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Art History Honors

STUDY GUIDE

Ashleigh Samlut, Marissa Murphy, Ernesto


Weisson, and Arturo Brito

I. CHAPTER OUTLINES:
A.
A.Introduction
Introduction
Chapter Outline: Introduction
1. The Great Sphinx
• Giza Egypt, Dynasty 4
BCE Sandstone
• Carved from living
rock of the Giza
plateau
• Placing head of King
Khafre on the body of
a huge lion the
sculptors merged
human intelligence
and animal strength
in a single image to
evoke superhuman
power of ruler
• 4,600 defied desert
sands, today must
withstand sprawl of
Greater Cairo +
impact of air pollution
• Symbolizes
mysterious wisdom +
dreams of
permanence, of
immortality

1. Flower Piece With Curtain


• 1658 oil on panel,
181/4 X 25 ¼, Art
Institute of Chicago
• ADRIAEN Van der
Spelt and Frans Van
Mieries
• 5th Century BCE,
Rivalry two painters,
Zeuxis and Parrhasios
as to whom was a
better painter
• Zeuxis painted a
picture of grapes so
accurately, birds flew
down to peck at
them.
• Parrhasios took his
turn Zeuxis ask rival
to remove curtain,
but he pointed out, 2
A. Chapter 1
A.Chapter
1. Wall Painting with
Horses, Rhinoceroses
and Aurochs
• Chauvet Cave,
Vaallon-Pont-
d’Arc, Ardeche
Gorge, France,
• 30,000-28,000
BCE, paint on
limestone
• Images of
horses, deer,
mammoths,
aurochs(extinct
ancestors of
oxen), and
other animals
that lived
30,000 years
ago cover walls
and ceilings
• Forms seem to
bulge + seem
to shift + move
• Images are
easily
identifiable,
painters
transformed
their memories
of active, 3D
figures into 2D
by capturing
essence of well-
observed
animals (meat
bearing flanks,
powerful legs, +
dangerous
horns +tusks)
• Communicate
to us using only
formal language
of line color
shading +
contour
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1. Reconstruction
Drawing of Mammoth-
Bone Houses
• Ukraine 16,000-
10,000 BCE
• Treeless
grasslands of
Upper
Paleolithic
Russia, builders
create
settlements of
up to ten
houses using
the bone of the
now extinct
wooly
mammoth
• Long, curving
tusks made
excellent roof
supports and
arched door
openings
• Bone framework
probably
covered with
animal hides +
turf
• Most activities
centered
around the
inside fire pit, or
hearth, where
food was
prepared and
tools were
fashioned

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1. Lion-Human
• Hohlenstein-
Stadel,
Germany
30,000-26-000
BCE
• Sculpture in the
round, male
figure with
human body
and feline head
• When
excavating
found broken
pieces of ivory
from a
mammoth tusk,
then realized
were part of a
whole figure
• Nearly a foot
tall, statue
surpasses most
early figurines
in size and
complexity
• Created unique
creature, part
human part
beast
• Shows highly
complex
thinking and
creative
imagination: the
ability to
conceive +
represent a
creature never
seen in nature

5
1. Woman from
Willendorf
• Austria 24,000
BCE
• Carved from
limestone and
originally
colored with red
ocher
• Rounded forms
make it seem
much larger
than it really is
• Exaggerated
female
attributes by
giving it
pendulous
breasts, big
belly, with a
deep navel,
wide hips,
dimpled knees
and buttocks, +
solid thighs
• Expressing
health and
fertility which
could ensure
ability to
produce strong
child = survival
of clan

6
1. Woman from Ostrava
Petrkovice
• Czech Republic
c 23,000 BCE
• Less than 2
inches tall
• Excavating an
oval house
stockpiled with
flint stone and
rough chunks of
hematite
discovered
figure next to
the hearth
• Torso and
things of a
youthful,
athletic figure
with one
angular hip
slight raise and
knee bent as if
she were
walking
• Marks left by
artists carving
tools still visible

7
1. Woman from
Brassempouy
• Grotte du Pape,
Brassempouy,
Lands, France,
30,000 BCE
• Captured the
essence of a
head  Memory
Image (those
generalized
elements that
reside in our
standard
memory of a
human head)
• Egg shape rests
atop a long
neck, wide
nose, strongly
defined brow-
line suggests
deepset eyes,
engraving
squaring may
suggest a
headdress
• Image is an
abstraction
the reduction of
shapes and
appearances to
basic yet
recognizable
forms that are
not intended to
be exact
replications of
nature
• Looks uncannily
modern to
contemporary
viewer

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1. Spotted Horses and
Human Hands
• Perch-Merle
Cave, Dorgone,
France 25,000-
24,000 BCE
• Used and
abandoned
several times
• Small, finely
detailed heads,
heavy bodies,
massive
extended necks
and legs
tapering almost
to nothing at
the hooves
• Right hand
horse’s head
follows shape of
the rock
• Horse images
overlaid with
red dots 
representations
of rock weapons
being hurled at
painted horses
• Positive and
negative
handprints

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1. Hall of Bulls
• Lascaux Cave,
Dorgone,
France, 15,000
BCE
• Cows, bulls,
horses, and
deer along the
natural ledges
of the rock
where the
smooth white
limestone of the
ceiling and
upper wall
meets a
rougher surface
below
• Utilize wall
curving to
suggest space
• Animals appear
singly in rows
face to face tail
to tail and even
painted on top
of each other
• Twisted
perspective

1. Bird Headed Man With


Bison
• Shaft Scene,
Lascaux Cave,
Dorgone,
France, 15,000
BCE
• Only painting
that tells a story
• Figure could be
a hunter either
a bison looming
over him, below
a staff, and
spear thrower
• Bison
disembowel and
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will soon die
• Shaman proving
his excellence
because he
would have
draw this and
shown the rest
of clan for them
to go scavenge

1. Bison
• Ceiling of a
Cave at
Altamira Spain c
12,500 BCE
• Created
sculptural
effects by
painting over
and around
natural
irregularities in
cave walls
• Herd of bison on
ceiling used rich
red and brown
ochers to paint
large areas of
the animal’s
back, shoulder’s
and flanks
• Sharpened
contours of the
rocks and
added the
details of head,
legs tails, and
horns in black
and brown
• Mixed yellow
and brown from
ochers with iron
to make red
tones and
derived black
from
manganese or
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charcoal

1. Bison
• Le Tuc
d’Audobert
France c.
13,000 BCE
• Two bison
leaning against
a ridge of rock
• High relief:
(extend well
forward from
background),
display the
same
conventions as
earlier painted
ones with
emphasis on
broad masses
of the meat
bearing flanks
and shoulders
• More lifelike
engraved short
parallel lines to
display shaggy
coats
• Numerous small
footprints found
in the clay floor
suggest
important group
rites took place
here

12
1. Lamp with Ibex
design
• Le Mouthe
Cave, Dorgone,
France,
c.15,000,13,000
BCE
• Decorated
underside of
lamp with an
ibex
• Distinctive head
is shown in
profile +
sweeping horn
reflecting lamp
itself
• Made by people
whose survival
depended on
gathering wild
grains and
other edible
plants

13
1. People and Animals
• Detail of rock-
shelter painting,
Cogul, Leirda,
Spain c. 4000-
2000 BCE
• Artists
represents men,
women and
children going
about daily
activities
• No specific
landscape
patterns are
indicated but
occasionally
painted
patterns of
animal tracks
give the sense
of a rocky
terrain, lie that
of the
surrounding
barren hillsides
• Number of
women seen
strolling or
standing some
in pairs holding
hands
• Women stand
near large
animals some of
which are
shown leaping
forward with
their legs fully
extended
flying gallop
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1. Plan of Village of
Skara Brae
• Orkney Islands,
Scotland
c.3100-2600
BCE
• Village consists
of compact
cluster of
dwellings linked
by covered
passageways
• Each of the
houses has a
square plan
with rounded
corners 
corbelling
• Walls stopped
short of
meeting and
the remaining
space was
covered with
hides or turf
• One room is
possibly a
latrine, has a
drain leading
out under its
wall

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1. House Interior of
Skara Brae
• Equipped with
space saving
furniture
• Large,
rectangular
hearth with
stone seat at
one end
occupies the
center of the
space
• Rectangular
stone beds
stand against
the walls on two
sides of the
hearth filled
with heather
mattresses and
covered with
warm fur
• Left corner
sizable storage
room is built
into the thick
outside wall
• Stone tank lined
with clay to
make it
waterproof

16
1. Tomb Interiors with
Corbeling and
Engraved Stones
• New Grange
Ireland c. 3000-
2500 BCE
• Mound of
elaborate
passage grave
• Built of sod and
river pebbles
and was set off
by a circle of
engraved
standing stones
around its
perimeter
• Leaders to a 3
part chamber
with a corbel
vault rising 19
feet
• Some of the
stones, are
engraved with
linear designs,
mainly rings,
spirals and
diamond shapes
• Public
architecture
fostered
communal pride
and a group
identity

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1. Stonehenge
• Salisbury Plain,
Wiltshire
England,
c.2750-1500
BCE
• Not the largest
circle or the
hardest to build
but it is the
most complex
• Stones were
brought from
great distances
during at least 4
major building
phases
• During earliest
stage dug a
deep, circular
ditch, placing
excavated
material on
inside rim to
form
embankment
more than 6
feet high
• Dug through
the chalk
substratum
• An avenue from
the henge
toward the
northeast led
well outside the
embankment to
a outside sarsen
megalith
brought from
23m away
• Whoever stood
at the exact
center of
Stonehenge
would have
seen the sun
rise directly
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over the heel
stone

1. Diagram of
Stonehenge
• By 2100 BCE
included of
internal
elements seen
today
• Dominating
center was a
horseshoe
shaped
arrangement of
5 sandstone
trithons
• This group was
surrounded by
the so-called
sarsen circle
• Uprights were
tapered slightly
toward the top
and the gently
curved lintel
sections
secured by
mortise and
tenon joints
• Just inside the
circle was once
a ring of
bluestones,
from Southern
Wales  highly
prized
• Because of its
orientation
w/the sun it is
believed to be
an observatory
or a site of
major public
ceremonies

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1. Figures of Woman
and a Man
• Cernavoda,
Romania, c.
3500 BCE
• Shaped their
bodies out of
simple cylinders
of clay but
managed to
pose them in
ways that make
them seem very
true to life
• Woman sits
directly on the
ground
expression of
the mundane
world
• Woman’s ample
hips could
suggest
continuity of her
family
• Upwardly tilted
head could
suggest she is
watching her
partner
adoringly, the
smoke coming
out heath or
worrying about
the holes in the
roof
• The man is slim
with massive
legs +
shoulders
• Rests head in
hands=
thoughtfulness
or sorrow

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1. Vessels
• Denmark
c.3000-2000
BCE
• Earliest
picesare the
clobular bottle
with a collar
around its neck,
inspired by egg
or gourd
containers +
the flask
w/loops
• Often made
pots with loops
just for design
• Some of the
ornamentations
include;
hatched
engraving and
sticklike
patterns
• Large engraved
bowl, potter
slightly incised
sides w/
delicate linear
pattern, then
rubbed white
chalk into the
engraved lines
so that they
would stand out
against the dark
body of the
bowl

21
1. Horse and Sun
Chariot and
Schematic drawing of
Incised Design
• 1800-1600 BCE
Trundholm,
Denmark
• Wheeled horse
pulling a cart
laden w/ large
upright disk
commonly
thought to
represent the
sun
• Could have
been rolled
from place to
place as a
reenactment of
the suns
passage across
the sky
• Horse, cart and
sun were cast in
bronze
• After two faults
in the casting
had been
repaired the
horse was given
its surface finish
+ head + beck
were incised
with
ornamentation
 eyes= suns
• Bronze sun was
cast as two
disks, thin sheet
of gold was
applied to one
of the bronze
disks

22
1. Openwork Box Lid
• Cornalaragh
County
Monaghan,
Ireland c. 1st
Century BCE
• Openwork box
lid, in which
space is work
into the pattern.
Illustrates the
characteristic
Celtic style +
use of bronze
• Pattern consists
of a pair of
expanding,
diagonally
symmetrical
trumpet-shaped
spirals
surrounded by
lattice
• Openwork
trumpets—
forms defined
by the absence
of material—
catch the
viewers
attention
• Shapes inspired
by compass-
drawn spirals,
stylized vines
and serpentine
dragons seem
to change at
the blink of an
eye artists
has eliminate
any distinction
between figure
+ background

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A. Chapter 2:
A.Chapter
1. Human Headed Winged
Lion
• Assyria, Kalhu, 883-
858 BCE,
Mesopotamia,
(Neolithic)
• Lammasus-
extraordinary
guardian protectors
of the palaces and
throne rooms
• Colossal gateway
figures combined
the bearded head
of a lion or bull,
wing of an eagle,
and the horned
headdress of a God
• Designed to be
viewed frontally
and from the side,
when seen from
front two foreleg
placed together
creature appears
immobile, when
looked at from the
side legs shown
vigorously striding
• Size symbolizes
strength of ruler
they defend,
forceful forms +
prominent
placement 
architecture of
domination,
exquisite detailing
of beards, feathers
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+ jewels wealth=
power

1. Walls and Tower, Jericho


• Mesopotamia,
Jericho, 8000-7000
BCE, (Neolithic)
• Walls and towers
became part of
folklore when
biblical Joshua
fought the battle of
Jericho and the
walls came
tumbling down
• 8000 BCE 
agricultural village
grown into town of
mud brick houses
• Felt needed
protection from
neighbors/
establishing
boundary  built
huge brick wall
• Constructed a
circular stone tower
 required
sophisticated
masonry skills

1. Composite
Reconstruction of Chatal
Huyuk
• Anatolia 6500-5500
BCE, (Neolithic)
• Thriving trade in
obsidian, rare
volcanic black glass
• Single story
buildings clustered
around shared
courtyards used as
garbage dumps
• No streets or open
plazas and
protected with
continuous
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unbroken exterior
walls
• Residents could
move freely by
crossing from
rooftop to rooftop
entering through
openings in the
roofs

1. Human Figure
• Ain Ghazal, Jordan
7000-6000 BCE,
(Neolithic)
• Thirty painted
plaster figures
• Some figures were
life-size
• Molded the figures
by applying wet
plaster to reed and
cord frames in
human shape
• Eyes were inset
cowrie shells and
small dots of the
black tarlike
substance bitumen
formed the pupils
• Probably wore wigs
and stood upright

26
1. Ruins of the White
Temple
• Uruk 3300-3000
BCE
• First Sumerian City-
State
• Two large
architectural
complexes, one
dedicated to
Inanna, godess of
love and war and
the other to sky
God Anu
• Inanna
administrative
complex as well as
temples
• Anu built up in
stages over the
centuries
• White Temple was
erected on the top
• Was a simple
rectangle oriented
to the points of the
compass
• Off-center doorway
on one of the long
sides led into a
large chamber
containing a raised
platform and altar,
small spaces
opened off this
main chamber

27
1. Face of a Woman, known
as the Warka Head
• Uruk, Summer,
3300-3000 BCE
• Statues of gods and
donors were placed
in the temples
• Life-size marble
face may represent
a goddess
• Could have been
attached to the
wooden head on a
full-size wooden
body
• Stripped of its
original paint wig
and inlaid brows
and eyes appears
as a stark white
mask
• Shells may have
been used for the
whites of the eyes
and lapis lazuli for
the pupils and the
hair may have been
gold

28
1. Carved Vase known as
the Uruk Vase
• Uruk, Sumer, 3300-
3000 BCE
• Tall carved
alabaster vase
found near temple
complex of Inanna
• Organized picture
into registers and
condensed the
narrative
• Stylized figures are
shown
simultaneously with
profile heads, legs,
¾ views of torso
making both
shoulders visible
and increasing
each figures
breadth
• Lower register 
natural world
beginning w/water
and plants
• Above the plants
alternating rams +
ewes stand on solid
ground line
• Middle register
nude men carry
baskets of
foodstuffs
• Top register Inanna
stands in front of
her shrine
accepting offer
from the priest king
• Interpreted as a
ritual marriage
between Goddess
and human priest
king during New
Year’s festival

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1. Votive Figures
• Square Temple,
Eshnunna, 2900-
2600 BCE, Sumer
• Early example of
ancient Near
Eastern religious
practice: placement
in shrine or statues
of individual
worshippers before
a larger more
elaborate image of
a god
• Anyone who was a
donor to the temple
might commission
a representation of
him or herself and
dedicate it in the
shrine
• Many are figures of
women + simple
inscription
• Longer inscriptions
recount in detail
accomplished in
gods honor
• Served as a stand
in perpetual gaze
 eye contact
• Simplified faces +
bodies clothing =
cylindrical shape

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1. Nanna Ziggurat
• Ur, 2100-2050 BCE,
Sumer
• Ziggurat devoted to
Nanna moon god +
sin
• Three sets of stairs
converging at an
imposing entrance
gate atop the first
of what were 3
platforms
• Each platforms
walls slope outward
from the top to
base = prevent
rainwater from
forming puddles +
eroding
• First two levels
have been
reconstructed in
recent years

1. The Great Lyre with Bull’s


Head
• Royal Tomb, Ur,
c.2550-2400 BCE,
Sumer
• Lyre combines
wood, gold lapis,
lazuli, and shell
• Projecting from the
base of the lyre is
a sculptured head
of a bearded bull
• intensely life-like
despite the
decoratively
patterned blue
lapis lazuli beard
• lapis lazuli had to
be imported from
Afghanistan
widespread trade in
region

31
1. Front Panel, The Sound
Box of the Great Lyre
• Front panel of the
sound box four
horizontal registers
present scenes
executed in shell
inlaid in bitumen
• Bottom register
scorpion man holds
a cylindrical object
 scorpion men =
land of demons
• Scorpion man is
attended by a
gazelle standing on
its hind legs
holding out to cups
filled from the large
container from
which a ladle
protrudes
• Register above
depicts a trio of
animal musicians,
donkey plucks bull
lyre while a
standing bear
braces a sistrum
• Next register shows
animal attendants
who bring food and
drink for a feast 
imagery inspired by
Epic of Gilgamesh
• Depicts a funeral
banquet

32
1. Cylinder seal and its
impression
• Ur, 2550-2400 BCE,
Sumer
• Human hero
protecting rampant
bulls from lions in
the upper register
• five fighting
figures in lower
register
• Ancient Near
Eastern leaders
were expected to
protect their people
from both human
and animal
enemies as well as
control over natural
world
• Seal belonged to
queen of Ur,
Ninbanda

1. Head of a Man known as


Akkadian Ruler
• Nineveh, c.2300-
2200 BCE,
Akkadians during
Sumerian period
• Earliest major work
of hollow-cast
copper sculpture
known in Ancient
Near East
• Facial features +
hairstyle=
generalized male
• Enormous curling
beard + elaborate
braided hair
indicate both
royalty and the
ideal male
appearance
• Deliberate damage
to left side of face
and eye suggests
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that the head was
symbolically
mutilated to
destroy its power
• No eyes + ears=
not see or hear

1. Stele of Naram Sin


• Sippar, 2220-2184
BCE, Akkadians
during Sumer time
• Memorialized one
of Naram-Sin’s
military victories +
one of first works to
celebrate a specific
achievement of an
individual ruler
• Inscription states
stele
commemorates the
king’s victory over
the people of the
Zagros Mountains
• Naram-Sin made
himself devine
during his lifetime
 big size
• Watched by 3 solar
deities symbolized
by rayed suns
ascends a
mountain wearing
horned helmet
crown associated
with deities
• Magnified position
at the dramatic
center if the scene,
closest to the
mountaintop and
silhouetted against
the sly
• Used stele’s
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pointed shape to
underscore the
dynamic role of the
carved mountain in
the composition

1. Votive Statue of Gudea


• Girsu, c.2090 BCE
Guti conquered
Akkadians but
Girsu stayed under
Sumerian Rule
• Images present
Gudea as a strong
peaceful, pious
ruler worthy of
divine favor
• Wears long
garment to provide
more room from
cuneiform
inscriptions
• Right shoulder 
bare + barefooted
• Cap w/ wide brim
carved with a
pattern to
represent fleece
• Holds a vessel from
which life-giving
water flows into
two streams, each
filled with leaping
fish

35
1. Stele of Hammurabi
• Susa, c. 1792-1750
BCE Babylonians
• Systematic
codification of his
people’s
wrongdoing
• Code engraved on
black diorite
• Top of the stele
Hammurabi
standing before a
mountain where
Shamash, sun +
justice god sits
• Gives laws to king
• Punishments based
on wealth, class +
gender

1. Lion Gate
• Hattusha, c.1400
BCE, Hittites of
Anatolia
• Carved from
building stones
lions seem to
emerge from
gigantic boulders
that form gate
• Harmonizes
colossal scale of
wall
• Despite extreme
weathers the lions
have endured over
the millennia and
still possess a
sense of vigor +
permanence

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1. Assurnasirpal II Killing
Lions
• Palace complex of
Assurnasirpal II,
Kalhu c. 850 BCE,
Assyrians
• Vivid lion hunting
scene Assurnasirpal
stands in a chariot
pulled by galloping
horses + draws his
bow against an
attacking lion that
already had four
arrows protruding
from its body
• Another beast
pierced by arrows
lies on the ground
• Ceremonial hunt, in
which the king,
protected by men
with swords +
shields, rode back
and forth killing
animals as they
were released by
one into an
enclosed area
• Visual narrative

1. Reconstruction Drawing
of the Citabel and Palace
Complex of Sargon II
• Dur Sharrukin,
c.721-706 BCE
Assyrians
• Northwest side,
walled citadel
containing several
palaces and
temples straddled
by city wall
• Guarded by 2
towers only
accessible by a
wide ramp leading
up from an open
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square around
which the
residences of
important
government +
religious officials
were clustered
• Heart of the palace
protected by a
reinforced wall with
only two small off-
center doors lay
past main
courtyard
• Ziggurat towered in
an open space
between temple
complex + palace,
declaring might of
Assyrian kings +
symbolizing claim
to empire
• Seven levels each a
different color

1. Assurbanipal and his


Queen in the Garden
• The Palace at
Nineveh, c.647
BCE, Assyrians
• Unusually peaceful
scene shows kings
and queen in
pleasure garden
• King reclines on
couch and queen
sits in chair at his
feet
• Servants arrive
with trays of food,
38
while others wave
whisks to protect
royals from insects
• Victory
celebration
weapons are on
table behind him +
enemy’s head
1. Reconstruction Drawing
of Babylon in the 6th
century BCE
• Neo-Babylonians
• Older eastern
sector traversed by
Processional Way,
route taken by
religious
processions
honoring city’s
patron god, Marduk
• Street paved
w/large stone slabs
set in a bed of
Bitumen
• Ran from Euphrates
bring through
temple district and
palaces and finally
through Ishtar
Gate, ceremonial
entrance to city
• Beyond Ishtar
gates walls on
either side of the
route were faced
with dark blue
glazed bricks

39
1. Ishtar Gate and Throne
Room Wall
• Babylon, c.575 BCE
• Double-arched gate
is symbol of
Babylonian power,
guarded by 4
crenellated towers
• Decorated w/tiers
of mushhushshu
that were sacred to
Marduk
• Lions walk beneath
stylized palm trees
• Didn’t survive but,
marvel  Hanging
Gardens

1. Air View of Ceremonial


Complex, Persepolis
• Iran 518-640 BCE,
Persians
• Name Greeks gave
it, one of best
preserved and
most impressive
ancient sites in
near east
• Darius imported
materials, workers,
artists from all over
empire to build
Parsa
• Ordered work to be
built in Egypt and
transported to the
capital
• Result was a new
style of art that
combined many
cultural traditions

40
1. Woman Spinning
• Susa, 7th, 8th
century BC Persians
• Important looking
b/c wearing elegant
hairstyle, many
ornaments +
garment
w/patterned border
• Sits barefoot +
cross-legged on a
lion-footed stool
covered
w/sheepskin
spinning thread w/
a large spindle
• Servant stands
behind her fanning
her
• Fish and six round
objects lie on
offering stand in
front of her
1. Apadana(Audience Hall)
of Darius and Xexes
• Ceremonial
Complex,
Persepolis, Iran
518-460 BCE,
Persians
• Set above the rest
of the complex on a
second terrace
• open porches on
three sides and a
square hall large
enough to hold
several thousand
people
• displays reliefs on
animal combats
• Lion attacks bulls

41
1. Darius and Xeres
Receiving Tribute
• Detail of a relief
from the stairway
leading to the
Apadana,
Persepolis, Iran
491-486, Persians
• Darius holds an
audience while his
son and heir listens
from behind the
throne
• Would have looked
different in freshly
painted rich tones
of deep blue,
scarlet, green,
purple, and
turquoise w/metal
objects such as
Darius’s crown
covered in gold leaf
• Other reliefs depict
displays of
allegiance +
economic
prosperity

1. Daric
• Coin first minted
under Darius I of
Persia 4th Century
BCE
• Most valuable
among coins today
• “archer” it shows
the well-armed
emperor wearing
his crown +
carrying a lance in
his right hand
• Lunges forward as
if he had just let fly
an arrow from his
bow

42
A. Chapter 3: Egyptian Art
Chapter 3: Art of Ancient Egypt
1. Funerary Mask of
Tutankhamen
– 18th Dynasty
– Gold funerary
mask placed
over head and
shoulders of
mummified
Tutankhamen
– Enclosed in 3
nested coffins
– Coffins were
placed in a
yellow quartzite
box
– Box was itself
encased within
gilt wooden
shrines rested in
one another
– Discovered in
1922

1. Narmer Palette
– Hierakonpolis,
Early Dynastic
period, c.2950-
2775 BCE
– Announces
unification of
Egypt + growth
as a powerful
nation-state
– First King,
Narmer, +
palace protected
by Hathor,

43
depicted as a
human face with
cow ears and
horn + shown on
each side of his
name
– Palettes used for
grinding eye
paint
– Narmer
dominates scene
on palatte;
images of
conquest
proclaim him to
be the great
unifier,protecter
+ leader of
Egyptian
people
Hierarchtic scale
– Narmer wears
white crown of
upper Egyptm
ceremonial bulls
tail (strength)
hangs from is
waistband,
barefoot +
attendant stands
behind holding
his sandals
– Bashes enemy
w/club, above his
kneeling foe God
Hourus holds a
rope tied around
the neck of a
man whos head
is attached to
block of
sprouting
stylized
papyrus(symbol
Lower Egypt) 
Narmer has
tamed Lower
Egypt
44
– Top register on
other side of
palette Narmer
wears Red crown
of Lower Egypt
 indicate that
he now rules
both lands
– With his
attendant the
sandal-bearer,
he marches
behind the
minister of state
and four men
carrying
standards that
may symbolize
different regions
of the country
– Center register
elongated necks
of two feline
creatures each
held by a leash
by an attendant
curve gracefully
around rim of the
cup of the palate
– Intertwining
union of two
lands
– Bottom king
symbolized as
bull menaces a
fallen fore
outside the walls
of the fortress

45
1. Old Kingdom
Standard Grid- An
Egyptian canon of
proportions for
representing the
human body
– Cannon sets the
height of the
male body from
heel to hairline
at 18 times the
width of the fist
which is one unit
wide
– There are 18
units between
the heel and
hairline
– The knees align
with fifth unit up,
the elbows with
the twelfth, and
the junction of
the neck and
shoulders with
the sixteenth
– Whole process
was simplified
– Size depended
not on the object
but the amount if
space it occupied

46
1. Plan of Djoser’s
Funerary Complex,
Saqqara
– Third Dynasty
c.2630-2575 BCE
– Commissioned
earliest known
monumental
architecture in
Egypt
– Designer of
complex was
Imhotep, the
highly educated
prime minister
who served as
one of Djoser’s
chief advisers
– First architect
known by name
– His name as well
as king’s name
inscribed on
base of a statue
of Djoser found
near step
pyramid

47
1. The Step Pyramid,
and Sham
Buildings. Funerary
Complex of Djoser,
Saqqara
– Imhotep first
planned Djoser’s
tomb as a single
story mastaba
and then later
decided to
enlarge upon the
concept
– In the end would
produce a step
pyramid, formed
by six mastaba-
like elements of
decreasing size
placed on top of
each other
– Intention was as
a stairway to Sun
God Ra and to
protect a tomb
– Descending
corridor at the
base of the
pyramid
provided an
entrance from
outside to a
granite-lined
burial vault
– Adjacent
funerary temple,
In the form of ka
statue Djoser
intended to
observe these
devotions
through 2
peepholes in the
wall between the
serab and
funerary chapel
– To the east of
the pyramid
48
building filled
with debris
represent actual
structures in
which the deal
king could
continue to
observe the sed
rituals that had
insured his long
reign

1. Great Pyramids,
Giza
– Fourth Dynasty
c. 2575-2450
– Erected by
Menkaure,
Khafre, and
Khufu
– Greeks were so
impressed by
these
monuments they
numbered them
among the
world’s
architectural
marvels
– Pyramids
Greek Term
– Acknowledged
desire of these
rulers to
commemorate
themselves as
divine beings

49
1. Model of Giza
Plateau
– Oldest and
largest pyramid
is Khufu 13
acres at its base
– Pyramid Khafre,
only one that still
has a bit of
veneer on top is
slightly smaller
than Khufu’s
– Menkaure’s
pyramid is
considerably
smaller than the
other 2 and had
a polished red
granite base
– Site was
carefully planned
to follow sun’s
east to west path
– Next to each
pyramid was a
funerary temple
connected by a
causeway or an
elevated road to
a valley temple
on the bank of
the Nile
– When a king died
his body was
embalmed and
ferried west
across the Nile
50
where it was
received with
elaborate
ceremonies
– Designers of the
pyramids tried to
ensure the king
and his tomb
would never be
disturbed

1. Valley Temple of
Khafre
– Giza, Old
Kingdom,
c.2570-2544 BCE
– Khafre’s funerary
complex is the
best preserved
– Massive blocks
of red granite
form walls and
piers supporting
a flat roof
– Tall, narrow
windows act as
clerestory in
upper walls
– Let in light which
reflects off the
polish alabaster
floor

51
1. Khafre
– Giza, Valley
Temple of
Khafre, Fourth
Dynasty
– As was custom
Khafre
commissioned
many portraits of
himself
– Over life-size
statue Khafre
was portrayed as
an enthroned
king
– Sitting erect on
elegant but
simple throne
– The falcon God
Horus perches
on the back of
the throne
protectively
enfolding the
king’s head with
his wings

52
1. Khafre, Detail of the
Head
– Lions (symbols of
regal authority)
form the throne’s
legs and the
intertwined lotus
and papyrus
plants beneath
the seat
symbolize the
King power over
Upper (lotus) and
lower (papyrus)
Egypt
– Wears traditional
royal costume:
short pleated
kilt, linen
headdress w/the
cobra symbol of
Ra and false
beard a symbol
of royalty
– Holds a cylinder,
probably a rolled
piece of cloth
– Figure conveys a
strong sense of
dignity, calm,
and permanence
– Arms are
pressed tight to
the body and the
body is firmly
anchored in the
block
– Statue was
carved in an
unusual stone;
anorthosite
gneiss imported
from Nubia
– Produces rare
optical effect: In
the sunlight it
glows a deep
blue celestial
53
color of Horus
– Through
skylights in the
valley temple,
the sun would
have illuminated
the alabaster
floor, and the
figure, creating a
blue radiance

54
1. Menkaure and a
Queen
– Perhaps his wife
Khamerernebty,
from Giza, 4th
Dynasty
– Couple’s
separate figures,
close in size, are
joined by the
stone out of
which they
emerge, forming
a single unit
– They are further
united by the
queen’s symbolic
gesture of
embrace
– Her right hand
comes from
behind to lie
gently against
his ribs, and her
left land rests on
his upper arm
– King, depicted in
accordance with
the Egyptian
ideal, as an
athletic, youthful
figure, nude to
the waist, and
wearing the
royal kilt and
head cloth,
stands in a
typical Egyptian
balanced posed,
with the striding
left foot forward
and his arms
straight at his
sides and his
fists clenched
over cylindrical
objects
– Sculptor
55
exercised
remarkable skill
in rendering her
sheer close-
fitting garment
which clearly
reveals the
curves of her
body
– Polishing was
never completed
– Traces of re
paint remain on
king’s face, ears
and neck, as do
traces of black
on queen’s hair

56
1. Pepy II and his
Mother, Queen
Ankhnes-Meryre
– Sixth Dynasty, c.
2323-2152 BCE
– King wears the
royal kilt and
headdress but is
reduced to the
size of a child
seated on his
mother’s lap
– Pays homage to
Queen Ankhnes-
Meyre who
wears a vulture
skin headdress
linking her to the
goddess Nekhbet
and proclaiming
her royal blood
– If Pepy II
inherited the
throne at age of
6 queen may
have acted as
regent until he
was old enough
to rule alone
– Placed the king
at a right age to
his mother,
proving 2 frontal
views, the queen
facing forward,
the king to the
side
– Freed queen’s
arms and legs
from the stone
block of the
throne, giving he
figure greater
independence

57
1. Seated Scribe
– Found near the
tomb of Kai,
Saqqara, 5th
Dynasty
– Old Kingdom
sculptors
produced figures
not only of kings
but of less
prominent
people more
lively and less
formal than royal
portraits
– Statue was
discovered near
tomb of
government
official named
Kai, evidence it
may be Kai
himself
– Sedentary
vocation has
made his body a
little flabby, a
condition that
advertised a life
freed from hard
physical labor
– He sits holding a
papyrus scroll
partially unrolled
on his lap, his
right hand
clasping a now-
lost reed pen,
and his face
reveals a lively
intelligence
– Because the
pupils are
slightly off-
center in the
irises, the eyes
give the illusion
of being in
58
motion, as if
they were
seeking contact

1. Ti Watching a
Hippopotamus Hunt
– Tomb of Ti,
Saqqara, 5th
Dynasty
– Ti was a
commoner who
had achieved
great power at
court and
amassed
sufficient wealth
to build an
elaborate home
for his immortal
spirit
– Shown watching
a hippopotamus
hunt, an official
duty of the
members of the
court
– Believed that
Seth, the God of
Darkness,
disguised himself
as a hippo, they
were thought to
be destructive
– Illustrated the
valor of the
deceased and
the triumph of
good over evil
– Erect figure of Ti
looms over all
59
rendered in the
traditional
twisted pose

1. Head of Senusret III


– 12th Dynasty
– Reflects a special
awareness of the
hardship and
fragility of
human existence
– Senusret was a
dynamic king
and successful
general who led
4 military
expeditions into
Nubia,
overhauled the
central
administration at
home, and did
much toward
regaining control
over the
country’s
increasingly
independent
nobles
– Portrait statue
seems to reflect
not only his
achievements
but his inner
thoughts  wise
man in the ways
of the world but
lonely, saddened
and burdened by
the weight of his
responsibilities
– Eyes sunken,
eyelids droop,
sagging
cheeks
pessimistic view
of lime

60
1. Rock- Cut Tombs,
Beni Hasan
– 12th Dynasty
– At the left is the
entrance to the
tomb of a
provincial
governor and the
commander in
chief
Amenemhat
– Chambers and
ornamental
columns, lintels,
false doors, and
niches were all
carved out of
solid rock
– Each one was
like a single,
complex piece of
sculpture that
was usually also
painted
– Typical included
 entrance
portico, main
hall, shrine
w/burial chamber
under the
offering chapel
– Afterlife always
open to danger
equipped
w/variety of
objects meant to
meet not only
practical needs
but also objects
designed to
ensure the
safety and well-
being of
individual in
perpetuity

61
1. Pectoral of Senusret
II
– Tomb of Princess
Sithathoryunet,
el-Lahun, 12th
Dynasty
– Royal dress was
very splendid as
shown by a
pectoral or chest
ornament
– Design executed
in gold and inlaid
with
semiprecious
stones,
incorporates the
name of
Senusret II and a
number of
familiar symbols
– 2 Horus falcons
perch on its base
and above their
heads is a par of
coiled cobras,
symbols of Ra,
wearing the ankh
– Between 2
cobras,
cartouche
contains the
hieroglyphs of
the king’s name
– Sun-disk of Ra
appears at the
top and a scarab
62
beetle is at the
bottom
– Below the
cartouche a
kneeling male
figure helps the
falcon support a
double arch or
notched palm
ribs

1. Hippopotamus
– Tomb of Senbi,
Meir, 12th
Dynasty
– Rotund body on
stubby legs, the
massive head
w/protruding
eyes and the tiny
ears and
characteristic
nostrils
– Example of
Egyptian Faience
– Made the hippo
the watery-blue
of its river
habitat, then
painted the lotus
blossoms, on its
flanks, jaws and
head giving it
the impression
that the creature
is standing in a
tangle of aquatic
plants
63
– Such figures
were often
placed in tombs,
especially
women since the
goddess
Taweret,
protector of
female fertility
and childbirth
was a composite
figure with the
head of a hippo

1. Stele of
Amenemhat I
– Assaif, 12th
Dynasty
– Funereal
offerings
represented
statues and
painting would
be available for
the deceased’s
use through
eternity
– Table heaped
with food is
watch over by a
young woman
named Hapi
– Family sits
together on a
lion-legged
bench
– Everyone wears
green jewelry
and white linen
garments
produced by the
64
women in the
household
– Amenemhat and
his son Antef link
arms and clasp
hands while Iyi
holds her son’s
arm with a firm
but tender
gesture

1. Model of a House
and Garden
– Tomb of
Meketre, Deir, el-
Bah, 11th
Dynasty
– Made of wood,
plaster, and
copper depicts
the home of
Mekertre, the
owner of the
tomb
– Colorful columns
carved to
resemble
bundles of
papyrus support
the flat roof of a
portico that
opens onto a
garden
– Trees surround a
central pool 
only wealthy
could afford
– Shade + water
provided natural
cooling and pool
was probably
stocked w/fish
65
1. Plan of the Northern
Section of Kahun
– Built during the
reign of Senusret
II bear Moden el-
Lahun, 12th
Dynasty
– Unique view of
Middle Kingdom
social structure
– Parallel streets
laid out
w/rectangular
blocks divided
into lots for
homes and other
buildings reflect
3 distinct
economic social
levels
– House of priests,
court official and
their families
were large and
comfortable,
with private
living quarters
and public rooms
grouped around
66
central courtyard
– Workers and
thief families
made do with
small give room
row houses built
back to back
along narrow
streets

1. The Ruins of the


Great Temple of
Amun at Karnak
Egypt
– Tombs and
temples erected
to glorify kings
themselves
– Home of God
structure of
Egyptian house;
simple,
rectangular, flat-
roofed building
preceded by a
courtyard and
gateway
– Enlarged
elements;
gateway became
67
a massive pylon
w/tapering walls,
semipublic
courtyard was
surrounded by
columns, an
outer hypostyle
hall, and inner-
rooms, halls +
sanctuary
– Design was
symmetrical +
axial  creating
a processional
path, rooms
became smaller,
darker, and more
exclusive as they
neared the
sanctuary (only
priests +
pharaohs enter)
– 2 temple districts
consecrated
primarily to the
worship of Amun,
Mut, and Khones,
arose near
Thebes—s huge
complex at
Karnak to the
north and joined
to it by an
avenue of
sphinxes, a more
compact temple
at Luxor to the
south

68
1. Reconstruction
Drawing of the
Great Temple of
Amun at Karnak,
Egypt
– New Kingdom
– Acess to the
heart of temple,
a sanctuary
containing a
statue of Amun,
was from the
west through a
principal
courtyard, a
hypostyle hall,
and number of
smaller halls and
courts
– Halls and courts
behind Thutmose
I and Rameses II
underwent a lot
of renovation
– Sacred lake to
the south of the
temple where
the king and
priests might
undergo ritual
purification was
added
– In the sanctuary
priests washed
the God’s statue
every morning
and clothed it
into a new
garment

69
1. Reconstruction
Drawing of the
Hypostyle Hall,
Great Temple of
Amun at Karnak
– 19th Dynasty
– Column
supporting
higher part of
the roof have
massive lotus
flowers
– On each side of
the smaller
columns with
lotus bud
capitals seem to
march off forever
into darkness
– In each side wall
of the higher
center section
there is a
clerestory
– Opening were
filled with stone
grillwork, so they
cannot have
provided much
light but they did
permit a cooling
flow of air
through the hall
– Despite the
dimness of the
interior, artists
covered nearly
every inch of the
columns, walls,
70
and cross-beams
w/reliefs

1. Flower and Bud


Columns, Hypostyle
Hall, Great Temple
of Amun at Karnak
– 19th Dynasty
– Column
supporting
higher part of
the roof have
massive lotus
flowers
– On each side of
the smaller
columns with
lotus bud
capitals seem to
march off forever
into darkness
– In each side wall
of the higher
center section
there is a
clerestory
– Opening were
filled with stone
grillwork, so they
cannot have
provided much
light but they did
permit a cooling
flow of air
through the hall
71
– Despite the
dimness of the
interior, artists
covered nearly
every inch of the
columns, walls,
and cross-beams
w/reliefs

1. Hatshepsut
Enthroned
– Deir el-Bahri,
18th Dynasty
– Represented as a
male ruler would
have been; even
as a human-
headed sphinx
called His
Majesty
– Portraits often
show her in full
royal trappings
– Wears a kilt,
linen headdress,
and has a bull’s
tail hanging from
her waist
– In some portraits
wears false
beard of king

1. Funerary Temple of
Hatshepsut, Deir el-
Bahri
– 18th Dynasty
– Not intended to
be her tomb
– Her funerary
temple was
magnificently
positioned
against high
clogs and
oriented toward
72
the Great
Temple of Amun
at Karnak
– Follows an axial
plan
– Was to be buried
in Valley of Kings

1. Plan of Funerary
Temple of
Hatshepsut
– Deir el-Bahri
– Raised causeway
lined w/sphixes
once ran from a
valley temple on
the Nile to the
huge open space
of the first court
– Visitors
ascended a long
straight ramp
flanked by pools
of water to a
second court
where shrines to
Anubis and
Hathor occupy
the ends of the
columned
porticos
– Relief scenes
and inscriptions
in the south
portico depict
Hatshepsut’s
expedition to the
exotic, half-
legendary
kingdom of Punt
from which rare
myrrh trees were
obtained for the
temple’s garden
terraces
– Temple’s
uppermost court,
colossal royal
73
statues fronted
another
colonnade and
behind this lay a
large hypostyle
hall w/chapels
dedicated to
Hatshepsut, her
father and the
gods Amun and
Ra-Horakhty

1. Akhenaten, Colossal
Figure
– In the new
temple to Aten
that he built at
Karnak when he
openly
challenged state
Gods
– Strange softly
swelling forms
suggest an
almost boneless,
androgynous
figure w/long
thin arms and
legs a protruding
stomach,
swelling thighs,
and a thin neck
supporting skull
– All facial features
elongated to
point of
distortion
– Eyes are slits +
slightly
downturned,
while nearly
smiling and very
full lips, add to
our discomfort
– Holds the
traditional royal
insignia, the flail
(symbolizing
74
protection) and
the shepherd’s
crook (the
scepter if
absolute
sovereignty)

1. Akhenaten and his


Family
– Akhenaten
(present-day Tell
el-Armana) 18th
Dynasty
– Painted relief of
Akhenaten,
Queen Nefertiti,
and 3 if their
daughters
exemplifies the
new openness
and a new figural
style
– Sunken relief
– King and queen
sit on a
cushioned throne
playing with their
children
– Base of queen’s
throne is
adorned with the
stylized plant
symbol of unified
Egypt, led some
historians to
conclude
Nefertiti acted as
a co-ruler with
her husband
– Receiving the
blessings of
Aten, whose rays
end in hands
that penetrate
the open pavilion
and hold ankhs
to their nostrils
75
breath of life

1. Queen Tiy
– Kom Medinet el
Ghurab, 18th
Dynasty
– Mother of
Akhenaten
– Portrait existed
in two versions;
original, made
for cult of dead
husband, queen
was identified
w/funerary
goddess Isis and
Nephthys, sisters
if Osiris
– Wore a silver
headdress
covered with
gold cobras +
gold jewelry
– Later when her
son had come
into power and
established his
new religion
portrait was
altered
– Brown cap
covered w/blue
headdress

76
1. Nefertiti
– Akhenaten, 18th
Dynasty
– Proportions of
refined, regular
features, long
neck, and heavy
lidded eyes
appear almost to
ideal to be
human
– Part of beauty of
this head is the
result of the
artist’s dramatic
use of color
– Hues of the blue
headdress and
its colorful band
are repeated in
the rich red,
blue, green and
gold of the
jewelry
– Queens brows,
eyelids, cheeks,
and lips are
heightened with
color as they no
doubt were
heightened with
cosmetics in real
life
1. Inner Coffin of
Tutankhamen’s
Sarcophagus
– Tomb of
Tutankhamen,
Valley of the
Kings, near Deir
el-Bahri, 18th
Dynasty
– Surface is
decorated
w/colored glass
and semi-
precious
gemstones as
77
well as finely
incised linear
designs and
hieroglyphic
inscriptions
– King holds a
crook and a flail,
symbol
associated
w/Osiris and had
become a
traditional part
of royal regalia
– A nemes head
cloth w/cobra
and vulture on
forehead covers
head
– Necklace
indicates military
valor

78
1. Queen Nefertari
Making an Offering
to Isis
– Wall painting in
tomb of
Nefertari, Valley
of the Queens,
near Deir el-
Bahri, 19th
Dynasty
– Nefertari offers
jars of perfumed
ointment to the
goddess Isis
– Queen wears the
vulture-skin
headdress
indicating her
position, a royal
collar, and a long
semitransparent
white linen gown
– Isis seated on
her throne
behind a table
heaped with
offering, holds a
long scepter in
her left hand the
ankh in her right
– She wears a
headdress
surmounted by
the horns of the
Hathor framing a
sun disk, clear
indications of her
divinity

79
1. Judgment of
Hunefer Before
Osiris
– Illustration from
the book of the
Dead, 19th
Dynasty
– 3 successive
stages into
afterlife
– At the left
Anubis, leads
him by the hand
t the spot where
he will weigh his
heart against the
feather of truth
– To the right of
the scales
Ammit, the
dreaded eater of
the dead
watches eagerly
for a sign from
the god Thoy
– Hunefer passes
the test and
Horus presents
him to the
enthroned Osiris

80
1. Mummy Wrapping
of Young Boy
– Hawara, Roman
Period
– Painted on a
wood panel in
encaustic
inserted over the
face in the
tradition of the
mask of
Tutankhamen
– Great staring
eyes dominate
images
– Artists recorded
individual
features of
deceased
– Link Egyptian
w/Roman Art

Chapter 4: Aegean Art

81
Flotilla Fresco
Port of Akrotiri, on the Island of Thera- Cycladic Island
Volcano erupted and buried town- 3500 years ago
Discovered in 1967
Still excavating the city
Shows boats, landscapes, and people on roofs and streets (daily life)

Two figures of women- Cyclades


Made out of white marble from Cycladic islands
Found lying on graves
Used obsidian chisels and emery polishing stones
13 and 25 inches tall
Had painted faces, hair, and ornaments

Seated harp player


Keros, Cyclades
Body shape simplified
Sits on high-backed chair, head tilted back-singing, arms raised playing
harp
Made out of white marble
2700-2500 BCE
11.5 inches tall

Reconstruction of palace complex


Knossos, Crete
Palace of the Minoan civilization
Located on Crete’s north coast
Occupied in Neolithic period, then built over with Bronze Age buildings
Discovered by Arthur Evans- 1900 CE
Called the great architectural complex a palace
Aerial view of Knossos palace
Walls of buildings made of rubble and mud bricks faced with cut local stone
First use of dressed stone in the Aegean
Columns and interior made of wood- flat roofed, many columns
Timber used for farming and bracing walls
Earthquake destroyed palace

Knossos interior
Maximized light and air, defined access and circulation patterns
Walls coated with plaster and painted with murals
Workshops in and around palace formed commercial centers
Enormous storerooms with clay jars for oil and wine
Square with central courtyard, with corridors leading out to suites
Kamares ware jug
Phaistos, Crete
Discovered in cave on Mount Ida
Exported as far away as Egypt and Syria
Extremely thin walls, use of color, painted decoration
Globular body and beaked pouring pout
Decorated with brown, red, white pigments on black body
Pendant of gold bees
Chryssolakkos, Crete
Arched a pair of bees around a honeycomb of gold granules
Sleek bodies, one pair of wings
Hang from a spiderlike form, long legs encircling a tiny gold ball
Small disks dangle from wings and where bodies meet
82
83
Chapter 5: Art of Ancient Greece

Discus Thrower (Diskobolos)


First Olympic game=religious rituals
Athletes gathered in sacred ground to pay tribute to Zeus
Awards=crowns of olive leaves from the Scared Grove of Gods
Greatest athletes: idealized in Greek sculptures
Originally created in bronze by Myron

Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi


Delphi: sacred home of Apollo
Greek myth: Zeus released 2 eagles from opposite ends of the Earth; met up on the site of Delphi
Greek myth: Apollo fought/killed Python
Python: serpent son of earth god Ge; guarded his mother’s shrine
Oracle: a place where the god and human communicated by means of a medium (the Pythia)

84
Centaur
Ceramic figure
Centaur: half-horse, half-man
Use of geometric forms in painted decoration
Reduction of human and animal body parts to simple geometric solids
Slip: a mixture of water and clay

Funerary Vase (Krater)


Used as grave markers
Complex decoration= typical of Geometric style proper
First time: humans are depicted as part of narratives
Krater: grave marker
Detailed record of funerary rituals: Greek cremation

Man and Centaur

85
Made in Bronze
Theme of battling man and centaur
Man stabbed centaur with a spear
Sculptor reduced figures’ bodies to simple, geometric shapes
Votive offerings to the gods

Pitcher (Olpe)
Orientalizing style; began in Corinth
Olpe: wide-mouthed pitcher…TWSS
Rosettes: stylized flower forms
Black-figure pottery: dark shapes of lions, serpent, and hybrid creatures against the pale color of
clay
Gloss: clay slip mixed with metallic color pigments

Temple of Hera I, Paestum


Doric order
Peristyle, row of columns, surrounds the cella, main room
Doric column: shaft and a capital, made up of echinus and abacus
Entablature: frieze, metopes: flat areas, and triglyphs: blocks with 3 vertical grooves
Metopes: painted or carved in relief and then painted
Entasis: swelling of column towards the middle

86
West façade of the temple of Artemis
Larger, more complex temples = sculptural decoration more importance
600-580 BCE
Doric order temple on island of Corfu
Figures in pediment= carved on different limestone slabs
More than 9 feet tall at peak of pediment

Gorgon medusa
Medusa- one of three winged female monsters called gorgons
Had power to turn humans to stone if they look at her face
Greek hero Perseus- killed medusa
Pegasus to the left, giant Chrysaor on the right
Felines and dying human warriors- on ends of pediment

Treasury of the Siphnians, Delphi


Built in the sanctuary of Apollo- 530-525 BCE
Used caryatids- columns carved in the form of clothed women
Women stand on raised pedestal with ornate capitals on their heads
Ionic order- plain architrave and continuous frieze
Elegant and richly ornamented

87
Battle between the gods and the giants (titans)
Frieze of the treasury- filled with relief sculpture
Shows a legendary battle
Earliest example of a Greek relief sculpture toward a more natural representation of space
Overlapped many sculptures to give a sense of 3D
All figures made the same height and on the same ground line

East pediment of the temple of Aphaia, Aegina


Shows military expedition against troy
Fallen warriors at each end
Image of Athena, warrior goddess, in the middle
Flanked by two defenders approaching opponents
The erect goddess dominates the center and stabilizes the composition

Dying warrior
Best preserved fragment from the pediment
A tragic but noble figure trying to rise
Pulls arrow from his side as he dies
Originally painted and fitted with bronze accessories
Captured his agony and vulnerability

88
Standing youth (Kouros) – Attica
Follows pose and proportions of Egyptian art- Menkaure and his wife
Stands upright at his side fists clenched, one leg slightly in front
Have a notable athletic quality unlike Egyptian statues
Head is oval with hair knotted and tied back
Archaic smile= closed-lip smile, made of marble

Anavysos Kouros
Powerful, rounded body
More lifelike
The massive torso and limbs suggest heroic strength
Monument to a fallen war hero
6’4 feet tall, marble

89
Berlin Kore.
Keratea cemetery at Athens.
570-560 BCE marble and red paint
Goddess Orderly
Has pomegranate symbol of Persephone.
Once gilded.

Peplos kore.
Acropolis Athens
530 BCE Marble.
Softer and named after her dress.
Natural, once had encaustic painting.
Captured by Persians.

90
Kore, Acropolis Athens.
520 BCE. Marble.
From Chios
More natural.
Lost limbs.
Wears chiton.

Dionysus with maenads.


Amasis painter.
540 BCE.
Black figure decoration on amphora.
Ceramic. Has sense of 3d.
Shows female worshippers presenting offerings to Dionysus happily.

91
Achilles and Ajax playing a game.
Exekias. 540 BCE.
Black figure decoration on amphora.
Ceramic.
Shows Achilles and his cousin Ajax playing dice before Achilles dies the next day.

The suicide of Ajax.


Exekias.
Black figure decoration on amphora.
Ceramic.
Shows Ajax preparing to kill himself because his cousin died and he was embarrassed.

92
Death of Sarpedon.
Potter is Euxitheos, painter is Euphronios.
515 BCE.
Red figure decoration on a calyx krater. Ceramic.
Had demigod Sarpedon being killed and carried away by Hypnos and Thanatos.
Hermes watches.
Used foreshortening shortens things closer to viewer to make depth.

93
OUTLINES FROM ERNESTO AND MARRISSA-------------------------

94
DIAGRAM IDENTIFICATION:

Plan Village of Skara Brae

95
Diagram of Stonehenge

96
1. Post and Lintel
2. Cross-Section of a Post and Lintel Underground Burial Chamber
3. Cross-section of Corbeled Underground Burial Chamber
4. Wood-Post Framing of Prehistoric Structure
5. Granite Post and Lintel Construction

Art of Ancient Egypt Diagram:

97
Old Kingdom Standard Grid- An Egyptian canon of proportions for
representing the human body

98
Plan of Djoser’s Funerary Complex, Saqqara

99
Plan of Northern Section of Kahun

10
0
Reconstruction Drawing of Hypostyle Hall

10
1
Plan of Funerary Temple of Hatsheput

10
2
Reconstruction Drawing of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak

10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
Jewish, Christian, and early byzantine

10
9
11
0
11
1
Islamic art

11
2
11
3
AEGEAN ART:

Pylos palace plan

Cutaway drawing of Tholos

ART OF ANCIENT GREECE:

In Antis (Siphnian Treasury)

Amphiprostyle (Temple of Athena Nike)


11
4
Peripteral (Temple of Hera I)

Peripteral (Parthenon)

11
5
11
6
Greek Vessels

11
7
Plan of the Agora (Marketplace, Athens)

Plan of Miletos

11
8
Plan and Section of the Tholos, Santuary of Athen Pronaia, Delphi

EARLY MEDIEVAL ART IN EUROPE:

Reconstruction
drawing of the
Palace Chapel
of Charlemagne

11
9
12
0
Diagrams of wood buildings in
Northern Europe

12
1
Schematic diagram of the message of the doors of Bishop Bernward of
Hildesheim

ROMANESQUE ART:

Plan of Church of Sant Vincenc, Cardona

12
2
Plan of Cathedral of Sint James, Santiago de
Compostela

Cross section of the Cathedral of Saint


James, Santiago de Compostela (Drawing
after Conant)

Plan of the Abbey of


Notre-Dame,
Fontenay

12
3
Plan of Durham Cathedral

12
4
ASSOCIATION EXERCISE GREEK ARTIST TO PIECE

Myron:
Discus Thrower (Diskobolos)

Exekias:
Achilles and Ajax Playing a Game
The Suicide of Ajax

Euphronios and Euxitheos:


Death of Sarpedon

Polykleitos:
Spear Bearer (Doryphoros)/ Achilles

Foundry Painter:
A Bronze Foundry

Pan Painter:
Artemis Slaying Actaeon

Kallikrates and Iktinos:


Parthenon, Arcopolis

Alan LeQuire:
Athena, The Parthenon

William Pars:
The Parthenon When it Contained a Mosque

Priam Painter:
Woman at a Fountain House

Style of Achilles Painter:


Woman and Maid

Praxiteles:
Hermes and the Infant Dionysos
Aphrodite of Knidos

Skopas:
Panel from the Amazon Frieze

Lysippos:
The Man Scraping Himself (Apoxyomenos)
Alexander the Great

Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt:


12
5
Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos

Gnosis:
Stag Hunt

Epigonos:
Dying Gallic Trumpeter

12
6
INTRODUCTION ARTIST TO PIECE:

Piece = Great Sphinx


Artist = unknown

Piece = Flower Piece with Curtain


Artist = Adrian van der Spelt and Frans van Mieris

Piece = Corinthian Capital from the Tholos at Epidaurus


Artist = unknown

Piece = Succulent
Artist = Edward Weston

Piece = Cubi XIX


Artist = David Smith

Piece = Red Canna


Artist = Georgia O’Keeffe

Piece = Medici Venus


Artist = unknown

Piece = Charles V Triumphing Fury, Without Armor


Artist = Leone Leoni

Piece = Woman at the Height of her Beauty


Artist = Kitagawa Utamaro

Piece = Lacoon and his Sons


Artist = Hagesandros, Polydoros and Athanadoros of Rhodes

Piece = Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nations


Artist = James Hampton

Piece = The Triumph of Venice


Artist = Veronese

Piece = Rue Transonain


Artist = Honore Daumier

Piece = Diary
Artist = Roger Shimomura

Piece = Saint Luke Displaying Paintings of the Virgin


Artist = Guercino

Piece = Violet Persian Set with Red Lip Wraps


Artist = Dale Chihuly

Piece = The Drawing Lesson


Artist = Jan Steen

12
7
Piece = The Last Supper
Artist = Leonardo da Vinci

Piece = Pheidias and the Frieze of the Parthenon


Artist = Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Piece = The Last Supper


Artist = Rembrandt van Rijn

Piece = Vietnam Veterans Memorial


Artist = Maya Ying Lin

Piece = Christine de Pizan Presenting her Book to the Queen


Artist = unknown

Piece = Harmony in Blue and Gold, the Peacock Room


Artist = James McNeill Whistler

Piece = The Farnese Hercules


Artist = unknown

Piece = Dutch Visitors Looking at the Farnese Hercules


Artist = Hendrick Goltzius

12
8
ASSOCIATION (PIECE TO PERIOD):
1. Great Pyramids of Giza – Old Kingdom Egyptian

2. Valley Temple of Khafre – Old Kingdom Egyptian

3. Khafre – Old Kingdom Egyptian

4. Menkaure and a Queen – Old Kingdom Egyptian

5. Pepy II and his Mother, Queen Ankhnes-Meryre – Old Kingdom Egyptian

6. Seated Scribe – Old Kingdom Egyptian

7. Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt – Old Kingdom Egyptian

8. The Narmer Palette – Pre-Dynastic Egyptian

9. Discus Thrower (Diskobolos) – Greek High Classical

10.The Acropolis – Greek High Classical

11.The Parthenon – Greek High Classical

12.East Pediment of the Parthenon – Greek High Classical

13.Lapith Fighting a Centaur – Greek High Classical

14.Horsemen – Greek High Classical

15.Marshals and Young Women – Greek High Classical

16.Erechtheion – Greek High Classical

17.Porch of the Maidens (South Porch), Erechteion – Greek High Classical

18.Temple of Athena Nike – Greek High Classical

19.Nike (Victory) Adjusting her Sandal – Greek High Classical

20.Grave Stele of Hegeso – Greek High Classical

21.Woman and Maid – Greek High Classical

22.Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Athens, Acropolis in Distance -


Hellenistic

23.Theater, Epidauros - Hellenistic

24.Gallic Chieftain Killing his Wife and Himself - Hellenistic

25.Dying Gallic Trumpeter - Hellenistic

12
9
26.Reconstructed West Front of the Altar from Pergamon, Turkey -
Hellenistic

27.Athena Attacking the Giants - Hellenistic

28.Nike (Victory) of Samothrace - Hellenistic

29.Veiled and Masked Dancer - Hellenistic

30.Old Woman - Hellenistic

31.Aphrodite of Melos (also called Venus de Milo) - Hellenistic

32.Christ and Disciples on the Road to Emmaus - Romanesque

33.Those Who Work; Those Who Fight; Those Who Pray—The Dream of
Henry I, Worcester Chronicle - Romanesque

34.Church of Sant Vincenc, Cardona - Romanesque

35.Cathedral of Saint James, Santiago de Compostela - Romanesque

36.The Abbey at Cluny - Romanesque

37.Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy (Saint Faith) - Romanesque

38.Abbey Church of Notre-Dame, Fontenay - Romanesque

39.Cathedral Complex, Pisa - Romanesque

40.Church of San Clemente, Rome – Romanesque

41.Church of Saint-Savin-Sur-Garetempe, Poitou - Romanesque

42.Church of Sant’Ambrogio, Milan - Romanesque

43.Speyer Cathedral - Romanesque

44.Durham Cathedral - Romanesque

45.Church of Saint-Etienne, Caen - Romanesque

46.Dover Castle - Romanesque

47.Creation and Fall, West Façade, Modena Cathedral - Romanesque

48.South Portal and Porch, Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac -


Romanesque

49.Trumeau, South Portal, Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac -


Romanesque

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0
50.Last Judgment, Tympanum on West Portal, Cathedral (Originally Abbey
Church) of Saint-Lazare, Autun - Romanesque

51.Capital: Suicide of Judas. Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun -


Romanesque

52.Hildegard and Volmar, Liber Scivias - Romanesque

53.Christ in Majesty - Romanesque

54.Tower of Babel - Romanesque

55.Crucifix (Majestat Batllό) - Romanesque

56.Virgin and Child - Romanesque

57.Messengers Signal the Appearance of a Comet (Halley’s Comet), The


Bayeux Tapestry - Romanesque

58.Bishop Odo Blessing the Feast, The Bayeux Tapestry - Romanesque

59.Detail, Bishop Odo Blessing the Feast, The Bayeux Tapestry -


Romanesque

60.Tomb Cover with Effigy of Rudolf of Swabia - Romanesque

61.Baptismal Font, Notre-Dame-Aux-Fontes - Romanesque

62.St. Matthew, from the Codex Colbertinus - Romanesque

63.Book of Homilies - Romanesque

64.The Mouth of Hell, Winchester Psalter - Romanesque

65.Page with the Tree of Jesse, Explanatio in Isaiam (Saint Jerome’s


Commentary on Isaiah) – Romanesque

66.Wall with Horses- Paleolithic Period

67.Reconstruction Drawing of mammoth-bone house-Paleolithic Period


68.Lion Human-Paleolithic Period

69.Woman from Willendorf-Paleolithic Period

70.Woman from Ostrava Petrkovice-Paleolithic Period

71.Woman from Brassempouy- Paleolithic Period

72.Spotted Horses and Human Hands-Paleolithic Period

73.Bison-Paleolithic Period

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1
74.Plan of Lascaux Caves-Paleolithic Period

75.Hall of Bulls-Paleolithic Period

76.Bird-Headed Man with Bison and Rhinoceros-Paleolithic Period

77.Bison-Paleolithic Period

78.Lamp with ibex design-Paleolithic Period

79.People and Animals-Neolithic Period

80.Village of Skara Brae-Neolithic Period

81.Rock Art in Valtellina-Neolithic Period

82.Tomb Interior with Corbeling and Engraved Stone-Neolithic Period

83.Stonehenge-Neolithic Period

84.Diagram of Stonehenge-Neolithic Period

85.Menhir Statue of a Woman-Neolithic Period

86.Head of Senusret III- Middle Kingdom Egyptian:

87.Rock Tombs, Beni Hasan- Middle Kingdom Egyptian:

88.Pectoral of Senusret II- Middle Kingdom Egyptian:

89.Hippopotamus- Middle Kingdom Egyptian:

90.Stele of Amenemhat I- Middle Kingdom Egyptian:

91.Model of House and Garden- Middle Kingdom Egyptian:

92.Plan of Northern Section of Kahun- Middle Kingdom Egyptian:

93.Ruins of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt- New Kingdom


Egyptian:

94.Flower and Bud Columns, Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Amun at Karnak-


New Kingdom Egyptian:

95.Fish-Shaped Bottle- New Kingdom Egyptian:

96.Hatshepsut Enthroned- New Kingdom Egyptian:

97.Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut- New Kingdom Egyptian:

98.Akenaten, Colossal Figure- New Kingdom Egyptian:

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2
99.Akenaten and His Family- New Kingdom Egyptian:

100.Queen Tiy- New Kingdom Egyptian:

101.Nefertiti- New Kingdom Egyptian:

102.Inner Coffin of Tutankhamun’s Sarcophagus- New Kingdom Egyptian:

103.Temple of Ramses II- New Kingdom Egyptian:

104.Queen Nefertari making an Offering to Isis- New Kingdom Egyptian:

105.Judgment of Hunefer before Osiris- New Kingdom Egyptian:

106.Cuneiform- Sumerian:

107.Ruins of the White Temple Sumerian:

108.Warka Head- Sumerian:

109.Uruk Vase- Sumerian:

110.Votive Figures- Sumerian:

111.Nanna Ziggurat- Sumerian:

112.Great Lyre with Bull’s Head- Sumerian:

113.Cylinder Seal and Its Impression- Sumerian:

114.Head of a Man (Akkadian Ruler)- Akkadian:

115.Stele of Naram-Sin- Akkadian:

116.Babylonia: Stele of Hammurabi

117.Human-Headed Winged Lion (Lamassu)- Assyrian:

118.Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions- Assyrian:

119.Citadel and Palace Complex of Sargon II- Assyrian:

120.Assurbanipal and His Queen in the Garden- Assyrian:

121.Hanging Gardens- Neo-Babylonia:

122.Marduk Ziggurat- Neo-Babylonia:

123.Ishtar Gate and Throne Room Wall- Neo-Babylonia:

124.Ceremonial Complex Persepolis- Persian:

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3
125.Apadana (Audience Hall) of Darius and Xerxes- Persian:

126.Vapheio cups- Mycenaean

127.Citadel at Mycenae- Mycenaean

128.Palace at Pylos- Mycenaean

129.The treasury of Atreus- Mycenaean

130.Lion gate- Mycenaean

131.Mask of Agamemnon- Mycenaean

132.Dagger blade with lion hunt- Mycenaean

133.Two women with a child- Mycenaean

134.Warrior vase- Mycenaean

135.Temple of Hera I and II- Greek Archaic

136.Temple of Artemis- Greek Archaic

137.Gorgon medusa- Greek Archaic

138.Treasury of the Siphnians- Greek Archaic

139.Battle between the gods and the giants- Greek Archaic

140.Pediment of the temple of Aphaia- Greek Archaic

141.Dying warrior- Greek Archaic

142.Standing youth (kouros)- Greek Archaic

143.Anavysos kouros- Greek Archaic

144.Berlin kore- Greek Archaic

145.Peplos kore- Greek Archaic

146.Acropolis kore- Greek Archaic

147.Dionysus with maidens- Greek Archaic

148.Achilles and Ajax playing a game- Greek Archaic

149.The suicide of Ajax- Greek Archaic

150.Death of Sarpedon- Greek Archaic

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4
151.Spear bearer (Doryphoros)- Greek classical

152.Pediment of the temple of Zeus- Greek classical

153.Apollo with battling lapiths and centaurs- Greek classical

154.Athena, Heracles, and Atlas- Greek classical

155.Kritian boy- Greek classical

156.A bronze foundry- Greek classical

157.Charioteer- Greek classical

158.Warrior A- Greek classical

159.Artemis slaying Actaeon- Greek classical

160.Porta Agusta, 3rd to 2nd century BCE-Etruscans

161.Apollo, 510-500 BCE-Etruscans

162.Burial Chambers, Tomb of the Tricilinium, Tarquinia, 480-470 BCE-

Etruscans

163.Burial Chamber, Tomb of Reliefs, 3rd century BCE-Etruscans

164.Sarcophagus from cerveteri 520 BCE-Etruscans

165.mirror 400- 350 BCE-Etruscans

166.head of a man (known as Brutus) mid third century BCE-Etruscans

167.Aulus Metellus 80 BCE-Roman Republic

168.potrait of Rompey the Great 30 CE-Roman Republic

169.Denarius with Potrait of Julius Ceaser 44 BCE-Roman Republic

170.Pont Du Gard (late 1st century BCE)-Roman Republic

171.Temple, perhaps dedicated to Portunus (late 2nd century BCE)-

Roman Republic

172.Maison Coree 20 BCE-Roman Republic

173.view of the Roman Forum-Early Roman Empire


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5
174.Augustus of Primaporta- early 1st century CE-Early Roman Empire

175.Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 13 - 9 BCE-Early Roman

Empire

176.Imperial Procession-Early Roman Empire

177.Allegory of Peace-Early Roman Empire

178.Gemma Augustea early 1st century CE-Early Roman Empire

179.Aerial view of the city of Pompeii 79 CE-Early Roman Empire

180.Street in Pompeii-Early Roman Empire

181.Peristyle garden, house of the vettii 62-79 CE-Early Roman Empire

182.Fountain Mosaic mid 1st century CE-Early Roman Empire

183.initiation nites of cult of bacchus in the villa of the mysterie 60-50

BCE-Early Roman Empire

184.Garden scene late 1st century BCE-Early Roman Empire

185.seascape and coastal towns late 1st century-Early Roman Empire

186.Recons trucled Bedroom late 1st century BCE-Early Roman Empire

187.Cityscape late 1st century CE-Early Roman Empire

188.Detail of a wall painting in the house of M. Lucretius Fronto, mid 1st

century CE-Early Roman Empire

189.Still Life 79 CE before-Early Roman Empire

190.Arch of Titus 81 CE-Early Roman Empire

191.Spoils from the temple of Solomon-Early Roman Empire

192.Triumphal procession, titus in chariot-Early Roman Empire

193.flavian amphitheater (colosseum) 70-80 CE-Early Roman Empire

194.Flavain amphitheater, outer wall, 70- 80 CE-Early Roman Empire

195.Young Flavian woman, 90 CE-Early Roman Empire


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196.Middle Aged Flavian Woman late 1st century CE-Early Roman Empire

197.Menorahs and ark of the covenant 3rd century-Jewish

198.Wall with torah niche 244-45-Jewish

199.The Finding of Baby Moses 244-45-Jewish

200.synagogue Floor, 530-Jewish

201.Good Shepherd, Crants, and stay of Torah late 3rd early 4th century-

Early Christian

202.Good Shepherd-Early Christian

203.Sarcophagus of the Church of Santa Maria Antigua 270-Early

Christian

204.Model of Walls and Baptismal Front 240-Early Christian

205.old St. Peter’s painting of the interior 16th century-Early Christian

206.Church of santa sabina 422-32-Early Christian

207.Interior, Church of Santa Sabina 422-32-Early Christian

208.The Ascension of Elijah 420’s-Early Christian

209.Parting of Lot and Abraham 432-40-Early Christian

210.Church of Santa Constanza 350-Early Christian

211.Harvesting of Grapes 350-Early Christian

212.Mausoleum of Galla Placidia 425- 26-Early Christian

213.Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Interior 425- 26-Early Christian

214.Good Shepard 425-26-Early Christian

215.Clerestory and dome baptism of christ and procession of apostles,

gospels and thrones, the prophets, baptism of the orthodox 450-60-

Early Christian

216.Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus 359-Early Christian


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217.Land walls of Constantinople, 412-13-Byzantine

218.Anthemius of Tralles and Isadorus of Miletus.-Byzantine

219.Church of Hagia Sophia 532-37-Byzantine

220.Church of Hagia Sophia interior532-37-Byzantine

221.Church of San Vitale 547-Byzantine

222.Sanctuary 547-Byzantine

223.Emperor Justinian and his attendants, north wall of the apse 547-

Byzantine

224.Empress Theadora and her attendants, south wall of the apse 547-

Byzantine

225.The trans fig nation of Christ with Sant’Apollnare, first bishops of

Ravenra, 7th and 9th century-Byzantine

226.Archangel Michael, early 6th century-Byzantine

227.Rebeca at the well, early 6th century-Byzantine

228.The crucifix and resurrection,586-Byzantine

229.The Ascension 586-Byzantine

230.Virgin and child with saints and angels second half of 6th century-

Byzantine

231.Virgin of Vladimir 11th-12th century-Byzantine

232.Interior cathedral of Santa Sophia 1037-46-Byzantine

233.Monastery churches of Nosias Luokas early 11th century-Byzantine

234.Central domed space and apse (the naos), kathalikon, early 11th

century and beyond-Byzantine

235.Crucifixion, late 11th century-Byzantine

236.Cathedral of Saint Mark, 1063-Byzantine


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237.Harbaville triptyeh, mid 11th century-Byzantine

238.David the psalmist, second half of 10th century-Byzantine

239.Palatine Chapel, mid 12th century-Byzantine

240.Chamber of the king roger, Norman palace, mid 12th century-

Byzantine

241.Funerary chapel church of the monastery of Christ, 1310-21-

Byzantine

242.Anastasis-Byzantine

243.The old testament trinity (three angels visiting Abraham) 1410-25-

Byzantine

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VOCABULARY
Chapter 1

1. Architecture- enclosure of spaces with at least some aesthetic intent

2. Relief Sculpture- surrounding material is carved away forming a


background that sets off the figure

3. Abstract Art- reduction of shapes and appearances to basic yet


recognizable forms that are no intended to be exact replications of
nature

4. Sympathetic Magic- idea that for instance a reclining bison would


ensure that hunters found their prey asleep

5. Twisted Perspective- horns, eyes and hooves are shown as seen in the
front, yet heads and bodies are rendered in profile

6. Shaman- thought to have special powers, an ability to contact spirits in


the form of animals or birds

7. Modeling- shaping

8. High Relief- extend well forward from the background

9. Flying Gallop- used to indicate speed in a running animal from


prehistory to the present

10.Ridgepole- long horizontal beam against which the slanting of roof


poles were braced

11.Wattle and Daub- branches woven in basketlike patterns

12.Thatch- plant material such as reeds or straw tied over a framework of


poles

13.Corbelling- layers of flat stones without mortar form walls, with each
layer, or course, projecting slightly inward over the one below

14.Corbel Vault- inward sloping walls come together at the top

15.Megalithic Architecture- descriptive term derived from the Greek word


roots for large (mega) and stone (lithos)

16.Dolmen- simplest type of megalithic tomb built on the post and lintel
principle, tomb chamber formed of huge upright stones supporting one
or more table-like rocks (capstones)

17.Cairn- artificial hill

18.Passage Grave- entered by one or more narrow stone-lined


passageways into a large room at the center

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19.Henge – a circle of stones or posts often surrounded by a ditch with
built up embankments

20.Sarsen- gray standstone

21.Thrilithons- pairs of upright stones topped by lintels

22.Mortise and Tenon- joints made by a conical projection at the top of


each upright that fits like a peg into a hole in the lintel

23.Ceramics- wares made of baked clay

24.Alloy- mixture (bronze=tin + clay)

25.Proto-historic- implies they left no written records but that others wrote
about them

26.Relative Dating- relies on the chronological relationships among


objects in a single excavation or among several excavation sites

27.Absolute Dating- aims to determine a precise span of calendar years in


which an artifact was created

28.Radiometric Dating- measures the degree to which radioactive


materials have disintegrated over time

29.Potassium-argon Dating- measures the decay or a radioactive


potassium isotope into a stable isotope of argon

30.Thermoluminescence Dating- measures the irradiation of crystal


structure of a material subjected to fire (pottery)

31.Electron-spin-resonance- involve using magnetic field and microwave


irradiation to date a material such as tooth enamel + soil surrounding

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Chapter 2
1. Lamassus- extraordinary guardian protectors of the palaces and throne
rooms

2. Fertile Crescent- outline of which stretches along the Lebanese


mountain range on the Mediterranean and circles the northern reaches
of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers down through the Zagros mountains

3. Mesopotamia- land between the rivers

4. City- state- own gods and government

5. Cuneiform- symbols into clay tablets with a stylus

6. Stylus- pointed writing instrument to keep business records

7. Ziggurat- he stepped structures with a temple on shrine on top

8. Inlaid- set-in

9. Registers- horizontal bands

10.Phonograms- representations of syllable sounds

11.Votive Figures- images dedicated to the Gods

12.Lyre- a kind of harp

13.Sistrum- a kind of rattle

14.Iconography- the narrative and allegorical meaning

15.Cylinder Seals- small cylindrical stone decorated with incised patterns,


when rolled across soft clay or wax, the resulting raised pattern or
design (relief) served in Mesopotamian culture as an identifying
symbol

16.Stele- upright stone slab

17.Hieratic Scale- size associated with importance in ancient art

18.Citadel- fortress

19.Palace Complex- the group of buildings where the ruler governed and
resided

20.Glazed- outermost layer of vitreous liquid

21.Crenellations- notched walls—notches called crenels—built as a part of


military defense

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22.Mushhushshu- horned dragons with the head and body of a snake, the
forelegs of a lion, and the hind legs of a bird of prey

23.Grid- system of crossed lines

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Chapter 3:

1. Heb sed/ sed festival- royal jubilee, renewed and reaffirmed king’s
power

2. Palettes- flat stones with a circular depression on one side

3. Memory image- generic form that suggests a specific object

4. Groundlines- establish space as a series of horizontal registers in which


the uppermost register is the most distant

5. Cannon of Proportions- ratios between a figure’s height and all its


component parts were clearly prescribed. They were calculated as
multiples of a specific unit of measure, such as the width of the closed
fist

6. Ka-life force of spirit

7. Mastaba- flat-topped one story building with slanted walls erected


above an underground burial chamber

8. Serdab-small, sealed room housing the ka statue of the deceased and


a chapel designed to receive mourning relatives and offerings

9. Sarcophagus- coffin

10.Necropolis-city of the dead

11.Ankh- symbol of life

12.Cartouche- oval formed by loop of rope

13.Scarab- stylized dung beetle associated w/sun and God Amun

14.Hieroglyphic Khepri- symbol of Ra and rebirth

15.Faience- type of ceramic covered w/colorful, opaque glazes that form a


smooth impermeable surface

16.Pylon- massive gateway formed by a pair of tapering walls of oblong


shape

17.Peristyle Court- semipublic courtyard surrounded by columns

18.Hypostyle Hall- vast hall filled w/columns

19.Clerestory- long row of window openings

20.Maat-divine truth

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21.Sunken Relief- outlines of the figures have been carved into the
surface of the stone, instead of being formed by cutting away the
background

22.Encaustic- hot colored wax

23.Hieroglyphs – symbols; inscriptions on monuments

24.Hieratic – simplified hieroglyphs ; religious documents

25.Demotic – less formal, cursive hieroglyphs; everyday documents

26.Coptic – Egyptian language written in Greek characters

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Chapter 4: Aegean Art

1. Dressed Stone- Local Stone

2. Labyrith- House of Double Axes, Maze

3. Buon Fresco- Still wet plaster surface

4. Fresco Seco –dry plaster Surface

5. Rhytons- vessels used for pouring liquids

6. Gold Leaf- sheets of Hammered Gold

7. Sistrum- rattlelike percussion instrument

8. Repousse- technique of hammering from the back of the sheet

9. Cyclopean- drywall masonry

10.Megaron- large audience hall

11.Shaft graves- vertical pits 20 to 25 feet deep

12.Tholos Tombs- beehive tombs b/c of rounded conical shape

13.Chevrons- inverted Vs

14.Running Spirals- favorite Aegean motif

15.Corbel Vault- built in courses of ashlar

16.Courses- layers

17.Ashlar- squared stone

18.Krater- bowl for mixing water and wine

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Etruscan and Roman Art
1. Atrium- central courtyard

2. Roundels- circular decorative panels

3. Pilasters- rectangular column-like uprights

4. Round arch- arch with a rounded shape, displaces most of the

weight down

5. Voussoirs- wedge-shaped pieces of the arch

6. Keystone- central piece in the arch

7. Buttressing- added support

8. Centering- wooden scaffolding

9. Springing- point where arch curves

10.Spandrels- wall areas adjacent to the curves of the arch

11.Arcade- succession of arches

12.Barrel vault- an extended round arch

13.Groin vault- an intersection of barrel vaults

14.Hemispheric dome- dome on a drum

15.Drum- circular wall

16.Oculus- circular opening

17.Tufa- volcanic rock, hardens when exposed to air

18.Tuscan order- Doric order without fluted shaft and a simplified

base

19.Podium- base of building

20.Stucco- slow drying plaster

21.Sarcophagi- coffins

22.Plebian- lower class


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23.Patrician- upper class

24.Oligarchy- government by the aristocracy

25.Toga- garment

26.Verism- meticulous realism

27.Pozzolana- volcanic sand

28.Veneer- facing

29.Exedrae- semicircular niches

30.Colonnades- rows of columns

31.Engaged- set into the wall

32.Pontifex maximus- high priest

33.Meander- Greek key pattern

34.Insulae- brick apartment blocks

35.Peristyle- interior court surrounded by columns

36.Tablinum- office or formal reception room

37.Intuitive perspective- uses diagonal lines that make the object

appear as if it were receding

38.Still life- composition of inanimate objects

39.Tondo-circular panel

40.Menorah- seven-branched lamp holder from the temple of

Jerusalem

41.Cartouches- shield-shaped ornaments

42.Basilica- rectangular shaped building with apse at each end

43.Apse- rounded extension

44.Clerestory- upper nave wall with windows

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45.Pantheon- “all the gods”

46.Coffers- sunken panels

47.Canopus- long reflecting pool

48.Emblemata- mosaic image panels

49.Mosaic- design made of pebbles or tesserae

50.Tesserae- pieces of colored stone and marble

51.Roundels- circular reliefs

52.Diptych- pair of panels attached with hinges

Jewish, Christian and early Byzantine art

1. Necropolis- city of the dead

2. Catacomb- small burial rooms

3. Narthex- atrium and porch

4. Dove=purity

5. Fish= Jesus

6. Lamb= Jesus’s death on the cross

7. Bishop- senior church officials

8. Parish- units led by priests

9. Cathedral- bishop’s church

10.Liturgy- elaborate religious ceremony

11.Cathedra- bishop’s throne

12.Syncretism- assimilation of images from other tradition

13.Orant- arms out

14.Loculi- rectangular niches in wall

15.Cubicula- small rooms


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16.Medallion- round ornament

17.Lunette- semicircular wall areas formed by arch

18.Rotunda- round domed structures

19.Portal- doorway

20.Aisles- on both sides of nave

21.Transept- crosses the nave in front of the apse

22.Spolia- material reused from earlier buildings

23.Chalice- wine cup

24.Paten- holds the bread

25.Tholos- round structure with a central plan and vertical axis

26.Ambulatory- encircling barrel-vaulted passageway

27.Putti- naked male child-angels

28.Cruciform- cross-shaped

29.Pendentive dome- dome continuous with its pendentives

30.Schism- split within the church

31.Tondo- circular image

32.Vellum- calfskin

33.Codex- book form

34.Quire- parchment folded and sewed together

35.Miniatures- illustrations

36.Illuminated- manuscripts decorated with gold and colors

37.Hagia Sophia- holy wisdom

38.Naos- central core

39.Galleries- open stories overlooking the naos

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40.Scriptoria-writing rooms for scribes

41.Scribe- professional document writers

42.Mandorla- almond-shaped area of light

43.Iconostasis- screen in church with images of icons

44.Iconoclasm- the banning of religion icons

45.Trompe l’oeil- “fool the eye”

ART OF ANCIENT GREECE:

1. Dressed stone – ashlar

2. Labrys – double ax

3. Labyrinth – maze

4. Buon fresco – a painting technique in which waterbased

pigments are applied to a surface of wet plaster

5. Fresco secco – painting on dried plaster

6. Lost-wax casting – a method of casting metal by a process in

which a wac mold is covered with clay and plaster, then fired,

melting the wax and leaving a hollow form. Molten metal is then

poured into the hollow space and slowly cooled. When the

hardened clay and plaster exterior shell is removed, a solid metal

form remains to be smoothed and polished.

7. Inlay – to set pieces of material or materials into a surface to

form a design; material used in or decoration formed by this

technique

8. Filigree – delicate, lacelike ornamental work

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9. Repoussé – a technique of hammering metal from the back to

create a protruding image

10.Niello – a metal technique in which a black sulfur alloy is rubbed

into fine lines engraved into a metal (usually gold or silver).

When heated, the alloy becomes fused with the surrounding

metal and provides contrasting detail

11.Gilding – the application of paper-thin gold leaf or gold pigment

to an object made from another medium (for example, a

sculpture or painting)

12.Gold leaf – paper-thin sheets of hammered gold that are used in

gilding

13.Gold foil – a thin sheet of gold

14.Rhyton – a vessel in the shape of a figure or an animal, used for

drinking or pouring liquids on special occasions

15.Megaron – the main hall of a Mycenaean palace or grand house,

having a columnar porch and a room with a central fireplace

surrounded by four columns

16.Shaftgrave – a deep put used for burial

17.Tholos tomb – a small round tomb underground

18.Beehive tomb – a corbel-vaulted tomb, conical in shape like a

beehive, and covered by an earthen mound

19.Chevron – a decorative or heraldic motif of repeated Vs; a

zigzag pattern

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20.Running spiral – a decorative motif based on the shape formed

by a line making a continuous spiral

21.Corbel vault – a vault made by projecting courses of stone

22.Course – a horizontal layer of stone used in building

23.Ashlar – a highly finished, precisely cut block of stone. When

laid in even courses, ashlar masonry creates a uniform face with

fine joints. Often used as a facing on the visible exterior of a

building, especially as a veneer for the façade. Also called

dressed stone.

ROMANESQUE ART:

1. Romanesque – Roman style

2. Strip buttresses – bands of masonry

3. Arched corbel tables – courses of masonry

4. Spolia – architectural spoils taken from ancient Roman buildings

5. Baldachin – a canopy (whether suspended from the ceiling,

projecting from a wall, or supported by columns) placed over an

honorific or sacred space such as a throne or church altar

6. Stringcourse – a raised horizontal band or course of bricks on a building

7. Great Tower – stood in a courtyard surrounded by additional

walls

8. Keep – Great Tower in England

9. Donjon – Great Tower in France

10.Bailey – courtyard

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11.Moats – a large ditch or canal dug around a castle or fortress for

military defense

12.Archivolts – a band of molding resembling an architrave,

around the lower curve of an arch

13.Trumeau – a column, pier, or post found at the center or a large

portal or doorway. Supporting a lintel

14.Glazing – an outermost layer of vitreous liquid that, upon firing,

renders ceramics waterproof and forms a decorative surface. In

painting, a technique particularly used with oil mediums in which

a transparent layer of paint is laid over another, usually lighter,

painted or glazed area

15.Liber – book

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