http://www.scribd.

com/doc/25388349/Role-of-Packaging-onConsumer-Buying-Behavior Introduction In nowadays competitive environment the role of package has changed due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle. Firms’ interest in package as a tool of sales promotion is growing increasingly. Package becomes an ultimate selling proposition stimulating impulsive buying behavior, increasing market share and reducing promotional costs. According to Rundh (2005) package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand, enhances its image, and influences consumer’s perceptions about product. Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood, Klein & Burke, 2001; Silayoi & Speece, 2004), works as a tool for differentiation, i.e. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products, stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells, Farley & Armstrong, 2007). Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase decision. In this context, seeking to maximize the effectiveness of package in a buying place, the researches of package, its elements and their impact on consumer’s buying behavior became a relevant issue. Literature analysis on question under investigation has shown that there is no agreement on classification of package elements as well as on research methods of package impact on consumer’s purchase decision. Some of researchers try to investigate all possible elements of package and their impact on consumer’s purchase decision (Silayoi & Speece, 2004; Silayoi & Speece, 2007; Butkeviciene, Stravinskiene & Rutelione, 2008), while others concentrates on separate elements of package and their impact on consumer buying behavior (e.g., Vila & Ampuero, 2007; Madden, Hewett & Roth, 2000; Underwood et al., 2001; Bloch, 1995). Moreover some researchers investigate impact of package and its elements on consumer’s overall purchase decision (e.g., Underwoodet al., 2001), while others – on every stage of consumer’s decision making process (e.g. Butkeviciene et al., 2008). Furthermore the abundance of scientific literature on this issue do not provide unanimous answer concerning impact of package elements on consumer’s buying behavior: diversity of the results in this area depends not only on research models constructed and methods employed, but on the context of the research too. All above mentioned confirms the necessity to investigate this issue in more detail. In the light of these problematic aspects, research problem could be formulated as following question: what elements of a package have an ultimate effect on consumer purchase decision? The aim of this paper – basing on theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products. Objectives of the study • To find out the effect of packaging on the buying behavior. • Theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products • To check the effect of packaging elements on the buying behavior. • To measure the relative impact of each packaging element on the consumer. • To identify the elements which should be highlight while design the packaging. Key terms Defined Consumer Buying Behavior Process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and services, in satisfaction of their needs and wants Packaging Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product. Packaging is the container for a product Research Question: Main Question

Role of Packaging on consumer buying behavior Literature Review Rita Kuvykaite (2009) has descriptive research. According to Rita package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand, enhances its image, and influences consumer’s perceptions about product. Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood, Klein & Burke, 2001; Silayoi & Speece, 2004), works as a tool for differentiation, i.e. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products, stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells, Farley & Armstrong, 2007). Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase of package, its elements and their impact on consumer’s buying behavior became a relevant issue. He basing on theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice. Research methods that Rita used is systematic and comparative analysis of scientific literature; empirical research There are six variables that must be taken into Consideration by producer and designers when creating efficient package: form, size, color, graphics, Material and flavor. Similarly, Kotler (2003) distinguishes six elements that according to him must be evaluated when employing packaging decisions: size, form, material, color, text and brand. The research result of Rita shows the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions can be stronger. He conclude that Package could be treated as one of most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications, necessitating more detail analysis of its elements and an impact of those elements on consumers buying behavior. The impact of package and its elements on consumer’s purchase decision can be revealed by analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice. Bed Nath Sharma Dec. 2008 studied New Consumer Products Branding, Packaging and Labeling in Nepal. This paper focuses on existing practice of branding, packaging and labeling of new products in consumer product manufacturing units. The study method was Descriptive presentation of facts collected through questionnaire survey concerned with different section of consumer new products (soap, biscuit, noodles, cigarettes and The study further investigates the new consumer product packaging and labeling status in manufacturing units. They are aware about the value of packaging and labeling. Majority of the consumer products 84.37% (27 out of 32 responses) are using product label as a simple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic that is part of the package. Alice Louw (2006) has studied The Power of Packaging the people belonged to Age 20- 30 years old University graduates were taken for research.20 respondents were asked to rank 5 water bottles in terms of their overall appeal. Following this, they were given a questionnaire and asked to rate each of the bottles on 20 statements related their packaging. For the remaining 20 respondents, the order of the process was switched: they rated the bottles first and then ranked them. The statements ranged from functional attributes (e.g. easy to drink from, right size) to more emotive, non-functional attributes (e.g. I like the colors, high quality). For both groups there was a clear winner and a clear loser in terms of the rankings. However, although the top brand chosen was consistent in both groups, the worst brand differed. The group that ranked the bottles first showed more variance in terms of their responses (Variance 1.33) than the second group who rated the attributes first (variance 0.89). This Packaging plays an important role in the marketing context. His research results that right packaging can help a brand carve a unique position in the marketplace and in the minds on consumers. John Th Gersen (2000) worked on The Ethical Consumer. Moral Norms and Packaging Choice published in Journal of Consumer Policy Kluwer Academic Publishers. The paper presents a study of a case with these two characteristics: Danish consumers’ choice presents a study of a case with these two characteristics: Danish consumers’ choice of environment-friendly packaging. With regard to this case, the evidence supports the claim. A majority of Danish consumers have developed personal norms about choosing environment-friendly packaging and the personal norm is a significant predictor of their (self-reported) propensity to choose environment-friendly packaging in the supermarket. Renaud LUNARDO 2007 has a great research on the influence of label on wine consumption. its effects on young consumers’ perception of authenticity and purchasing behavior The main objective of the paper is to identify the effects of authenticity on purchase behavior. They used a repertory grid (RG) approach as a methodological framework in order to know which pattern of features is better at inducing purchase. All the relationships between authenticity provided by the label of bottles and consumer behavior attributes (performance risk, perceived price and purchase intentions) have all been tested by using linear regressions. This study was intended to provide a more complete understanding of the influence of the authenticity perceive from the label of bottled wine. As an attempt to extend the research on the influence label of bottled wine can have on consumers’ decisions of buying, the current it is clear from these findings is the major role played by labels.

A two-stage research methodology consisting of both qualitative and quantitative research techniques was adopted. Further this study attempts to analyze if the importance of the labeling and packaging differs between product groups. 3 = average. consumer buying behavior and perception toward retail and brand baby products. present mood.80) and washing-powder (resp. color and graphic could be treated as unimportant elements of package. which means an individual might purchase a pirated product merely because his/ her friend or family members bought the product and introduced it to them. They surveyed a total of 302 customers. brand and gender of consumer. Adelina Broadbridge & Henry Morgan (2007). The results of the primary research indicated that consumers need to feel confident with the product in terms of reliability and performance and packaging.24 for milk and 4. When analyzing importance of verbal elements. To study the reasons for choosing milk products upon supply. 5 = not important). The methodological approach that they chose was discrete choice analysis. Social influence would include susceptibility.L Renaud 2007 worked on The Influence of Eco-Labeling on Consumer Behavior.: 3. Perception of consumers about dairy products was assessed using different variables i. package. quality. 4 = less important. Where else the independent variables would be divided to social influence. personality/believe. a coding approach from 1. The most important result of analysis is the significant willingness to pay for Packaging energy efficient products. Page | Page |2 2 22 .: 4. Rita Kuvykaite1. culture. This survey was carried out by the Department of Livestock and Veterinary Sciences. whereas. price. Two thirds of the interviews were conducted in the German-speaking. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative importance of the labeling in Packaging compared to other product attributes (like brand. consumer’s involvement level and individual characteristics were analyzed. These are the factors that could influence consumers’ perception on piracy thereby supporting out dependent variable. price.e. type of shop. According to the research model developed the impact of package’s elements on consumer’s purchase decision depending on time pressure.22 and 3. buying purpose With regard to sustainability marketing. 2 = highly important. Comparing the impact of visual and verbal elements of package on consumer’s purchase decision it could be stated that verbal elements are more important than visual ones. it could be stated that product information (4. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data whereby it was served as primary data to answer the research questions and objectives planning to find out the factors that plays a vital role about consumers perception towards pirated products. Aistė Dovaliene2.41).88) are the most important elements.87 and 3. The population was defined as ‘parents of children under the age of five who use baby care products’. It can be identified that the dependent variable is consumer perception on piracy. Material are the most important visual elements for purchasing both milk (size and material 3. H Ahasanul . The Variables chose within this study are . when purchasing both milk and washing-powder. Interviews of 304 respondents were conducted in supermarkets (677) and mini-markets (397) and later 23 interviews were completed in green market mainly for Sharri cheese and curd. that producer and brand couldn’t be underestimated too. This research investigated consumer perceptions and buying behavior of baby care products. and the economy. Furthermore its worth to add. trust. Kasovo during 2007. etc. because the importance of both of these elements is treated by customers above the average.(K Ali 2009) measured the Factors Influencing Buying Behavior of Piracy Impact to Malaysian. time. which is particularly powerful for this kind of analysis. Both the qualitative and quantitative research showed that respondents adopted similar risk reduction strategies in their purchase of baby care products.) for consumers’ buying decisions.5 was used (1 = very important. Vegara Mensur (2008) have research on analysis of consumer buying behavior in regard to dairy products in kosovo. Laura Navickiene3 (2009) worked on impact of package elements on consumer purchase decision economics & management. Bytyqi Hysen*.06 for washing-powder) and country-of-origin (resp. origin of product. It was conclusion after analysis that the packaging has great effect on the purchase of dairy products. Agriculture Faculty of Prishtina. habits. age of consumer. Time. in this case form.

1997. 1997). 2002.. 2000. A thorough review of the literature on packaging design reveals that there are no meaningful guidelines for developing holistic packaging design. Finishes.1977) Packages are found to attract attention (Underwood et al. However. were not significantly different from the level of changes in behavior of non-moving people. Several studies have investigated issues such as packages as a means of attracting the attention of consumers (Underwood et al. First. Sizes. Garber et al.Goldberg et al.0 was used in this study with a 0. Salesperson.Ulrich R. thus justifying the use of sales packaging.intercept technique was employed for the sampling method. 2000. past research has discovered that deviating packages attract attention. This research was conducted by collecting information and data in four stages. (2001).. This paper has shown that impulse buying is indeed a relevant factor in CE retailing. Shapes. Schoormans & Robben 1997). E Barry (2008) published a paper with subject of a model of male and consumer behavior in buying skin care products in Thailand.. Distribution. Pictures on packages are emphasized to attract attention.. From an economical and environmental perspective it is very costly to apply sales packaging (with additional material use and transport volume) to products that do not need them. 1999. (1999) found that by dismissing such non-verbal signs as colors. The conceptual model of male consumer behavior in buying skin care products beliefs in product attributes such as Quality. Furthermore. 2001). demands that the test be relatively simple. The closed-ended questionnaire developed from standard questions of relevant literature was chosen as a research instrument.This study used a quantitative research method. 2001. Rigaux-Bricmont. In fact. 1997). The present study explored the consumer behavior for food products in India from different perspectives. Typography. Price. professionals in the design and advertising industry rated wine packaging designs on the previously identified design elements. Purchase Intention. People accepted the fact that their food habits get affected with the shifting to a new region but many basic buying and consumption behavior do not change. optimization is still important. missing values. particularly when consumers are not very familiar with the brands (Underwood et al. Homer & Gauntt. There is also influence of children on the type of food items that they eat. Brand. Colors. S Nuntasaree and Dr. Garber et al. the attention to verbal signs can be increased. To allow proper management of the pack design the sales performance should be expressed in as simple a way as possible. namely brand identity created by the wine packaging design Kriti Bardhan Gupta (2009) has study on Consumer Behavior for Food Products in India. However.. Packaging. McDaniel & Baker.05 level of significance for all of the statistical assessments. which were observed after their settlement to a new region. primary data was collected from 326 respondents in Uttar Pradesh and National Capital Region The relative importance of various food purchasing criteria was estimated for four different food categories. Other studies show that deviating package colors and shapes attract attention (Garber etal. Third. Goldberg et al.. Images. 1994. food grains and pulses. Economical costs and environmental impact can be expressed in a single score. food and vegetables. Advertising. Impressions. milk and milk products. indicating the packs performance.. As calculating the sales performance is impossible a test will need to be used.. on the other hand. 1992. and processed foods on 1-5 scale. appropriate wine packaging design elements were identified and a sample of real and representative designs was selected. 1999. compared to the last 10 years. found . Schoormans & Robben 1997). Goldberg et al. A convenience sample with a shopping mall. preferably also a single score. They tend to learn cooking and eating new food items after relocation without discontinuing their traditional food items. 2001. The data set was screened and examined for incorrect data entry. This research aimed at generating guidelines for managing strategic brand impressions. packages are claimed to attract attention when their appearances are not typical within a product class (Garber et al. 2000. Garber et al. Underwood et al. and Brand... 2000. normality and outliers.. a review of the branding literature determined a list of strategically relevant brand impressions for wine. Second. or to apply them in an ineffective way. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS) version 15. The pressure from time-to-market in the CE industry. 2000. Schoormans & Robben. Schoormans & Robben. 1981. Schoormans & Robben. Some of the changes in buying and consumption behavior of relocated people. In other words. Other studies researched packages as a means of communication as well as a means of communicating brand and product meaning (Underwood & Klein. Gordonet al. Promotion. Orth (2009) worked on Packaging Design as resource for the construction of Brand Identity. people have started preferring more healthy foods and are willing to try out new dishes.

P. price. This paper outlines a framework of consumer response to SLP. 1977) convey brand meaning. size and shape. package and warranty. Labels are one of the most important features of product packaging. For future study. brand names (Rigaux-Bricmont. and they are both essential features of packages. Research suggests sponsorship leverage packaging may act in a similarly way to celebrity endorsement on product packaging. which was more important than the brand (14 points) and the price (13 points). A majority of the respondents revealed that they are willing to pay something additional for the nutritional information provided on food items. but also acts as a mean of communicative information of the products and brand character. a greater proportion was in the age category 36 to 50 years. Consumer Response to Sponsorship Leveraged Packaging (SLP).milk product was chosen as the object for experiment. Assoc. Ricardo (2008) worked on Product Characteristics and Quality Perception. While brand and price were of about equal importance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyses the data from the experiment. Studies that have focused on other single signs than pictures on packages have found that such single package signs as colors (Gordon et al..Ariyawardana (2003) has a great study in the impact of lutritional labeling on Consumer Buying Behavior.K. it is An Exploratory Study into the Impact of Color And Packaging as Stimuli in the Decision Making Process for a Low Involvement Non-Durable Product The consumers and the manager agreed that important factors when deciding which packet of potato crisps to purchase were the quality. proposing a three step process of exploratory and . 1981). It is critical that brand managers identify the affect SLP has on consumer behavior and evaluate the degree to which it can enhance communication of the sponsorship relationship in the marketplace. Besides.that pictures on packages attract attention particularly in cases when consumers are less familiar with a brand. price. This program of research aims to test a model that examines the structural relationships between SLP and consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward the sponsors’ products as well as the factors that impact this relationship. Little research has been done on packages as extrinsic attributes used by consumers as signs of perceived quality. The model proposed in this study builds on previous models of consumer quality perception and signals of quality from product cues. brand.Prathiraja and A. Packaging is an important part of the product that not only serves a functional purpose. and they are designed to communicate a message. Stuart Wai and Antonio Lobo (2003). K Sony (2008) studied the consumer responses toward attribute framing in product packaging. Of those who are willing to pay something additional. colors and shapes combinations in labels are considered as the extrinsic attributes used as signals of quality by consumers. they rely on cues as extrinsic attributes.H. it has also the function that can give customers the ease of access and use on the purpose of convenience. and materials (McDaniel & Baker. In this research. have had tertiary education and the households had less than 4 members. it must protect the products in good storage. This study shows that consumers use nutritional labeling when making a purchasing decision and that it is especially because of health consciousness. This was about twice as important as the quality (21 points). according to him When they choose among competing products consumers are faced with quality and product performance uncertainty. This study has the following suggestion for packaging design based on the findings. Overall. Colors and shapes are important elements of marketing strategies. quality. the brand and the price of the product. The consumers used a constant sum scale (out of 100) to rate the six attributes of flavor. The study is advantageous in giving marketers a more thorough picture of how message framing affects consumer response in various numerical alternatives and level of involvement. the consumers indicated that the flavor of the product was easily the most important stimulus when selecting potato crisps with an average rating of 38 points. It will also be helpful in developing successful packaging strategy. Pires Gon¸calves. and numerical difference on consumer response. Judy Rex. and the color of the packaging. Liang Lu (2008) worked on a paper :Packaging as a strategic tool University of Halmstad school of Business and Engineering. as signals of perceived quality. After looking at Kolter theory about packaging. hence. 1994). especially in product labels. thus this study is a small contribution to that lack of scholarly research on packages. we will turn to different theory relating to packaging design and its important elements in order to help us to solve the first research question. different types of products can be investigated further. with flavor also being an important factor for the consumers. Fresh. implying that FMCG brands may benefit from marketing strategies that communicate the sponsorship relationship on packaging. Professor Jane (2005). The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of message framing. Fresh milk is commonly considered as health-related product. in shipment and often in use. Packaging must be functional. level of involvement. for instance brand.

Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. Not all decision processes lead to a purchase. determined by the degree of complexity.discussed next. when and how consumers buy. want to go out and eat.experimental methodologies. Consumer Buying Behavior Process by which individuals search for. Hunger stimulates your need to eat. The 6 stages are: Problem Recognition (Awareness of need)--difference between the desired state and the actual condition. (2) Social and cultural environment and norms. and (3) Aspirations and inhibitions Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. stimulates your recognition that you need a new pair of shoes. Purchase decision making pattern that is a complex amalgam of needs and desires. comparison shopping. Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. Information search Internal search. public sources etc. see a commercial for a new pair of shoes.). and is influenced by factors such as the consumer's (1) Societal role (parent. select. therefore need to analyze the what.R Need to understand Why consumers make the purchases that they make? What factors influence consumer purchases? The changing factors in our society. worker. See also consumer decision making. A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives. use. in satisfaction of their needs and wants. Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies. Externals earch if you need more information. purchase.. All consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages.. Friends and relatives (word of mouth). the evoked set.E. memory. Role of Packaging In Consumer Buying Behavior. evoked set is . Deficit in assortment of products. where. etc. and dispose of goods and services. Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information--did not know you were deficient? I. The distinction between dependent and independent variables is as important in a comparative study as in a regression analysis. Theoretical Foundation Theoretical frame-work focuses on the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for: Buyer’s reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firms success. Hunger--Food. The outcomes from the research will contribute to a better understanding of sponsorship effects on consumer behavior and provide managers with the means to develop more effective branding strategies and promotions. Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions). Hungry. Marketer dominated sources.. spouse. Dependent variable in case of a comparative study is the one which we aim to predict and independent variables here are the ones who are used to predict the dependent variable. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers.

After eating an Indian meal. Marketers try to influence by "framing" alternatives. method of purchase etc. expensive and/or infrequently bought products. High degree of economic/performance/psychological risk. Can you think of another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc. Purchase Decision Choose buying alternative. products visible to others. high priced goods. If not satisfied with your choice then returns to the search phase. purchased almost automatically. store. perhaps. Information from the companies MM. Rank/weight alternatives or resume search. High involvement purchases--Honda Motorbike. Buyers level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others. Indian gets highest rank etc. education. whether it is an anniversary celebration. may think that really you wanted a Chinese meal instead. no conscious planning. have you made the right decision. time lapse between 4 & 5. Cognitive Dissonance. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering. making a purchase decision will be affected by the following three factors: . but limited decision making for someone else. includes product. after sales communication etc. Product can shift from one category to the next. snack foods. unfamiliar. milk etc. computers.chinese food indian food burger king klondike kates etc Evaluation of Alternatives Need to establish criteria for evaluation. Importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation. Types of risk: Personal risk Social risk Economic risk The four type of consumer buying behavior are Routine Response/Programmed Behavior Buying low involvement frequently purchased low cost items. Extensive Decision Making Complex high involvement. When you need to obtain information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category. Post-Purchase Evaluation--outcome: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction. homes. Types of Consumer Buying Behavior Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by: Level of Involvement in purchase decision. or a meal with a couple of friends will also determine the extent of the decision making. product availability. package. Limited Decision Making Buying product occasionally. need very little search and decision effort. Examples include cars. This can be reduced by warranties. and the higher the risk the higher the involvement. store personnel etc. Examples include Clothes--know product class but not the brand. Purchase May differ from decision. The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behavior. The reason for the dinner. May decide that you want to eat something spicy. friends and relatives. Information from different sources may be treated differently. Categories that Affect the Consumer Buying Decision Process A consumer. Spend a lot of time seeking information and deciding. features the buyer wants or does not want. Impulse buying. Examples include soft drinks. For example:Going out for dinner for one person may be extensive decision making (for someone that does not go out often at all). Go through all six stages of the buying process.

. changes in a person's behavior caused by information and experience. Need to sell a whole new country.. 36 Ability and Knowledge Need to understand individual’s capacity to learn. Psychological factors Psychological factors include: Motives A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person's activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor. When making buying decisions.. need to give them new information re: product. forgets those that don't. Perception What do you see?? Perception is the process of selecting. Therefore to change consumers' behavior about your product. Who in the family is responsible for the decision making? Young people purchase things for different reasons than older people. satisfies current needs..000 products in a shopping visit lasting 30 minutes-60% of purchases are unplanned exposed to 1. organize it and interpret it.Personal Psychological Social The marketer must be aware of these factors in order to develop an appropriate MM for its target market.. buyers must process information. South Africa.. Can't be expected to be aware of all these inputs. IE we chose what info we pay attention to. Age etc. Interpreting information is based on what is already familiar. Information inputs are the sensations received through sight.open bottle of wine and pour it!! Also educate American consumers about changes in SA.do you ever get confused? Selective Retention-Remember inputs that support beliefs.MCI and AT&T. smell and touch. intensity of input changes (sharp price drop).. MASLOW hierarchy of needs!! Physiological Safety Love and Belonging Esteem Self Actualization Need to determine what level of the hierarchy the consumers are at to determine what motivates their purchases. Learning.. Race. Inexperience buyers often use prices as an indicator of quality . Knowledge is the familiarity with the product and expertise. organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning. Average supermarket shopper is exposed to 17. Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another). If marketers can identify motives then they can better develop a marketing mix. hearing. Demographic Factors. inconsistent with beliefs. Sex. not just one. Actions are effected by a set of motives. More likely if it is linked to an event.500 advertisements per day. and certainly will not retain many. on knowledge that is stored in the memory. A current example. taste.free sample etc. Selective Exposure-select inputs to be exposed to our awareness. Selective Distortion-Changing/twisting current received information. Personal Unique to a particular person.

Marketers try to match the store image to the perceived image of their customers.living.... There is a difference between attitude and intention to buy (ability to buy). Individual learns attitudes through experience and interaction with other people.Drive perceptions. Traits affect the way people behave. Attitudes and attitude change are influenced by consumer’s personality and lifestyle. Consumers buy products that are consistent with their self concept. uniqueness arrives from a person's heredity and personal experience.more than those who have knowledge of a product. Consumer attitudes toward a firm and its products greatly influence the success or failure of the firm's marketing strategy. There is a weak association between personality and Buying Behavior. Attitudes Knowledge and positive and negative feelings about an object or activity-maybe tangible or intangible. Nike ads. Personality All the internal traits and behaviors that make a person unique. living or non. Lifestyles . because they assume that the greater price indicates greater quality. this may be due to unreliable measures. IE brand loyalty. Consumers screen information that conflicts with their attitudes. Examples include: 37 Work a holism Compulsiveness Self confidence Friendliness Adaptability Ambitiousness Dogmatism Authoritarianism Introversion Extroversion Aggressiveness Competitiveness.. Distort information to make it consistent and selectively retain information that reinforces our attitudes. Non-alcoholic Beer example: consumers chose the most expensive six-pack.

Michael Jordon (Nike. father.. social class and culture. Marketers try to attract opinion leaders. are influenced by opinion leaders.) Can be risky. Family is the most basic group a person belongs to. natural lifestyle.. People have many roles. young. older married couples with dependant children • empty nest I.. McDonalds. no children living at home...Recent US trends in lifestyles are a shift towards personal independence and individualism and a preference for a healthy. Gatorade etc. older married couples. retired . in labor force • solitary survivor. Now an assault by the American Academy of Dermatology Social Factors Consumer wants. • The Family life cycle: families go through stages.. Individuals role are continuing to change therefore marketers must continue to update information.. youngest child 6 or over • full nest III.. person's family.. youngest child under 6 • full nest II.Michael Jackson. learning.OJ Simpson. Opinion leaders Spokespeople etc.Chevy Chase Roles and Family Influences Role.. EXAMPLE healthy foods for a healthy lifestyle.. each stage creates different consumer demands: • bachelor stage.. head in labor force • empty nest II. Marketers must understand: • Many family decisions are made by the family unit • Consumer behavior starts in the family unit • Family roles and preferences are the model for children's future family (can reject/alter/etc • Family buying decisions are a mixture of family interactions and individual decision making • Family acts an interpreter of social and cultural values for the individual.. Husband. reference groups.me • full nest I.. Lifestyles are the consistent patterns people follow in their lives. motives etc. Sun tan not considered fashionable in US until 1920's. older married couples with no children living with them.most of BUAD301 • newly married. head retired • solitary survivor. no children.they actually use (pay) spokespeople to market their products. employer/e.things you should do based on the expectations of you from your position within a group.

on welfare Social class determines to some extent. college graduates. Credit Cards etc. managers and professionals Middle Americans-middle class. Upper Americans-upper-upper class. working. ethnic groups and possessions. . aristocratic names. occupation. average pay blue collar workers Lower Americans-lower class. 7%. income.2%.3%. Lower-upper class. sororities. race. Social class influences many aspects of our lives. reference groups and social classes are all social influences on consumer behavior. 32%. attitudes or behaviors of the group members Families. IE upper middle class Americans prefer luxury cars Mercedes. quantity of products that a person buys or uses. wealth. 38%. average pay white collar workers and blue collar friends Working class. US is not a classless society. tries to disassociate from the "biker" group. education.5%. Stores project definite class images. 12.Reference Groups Individual identifies with the group to the extent that he takes on many of the values. do not engage in much pre purchase information gathering. Marketers get the groups to approve the product and communicate that approval to its members. Any group that has a positive or negative influence on a persons attitude and behavior. civic and professional organizations. All operate within a larger culture. friends. Lower class people tend to stay close to home when shopping. the types. newer social elite. from current professionals and corporate elite Upper-middle class. . not on welfare 41 Lower-lower class. inherited wealth.!! Aspiration groups (want to belong to) Disassociate groups (do not want to belong to) Honda. Social Class An open group of individuals who have similar social rank. Family. 9%. The degree to which a reference group will affect a purchase decision depends on an individuals susceptibility to reference group influence and the strength of his/her involvement with the group. US criteria. 1. Membership groups (belong to) Affinity marketing is focused on the desires of consumers that belong to reference groups. quality.

shape. and attitudes that are accepted by a homogenous group of people and transmitted to the next generation. labeling and materials used” (Arens. IE West Coast.an attribute that is related to the product but does not form part of the physical product itself. Culture also determines what is acceptable with product advertising. Big impact on international marketing.A barrier from oxygen. .Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for transport and handling efficiency. Different society. “Packaging is the container for a product – encompassing the physical appearance of the container and including the design. recycle. Culture can be divided into subcultures: Geographic regions Human characteristics such as age and ethnic background. eat. etc. reside and travel. ideas. Culture effects what people buy. •Barrier Protection . compression. • Containment or Agglomeration . bulk Commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable Size for individual households. color. transport. •I n formation trans miss ion . etc. or 43 Dispose of the package or product is often contained on the package or label.Culture and Sub-culture Culture refers to the set of values. temperature. vibration. water vapor. In american culture time scarcity is a growing problem. 42 What is packaging? The definitions of ‘packaging’ vary and range from being simple and functionally focused to more extensive. different cultural values. holistic interpretations. Alternatively. dust.1996). different levels of needs. Objectives of packaging Packaging and package labeling have several objectives: • Physical Protection – Protection of the objects enclosed in the package from shock.Information on how to use. how they buy and when they buy. Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product (Olson and Jacoby (1972)) . individualism and freedom. education. Culture determines what people wear. Cultural values in the US are good health. teenage and Asian American. IE change in meals.

Packaging may be discussed in relation to the type of product being packaged:medical device packaging. etc 45 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Independent Variable 1.Packaging that cannot be re-closed or gets physically damaged (Shows signs of opening) is helpful in the prevention of theft. use. bulk chemicalpackaging. Blue is often used because it is the designer’s favorite color but after considering the meaning of other colors. peaceful and calm color and is often related to the sky or water. white and a bright background color. Packaging color 2. Packaging Material 4. Font Style 5. Design of wrapper 6. handling.The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage Potential buyers to purchase the product. militarymateriel packaging.features which add convenience in distribution. and re-use. and handle the product or inner packages. they use simple tri tone color schemes of black. Packaging may be looked at as several different types. opening. over-the-counter drugpackaging. Although blue has the benefits of gender indifference and being the most common favorite color. One good example of successful use of color psychology is in the Apple iPod advertisements. •C onven ien ce . certain colors set different moods and can help to draw attention. Innovation Packaging color Dependent Variable Consumer Buying Behavior Color plays an important role in a potential customer’s decision making process. display. Printed Information 7.•R educing theft . another color may be a better choice. store. Sale. Blue is seen as a trustworthy. The bright background color is to give the advertisement a fun feel and the contrasting white on black is to focus attention. Meaning of the Color Green . 46 Meaning of the Color Blue Blue is the most common favorite color and is liked by both genders. retailfood packaging. •Mark eting . Background Image 3. the overuse of blue can seem cold or uncaring. For example a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship. Blue is usually cool and quiet but more electric shades can give a dynamic feel. re-closing. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household.pharmaceuti cal packaging. Packages also Provide opportunities to include anti-theft devices.

Note also that when the image is available. The Union Flag. Consumer can change its decision regarding Packaging material. High quality Packaging attract consumer then low quality Packaging.w eight in kg. authors should also specify a background color property that will be used when the image is unavailable. Background-image The background image property specifies the background image for an element. 'use by' date. Thus. etc. Meaning of the Color Yellow Yellow is a very useful color because it is the most easily noticed.packing. When setting a background image. It shows the cooking time. Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: for example. Packaging Material Any material used especially to protect something. The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Baskets of reeds. price tow eight ratio in both £/kg and £/lb. British Farm Standard tractor logo. wadding. it will grab the attention of a person so can be a good choice for things such as magazine advertisements which may usually be ignored due to ad blindness. Paperboard cartons and corrugated fiberboard boxes were first introduced in the late 19th century. woven bags. It says 'Less than 3%Fat' and 'NoCarbs per serving' and includes abarcode. Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closure 48 . The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology. health and power. wooden barrels. if you want to give your product a natural feel use green.wooden boxes. 'display until' date.price. pottery vases. Yellow-greens should be avoided around food products as the color will act as an appetitedepressant. and British Meat Quality Standard logo are also present. number of servings. the background color will be visible. The main advantage of yellow is its attention grabbing feature so a combination of blue and yellow can be a successful color scheme which could create a cool and calm mood from the blue but still draw attention because of the yellow 47 A sealed pack of dicedpork fromTes co.Green is related to life and nature. early glass and bronze vessels. optimism and warmth but also caution. freezing and storage instructions. it is rendered on top of the background color. ceramic amphorae. which should be expected when blue and green are the two most popular colors. As well as the natural feel greens have. they can also signify money. in any transparent areas of the image. Iron and tin plated steel were used to make cans in the early 19th century. wineskins (Bota bags). Green is the second most popular color and the most popular shades of green are the blue-greens. Yellow signifies happiness.

49 The consumer can change his decision on the basis of information printed on the packaging. easy. The companies try their best to create attractive design of packaging Printed Information Container or wrapper for a consumer product that serves a number of purposes including protection and description of the contents. easy-open. easy-carry. Manufacturers today strive to have packaging that maintains the key equities of the brand. They hire specialist in composing which create mind blowing and attractive font styles. The attractive package has innovative font style. and product promotion. transparent cellophane over wraps and panels on cartons. tamper-proofing. and non breakability. has stand out appeal on the retailer’s shelf. The successful companies have best practices of the font styles. So packaging material have strong have with buying behavior. So we can say that there is relation between font style and buying behavior Design of wrapper The over all design also play a vital role in attracting the consumer.on bottles. and is sustainable but with lower production costs. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed. The customer can adopt product on the basis of its innovative packaging. Mostly the children of 10-18 years are so sensitive to the design of wrapper.store. Mostly in Merchandises and daily FMCG the consumer can perform evaluation on the basis of printed information. The labels on packages are important components of the overall marketing mix and can support advertising claims. which shows the relation between buying behavior and innovation of packaging. enhance name recognition. Font Style The font style of Packaging grab customer attraction. increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. Innovation Innovative packaging may actually add value to the product if it meets a consumer need such as portion control. and optimize shelf space allocations. establish brand identity. theft deterrence. child-proofing. recyclability. The up gradation of IT technology have support this feature. Data & Methodology 50 . they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality.

Measures: There were at least 25 questions in the survey obtaining data for one variable and some questions were directly obtaining data with no complications. Institutions of Pakistan in which the sample size of 150 students will be taken for conducting the study by using simple random sampling in order to generalize the findings in the particular sector. Measure for each variable is defined below: Dependent Variable Consumer Buying Behavior Independent Variable Packaging color Background Image Packaging Material Page | Page |5 2 52 . The sample of questioner is available in appendix-1.CHAPTER # 4 CHAPTER CONTENTS Tools of Data Collection Sampling Technique and Sample Measures Methodology Data & Methodology 51 Tools of Data Collection: In order to find data on Role of packaging on consumer buying behavior. Sampling Technique and Sample The Population of my study will be students and educational. I will collect data on four variables: The first benefit to use questionnaire technique is that result.

Font Style Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation Each of above mentioned variable was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 5-points itemized rating type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree Methodology: To make analysis of data I will use Spss software in which we will make analysis in to two parts where part one will lead descriptive statistics that will be use to “describe and summarize data and include measures of central tendency (average) and dispersion (the spread of data or how close each other is to the measure of central tendency)” 1. each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis. 53 3. 4. maximum. involving one or more independent variables.80 are considered pretty high. correlations above 0. Descriptive analysis I have used first techniques for generating result is descriptive statistics. Generally.00 (no correlation) and 1. This kind of plot is also called a scatter chart. Scattered plots A scatter plot is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. 2. and Mean values of data. Correlation The Pearson's correlation is used to find a correlation between at least two continuous variables. that best predict the value of the dependent variable. EMPIRICAL FINDINGS 55 . The value for a Pearson's can fall between 0. Multiple regressions Linear regression analysis estimates the coefficients of a linear equation. The data is displayed as a collection of points. It shows minimum.00 (perfect correlation). Other factors such as group size will determine if the correlation is significant.

Number of observations of each variable is 145.858 which is greater then 0.2 the minimum values is 1. Re 56 Descriptive Analysis Table 5. Deviation Packing_Color 145 1 5 3.73 with standard deviation of 0.1 the minimum values. maximum values.2 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.55 .924 Valid N (listwise) 145 In the above table 5.92 Table 5. maximum 57 about the central tendency of the values of a variable. Standard deviation and the extreme values (minimum in comparison to maximum value) give the idea about the dispersion of the values of a variable from its mean value. The value is also positive.7 and also positive. Table 5.Reliability Test Dependent Variable The Value ofCronbach's Alpha is bigger then 0. The Minimum value is 1 while Maximum value is 5.3 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum . Because the value of Cronbach's Alpha is 0.920 Valid N (listwise) 145 In the above table 5. Independent Variable The data of independent variables or predictors is reliable.7.1 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable. Number of observations of each variable is 145. The Mean value is 3. Deviation Buying_Behavior 145 1 5 3. which shows the reliability of dependent variables.73 . so the data used for analysis is reliable. mean values and the values of standard deviation of dependent Variable have been shown.

6 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Number of observations of each variable is 145.849 Valid N (listwise) 145 In the above table 5.942.4 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.849.5 the minimum values is 1.924.4 the minimum value of 1 and maximum value of 5.942 or -0. and mean value is 3. Which means that the mean value can varied by +0.72 . Table 5.942 Valid N (listwise) 145 The above table 5.71 .924.924 or -0.5 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.71 while the values of standard deviation is 0.Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Quality_Packing 145 1 5 3. Which means that the mean value can varied by +0.3 the minimum value of 1 and maximum value of 5. The values can be deviated by 0. Deviation Font_Style 145 2 5 3. Deviation Wraper_Design 145 1 .66 . maximum values 5.942. 58 Table 5.924 Valid N (listwise) 145 The above table 5. The values can be deviated by 0. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable. Deviation Background 145 1 5 3. Table 5.

6 the minimum values is 1.5 3.992.992 Valid N (listwise) 145 In the above table 5. and mean value is 3.55 while the values of standard deviation is 0.953 Valid N (listwise) 145 In the above table 5.7 59 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable Table 5.8 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. maximum values 5. and mean value is 3. Deviation Printed_information 145 1 5 3. .68 . Deviation Packing_Innovation 145 1 5 3. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable.953. and mean value is 3.68 while the values of standard deviation is 0. maximum values 5.55 .9 the minimum values is 1.927.70 . Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable Table 5.70 while the values of standard deviation is 0.7 the minimum values is 1. maximum values 5.927 Valid N (listwise) 145 In the above table 5.

If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and color of packaging.9 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and color of packaging. This means that if the attractive colors .9 Figure 5.60 Scatter-Plot Matrix Figure 5.

10 Figure 5. Figure 5.61 are used in packaging then consumer will purchase product and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations. This means that if the 62 . If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and color of packaging.10 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and background of packaging.

12 Figure 5.Figure 5. Figure 5.11 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and quality of packaging. This means that if the fine quality is 63 used in packaging material then consumer will attract and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations. If 85 set the packaging standard and to implement accordingly for better protection and . If we observe then the flow of line is come from right to left which shows the positive relationship between buying behavior and quality of packaging.12 shows the results of scatter plot matrix where we intend to have some idea about the relationship between buying behavior and font style used in packaging.11 Figure 5.attractive background are used in packaging then consumer will purchase product and the above results have been confirmed by the table of correlations.

S Bed (2008). The influence of label on wine consumption : its effects on young consumers’ perception of authenticity and purchasing behavior. what is the best way to gain insight into preference Without biasing the results? Is this possible? More research into the elements of pack design and how it influences consumer perceptions – are there universal rules or do they differ by product category. ekonomika ir vadyba. pp. Basically they describe that made it. for instance. S Katharina and Rolf Wüstenhagen* (Sept. 100-112. individual characteristics of consumers. 2006. 23/2. 1. impact of package elements on consumer purchase. It must also be more useful technically. Bologna. institute for economy and the . the Influence of Eco-labeling on consumer behavior. culture. new consumer products branding. when it was made. Italy. and Vila. (2006). packaging and labeling in Nepal. Further more they believe that the consumers are properly guided by label to use the products. The information given in the label and its value have to be highlighted while promoting the product in the market. Thus. the power of packaging. V No.promotion of a product. Vol. where it was made. the choices of packaging colors are quite different between the West and Far East. consumer perceptions of product packaging. 1 L Alice (2006). Kauno technologijos universitetas. how to use it etc. etc? REFERENCES: K Rita (2009). it could be stated that detail evaluation of package elements and their impact on consumer’s purchase decision. pp 186-216 87 Ampuero. Summary Summarizing. L Renaud(2007). taking into consideration involvement level. N. O. united states of america. Journal of consumer marketing. during our research. we think that it is important for international companies to take a consideration of culture differences when they design the product package. the Journal of Nepalese business studies. Lietuva. Areas of future research Suggested areas for future research include a more in-depth analysis into the relationship 86 Between product attributes and total product assessment – how exactly does the research Process influence overall opinions.  Consumer new product manufacturers mostly use the label in their products. is necessary in order to implement efficient packaging decisions. what it contains.  I do believe that culture difference does have an impact on companies’ initiatives to design the product package. 2005).

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Gender Age Profession Education E-Mail Contact No Rating of Questions 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Normal 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree Q Questions 1 Do you like the Packaging of any product/Brand? 1 2 3 4 5 2 Packaging is attractive? 1 2 3 4 5 3 Do you purchase goods as advised by your family or friends? 1 2 3 4 5 4 Do you think the products offered by leading brand are always better? 1 2 3 4 5 5 Do you select products according to your life style? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Do you like the Color of Packaging? 1 2 3 4 5 7 Color of Packaging matters you in purchasing a product? 1 2 3 4 5 8 Do you like beautiful backgrounds? 1 2 3 4 5 9 Do you Prefer the products package having attractive back ground? 1 2 3 4 5 10 The quality of packaging can save product better? 1 2 3 4 5 11 The product packed in high quality material is more preferable? 1 2 3 4 5 1 Font St yles are attractive? 1 2 3 4 5 .

1 2 3 4 5 20 The innovative package can change your decision while purchasing? 1 2 3 4 5 I am very thankful to all the participants for this cooperation. I hope all the information that you put in the questionnaire will b .213 Do you like creative Font Style in Package of any product? 1 2 3 4 5 14 Wrapper design is important in Packaging? 1 2 3 4 5 15 Did design of product wrapper inspire you in purchasing? 1 2 3 4 5 16 Do you read printed information on the package of product? 1 2 3 4 5 17 Do you evaluate product according to printed information while purchasing? 1 2 3 4 5 18 Do you prefer packaging with better handling and transportation? 1 2 3 4 5 19 Innovation is important in Packaging.

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