presently, logging activities are still taking place at the watershed of upper Padas River. Therefore, even
without the construction of the upper Padas Dam, the Padas River already had highly turbid waters with
transparency of 2 - 6 cm especially after rainy days.

Deposition of fine sand and silt at the banks and bottom of rivers have destroyed habitats of fish especially
the shallow rock pools which are the nursery grounds of young fish. Deposition of fine silt on the river
substrate has caused a smothering effect on the growth of epilithic algae and other benthic organisms, thus
reducing the food sources for algae-feeding fish. This is evident from the result of this study where fewer
species and number of Osteochilus spp. and Gastromyzon spp. were caught in many of the stations
although the physical habitat (altitude, current speed and bottom substrates) are suitable for these species.

Highly turbid water which is mainly due to logging activities is detrimental to fish as well as many aquatic
organisms that are important sources of food for fish. A study carried out in Danum Valley, Sabah, found that
logging and ground clearance increased river sediment by 2 to 50 times (Chappell et al., 1999). In Batang
Lemanak, Sarawak, the total suspended solids (TSS) value in a disturbed river can range between 338 mg/l
during sunny day to as high as 1,548 mg/l during rainy day (Nyanti and Wei Wei, 2007). In Padas River, a

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report by DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd showed that the highest values of TSS during wet season
was 380 mg/l and during dry season was 695 mg/l.

High suspended solids would have negative effects on the fish communities including reductions in feeding
rates as a result of the reduced ability to feed (Rowe and Dean, 1998), mechanical damage to fish gills
leading to increased ‘coughing’ by fish in an attempt to clear the obstruction resulting in fish respiratory
distress (Jobling, 1995), clogging of fish gills, decrease of growth rate, lowered immunity towards diseases
and prevention of successful development of the fish eggs and larvae (Gaber and Gaber, 1992).

Estimation of fish production in the proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project area

1. UPHEP Reservoir

It is predicted that the fish yield will be between 10 - 30 kg/ha/yr with an average of 20 kg/ha/yr. The
2
expected annual fish production in the 5.9 km reservoir would be 11,800 kg per year. If 50% of this
production is exploited by commercial fishing, the expected commercial landings would be 5,900 kg.
The landings is expected to be multispecies in nature but will mostly be cyprinids at a ratio of
cyprinids:other species at 8:2. Based on the estimated prices at Tenom town, the total value of catch
can be estimated as follows:

Fish Type Quantity (kg) Price (RM/kg) Total Value (RM)


Cyprinids 4,720 15.00 70,800
Others 1,180 10.00 11,800
Total 82,600

2. Fishing Industry

Assuming that each fishing boat catches 8 kg daily and operates for 20 days per month, the exploitable
fishery would be able to sustain a total of 43 boats. Assuming that each boat has 2 fishermen, the
fishing industry would provide employment opportunities for 86 fishermen.

3. Aquaculture Development

The Upper Padas Reservoir can be developed into an aquaculture center for freshwater fish. The
culture of fish in floating cages will generate additional economic opportunities for the local inhabitants.
However, for commercial aquaculture development, a detailed feasibility study is needed.

Depending on intensity, it is estimated that 8 floating fish farms, each with 20 floating cages of 5 m x 5
m x 3 m and each can produced about 200 – 300 kg annually depending on the species cultured and
management techniques used. The estimated yield from each farm is 4 to 6 tons annually. The total
estimated annual production from 8 floating farms would be 32 to 48 tons. At the value of RM12,
000/ton, the annual production from aquaculture would range between RM0.39 – 0.58 million.
4. Summary

In summary, the estimated fishery production of the UPHEP from both the captured fishery and
aquaculture is valued between RM399, 180.00 to RM591, 180.00.

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APPENDIX 2.11 PUBLIC HEALTH


Environmental Health Risk Assessment

Environmental health risk assessment provides a systematic approach for the characterizing of the nature
and magnitude of public health risks associated with environmental health hazards. All activities, processes
and products present some degree of risk, however the ultimate aim of the environmental health risk
assessment is to provide the best possible information about the risks, so that the best decisions are made
as to how to manage them.

The use of risk assessment as a tool in the decision-making process has become increasingly important as it
has become evident that situations and settings cannot be categorically classified as being either safe or
unsafe, in an environmental and health setting.

Specifically a health risk assessment takes into consideration factors specific to each situation and setting.
These can include human activity, characteristics of a chemical hazard and microbiological agents, the
behavioural characteristics of vectors, and the opportunities for exposure to given agents.

Risk assessment may not always provide a compelling or definitive outcome and will often be limited by the
data / information available. However at the conclusion of the assessment process an indication can be
derived as to the potential health impacts that maybe faced as a result of environmental hazards.

Environmental health impacts are largely secondary from primary impacts to the boarder environment. The
assessment of environmental health impacts in a risk assessment framework is dependent on other primary
sources of information, such as environmental modelling and anticipated environmental impacts, morbidity
statistics, spatial, and other thematic data sources. Uncertainties in primary modelling and projections will
result in uncertainties being transferred across the projection of health outcomes from environmental impacts
as part of this risk assessment. While it is necessary to minimize uncertainties in environmental modelling
and projections, uncertainty can not be totally eliminated, and conservatism is applied to counter act
uncertainty. Thus, the outcome of this health risk assessment process should be interpreted with due
caution, with the ultimate focus being upon the minimization of public health impact from the proposed
Project.

Various generic models for risk and health risk assessment are used globally with various definitions applied.
This health risk assessment for the proposed project uses a model developed by and for environmental
health agencies in Australia which is compatible with WHO models. The model is comprised of the basic
areas of:

• Issue identification;
• Hazard identification;
• Dose–response assessment;
• Exposure assessment for the relevant population; and
• Risk characterization.

Each of these five areas will form the basis of the health risk assessment conducted as part of this
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

Issue Identification

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As a result of the proposed project presenting potential health risks to surrounding communities, a Health
Risk Assessment (HRA) is warranted. The scope and objectives of this assessment include:

• Identification of the individual hazards as a result of the construction and operation of the proposed
hydroelectric reservoir, generation and transmission facilities;
• Sourcing of information relating to routes of exposure, levels of exposure and potential negative
health outcomes; and

• Qualitatively and where possible quantitatively the conducting of risk assessments on the acute and
chronic risks presented by the individual hazards and the proposed project, during all stages.

In addition to being required as part of the EIA process, this HRA will provide vital information in guiding the
construction and operation of the proposed Project, so as to minimize projected impacts to the health and
wellbeing of the surrounding communities.

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APPENDIX 2.12 EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN


Objective of the Emergency Response Plan

The objective of the Emergency Response Plan is primarily to guide the Project organisation on its duties
and functions in case of emergencies. The Emergency Response Plan also outlines the responsibilities and
duties of external aganecies, i.e. Government, organisations and in particular the communications between
the two groups. The direct activity planning for government agencies is beyond the scope and jurisdiction of
the present plan.

Background

While every effort will be taken to make the dam and associated installations as safe as technically possible,
any large undertaking carries a series of risks. For dams, the largest and most publicised is the risk of a
major or complete dam breach after the reservoir is filled.

Emergency response to major disasters go beyond state borders, wherefore the present emergency
response plan is aligned with similar plans for dams currently built or planned in the state of Sarawak.
Emergency response actions must be coordinated and must be well rehearsed.

Procedures for emergencies that may be contained within the vicinity of the projects themselves and with the
projects’ own emergency organisations which will vary. However, organisations and procedures requiring
participation of the general public or government agencies must be similar in nature.

A single, major risk is envisaged for this response plan: Dam Breach. There is a multitude of other potential
risks; the list is inexhaustible. Compared with the catastrophic dam breach, they will all be minor and may
therefore to a large extent be covered by the present organisational setup, adjusted for each event. Separate
plans may be established for risks, for which the probability is considered high.

Scenarios

A dam breach may in principle occur at any time, but two different scenarios may be envisaged: A dam
breach in connection with storms and floods, or the ‘Sunny day’ scenario, where the dam breaches for no
apparent reason on a normal operation day.

In the stormy scenario, there may be some warning if heavy and sudden floods are expected to reach the
reservoir as in cascading events on multiple dams on the same river. The impact of the dam breach may be
accentuated by the prior floods already in the downstream area if the dam has not prevented such floods in
the first hand.

The ‘sunny day’ scenario is the sudden burst of the dam, when no external forces suddenly appear and no
warning may be given. Such breaches may be due to earlier, unnoticed damage or due to faults during
construction.

In either case, a tall wave of water will gush through the downstream valleys spreading out to lower lands
and thus eventually losing the most horrifying powers. Reaction time will be very little for the first
communities to be hit, whereas communities lower downstream may get sufficient warning time to save lives
to higher ground, if the procedures of this plan are followed strictly.

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Emergency Response

Sequence of Response

Emergency response may be divided into following sequential components:

• Prevention is carried out during project design, operation, and maintenance

• Detection of present and potential risk of emergencies is facilitated during the project design and
carried out during daily operational and maintenance routines.

• Alerts go out to the internal emergency response system the same moment a present or potential
risk of emergency is detected. There is no red tape or formal procedures necessary: The lowest in
the hierarchy shall, without hesitation, be able to reach the responsible senior officer directly. In
extreme cases such as a dam breach, all procedures may be by-passed and external assistance
may be called or warning to external parties may happen at this time by even the lowest ranking of
the organisation. He or she must therefore also be trained for these eventualities.

• Assessment of the risk or imminent emergency will determine the path of action to be taken and
which level of warning, information and mobilisation to implement.

• Warning, information and mobilisation will, as a result of the assessment go out to all parties that
potentially may be affected by the emergency or called upon to take part in containment, protection
or relief

• Containment is the immediate activities to prevent the emergency to grow out of hand and to limit its
effects.

• Protection consists of activities to prevent damage to life and property affected by the emergency.
This may be in form of evacuation, setting up protective shelters, closing down parts of the project,
or diversions of flood or fire.

• Rescue and Relief includes assistance to individuals and communities already hurt by the
emergency. Rescue is the effort to save persons, animals, or property – in that order of priority - who
are in immediate danger of further hurt. Relief may include medical assistance, further evacuation,
shelter, food, or comfort.

• Damage assessment and repair shall start as early as possible as this may facilitate containment,
protection, rescue and relief.

Much of the emergency response is about communication and organisation. It is therefore of utmost
importance that everyone in the projects daily employment 1: knows the organisation and the means to
reach them, 2: has access to such means of communication, and that 3: communication means are up-to-
date, functioning and well maintained.

It should in this context be remembered that normal means of communication may be cut off by the
emergency itself including the means by which the emergency response organisation convenes.

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Organisation and Main Functions

The emergency response organisation falls in three parts:

• Operation and Maintenance Staff;


• Emergency Site Management; and

• External Emergency Management Centres.

These organisational components will be dealt with separately in the sections below.

Operation and Maintenance Staff

The daily operation and maintenance staff, who are on duty at all times, will routinely monitor the dam
integrity and they will receive monitoring information concerning the reservoir status, the water flow through
the tunnel systems and turbines.

This staff is therefore first in line to deal with prevention, detection and alerts. Once the emergency has been
detected, the immediate response to an emergency will fall on staff, who are on duty at safe locations at the
time of the emergency. They may even be the ones, who are likely to detect the emergency. They must
therefore have the training, authority and the communication facilities to alert and mobilise the Project’s
emergency response organisation without delay.

In their daily work, the staff will assume their position within the Projects normal work force hierarchical
organisation. Selected workers, foremen and managers, however, will also have a parallel rank within the
daily safety organisation.

This organisation shall on a daily basis report to the Emergency Site Management whether any safety risk
has been detected or not and how it has been dealt with.

Emergency Response Team

The Emergency response Team shall be headed by an Emergency Site Manager, who shall be a fully
trained engineer with executive authority throughout the project organisation. He shall be assisted a deputy
functioning as liaison officer to the Government Emergency Centres and a core team consisting of 6-10
operations and maintenance staff from each shift.

The Emergency Response Team shall maintain a manned office at a safe location at all times. The office
may be combined with other functions. There shall be a similar facility, but normally unmanned, on the other
side of the river and the two offices must be capable of communicating with each other independent of other
power supplies or communication systems.

When alerted, the Emergency Response Team will convene; if possible in the same safe location mentioned
above, if not at the facilities on opposite sides of the river. Depending on the assessment of the emergency,
the Emergency Site Manager will decide whether to set up a mobile Emergency Operations Centre near
the emergency site or whether the permanent facilities serve better.

The Emergency Response Team convenes when alerted by the daily operation and maintenance staff. The
Emergency Response Team is an internal project organisation and will mainly deal with emergencies within

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the project site and its immediate vicinity. The Emergency Response Team must be mobile and deals
primarily with the emergency components assessment; warning, information and mobilisation of external
assistance and; containment of the emergency situation. The Emergency Response Team will also be
involved in protection, rescue and damage assessment/repair of emergencies within the project site.

If convened, the Emergency Site Management must have absolute powers to shut down project operations
partly of in full, and to request any internal support whether in form of manpower or facilities.

If the emergency assessment results in an alert or request for assistance going out to external parties, such
parties may decide to convene in the operations centre set up by the Emergency Site Management. The
Emergency Site Management must therefore have sufficient centre facilities (space, communication,
transportation) to cater for an influx of external parties.

The Emergency Site Management team also has the duty of coordination with other dam operators in the
vicinity, whether to request advice only or whether to ask for direct assistance. Likewise, the Emergency Site
Management will provide support and assistance to other dams if requested to do so.

External Emergency Management Centres

External Emergency Management Centres will be needed in Tenom, Beaufort, Keningau Sipitang or Kota
Kinabalu. These centres, which may also have other functions not related to the dam breach scenario, are
the contact points between the Project Emergency Organisation and the Government’s disaster and relief
services.

The Centres in Tenom and Beaufort are directly in the line of the emergency threat if there is a complete
dam breach and they will be busy dealing with the emergency locally. It will therefore be necessary to have
the main liaison and coordination centre at a safe distance from the emergency itself. This could be in e.g.
Kota Kinabalu but could be anywhere as long as communications organisation and authority is in place.

The external emergency management centres will be headed by the District Officer or an individual given
similar powers. The centres shall be capable of drawing upon the services of the Police, Ministry of Health,
Military, the Rescue and Safety service, Civil Defence and other organisations. These centres will have the
authority to commandeer private resources for the duration of the emergency.

Operations and Maintenance Staff

Main duties of the daily operations and maintenance staff concern prevention. They shall thus be well trained
in safe handling of all aspects of the operations including chemicals, explosives, gate and valve operations,
heavy equipment and in reading monitoring results from the variety of sensors installed throughout the
project site and within the installations.

They shall also be trained in honest and realistic reporting without fear of repercussions for negligence if they
have caused a risk to occur.

The staff are also the first to be on site, wherefore they must be trained in basic search and rescue, recovery
and first aid.

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Emergency Response Team

While this emergency response plan deals primarily with the risk of dam breach, any such major emergency
may also include handling of fires, chemical leakage, other hazardous materials, explosives, risk of
electrocution, search and rescue, physical impact of falling infrastructure etc.

These must all be dealt with by the Emergency Response Team. This team must also ensure
communications lines are functioning and that external services are informed or called for as and when
necessary.

The Emergency Response Team must be in a position to assess the impact of an ongoing emergency and in
realistic terms communicating this to the public and government emergency services. The Emergency
Response Team must therefore be well trained in managing human and technical resources, logistics and in
assessment and reporting procedures.

The Emergency Response Team is not expected by themselves to be involved in on-site physical activities
but must have advanced knowledge and understanding of such activities to manage, direct and advice staff,
who are called to perform such duties.

During daily operation and maintenance of the facility, the Emergency Response Team staff may have other
functions. They must, however be easily identifiable to other staff and accessible at all times.

The Emergency Response Team must have readily at hand, both at the permanent facilities and in the
mobile facility sufficient two-way radios, maps, immediate response equipment such as fire fighting
equipment, first aid equipment, compasses, GPS and other search related equipment as well as physically fit
and well trained staff to carry out the rescue and containment duties. The Emergency Site Manager must
ensure, all emergencies, their development and the response to them are well documented.

The Emergency Site Manager further has a function of facilitating awareness and training of staff and the
general public, to ensure information to all parties at all times is updated and that manuals, guides and
additional equipment are readily accessible and in functional order.

The Emergency Response Team will periodically meet to assess the security level based on the daily
operational reports submitted to the head of the Emergency Site Management.

Of paramount importance is that the Emergency Site Manager ensures full transparency for staff and the
general public to assess on their own the risks level and the associated potential impact.

In this context, the Emergency Site Manager must set up a facility to receive questions and suggestions from
any party and to ensure each such question or suggestion is taken seriously and responded to.

In case of emergencies, it is the particular responsibility of the Emergency Site Manager to:

• Mobilise the Emergency Response Team


• Appraise the situation for a long term emergency response strategy

• Assume control of all on-site response activities including such that may come from outside.

• Ensure appropriate alarms are sounded

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• Initiate search and rescue procedures as needed

• Secure the emergency site

• Set up all communications systems to the operations centre and the external management centres

• Report back to the manager of Emergency Operations and advice on when the emergency may be
called off and the All-Clear alarm signal may be sounded.

The members of the Emergency Response Team must at all times be ready to assume following duties:

• Coordinate and implement


o Emergency medical care

o Search and rescue

o Fire fighting

o Hazardous materials response

• Coordination of or liaison with off-site agencies’ activities

• Assistance to emergency activities outside the project site.

Emergency Operations Centre

While the Emergency Site Manager at all times will have a facility available on either side of the river and
may set up his operations centre there during an emergency, he must also have resources readily at hand
for setting up a mobile operations centre at a location more convenient or safe depending where an
emergency is unfolding.

Once the emergency alert has gone out and the Emergency Response Team scrambles to take initial action,
a group of executives must convene to take overall responsibility and to take charge over the emergency
operations centre assisted by the Emergency Response Team.

It will officially be the responsibility of the Emergency Site Manager to alert the Emergency Centre group but
this shall not prevent anyone else from making a similar mobilisation call when the situation calls for it.

The Emergency Site Manager shall ensure staffs are assigned to prepare the operation centre and to brief
the executive staff as they arrive.

The executive staff of the Emergency Operations Centre consists of:

• Manager of Emergency Operations


• Public Information

• Plant Operations

• Plant Maintenance

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• Environment

• Safety

• Materials and Supplies

• Communications

• Records

Each position has one executive manager assigned to it. This manager must at all times, supported by the
Emergency Site Manager, ensure

• Sufficient stock of emergency equipment and materials is available


• All staff to assist in the emergency procedures within his sphere of responsibility are well trained

• Changes in his appointment or that of his alternates are reported to the Emergency Planning
Council, the external emergency management centres and the general project staff.

The functions of the management group of the emergency operations centre are to:

• Support to field operations carried out by the Emergency Site Manager, his Emergency Response
Team and the general staff.
• Operation of the hydroelectric project

• All external communications including liaison with government authorities

• Long term planning

• Planning for resumption of normal operations.

All Emergency Operations Centre Staff must participate in long term planning, planning for resumption of
operations, the decision to sound the All-Clear alarm and they must keep written records concerning their
particular field of responsibility. Particular tasks for the Emergency Operations Centre Group are:

Manager of Emergency Operations

The main duties for the manager of Emergency Operations and his alternates are to ensure that:

• The emergency response Plan is implemented


• All response activities

• Appropriate alarms are sounded

• Notification to government agencies is made

• Calls for outside assistance is made

• Warnings to individuals and communities in the danger zone is done

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• All communication to external parties is appropriate in form and contents

• Regular briefings are held for Emergency Operation Centre Staff

• Long term safety and security planning is carried out

• Plans to resume operations are in place

• The ‘All-Clear’ is sounded after consultation with the Emergency Site Manager

• Follow-up reporting and incident review are carried out.

Public Information

The main duties for the manager of Public Information and his alternates are to ensure that: (This does not
apply to emergency situations but to ordinary times too.)

• Contact is established with the external Emergency management Centres and appropriate
government agencies
• All inquiries from the media and the public are appropriately dealt with in a timely manner

• Regular information sessions are scheduled and implemented with representatives of the
Government, concerned communities and the media.

• A media centre is set up for any media representatives who may come on site.

• Notices for the media and the Public are prepared and disseminated.

Plant Operations

The main duties for the manager of operations and his alternates are to ensure that :

• The Manager of Emergency Operations is well advised of the details of the area of the emergency
including interpretation of technical drawings and principles.
• Facilities are completely or partly shut down in a safe manner as the situation may dictate.

• The eventual shut-down is well coordinated with the transmission operations and grid controls.

Plant Maintenance

The main duties for the manager of plant maintenance and his alternates are to ensure that:

• Adequate power and other facilities are provided to the emergency operation
• All emergency facilities and equipment are up-to-date, on-site and functioning.

• Staff trained in the use of all equipment are available

Environment

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The main duties for the manager of Environment and his alternates are to ensure that:

• Reliable weather information and forecasts are readily available


• Reliable estimates for volumes of water or hazardous substances are made

• Reliable estimates are made on the potential impact, its extent and its severity.

• Advice is given to the Emergency Operation manager concerning the appropriate level of warning to
threatened communities and public agencies.

• Procedures are given for containment and clean-up of hazardous materials if such are released

• All government environmental procedures are adhered to.

Safety

The main duties for the manager of Safety and his alternates are to ensure that:

• Rescue and emergency relief work is done with the highest priority given to the safety of the
emergency staff.
• Medical and first aid facilities are available for emergency staff and that their safety situation is
constantly monitored.

• Emergency takes necessary rest periods to ensure continued safety of the operations

• Psychological assistance is provided for the treatment of post traumatic stress

Materials and Supplies

The main duties for the manager of Materials and Supplies and his alternates are to ensure that :

• All initial materials, fuel etc. are on site and replenished for the emergency operation.
• Provisions are made for food, drinks, clothing, sanitary facilities and resting places for emergency
relief staff during and after the emergency

Communications

The main duties for the manager of Communications and his alternates are to ensure that:

• The communication link between the Emergency Operations Centre and the Emergency Site
Manager is established, functioning and safeguarded.
• The communication link between the Emergency Operations Centre and external emergency
management centres is established, functioning and safeguarded.

• All available technologies for warning threatened communities on- or off-site are utilised in an
appropriate manner

Records keeper

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The main duties for Record Keeper and his alternates are to ensure that:

• A chronological record is kept of all major events and decisions during the emergency
• Critical information is disseminated to all concerned parties within the emergency Operations Centre
Staff and the Emergency Site Manager.

Equipment

In addition to the equipment available for the Emergency Response Team, the operations centre must have
their own:

• Independent power supplies


• Independent communication systems for communication to the Emergency Site Manager and
externally

• Maps of the project and downstream area

• Engineering drawings of the facilities

• Recording and planning tools such as whiteboards, flip charts, cameras, computers, stationeries

• Clocks

• Lists of contact points for key personnel, suppliers and emergency services

• Resting and cooking facilities (supplies) anticipating that the emergency will require the staff to be on
duty for a very long time.

Off Site Resources

The district officers may set up emergency relief committees made up of various government agencies such
as Police, Fire services, Medical services, the Rescue and Safety organisation, Military or civil defence
organisations.

Each of these may have their own procedures but will be coordinated under the authority of the district
officers.

Project resources are not likely to be required outside the actual project site or its nearest vicinity during the
emergency per se. Project facilities may at a later stage be required if available and functioning.

Dam Breach Scenario

In the highly unlikely event of a breach in a roller compacted concrete dam, there will be no leakage, no
cracks, no warning. A breach is expected to be complete and virtually instantaneous, releasing vast amounts
of water rushing through the downstream valley as a tall wave at high velocity.

A wave created by the unlikely event of a breach of the Padas Dam will firstly be contained within the
relatively narrow Padas Valley, thus maintaining its crest level for a long stretch before the wave expands to
the sides and thus loses its momentum and height.

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Preventive Measures start at the drawing table and continues through building supervision to daily inspection
and maintenance. It is important that everyone, from managers and subcontractors to machine operators
and general workmen are fully aware of the potential costs of bypassing construction specifications and
procedures and that they see themselves as individual guarantors of a healthy and safe project.

There is no mechanism for sudden emptying of the reservoir. Water levels may be somewhat adjusted if
heavy rains are expected to increase water levels to above the safety limits, wherefore monitoring of
potential water levels must be constantly ongoing.

Likewise, the danger of blockage of the headrace tunnels or the environmental flow by debris or silt must be
monitored and prevented before complete blockage occurs.

Daily inspection of advanced sensors built into the structure of the dam must be further supported by simple
visual inspection of the alignment of permanent, physical/optical markers along the dam and its abutments.

Response to Dam Breach

A well built and well maintained and operated dam is unlikely to fail if the above mentioned procedures are
adhered to. However, in the unlikely event this should occur or is about to occur following initiatives must as
a minimum be taken by the operations and maintenance staff on duty unless the Emergency Response
Team is ready to take over control and initiative:

• Alerting the Emergency Site Manager and senior project managers.


• Make preliminary assessment of the magnitude of the spill and the expected water velocity and
communicate this to the permanent staffing of the Emergency Site Management facility.

• Initiate the alarms that alerts downstream communities

• Alert the external emergency management centres

• Take every step within their powers to contain the emergency and additional release of water.

• Serve as liaison between the emergency site and the management or the external centres as the
situation may permit.

The following is a sample of table form that must be filled by the Emergency Site Manager before the
reservoir is inundated. The table must be made public to all communities downstream of the dams.

Table 2.11.1: Time and Depth of Flood Waters from Dam Breach to Communities Downstream

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Distance downstream Estimated time of a wave to Maximum expected wave


Community Population
from the dam reach the community height (Flood Depth)

Public Information/Media Relations

Pre-emergency consultations with the public. Even at the planning stage of the hydroelectric projects a
certain level of anxiety and thus hostility was created among the public. The best means to counter such
emotions is transparency.

Meetings, media information, site visits and other forms of awareness raising initiatives must therefore be
initiated in languages and forms appropriate to the target groups and the seriousness of the topic. The
information shall include topics such as the safety mechanism built into the design of the facilities,
comparisons with similar facilities and the emergency response procedures. Without painting a picture of no
hope, the information must be realistic in explaining the possible scenarios of a dam breach.

All serious public enquiries bust be responded to in an appropriate manner.

In this connection, the public includes civil individuals, civil organisations and the public services and
government agencies.

Media relations. The mass media, whether printed, radio or TV broadcast, web-hosted or using any other
means for mass communication is a necessary means to provide all stakeholders easy access to reliable
information. However, mass communication is a business that does not make most of its profit on good
news. Communications to and with the mass media must therefore be guided by strict discipline, based on

• There is only one channel of information: The public information manager.


• All information is ‘on record’

• All operations and risks are transparent and information true

• Information shall be based on facts and may never speculate

• All enquiries from the media must be entertained in a timely and cooperative manner.

• All promises and information to the media must be followed up

For this purpose, a media centre must be established to provide services under normal business conditions
as well as during emergencies.

During emergencies, facilities such as shelter, transport and communication shall as far as technically and
logistically possible should be provided to the media.

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Communications

Telephones. While conventional fixed-line and cellular telephone systems are or will cover the area of
concern, it must be envisaged that these may break down, either physically or due to overload, during a
major emergency. Satellite telephones must therefore be available for the all important links to parties or
areas outside the reach of the project’s radio systems. Emergency telephones must be placed at strategic
points together with solar powered radios.

2-way radios. A radio system must be installed catering for 1: the internal on-site linkages between
operations centres and emergency sites and 2: communication linkages to external authorities and facilities
including the other dams in the area.

The system must be independently powered and have sufficient range to cover the entire project area. It
must be possible to link into the radio frequencies used by government emergency services and should.
While it should not use frequencies commonly available to the public or the workforce for emergency related
work it should be capable of transmitting alarms on such channels.

Solar powered emergency radios must be placed at strategic points together with emergency telephones.

Evacuation of Dam Site

An evacuation plan for the dam site with assembly points and head-count procedures must be incorporated
into the dam design and operational procedures.

Terrorism and Vandalism

Acts of terrorism and vandalism may be the cause of an emergency. This plan deals with the result and
impact of such acts but will leave the protection against such acts to a safety and security management plan
to be established by the plant management.

Hazardous Substance Release or Spill

Spill of hazardous substances may be the cause of an emergency if these get mixed into the waters
released by the facility. This plan deals with the result and impact of such acts but will leave the protection
against such acts to a safety and security management plan to be established by the plant management.

Serious Injuries and Fatalities

Parts of this plan will be applicable for major incidents of work related serious injuries and/or fatalities which
extend beyond the scope of the Plant’s normal work related safety procedures. However, the main focus of
this plan is dam breach.

Resource Inventories

Locally Available Resources

The Emergency Operations manager and the Emergency Response Team must have full jurisdiction of and
easy access to all materials and equipment within the plant facilities in order to respond appropriately to
emergencies.

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This includes medical facilities and staff, fire and rescue facilities and staff, workshops, vehicles and other
heavy equipment, all buildings and other support facilities.

This authority must be built into all arrangements with contractors and subcontractors as their facilities in
case of emergencies will be considered available too.

External Resources

Local Authorities. The district officers have the authority to draw upon all government resources in the
Division. This includes police, military, medical facilities and flying doctors. He will also be in a position to
draw upon additional state or national resources.

Military. Nearest military base is in Lokawi Army Camp.

Hospitals. There is 92 -bed facility in Tenom Hospital and 93-bed facility in Sipitang Hospital. Further
facilities are in Queen Elizabeth Kota Kinabalu.

Emergency Response Immediate Actions

The first minutes of any emergency determines the level of success of many subsequent activities. The first
reaction must be well considered. It must be quick too, but first of all it must be well considered and
appropriate to the type of emergency at hand.

Most emergencies will immediately be recorded in the facility’s operations room, where the Operators’
Immediate Actions must follow following procedure and checklist:

Table 2.11.2: Operator’s Checklist for Immediate Action


Priority Activity Check and notes
1 Determine the level of emergency 1 2 3
Circle one
2 Initiate containment and control mechanisms Emergency shut-down:
Fire fighting
Diversion of water
3 Alert Supervisor
4 Alert Emergency response Organisation relevant to
the level of emergency
5 Determine if there is imminent danger to on-site on-site personnel Yes / No
personnel Off-site residents Yes / No
Environment Yes / No
6 Call emergency services:
District Officers Telephones:
Police, telephone:
Health, telephone:

7 Alarming downstream communities

The operator shall as far as possible keep records of all his actions.

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The Supervisor on shift will, upon being notified of an emergency or an impending emergency:

• Evaluate the situation to determine the appropriate emergency respons


• Ensure all necessary resources are mobilised

• Evaluate the off-site impacts of the emergency

• Ensure all necessary notifications, alerts and alarms are made

The On-call Manager will, upon being notified:

• Obtain information of the level of emergency unfolding and in case of level 2 or 3 alert the
Emergency Operations Centre staff
• Upon level 2 or 3, report to the emergency operation centre

Alerts

Emergency Classification

Level 1: Minor emergency that

• creates limited danger to the work force or the public or both


• is not an operational upset which can be handled using standard operating procedures

• can be handled with on-site, on-shift resources

• carries no possibility of off-site impacts

Level 2: Moderate emergency that

• is beyond the ability of on-site, on-shift resources to deal with


• requires limited external assistance

• presents a limited level of off-site impact affecting the safety of the public or the environment or both

• poses a risk for further escalation of the emergency

• requires little, if any, political involvement

Level 3: Major emergency that

• requires all available resources to be mobilised


• will cause major off-site or on-site impact in the form of loss of life or property or poses a threat to
the continued safety and integrity of the dam construction.

• Will require major political attention

Alert and Alarm Description

On-site Alerts and Alarm

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Level 1 emergency alert: An announcement on the public address system of the facility. This announcement
may call for the attention of specific individuals from the Emergency Site Management team but will not
mobilise the entire team.

Level 2 emergency alert: A rising wail on a siren that continues for a minimum of three minutes. Off duty staff
are notified by telephone calls.

Level 3 emergency alert: Repetitive, rising wail on the siren that repeats every 30 seconds until shut-off. As
with level 2 alerts, off duty staff will be alerted through telephone calls.

All Clear: Single continuous tone of the siren for three minutes, combined with notifications by the public
address system and other means to all staff on-site

Warning the Public

Warning the public is normally the responsibility of the government. The warning will thus be initiated by the
external emergency management centres, but the project personnel will in urgent cases initiate warning
procedures at own initiative. Such procedures will be directed towards the closest communities and towards
executive individuals and emergency response services.

Complete coverage of a single or even of a combination of several systems is unrealistic to think of. The
organisations initiating the public alarms must utilise technical and administrative advantages that may be
available at any one time. Given the rapid development of communication technologies, guidelines and
instructions must be regularly updated and arrangements made with e.g. mass media, the telephone
providers, internet services, satellite broadcasters etc.

It should be remembered, however, that the emergency itself may destroy the communication systems in
whole or partly.

Telephone alert network: Use of telephone systems may be suitable for limited alerts during level 2 alerts,
while they may be suitable for the general public during level 3 alerts only. Systems for mass communication
of SMS exist and must be pre-planned for dam breach emergencies. The same is the case for performing
mass calls.

Sirens: Radio controlled, solar powered sirens may be installed in all major communities

Airborne warning: It is unlikely time will permit airborne warning systems with the exception of the areas
furthest downstream or for the fishing communities in the Padas delta or at sea.

Media broadcast: Media broadcasts through radio, television, Internet services or satellite communication
systems should be used for level 2 and 3 emergencies.

Post Incident Recovery

Incident Review and Reporting

There will after each incident be two different reviews:

• An operational review of cause and effect aiming at future prevention

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• A review of the response, its timeliness, relevance, adequacy and impact

Both reviews must include staffs at all levels and if relevant representatives of the affected communities and
government agencies. The reviews must aim at improving the prospects of a future, not at finding
scapegoats and placing blame.

The reviews shall detailed record the course of events along the evaluation of responses and
recommendations. It is the duty of the Emergency Site Management to follow up on all recommendations.

Clean Up

Effective post-clean-up is important for three reasons

• Fast resumption of operations


• Prevention of additional emergencies

• Psychologically to show determination and responsibility without attempting to cover the incident

Naturally clean-up activities should not proceed till necessary investigations into the incident are completed.

The Project organisation shall as far as possible provides assistance to similar activities off-site.

Public Information and Transparency

Transparency is paramount to avoid speculation, unwarranted fear and speculations, which again will lead to
suspicion and hostility. The Emergency Site Management must therefore always keep the media realistically
informed of emergencies concurrently with the Project’s general information activities reporting on progress
and benefits.

Internal. The following groups within the project organisation must be informed of all levels of emergencies:

• The safety representatives of the employees and their organisation(s)


• Permanent contractors

• Managers and executives

• Shareholders

External. The following groups listed below have a legitimate right to be well informed about the emergency,
its origin and consequences and the steps taken to remedy the situation including repairs and compensation,
prevention of future emergencies of a similar nature. The roject Owner shall take care, not to be portrayed as
pushing the responsibility away and blame natural phenomena or individuals, but shall rather attempt to be
seen as compassionate and caring. Even at a cost.

• The Public in the communities in the vicinity of the project site,


• The Public in areas affected by the emergency

• The Media

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• Relevant government agencies

Employee Assistance

Major emergencies may affect the labour force in may ways such as loss of life or capability, loss of
relatives, loss of property, loss of Job, suffering of Post Traumatic Stress.

Malaysian labour legislation provides for how to deal with such situations and the minimum compensation to
be paid. The Project owner pledges to abide strictly to such regulations with no delay, but the Employer(s)
will also establish a clear policy for caring for its employees, who place their lives and existence in the line for
the company. Counselling assistance to start new lives.

Repair and Compensation

A major emergency such as a dam breach may have impacts of catastrophic dimensions, for which the
Project Owner will be held responsible.

The Project owner must have clear policies and strategies to deal with claims of compensation and repair
and must make sure they at all times control sufficient funds and insurance coverage to deal with any
situation.

Litigation

The press and the public will search for individuals to blame for the calamities and calls for legal justice.
Even within the project organisation itself, there may be a drive to point the blame towards individuals.

The project owner must be prepared for such scenarios and make an effort of ensuring all staff report even
the minutest risk without any fear of reprisals and that the organisation takes action and subsequent
responsibility.

Emergency Preparedness

Emergency Planning

Organisation

An Emergency Planning Board shall be established for the purpose of emergency preparedness.

The membership of the Emergency Planning Board shall consist of managers for Operations and
Maintenance (Chairman), hydroelectric facilities, transmission facilities, Liaison and public relations, Human
resources, Safety, Environment, Catchment management, and representatives of the operations and
maintenance staff. The Council must convene regularly and not less than quarterly.

The responsibilities of the Board shall primarily focus on:

• Updating of the emergency response Plan


• Updating of technical emergency facilities, technologies and methodologies

• Appointment of Emergency Response Teams and Emergency Site Managers

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• Ensuring adequate insurance coverage

• Awareness activities

• Perform and update the project’s risk assessment

• Training of staff in emergency related activities

• Implementation of tests and drills

• Reviews of actual emergencies

• Liaison with external authorities and public representatives.

Plan Development

As experience grows and as project procedures develop, the emergency response plan must develop to in
order to remain relevant and effective.

The Emergency Response Board must at all time keep abreast with international development and
experience from similar projects and keep coordination with surrounding projects at highest level of
transparency and trust.

The Plan must be reviewed at least annually and all parties informed about updates.

Risk Assessment

Risk assessment is a two-way process. For each identified potential hazard, the statistical probability of
occurrence is assessed. This may then be quantified into classes such as low, medium and high risks. Most
dam breach scenarios carry a very low statistical probability of occurrence.

To this is added an assessment of the severity of impact, which again may be classified into low impact,
medium impact and high impact. Dam Breach scenarios will mostly be in the high impact classification. If
both classifications are given numeric values, these are multiplied with one another to get the final risk
assessment, i.e for each scenario, multiply probability of occurrence with magnitude of impact to get the risk
assessment.

Impact assessment looks at the greater picture. A single fatality like in a traffic accident, will for the victim
and his family be severe but in the larger picture the impact may be classified as minor.

Table 2.11.3: Definition of Impact Levels


Minor Reversible and short term
Medium Can be contained and mitigated
Severe Irreversible, cannot be mitigated.

The risk assessment does not take consequential damage into account, i.e. it does not take into account the
damage that may happen as a result of power failure, as a social result of fatalities, as result of loss of
production facilities.

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Table 2.11.4: Risk Assessment


Scenario Probability Impact Risk Assessment
Overtopping due to extreme weather 1:100,000 Severe on RCC dams,
conditions including cascading less so on rock filled
emergencies of the same reason. dams
Overtopping due to landslides in the Low Minor
reservoir
Liquefaction Non-existent for RCC dams, N/A
Low for rock filled dams
Major
Seismically induced dam failure Low Severe
Failure of dam structure (Cracks) Low Severe
Failure of internal dam structures Low Medium
Sabotage Low Potentially Severe
Hazardeous materials release or Low Unknown
spill
Over-toppling of transmission lines

Training

Training is essential as there will be no time to read manuals at the time of an emergency.

Training shall be directed at management level as well as field level and take into account logistics as well as
skills.

The permanent emergency services such as medical facilities, fire preparedness, and evacuation assistance
must be kept up-to-date with technologies and methodologies and trained in their use. Test drills must be
regular so trainees learn not to panic but will rely on their skills to solve new and complex scenarios.

Training must be coordinated with training by similar projects in the region and with training of the
government services.

A particular training will be evacuation drills. This does not directly aim at emergency services rather in
preparing possible victims to avoid danger. Such drills may involve unsuspecting visitors as this will give the
permanent staff experience in dealing with people, who have no prior knowledge of the emergency
procedures. This will also serve as a review of the effectiveness of public notices.

The following Table 2.11.5 shows the minimum requirements to test drills.

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Table 2.11.5: Drills Schedule


Test/Drill Description Focus Schedule
Table top Management level test drill on Plan adjustment Quarterly
planning responses, including
dialogues for further development of
procedures
Communications drill Testing of all communication Maintenance Monthly
equipment and alarm systems
Command post Testing of permanent and mobile Maintenance and procedures Quarterly
command post facilities: Equipment
and materials availability and
accessibility.
Emergency shut- Simulation of the procedures for safe Operational procedures Monthly
down shutting down of the facility
processes wholly or partial
Mass casualty Simulation of an injury and fatality Plan and procedure adjustment. Annual
level beyond the capacity of the
normal operational capacity of the
facility.
Full simulation A realistic mobilisation of all available Policy, strategy plan and procedure Bi-Annual
support systems but with involving adjustment.
only selected parts of the threatened
communities

Reviews Of Actual Emergencies

The Emergency Preparedness Board will review all reports on safety and emergency incidents and evaluate
cause, response and effect of both.

The board will take the necessary steps to prevent similar incidents and will also ensure such incidents are
included in standard operational safety procedures including response procedures.

Liaison With External Authorities And Public Representatives

The Board will act as advisor and liaison to government agencies dealing with emergency response in the
state.

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APPENDIX 3
LIST OF REFERENCES

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APPENDIX 4
SCOPING NOTE, TERMS OF REFERENCE AND
APPROVAL LETTERS

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APPENDIX 4.1 SCOPING NOTE APPROVAL LETTER

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APPENDIX 4.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE AND APPROVAL LETTER

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APPENDIX 4.3 APPROVAL LETTER

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APPENDIX 5
MALAYSIAN ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

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APPENDIX 5.1 MALAYSIAN RECOMMENDED AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES


Recommended Guidelines for Gaseous Pollutant (at 25oC and 101.13 kPa)

Malaysian Target Year For


Pollutant and Method Averaging Time (µg/m3)
Guidelines (ppm) Compliance
Ozone 1 hour 0.10 200 1995
AS 2524 8 hour 0.06 120
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 1 hour 30 35 mg/m3 1995
3
AS 2629 8 hour 9 10 mg/m
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 1 hour 0.17 320 1990
AS 2447
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 10 Minutes 0.19 500 1990
AS 2523 1 hour 0.13 350
24 hour 0.04 105
Particulates 24 hour - 260 1990
AS 2724.3 annual - 90
Particulate Matter as PM10 24 hour - 150 1995
AS 2724.6 1 year - 50
Lead 3 month - 1.5 1991
AS 2800
PM10 = Particulate Matter Less than 10 Micrometers

Recommended Malaysian Secondary Guidelines

Malaysian Guidelines Target Year For


Pollutant and Method Averaging Time
(mg/m2/day Compliance
Dustfall 1 year 133 1995
AS 2724.1

Notes:
i) Other Recognised Standards are EEC, EPA (USA), World Bank and WHO.
ii) The recommended Malaysian annual and daily guidelines for Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) are
90 µg/m3 and 260 µg/m3 (mean of 24-hour measurement) respectively.
2
iii) The recommended Malaysian guideline for Dust fallout is 133 mg/m /day (annual mean of monthly
values) and Lead is 1.5 µg/m3 (three months averaging period).

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APPENDIX 5.2 NATIONAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR MALAYSIA

Classes
Parameters
Unit I IIA IIB III IV V
Ammoniacal-N. mg/l 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.9 2.7 >2.7
BOD mg/l 1 3 3 6 12 >12
COD mg/l 10 25 25 50 100 >100
DO mg/l 7 5-7 5-7 3-5 <3 <1
pH 6.5-8.5 6-9 6-9 5-9 5-9 -
Colour TCU 15 150 150 - - -
Elec. Cond* µs/cm 1000 1000 - - 6000 -
Floatables N N N - - -
Odour N N N - - -
Salinity* % 0.5 1 - - 2 -
Taste N N N - - -
Tot. Diss. Sol.* mg/l 500 1000 - - 4000 -
Tot. Susp. Sol. mg/l 25 50 50 150 300 >300
o
Temperature C - Normal+ - Normal+2 - -
2
Turbidity NTU 5 50 50 - - -
F. Coliform** count/100ml 10 100 400 5000 5000 -
(20000)a (20000)a
Total Coliform count/100ml 100 5000 5000 50000 50000 >50000
N = No visible floatable material / debris,
or No objectionable odour,
or No objectionable taste.
* = Related parameters, only one recommended for use
** = Geometric mean
a = Maximum not to be exceeded

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Classes
Parameters @
Unit I IIA / IIB III IV V
Al mg/l - - (0.06) 0.5
As mg/l 0.05 0.4 (0.05) 0.1
Ba mg/l 1 - (0.001) -
Cd mg/l 0.01 0.01 (0.05) 0.01
Cr(Vi) mg/l 0.05 1.4 0.1
Cr(III) mg/l - 2.5 -
Cu mg/l 1 - 0.2
Hardness mg/l 250 - -
Ca mg/l N - - -
Mg mg/l A - - -
Na mg/l T - - 3 SAR
K mg/l U - - -
Fe mg/l R 0.3 1 1 (leaf) L
A 5 (others) E
Pb mg/l L 0.05 0.02* (0.01) 5 V
Mn mg/l 0.1 0.1 0.2 E
Hg mg/l L 0.001 0.004 (0.0001) 0.002 L
Ni mg/l E 0.05 0.9* 0.2 S
Se mg/l V 0.01 0.25 (0.04) 0.02
Ag mg/l E 0.05 0.0002 - A
Sn mg/l L - 0.004 - B
U mg/l - - - O
Zn mg/l O 5 0.4* 2 V
B mg/l R 1 - (3.4) 0.8 E
Cl mg/l 200 - 80
Cl2 mg/l A - - (0.02) - IV
Cn mg/l B 0.02 0.06 (0.02) -
S
F mg/l 1.5 10 1
E
NO2 mg/l 0.4 0.4 (0.03) -
N
NO3 mg/l 7 - 5
T
P mg/l 0.2 0.1 -
Si mg/l -50 - -
SO4 mg/l 250 - -
S mg/l 0.05 - (0.001) -
CO2 mg/l - - -
Gross- Bq/l 0.1 - -
Gross- Bq/l 1 - -
Ra-226 Bq/l <0.1 - -
Sr-90 Bq/l <1 - -
* = At hardness 50 mg/l CaCO3
@= Maximum (unbracketed) and 24-hr average (bracketed) concentrations

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Classes
Parameters @
Unit I IIA/IIB III IV V
CCE µg/l N 500 - - -
MBAS/BAS µg/l A 500 5000 (200) - -
T
O & G (mineral) µg/l U 40;N N - -
O & G (emulsified edible) µg/l R 7000;N N - -
A
PCB µg/l 0.1 6 (0.05) - -
L
Phenol µg/l 10 - - -
Aldrin / Dieldrin µg/l L 0.02 0.2 (0.01) - -
E
BHC µg/l 2 9 (0.1) - -
V
Chlordane µg/l E 0.08 2 (0.02) - -
t-DDT µg/l L 0.1 1 (0.01) - -
Endusulfan µg/l 10 - - -
O
Heptachlor / Epoxide µg/l R 0.05 0.9 (0.06) - -
Lindane µg/l 2 3 (0.4) - -
A
2,4-D µg/l 70 450 - -
B
2,4,5-T µg/l S 10 160 - -
2,4,5-TP µg/l E 4 850 - -
N
Paraquat µg/l 10 1800 - -
T
N = Free from visible film, sheen, discoloration and deposits
@ = Maximum (unbracketed) and 24-hr average (bracketed) concentrations

CLASS USES
I Represents water body of excellent quality. Standards are set for the conservation of natural environment in
its undisturbed state. Water bodies such as those in the national park areas, fountainheads, and in high land
and undisturbed areas come under this category where strictly no discharge of any kind is permitted.
Waterbodies in this category meets the most stringent requirements for human health and aquatic life
protection.

IIA/IIB Represents water bodies of good quality. Most existing raw water supply sources come under this category.
In practice, no body contact activity is allowed in this water for prevention of probable human pathogens.
There is a need to introduce another class for water bodies not used for water supply but of similar quality
which may be referred to as Class IIB. The determination of Class IIB standard is based on criteria for
recreational use and protection of sensitive aquatic species.

III Is defined with the primary objective of protecting common and moderately tolerant aquatic species of
economic value. Water under this classification may be used for water supply with extensive / advance
treatment. This class of water is also defined to suit livestock drinking needs.

IV Defines water quality required for major agricultural irrigation activities which may not cover minor applications
to sensitive crops.

V Represents other waters which do not meet any of the above uses.

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APPENDIX 5.3 SCHEDULE OF PERMISSIBLE SOUND LEVELS,


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, 2004
Schedule 1
Maximum Permissible Sound Level (LAeq) By Receiving Land Use for Planning and New Development

Day Time Night Time


Receiving Land Use Category
7.00 am – 10.00 pm 10.00 pm – 7.00 am
Noise Sensitive Areas, 50 dBA 40 dBA
Low Density Residential, Institutional
(School, Hospital), Worship Areas.
Suburban Residential 55 dBA 45 dBA
(Medium Density) Areas, Public Spaces,
Parks, Recreational Areas.
Urban Residential 60 dBA 50 dBA
(High Density) Areas, Designated Mixed
Development Areas (Residential –
Commercial).
Commercial Business Zones 65 dBA 55 dBA
Designated Industrial Zone 70 dBA 60 dBA

Schedule 2
Maximum Permissible Sound Level (LAeq) of New Development (Roads, Rails, Industrial) in Areas of Existing
High Environmental Noise Climate

Day time Night time


Receiving Land Use Category
7.00 am– 10.00pm 10.00pm – 7.00am
Noise sensitive areas, low density L90 + 10 dBA L90 + 5 dBA
residential
Suburban and urban residential areas L90 + 10 dBA L90 + 5 dBA
Commercial, business L90 + 10 dBA L90 + 10 dBA
Industrial L90 + 10 dBA L90 + 10 dBA

Schedule 3
Maximum Permissible Sound Level (LAeq) To Be Maintained at the Existing Noise Climate

Existing Level New Desirable Levels Maximum Permissible Level


LAeq LAeq LAeq + 3 dBA

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Schedule 4
Limiting Sound Level (LAeq) From Road Traffic (For Proposed New Roads and/or Redevelopment of Existing
Roads)

Day Time Night Time


Receiving Land Use Category
7.00 am – 10.00 pm 10.00 pm – 7.00 am
Noise Sensitive Areas 55 dBA 50 dBA
Low Density Residential Areas
Suburban Residential 60 dBA 55 dBA
(Medium Density)
Urban Residential 65 dBA 60 dBA
(High Density)
Commercial, Business 70 dBA 60 dBA
Industrial 75 dBA 65 dBA

Schedule 5
Limiting Sound Level (LAeq) for From Railways Including Transits (for New Development and Re-Alignments)

Day Time Night Time Lmax


Receiving Land Use Category
7.00 am – 10.00 pm 10.00 pm – 7.00 am (Day & Night)

Noise Sensitive Areas, 60 dBA 50 dBA 75 dBA


Low Density Residential Areas
Suburban and Urban Residential 65 dBA 60 dBA 80 dBA
Areas
Commercial, Business 70 dBA 65 dBA 80 dBA
Industrial 75 dBA 65 dBA NA

Schedule 6
Maximum Permissible Sound Levels (Percentile LN and Lmax of Construction, Maintenance and Demolition
Work by Receiving Land Use

Receiving Land Noise Day Time Evening Night Time


Use Category Parameter 7.00 am – 7.00 pm 7.00 pm – 10.00 pm 10.00 pm – 7.00 am
L90 60 dBA 55 dBA * (Note 1)
Residential
L10 75 dBA 70 dBA *
(Note 2**)
Lmax 90 dBA 85 dBA *
Commercial L90 65 dBA 60 dBA NA
(Note 2**) L10 75 dBA 70 dBA NA
L90 70 dBA NA NA
Industrial
L10 80 dBA NA NA

Notes
*1. At these times, the maximum permissible levels as stipulated in the Schedule 1 for the respective residential
density type shall apply. This may mean that no noisy construction work can take place during these hours.

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**2. A reduction of these levels in the vicinity of certain institutions, such as schools, hospitals mosque and noise
sensitive premises (apartments, residential dwellings, hotel) may be exercised by the local authority of
Department of Environment.

Where the affected premises are noise sensitive, the limits of the Schedule 1 shall apply.
3. In the event that existing ambient sound level (L90) without construction, maintenance and demolition work is
higher than L90 limit of the above Schedule, the higher measured ambient L90 sound level shall prevail. In this
case, the maximum permissible L10 sound level shall not exceed the Ambient L90 level + 10 dBA, or above
Schedule L10 whicever is the higher.

4. NA = Not Applicable

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APPENDIX 5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND


DISPOSAL OF WASTE OIL AND GREASE AT
CONSTRUCTION SITES.
Scheduled Wastes Types

Common Scheduled Waste found at construction site as per Department of Environment – DOE’s
classification is as follows:
Scheduled Waste Form Non-specific Sources
SW 305 Spent lubricating oil.
SW 307 Spent mineral oil-water emulsion.
SW 308 Oil tanker sludges.
SW 310 Sludge from mineral oil storage tank.
SW 11 Waste oil or oily sludge
Scheduled Wastes From Specific Sources
SW 312 Oily residue from automotive workshop, service station, oil or grease interceptor.
Source: First Schedule (Regulation 2) of the Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations, 2005.

Temporary Storage Area Requirements

• Scheduled wastes shall be stored in containers which are compatible with the scheduled wastes to be
stored, durable and which are able to prevent spillage or leakage of the scheduled wastes into the
environment.

• Incompatible scheduled wastes shall be stored in separate containers, and such containers shall be
placed in separate secondary containment areas.

• Containers containing scheduled wastes shall always be closed during storage except when it is
necessary to add or remove the scheduled wastes.

• Areas for the storage of the containers shall be designed, constructed and maintained adequately in
accordance with the guidelines prescribed by the Director General to prevent spillage or leakage of
scheduled wastes into the environment.

• Any person may store scheduled wastes generated by him for 180 days or less after its generation
provided that

o the quantity of scheduled wastes accumulated on site shall not exceed 20 metric tonnes; and

o the Director General may at any time, direct the waste generator to send any scheduled wastes
for treatment, disposal or recovery of material or product from the scheduled wastes up to such
quantity as he deems necessary.

• A waste generator may apply to the Director General in writing to store more than 20 metric tonnes of
scheduled wastes.

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In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

• If the Director General is satisfied with the application made under regulation (6), the Director General
may grant a written approval either with or without conditions.
Notification

• Every waste generator shall, within 30 days from the date of generation of scheduled wastes, notify the
Director General of the new categories and quantities of scheduled wastes which are generated.

• The notification given under regulation (1) shall include the information provided in the Second
Schedule.
Inventory

A waste generator shall keep accurate and up-to-date inventory in accordance with the Fifth Schedule of the
categories and quantities of scheduled wastes being generated, treated and disposed of and of materials or
product recovered from such scheduled wastes for a period up to three years from the date the scheduled
wastes was generated.
Labelling

• The date when the scheduled wastes are first generated, name, address and telephone number of the
waste generator shall be clearly labelled on the containers that are used to store the scheduled wastes.

• Containers of scheduled wastes shall be clearly labelled in accordance with the types applicable to
them as specified in the Third Schedule and marked with the scheduled waste code as specified in the
First Schedule for identification and warning purposes.

• No person is allowed to alter the markings and labels mentioned in regulations (1) and (2).
Handling

Proper personal protection equipment for handling of waste oil shall include protective clothing, rubber boots,
glove and facemask.
Transport and Final Disposal

• Every waste generator shall provide information in accordance with the Seventh Schedule in respect of
each category of scheduled wastes to be delivered to the contractor and shall give the Schedule to the
contractor upon delivery of the waste to him.

• The waste generator shall inform the contractor of the purpose and use of the Seventh Schedule.

• The contractor shall carry with him the Seventh Schedule for each category of scheduled wastes being
transported and shall observe and comply with the instructions contained therein.

• The contractor shall, in the selection of transportation routes, as far as possible avoid densely
populated areas, water catchment areas and other environmentally sensitive areas.

• The contractor shall ensure that all his employees that are involved in the handling, transportation and
storage of scheduled wastes attend training programmes.

• The contractor shall ensure that during the training programme each employee is well informed of the
purpose and use of the Seventh Schedule.

Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd 295


In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08
Special Environmental Impact Assessment for the
Proposed Upper Padas Hydroelectric Project, Sabah

APPENDIX 6
PROJECT DESIGN DRAWINGS

Chemsain Konsultant Sdn Bhd 296


In collaboration with DHI Water & Environment (M) Sdn Bhd
CK/EV403-4065/08