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# Stress Analysis of a Plate with a Circular Hole

1) Preferences:
Select the type of preferences.
Preferences – Structural – O k

2) Element Type:
Define Element Type.

3) Material Properties:
Material Properties of Steel are to be defined.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Models – Structural – Linear – Elastic –
Isotropic
Young’s Modulus EX – 2e5
Poisson’s Ratio PRXY – 0.3
Material – Exit.

4) Modeling :
Create the given component.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Areas – Rectangle – By 2 Corners
Width – 150
Height – 100
Click O k

## b. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Areas – Circle – Solid Circle

X – 75; Y – 100; Radius – 10; Click O k

## c. Preprocessor – Modeling – Operate – Booleans – Subtract – Areas – Select Circle –

then Rectangle – Apply – Again Select Circle – Click Ok.

7) Meshing:
Mesh the component.
a. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Areas Set – Select Whole Area – Click O k
Element Edge Length – 2 – Click Ok.

## b. Mesh Tool – Areas Set – Select Whole Area – Click Ok.

8) Apply Constraints:
Apply the constraints.
Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply – Structural – Displacement – On lines –
Select left edge of the rectangle – Ok – All DOF – Ok.

Preprocessor - Loads – Define Loads – Apply – Structural – Pressure – On lines –
Select Right edge of the rectangle – Ok – Value – 100 – Ok.

10) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – Ok – Close.

## 11) Plot Result:

Plot the result.
General Post Processor – Plot Results – Contour Plot – Nodal Solu – Stress – Von
mises Stress – Ok.

## 12) Capture Image:

Capture image and Save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – Save As – Give a name – Ok.

## Stress Analysis of Beams (Cantilever, Simply Supported & Fixed Beam)

1) Preferences:
Select the preferences.
Preferences – Structural – Ok.

2) Element Type:
Define element type.
2D elastic 3 – Ok.

3) Real Constants:
Define real constants for the beam.
Area – 1500; Izz – 833.33; Height – 10.

4) Material Properties:
Define material properties for Steel.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Models – Structural – Linear –
Elastic –Isotropic –
Exx – 2e5; PRXY – 0.3.

5) Modeling:
Draw the given beam.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Keypoints – In Active CS – Apply –
X: 1000 – Ok.

## b. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Lines – Straight Line – pick 1,2 – Ok.

7) Meshing:
Mesh the component.
a. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Lines Set – Select line –
No. of divisions – 10.

## b. Mesh Tool – Mesh – Select Line – Ok.

8) Apply Constraints:
Apply constraints according to the type of beam.

## a. For Cantilever Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define loads – Apply

- Sructural – Displacement – On Keypoints – Select the end point on the left – Ok – All
DOF – Ok.

## b. For Simply Supported Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply

- Structural – Displacement – On Nodes – Select any two nodes except the end points
– Ok – All DOF – Ok.

## c. For Fixed Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads - Apply – Structural –

Displacement – On Keypoints – Select the two endpoints – Ok – All DOF – Ok.

Apply loads according to the type of beam.

## a. For Cantilever Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply

– Structural – Force/Moment – On Keypoints – Select the point at the right end of the
beam – Ok – Give Fy :( -1500) - Ok.

## b. For Simply Supported Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply –

Structural – Force/Moment – On Nodes – Select node at the centre – Ok - Give Fy
:(-1500) – Ok.

## c. For Fixed Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply – Structural –

Force/Moment – On Nodes – Select node at the centre – Ok – Give Fy : (-1500) – Ok.

10) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – Ok – Close.

## 11) Plot Result:

Plot the result.
General Post Processor – Plot Results – Contour Plot – Nodal Solu – Stress
– Von Mises Stress – Ok.

## 12) Element Table:

Define element table.
General Post Processor – Element Table – Add – By Sequence num –
SMISC – 2 - Apply – By Sequence num – SMISC- 8 – Apply –
By Sequence num – LS – 3 - Apply – By Sequence num - LS – 6 – Ok.

## 13) Member force:

Plot the member force for the beam.
General Post Processor – Plot Results – Line Elem Res – I:SMIS2 – J:SMIS8 –
Undeformed Shape – Ok.

## 14) Capture Image:

Capture the image and save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – Save As – Member force – Ok.

## 15) Bending Stress:

Plot the bending stress for the beam.
General Post Processor – Plot Results – Line Elem Res – I:LS3 – J:LS6 –
Undeformed Shape – Ok.

## 16) Capture Image:

Capture the image and save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – Save As – Bending Stress – Ok.

## Stress Analysis of L-Bracket

1) Preferences:
Select the preferences.
Preferences – Structural – Ok.

2) Element Type:
Select the type of the element.

3) Material Properties:
Define the material properties of Steel.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Models – Structural – Linear – Elastic –
Isotropic -
Young’s Modulus EX – 2e5
Poisson’s Ratio PRXY – 0.3
Material - Exit

4) Modeling:
Model the given component.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Keypoints – In Active CS – X-0; X-100;
(X100,Y(-50)); (X75,Y(-50)); (X75,Y(-25)); (X0,Y(-25)).

## b. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Lines – Lines – Straight Line – Select

(1,2);(2,3);(3,4);(4,5);(5,6);(6,1).

Lines – Ok.

## d. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Areas – Circle – Solid Circle – (X0,Y(-12.5))

- Radius 12.5 – Apply - (X87.5,Y(-50)) – Radius 12.5 – Ok.

## e. Preprocessor – Modeling – Operate – Booleans – Add – Areas – Select two circles

and the L shaped area – Ok.

## f. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Areas – Circle – Solid Circle – (X0,Y(-12.5))

- Radius 3 – Apply – (X87.5,Y(-50)) – Radius 3 – Ok.

## g. Preprocessor – Modeling – Operate – Booleans – Subtract – Areas – Select top left

circle then the L-shape – Apply – then again top left circle – Ok. Repeat the same
procedure for the right bottom circle.

5) Meshing:
Mesh the component.
a. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Areas Set – Select Area – Ok – Edge length
– 2- Ok.
b. Mesh Tool – Mesh – Area – Select area – Ok.

6) Apply Constraints:
Apply the constraints.
Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply – Structural – Displacement – On Nodes
– Select the top left circle – Ok – All DOF – Ok.

Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply – Structural – Force/Moment –
On nodes – select node at the bottom centre of the bottom right circle – Ok –
Fy – (-1500) – Ok.

8) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – O k

9) Plot Result:
Plot the result.
General Post Processor – Plot Results – Contour Plot – Nodal Solu – Stress –
Stress – Von mises Stress – Deformed Shape – Ok.

## 10) Capture Image:

Capture the image.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – File – Save As – Give a title – Ok.

## Stress Analysis of an Axisymmetric Component

1) Preferences:
Select the preferences.
Preferences – Structural – Ok.

2) Element Type:
Define element type.
Options – K3 – Axisymmetric – Ok – Close.

3) Material Properties:
Define material properties of Steel.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Models – Structural – Linear – Elastic –
Isotropic –
EX – 2e5; PRXY – 0.3 – Ok.
Material – Exit.

4) Modeling:
Model the given component.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Areas – Rectangle – By 2 Corners –
Width – 120; Height – 60; Ok.

## c. Preprocessor – Modeling – Operate – Booleans – Subtract – Areas – Pick circle –

then rectangle – Apply – Again Circle – Ok.

5) Meshing:
Mesh the component.
a. Preprocessor - Meshing – Concatenate – Lines – Select left edge and quarter circle –
Ok.

b. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Lines Set – Select all the lines on four sides
except the quarter circle – Ok – Edge length – 2 – Ok.

## c. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Mesh – Select the rectangle – Ok.

6) Apply Constraints:
Apply the constraints.
Preprocessor - Loads – Define Loads – Apply – Structural – Displacement –
On lines – Select all the four lines of the rectangle except the quarter circle –
all DOF – Ok.

Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply – Structural – Pressure – On lines –
Select quarter circle – Give Value -20 – Ok.

8) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – Ok – Close.

9) Plot Result:
Plot the result.
General Post Processor – Plot Results – Contour Plot – Nodal Solu – Stress –
Von mises Stress – Ok.

## 10) Apply Symmetry:

Get the axisymmetric component.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Style – Symmetry Expansion – Periodic/Cyclic
Symmetry – ¼ dihedral sym – Ok.

## 11) Capture Image:

Capture the image and save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – Save As – Give the title.

## Mode Frequency Analysis of a 2D Component

1) Preferences:
Select the preferences.
Preferences – Structural – Ok.

2) Element Type:
Define element type.

3) Real Constants:
Define real constants for 2D element.
Area – 100 ; ISTRN – 0.5; Ok.

4) Material Properties:
Define material properties of Steel.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Models – Structural – Linear – Elastic –
Isotropic –
EX – 2e5; PRXY – 0.3; Density – 7.84e-6; Ok.
Material – Exit.

5) Modeling:
Model the given component.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Keypoints – In Active CS – Apply – X – 100 -
Ok.

## b. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Lines – Lines – Straight Line – Select the

end points – Ok.

6) Meshing:
Mesh the component.
a. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Lines Set – Select the line – Ok –
Edge length – 5 – Ok.

## b. Mesh Tool – Mesh – Select the line – Ok.

7) Analysis Type:
Define the type of analysis.
a. Solution – Analysis Type – New analysis – Modal – Ok.

## b. Solution – Analysis Options – Subspace – No. of modes to extract – 20 – Ok

all DOF – Ok.

8) Apply Constraints:
Apply the constraints.
Solution – Define loads – Apply – Structural – Displacement – On nodes – Select the
left endpoint – All DOF – Ok.

9) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – Ok – Close.

## 10) Plot Result:

Plot the result.
a. General Post Processor – Read Results – Last Set

b. General Post Processor – Plot Results – Contour Plot – Nodal Solu – DOF
Solution – Y component of displacement – Ok.

## 11) Capture Image:

Capture the image and save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – File – Save As – Ok.

## Mode Frequency Analysis of Beams(Cantilever, Simply Supported & Fixed)

1) Preferences:
Select the preferences.
Preferences – Structural – Ok.

2) Element Type:
Define element type.
Preprocessor – Element Type – Add/Edit/Delete – Add – Beam – 2D Elastic 3 – Ok.

3) Real Constants:
Define real constants for the beam.
Area – 100 ; ISTRN – 0.5; Ok.

4) Material Properties:
Define material properties for Steel.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Models – Structural – Linear – Elastic –
Isotropic –
EX – 2e5; PRXY – 0.3; Density – 7.84e-6; Ok.
Material – Exit.
5) Modeling:
Model a beam.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Keypoints – In Active CS – Apply – X – 100 -
Ok.

## b. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Lines – Lines – Straight Line – Select the

end points – Ok.

6) Meshing:
Mesh the beam.
a. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Lines Set – Select the line – Ok –
Edge length – 5 – Ok.

## b. Mesh Tool – Mesh – Select the line – Ok.

7) Analysis Type:
Define the type of analysis.
a. Solution – Analysis Type – New analysis – Modal – Ok.

## b. Solution – Analysis Options – Subspace – No. of modes to extract – 20 – Ok

all DOF – Ok.

8) Apply Constraints:
Apply constraints according to the type of beam.
a. For Cantilever Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define loads – Apply – Structural –
Displacement – On Keypoints – Select the end point on the left – Ok – All DOF – Ok.

## b. For Simply Supported Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads – Apply –

Structural – Apply – Displacement – On Nodes – Select any two nodes except the end
points – Ok – UY – Ok.

## c. For Fixed Beam : Preprocessor – Loads – Define Loads - Apply – Structural –

Displacement – On Keypoints – Select the two endpoints – Ok – All DOF – Ok.

9) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – Ok – Close.

## 10) Plot Resut:

Plot the result.
a. General Post Processor – Read Results – Last Set

b. General Post Processor – Plot Results – Contour Plot – Nodal Solu – DOF
Solution – Y component of displacement – Ok.

## 11) Capture Image:

Capture the image and save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – File – Save As – Ok.

## Harmonic Analysis of a 2D Component

1) Preferences:
Select the preferences.
Preferences – Structural – Ok.

2) Element Type:
Define the type of element.
Preprocessor – Element Type – Add/Edit/Delete – Add – Beam – 2D Elastic 3 – Ok.

3) Real Constants:
Define real constants.
Area – 100 ; ISTRN – 0.5; Ok.

4) Material Properties:
Define material properties for Steel.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Models – Structural – Linear – Elastic –
Isotropic –
EX – 2e5; PRXY – 0.3; Density – 7.84e-6; Ok.
Material – Exit.
5) Modeling:
Create the component.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Keypoints – In Active CS – Apply – X – 100 -
Ok.

## b. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Lines – Lines – Straight Line – Select the

end points – Ok.

6) Meshing:
Mesh the component.
a. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Lines Set – Select the line – Ok –
Edge length – 5 – Ok.

## b. Mesh Tool – Mesh – Select the line – Ok.

7) Analysis Type:
Define the type of analysis.
a. Solution – Analysis Type – New analysis – Harmonic – Ok.

## b. Solution – Analysis Options – DOF Output Format - Amplitude & Phase – Ok

– Ok.

8) Apply Constraints:
Apply constraints.
Solution – Define loads – Apply – Structural –
Displacement – On Keypoints – Select the end point on the left – Ok – All DOF – Ok.

Solution – Define Loads – Apply – Structural – Force/Moment – On Keypoints – Select
the point at the right end of the beam – Ok – Give Fy – Real Part - ( -1500) - Ok.

## 10) Frequency Range:

Define the frequency range and the substeps.
Solution – Load Step Opts – Time/Frequency – Freq and Substeps –
Harmonic Frequency Range – 0-100;
No. of Substeps – 100 – Select Stepped – Ok.

11) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – Ok – Close.

## 12) Defining Variables and Plotting Graph;

Define the graph variables and plot the graph.
a. Time History Post Processor – Close the calculation dialog box.

## 11) Capture Image:

Capture the image and save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – File – Save As – Ok.

## Conductive Heat Transfer Analysis of a 2D Component

1) Preferences:
Select the preferences.
Preferences – Thermal – Ok.

2) Element Type:
Define the type of the element.
Preprocessor – Element Type – Add/Edit/Delete – Solid – Quad 4node 42 – Ok.
3) Material Properties:
Define the material properties of Steel.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Model – Thermal – Conductivity –
Isotropic –
KXX – 1.2 – O k
Material – New Model – KXX – 0.4 – O k
Material – New Model – KXX – 0.9 – O k
Material – Exit.

4) Modeling:
Create the component.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Key points – In Active CS – Apply –
X – 0.2 – Apply; X – 1 – Apply; X – 1.1;
X – 1.1, Y – 0.5 – Apply; X – 1, Y – 0.5;
X – 0.2, Y – 0.5 – Apply; X – 0, Y – 0.5; Ok.

## b. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Lines – Lines – Straight Line –

Select all points one by one – Join (1,2),(2-3),(3-4),(4-5),(5-6),(6-7), (7-8),(1-8),
(2-7),(3-6).

## c. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Areas – Arbitrary – By lines –

Select lines (1,2),(2,7),(7,8),(2,1) – Apply.
Select lines (2,3),(3,6),(6,7),(7,2) – Apply.
Select lines (3,4),(4,5),(5,6),(6,3) – Ok.

5) Meshing:
Mesh the component.
a. Preprocessor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Areas Set – Select all the areas – Ok –
Edge length – 2 – Ok.
b. Mesh Tool – Mesh – Select all the areas – Ok.

a. Solution – Define Loads – Apply – Thermal – Temperature – On lines –
Select left end of the rectangle – Ok – All DOF – Temp Value 1173 – Ok.

## b. Solution – Define Loads – Apply – Thermal – Temperature – On lines –

Select right end of the rectangle – Ok – All DOF – Temp Value 303 – Ok.

7) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – Ok – Close.

8) Plot Result:
Plot the result.
General Post Processor – Plot Results – Contour Plot – Nodal Solu – DOF Solution –
Nodal Temperature – Ok.

9) Capture Image:
Capture the image and save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – Save As.

## Convective Heat Transfer Analysis of a 2D Component

1) Preferences:
Select the preferences.
Preferences – Thermal – Ok.

2) Element Type:
Define element type.
Preprocessor – Element Type – Add/Edit/Delete – Solid – Quad 4node 42 – Ok.

3) Material Properties:
Define material properties for Steel.
Preprocessor – Material Props – Material Model – Thermal – Conductivity –
Isotropic –
KXX - 235 – O k
Material – New Model – KXX – 0.153 – O k
Material – New Model – KXX – 400 – O k
Material – Exit.

4) Modeling:
Create the model.
a. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Key points – In Active CS – Apply –
X – 1 – Apply; X – 2 – Apply; X – 3;
X – 3, Y – 1 – Apply; X – 2, Y – 1;
X – 1, Y – 1 – Apply; X – 0, Y – 1; Ok.

## b. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Lines – Lines – Straight Line –

Select all points one by one – Join (1,2),(2-3),(3-4),(4-5),(5-6),(6-7), (7-8),(1-8),
(2-7),(3-6).

## c. Preprocessor – Modeling – Create – Areas – Arbitrary – By lines –

Select lines (1,2),(2,7),(7,8),(2,1) – Apply.
Select lines (2,3),(3,6),(6,7),(7,2) – Apply.
Select lines (3,4),(4,5),(5,6),(6,3) – Ok.

5) Meshing:
Mesh the model.
a. Processor – Meshing – Mesh Tool – Areas Set – Select all the areas – Ok –
Edge length – 2 – Ok.
b. Mesh Tool – Mesh – Select all the areas – Ok.

a. Solution – Define Loads – Apply – Thermal – Temperature – On lines –
Select left end of the rectangle – Ok – All DOF – Temp Value 400 – Ok.

## b. Solution – Define Loads – Apply – Thermal – Convection – On lines –

Select right end of the rectangle – Ok – All DOF – Temp Value 300 – film
Coefficient – 50 – Ok.

## 7) Apply Heat generation:

Solution – Define Loads – Apply – Thermal – Heat Generation – On Areas –
Select Area 1 on the left – give heat gen value 200 – Apply – Select Area 3
On the right – heat gen value 175 – Ok.

8) Solution:
Get the solution.
Solution – Solve – Current LS – Ok – Close.

9) Plot Result:
Plot the result.
General Post Processor – Plot Results – Contour Plot – Nodal Solu – DOF Solution –
Nodal Temperature – Ok.

## 10) Capture Image:

Capture the image and save it.
Utility Menu – Plot Ctrls – Capture Image – Save As.