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DOCUMENT. RESUME ED 259 126 cE 041 748 TITLE Air-Conditioning Mechanic. INSTITUTION Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC, REPORT NO MCI=11,15b PUB PATE 82 NOTE 1710p. PUB TYPZ Guides - Classroom Use ~ Materials (For Learner) 051) EDRS PRICE MFO1/PCO7 Plus Postage. 7 DESCRIPTORS © *Air Conditioning; *Air Conditioning tquipment; Behavioral Objectives; Correspondence, Study; *Equipment Maintenance; Equipment Utilization; Independent Study; Learning Activities; Military Personnel; *Military Training; Postsecondary Education; *Refrigeration Mechanics; *Trade and Industrial Education; Units of Study ABSTRACT This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job,performance >f members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as applied to air conditioning equipment, procedures for servicing air conditioning equipment, and commercial and tactical air conditioning units. In a seperate section following chapter # are 4 review units corresponding to the 4 lessons in the guide. Fach unit contains » reading assignment, » Lesson objective Statement, and a written assignment coagisting of a series of study questions for that unit. (MN) TE ERI GEESE IEE ITI E IE TIE IIIS TOES TUCO IOUT ITO IIIT * Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 7 from the original document. * TSE IO IIE IS ITER IIIS OSI ITO OEIEISIIIIOTA ITO TOCA TI IAI €D259126 CEU HE BEST COPY AVAILABLE MCI 11.15b AIR-CONDITIONING MECHANIC MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE MARINE BARRACKS WASHINGTON, D.C. 2 PREFACE Air-Conditioning Mechante has been designed to provide Marines, Corporal and below, in MOS 1161, nth a comprehensive coverage of air conditioners and air-conditioning systema, Gembining the prncigtn presto coseae with onthe ening wil prepare farinen to install, operate, test, maintain, and perform limited repairs to air-condition tite nnd system. , ——— SOURCE MATERIALS TM 5-670 Refrigeration, Alr Conditioning, Mechanical ‘Evaporative Cooling, Feb 1967 ‘rw saiz0-222-15 Als Conditioner! Compact Vertical Models CE 20 VALS and ONCE 10 VALG, May 1069 TM 5-4120-290-14 Operator, Orgatlzational, Direct Sy Support Maintenance Mandal, Air Conditioner, WorizGntal Compact, £,000 BW, Sep 191i cht ‘tM s-4120-249e14 Operator, Organlzetional, Direct Support, and General Suppoct Maintenance Manual, Air Conditioner, Horizontal Tappan, 16,000 BW, Oct THT Chiand 2 yt alzocis/ia -_Prineipat Techales] Characteristics of U.S, Mar:ce Corpe ‘iltany Standard Air Conditioners with Supplemental Logistics Dats , Aug 1075 : ‘Air Conditioner, Self/Contained, Trane Model MAC6V&0, Ventilation, yt, and General ‘TM-06508A-15 air, Sep 106 Meo 10280,2 U.S. Marine Corps Military Standard Air Conditioners, o Mar 1975 CONTENTS: Page Grape 1, PRINBARLES OF AIR CONDITIONING Introduction Refrigeration theory? ‘The rofrigeration eye. Vit tae sees Components and characteristics of air. . vss se Air temperatures and their measurements... + Measuring air velocities... ees eee cscs ree . Cooling requirements. Siete ieee eee 5 8 . Chapter 2. REFRIGFRATION COMPONENTS AS APPLIED TO AIR-CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT General purpose and application of refrigeration components... +. + « COmPreSSOre eevee teeta tte e eter eet nce ee Condensers... sls pardedacatecberfecsbectoeectoertoeteeaee tor Recovers.) litte le sees halt afte oleate Evaporators sys stirs vssssesecrsee debe fodad Lines and fittings 2.2020 ptr ape tele te Accessories ws vs srvsrsrsssseseeee sleesteelecstch Valves andcontrolés fst i rlsivecsssersessescnese Bleetric motor controls and motores. sis... tetetelesict . Refrigerante. seve see eevsesccrscecsereee eee - Lubricant, os css Hah ele eb ele de tsleds tele dae . Summarys ss llsscsssetysceree rae detaleieit Chapter 3, SERVICING AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Inetallation oes cece eee sree eee e ee bette eee ee Bd gd Preventive maintenance, |)... 0 scssssse Debbililiilae a2 Testing «a. +. + whelee tale de beled beled tele Dlilss a2 - Use nf the bar gage manifold 0 ss tie sees este tees ees B47 Methods of making @joint. «vs sss s cree PELDIIDI ID i iiss ase Troubleshooting. vss evscsrerscsseeseeseesceee es $6 SIT Hopair and renlacement of major componente Lt last 9:25 SUMMA. see eee ee eee eee etecceescescess css SB gd2 Chapter-4, COMMERCIAL AND TACTICAL AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS Section 1. Commercial units Window or through-the-wall unig 66 ee eee ete eee eee eee a1 ad Console units sees ee eee ee perce de teed e see te he 42 43 Hemote units. «2... Petes eedectteetstendeectordecdoe ter Diilias 44 Troubleshooting: 2ST LL ILI ibiiiiitiiiils aa ad Section Ml, Tactical units, Marine Corps military standard air conditioners General description... se. eee eee eee eee eee eee aS At Operational theory, Lili liieeciiiiise Pilles ate . Mnatallation ... sss ees e eee DELDDIDD IDI Dilan ate Operation. LISP D Till DODDLDD LED an aee Maintenances tet eet eee eee eee Til. a28 Horizontal unite, 222222200 tee efter epee a 410 4-39 General safety. ee eet ee eee eee dl 4-49 Summary sessile s sees cece sees een en es G2 460 Chapter 1 PRINCIPLES OF AIR CONDITIONING 1st, INTRODUCTION 8, General, ‘Some 30 to 35 years ago places such as schools, office buildings, factories and homes were not air conditioned, About the only place to get cool on a hot, humid day we the local movie theater, and even there the humidity was not controlled; just the temperature was lowered, Most people in those days relied upon a system of fans oF a nice shady spot on the back porch to get cool, World War I as it did to so many technical fields, brought about, ‘a big change in air conditioning, A large demand for (mproved technical methods and higher industrial production reaulted in a need for improved equipment and techniques with regard to controlling atmospheric conditions, Today, the armed forces, as well as industry, have reached a point where highly trained personnel are needed to operate the equipment that controls our environment, The day of the pedestal floor fan and the small oscillating fan are gone, We” ow depend on machines to control and condition the air that surrounds us, We have advanced to the point that proper control of atmospheric conditions has become almost a necessity. For example, electronic equipment will corrode and become useless because of high humidity. ‘Training aids, data processing machines, photographic latoratories, storage vaults, hospital laboratories, ‘and operating rooms must all be air conditioned to insure that the air is kept dust free, and that temperature and humidity are maintained at a prescribed level. Atr con ‘itioning 1s also neceasary to maintain the health, morale, and efficiency of troops, People, along with the equipment they work with, require satisfactory working conditinns and climate. ‘To keep pace with the ever-increasing technical nature of the mission of the Marine Corps, the development and inetallation of air-conditioning equipment has become a necessity. Atr con~ dditioning is the process of conditioning the atmosphere in a given space in order to maintain a prndetermined temperature-humidity relationship to meet optimum comfort and technical re~ ‘ulrements, This process Includes both cooling in the summer and warming in the winter. b, Purpose of air conditioning, Today air conditioning is used by the military to control the ‘environment in which troops and equipment operate, This environmental control extends not only to the temperature ot the space, but to controlling the humidity (molsture content), re= ‘moval of foreign and undesirable particles from the atr, and distribution of the conditioned air throughout the apace, Moisture, heat, and foreign particles enter the air in many ways, The hhuman body gives off heat and moisture, The everage adult engaged In light work will give off Approximately 500 Btu's (British tF rmal unite) of heat per hour and will consume and give off about three pounds of water daily, Equipment will give vp heat to the surrounding atmosphere ‘ither through friction caused by mechanical motion or by heat created by electricity flowing through wires, contacts, motors, ete, Moisture and foreign particles can enter a conditioned Space through windows, doors, minute cracks, ventilation systems, and by people carrying them on thelr person and clothes, In order to maintain an environment at a specific level of ‘control, air-conditioning equipment {8 used to raise or lower temperatures, removs moisture ‘nd foreign particles, andto distribute air evenly through ut the space to be controlled, 1:2, REFRIGERATION THEORY a, General, in order to become a successful mechanle in any field, you must first under tani the principles and theories that make the equipment work, Since air-conditioning equip- ent works on the theory of refrigeration, let us first stu:y the pasie principles and theories hhehind refrigeration theory, b, Heat, Every substance contains heat but some will have more than oth rs. Heat is produced by the movement of molecules within a substance; the more the molecules move, the ingen the cemnporeture of the 3 Decunees Ths he opposite 18 true; tie niore slowly the molecules move, the lower tie temperature, Put another way, the more molec~ lular action, the more heat produced and tae tess molecular action, the less hea, produced, ‘would also follow that a complete lack of molecular action would prudice a complete lack of heat nr absolute zero, The terms hot and cold are often heard, hot meaning a high temperature and cold meaning « low temperature, Cold cannot be produced but is simply the result of re~ moving heat, ‘This is done by slowing the molecular action within a substance, Once the tt a moleculas action of a substance {9 slowed, the result {s not the production of cold but the pro= duction of @ lower dogree of heat, Heat cannot be lost or destroyed, but it can be transferred to another substunee, Heat will travel in one direction only; from an object or substance of a higher temperature to one of lower temperature, This transfer of heat will often cauge many substances to change their state; from a solid to a liquid, Liquid to a gas, or vice versa, ‘There are different types of heat and different methods of hert transfer, Let's first look at some dif- ferent typer of heat, (1) Sensible heat, Sensible heat {8 heat that ratses or lowers the temperature of a unbstance ‘Without changing its state; that 1s, wlthout changing it from a solid to a liquid, from Mauid to 8 gas, or vice ver: . (2) Spocitie heat, This ts the amount of heat, in Btu's, that is required to change the Temperature of one pound of a substance one degree Fahrenheit, Some substances require more heat than others to produce this change in temperature, Since water is used as the basis of comparison for specific heat values, the specific heat of water fs 1,0, All other substances have specific heat values elther above oF below this fig~ lure, Figure 1-1 shows the specific heat value of a few common substances, The ‘mount of heat necessary to cause a desired temperature change ina substance can be calculated quite easily, Simply multiply the weight of the substance by its specific hheat by the desired temperature change in degrees Fahrenhelt, Expressed as at equation {t would be: amount of heat to be addud or removed in Btu = weight x specific Thoat x temperature change in degrees Fehreuhett, Example: How many Btu's must be added to 20 pounds of copper to raise its temperature from 40° to 65°F? Specific heat of copper is . 095 (tig 1-1), . 7 Solution: Btu = 20 x .095 x 25 Bru = 47,5 ‘This formula will work unless the temperature.change desired would cause a change of state, en Coon Se tr oioage ase Res 38 Fig 1-1, Specific heat values. (3) Latent heat, Latent heat 49 neat that 1s added to or removed from a substance ‘Fausing that anbatance to change state (e.. melt, freeze, boll, or condense) ‘while remaining at the same temperature, As you know, water van exist at 32° F {in Itquid form and also in solid form (Ice). Tn order for water to change from guid to solid it 19 necessary to remove an amount of latent hest. in order for ft to change ite atate from foe back to water, the same amount of Istent heat muat oe added, This is known aa the latent neat of fuston or melting. There 18 another listent h-at, the latent heat of vaporiwation or condensation. As it is possible to have both water and steam at 212° F, {t would then follow that a certain amount of heat 1s nec: ‘sary to cause the change of state, The amount of heat required to cause vaporization lor condensation of water is 870 Btu's per pound; to cause fusion ur melting, 144 Btu's per pound would be necessary, (4) British thermal unit (Btw), A Btu is defined as ie amoint of heat required to raise the femperatire of one poind of water one degree Fahrenhelt, Conversely, if water is cooled, Btu'e would be removed. There are no instruments for measuring Btu's but they ean be calculated by the temperature change. Example: How much heat would be required to raise the tomperature of 73 pounds of water from 33° 10 79°F? Solution: Btu * wt, x degree change tus 73 40 Buu, 920 Example: If you ad 50 pounds of water and wished to lower its temperature Tram 80° to 32°F, how much heat would be removed? Solution: Mu = we, x degree change btu = 50. 48 stu = 2400 (6) teat tra Heat can be transferred from an object of highor temperature to one Sa lower temperature, ‘The tranafer of heat will take place unt both objects reach the same temperature, There are three methods of transferring heat: conduction, convection, and radiation, (a) Conduction (fig 1-2), Conduction of heat is accomplished by transmitting heat from ‘one pait of an object to another part of the same object of from one substance to ‘another when the substances are in direct contact, ‘This can be seen in figure 1~2, [By placing one end of the metal rod in the flame, it will become warmer than the other fend, The heat will flow along the rod raising the temperature of the cold end, Metal uch as fron, copper, oF silver, are good conductors of heat; other materials, such as lass and cork, are not, Materials that offer a low resistance to the flow of heat are talled conductors; those that offer a high resistance to heat flow are referred to as insu~ lntors, Conduction 1s aided by providing large surfaces of good heat-concuctor’ Pig 1-2, Heat transfer by conduetton, Wo) Gonvoetion (tty 1-8, Convection ean pe explained oy tollowang te prinsipie behind T simple heating system such as the one shown in figure 1-3, First, air is heated imu allowed to exeape #nfo an area where the air ts cooler, Sinev air expands when itis wsated, i becomes lighter than cold air, The cold air will flow under the hot tas ‘alr, forcing the hot air to flow above the cold, Aa the temperature becomes equal= red, the air will begin to fall back towards the heating source and the vycte begins over, Convection 1s aided through the use of fans, such as ina foreed-cunvection heating system, Tica TRANSEER jr CONVECTION Fig (c) Radiation (fig 1-4), ‘This 48 usually accomplished through use of heating coils and fing surface, The heatirg colla will produce the heat and the reflecting sur= fe will direct the heat toward a given area, Since dark colors usually absorb hheat and light ones reflect it, heat transferred by radiation is usually provided with ‘a background of white or silve Heat transfer by convection. c. Temperature und its measurement, (1) General, ‘The relative degree of a substance's warmth is called temperature, This fEnot to be confused with the quantity or amount of heat in a substance, but is merely the sensible of measureable warmth of the substance, An ordinary thermometer is lubed to measure temperature, There are twe types of scales in common use to¢ay to measure temperature, Fahrenheit and centigrade. Both of these scales were arbitrar- fly chosen by eclentists and both employ a glass tube of uniform bore, a bulb at the bottom of the tube, and contain @ Liqu'd, usually mercury or aicohol. The Fahrenheit Seale ie divided into 180 equal divisions between the freezing (also melting) ard bolting point of water, whereas the centigrade scale 19 divided into, 100 divisions. W.ter will Proeze (melt) at $2° on the Fahrenheit scale and boil at 212°, On the centigrade scale, water freezes at 0° and botla at 100°C, A comparison of the two scales can bo seen in figure jor was chosen as a standard for these thermometers because it has avery constant freezing and boiling point, and is an ex. 1 ayant Fig 1-5, Comparison of Fahrenheit and centigrade scales, @) Conversion, Although the Fahrenheit scale 1s most commonly used in air-conditioning Work, i sometimes becomes necessary to convert Fahrenhett to centigrade and vice versa, To convert Fahrenheit to centigrade, subtract $2 from the Fahrenheit temper ature and muitiply the remainder by 5/9, 1.e,, C=8/0 (F>82), To convert centigrade to Fahrenheit, multiply the centigrade temperature by 9/5 and add 32°, Expressed an a formula, F* 9/5 C#32, Convert 41°F into centigrade, Bxampl Solution: C= 5/9 (F = $2) ce 5/9 (41 = 92) c= 5/9 (0) c= 5/9 x 9/1 ce 5° Example: Convert 20°C into Fahrenhett, Solution: F+ 9/5. +82 Fe 9/5 @0) +32 Fe 0/5 x 20/3 +82 Fe 36 +82 F= 68° (1) General, Before an air conditioner can operate properly, a pressure difference must exist across the system, Pressure is expressed as the force per unit of area exerted con supporting surfaces, usually expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) or pounds per square foot, ‘The atmospheric or alr pressure that {s exerted on the human body at soa level is 14.7 psi, Every substance will exert a pressure on the surface that Supports {t, For example, a table will exert pressure on the floor through its leis. A liquid, eh as water in'a pail, will exert pressure on the bottom . ad sides of its container, A gad, such as hellum in a balloon will exert a pressure on all sides of its container to an extent that depends on the temperature and the volume of the gas. Guses und liquids have a definite pressure-temperature-volume Felationsiip wnscin 15 8 of reat tmportance to the proper operation of an air=ronditioning unit or system, This ‘relationship will ba discussed in paragraph ?~2e, (@ Measuring pressure, Pressure le commonly measured with a gage, However, it can also be indleated in inches of mercury or inches or fect of water, A standard atmos~ pherie pressure of 14,7 pat (atmospherie pressure at sea level) will support a co'umn of hereury of 29,92 inches an¢ a column of water of about 84 feet, Pressure measured ‘with a gage will be measured azove atmospheric and {s stated as pounds per aquare Inch gage (sigh Pressures below atmospheric are usually indicated in inches of mercury. When working with air-conditioning equipment it will often be necessary to use absolute pressure (psia) for proper computation of pressure and volume, Absolute pressure is, age pressure plus atmospheric pressure, In order tw convert gage pressure to abso ute, you simply add 14.7 to the gage reading, —, 7 Example: What {a the absolute pressure when the pressure gage readg 90 pai? Solution, 90 +1447 = 48,7 patay ° Pressure-temperature-volume relationship, Understanding the relationship of pressure, tempecature, and volume and their effect on refrigerants is vital in understanding the refriger ation cycle of an alt-conditioning system or unit, ‘The pressure-temperature-volume relation + ship of gases is expressed by three laws; Boyle's Jaw, Charles’ law, and the general gas Boyle's law states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with its absolute pressure, provided the temperature remains constant, Stated as an equation; V,P, "VPs. Boyle's law ban be stated in simpler terme by saying; when the temperature te held Eonstant, increasing the pressure on a gas will cause a proportionate decreage in the volume; decreasing the pres Sure will cause a proportionate increase in the volume, For example; a volume of gas, aay five ubtc fert (eu f0, i placed in a cylinder and a piston exerting a pressure of 50 pstg is inserted sin the end of the cylinder to hold the gas in, Now, if the pressure on the piston is increwsed to 250 psig, the piston would move into the cylinder until the volume is decreased to one cu. Uf the pressure was deareasod to 15 psig, the platon would move out of the cylinder until the volume was 1Oeutt, ‘Charles? Jaw states that the volume of confined gas varies proportionately to its sbsolute temperature, provided the pressure 1s kept constant, Likewise, the pressure varies rropor= Honately, to the absolute temperature, provided the volume remains constant. Stated more simply: ‘shen the pressure ts conatast, increasing the temperature of a gas will cause an equal incres. 2 {in tts volume, When the voiume {3 kept constant, an increase in tempereture will cause an equal increase in pressure, Ewprossed as formulas Constant pressure VjT, = VaTy Constant volume PyT, * PT, ‘The general gas law {s 4 combination of Charles and Boyle's laws and expresses the re- lauonship betweendmervolume, the absolute pressure, and the absolute temperature of gases, ‘Tho gencval gas law's expressed by the equation: RAL = Spe 1 shoule be noted here that whenever any of these formulas are used only absolute pret sures and temperatures are to be used, It should also be noted that we have sald that volume and temperature of gaa are different after the pressure changes. It ia {mportant ‘0 note how= ever, that the temperature change will take place while the pressure changes, Compressing the gas raises its temperature; expanding the gus lowers its temperature, As you will see this, is an important factor in the refrigesation cycle, 1-3, THE REFRIGERATION CYCLE ‘The refrigeration cycle 18 common to-all machines made for lowering and con ‘lower temperature through ‘changes, The changes necessary to produce and con trol the pressure differences are made through the use of two systems: the compre: the abscrption system, two systems differ in that the compression system ui ical energy to produce the necessary change in conditions and the absovstion system uses heat energy. trolling dhe termperature in our evervday living, This cycle produc 18 10 hb. Compression uystem (fig 1-6)7 The compression system produces a lower temperature by employing th theory of latent heat, pressure differences, and heat transfer, The transfer of heat is accomplished by using a guid (refrigerant) which vaporizes at a low temperature and pressure, Once the vapor has absorbed the heat, it is compressed and raised to high temper- Ature and pressure, It is then condensed back to a liquid ~ thereby dissipating the heat. Thus this cycle consists of u high=presaure side and a low-pressure sido, As the piston moves down, low-pressure gas enters the compressor through the inlet valve, As the piston starts up, the vapor is compressed increasing the terRerattre and pressure, (This temperature increase is greater than the temperature of the eroling medium which gurfounds the condenser.) When the Plato approaches the top of the oylinder, the discharge vaive opens and the high~pressurc, high= temperature vapor moves to the condenser, ‘The condenser, a series of tubes, is surrounded by a cooling medium (usally air or water), The latent heat of condensation {s surrendered to the cooling medium and the vapor becomes a high-pressure, high-temperature liquid, From here the liquid flows on to the receiver, which {s merely a storage place for the liquid until it 4s needed by the, refrigerant control (usually an expansion valve), The expansion valve reduces the pressure of the liquid and meters it into the evaporator, where it absorbs heat from the area to be cooted and vaporizes to a low-pressure, low-temperature gas, Then the gas enters the suction line leading to the compressor completing the cycle, A study of figure 1-6 will show that the refrigeration cycle { divided in half with respect to pressure, From the compressor, through the condenser and receiver to the expansion valve is the high side of the cystem, From the expansion valve through the evaporator and back to the compressor is te 1ow side. “Regard~ ess of size and manufacturer's design of alrconditioning equipment, the refrigeration cycle of all compression systems will be the same, uo Ne Low s10¢ Ve pees Ey COMPRESSOR conDensen RECEIVER (a ww pressuRe Liou Z2howenessune cas HIGH-PRESSURE GA HioH-PRESSURE LiQUD ‘ig 1-8, Compression system, 1-4, COMPONENTS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF AIR a. Characteristics of air, Air {s not a single substance, bul is a mixtere of various pasos. Approximately 20% of the ait ts oxygen; a Ittle less than 80% is the inert gas nitrogen; about dtoa ta carbon dioxide; an i the rest (lose than 1) 1s a mixture of argon, helium, krypton, fhsin, Senon, and hydrogen, These ate the components of dry air, Air will also contain forcivn Inaierand water vapors. It is affected by weather conilitions and is subject to gain and loss of out, Since air-conditioning equipment must be able to remove water vapor and foroign matter from the ait and counteragt the effects of weather and heat gain oF loss, it is necessary for you to know how cach of these things will affect the design, construction, and installation 01 ait convlttoning, equipment. wt bv, Porvign materials, The air that is dsed for air conditioning or ventilation contains many impuritigs ranging from carbon (from incomplete combustion), dust (from the ground), to rub= ber particles from tires, -plant pollen,and Lint from clothing. The size, quantity, and type of - dust particles picked up by a system vary over a wide range, The atmosphere may include many particles of dust sinaller than § raicrons (1 micron is approximately 0,001 millimeter or ‘About 0.0004 in,), However, many of the dust particles are larger than 800 microns, or bout 1/52 in, Figure 1-7 shows a compasison scale of dust particles in microns, aa eats, Qf wa |e" a Sa en Fig 1-7, Atmospheric dust partictes foreign materials, Since air-conditioning Intakes are usually placed near stat surftcer Team witch ail thio foreign matter can be picked up and dletributed, the system must coraip a filtering device of some kind, Removing dust partictes from air that 1s to be used by an air-conditioning system can be accomplished by any of the foltowing methods of filtration, 8 (1) Air washirig, This ts done by forcing the alr through a spray chamber or a screen of water, (2) ury filtering, These siiiers are made of porous materia! such as steel wool, wire Seren, animal hair, hemp fibers, fiberglass, or glass wool, The air passes though the filter and changes directic several times, The dust particles will collect e* the Hbers, thus cleaniag the atr. (3) Wet filters, Wet fiiters are made up of the same materials ai a dry filter; however, they are couted with a viscous material, usually oll, The air passes through them and Gust particles ar. collected in the same manner as with the dry type, As dust particles fleet in both the dry~ and wet-type filters, resistance to the flow of air through them {s increased, These filters will have to be cleaned or replaced depending on whether they are the cleanable oF throw-away .ype. ) Electrostatic filters, These flitery remove dust particles by passing the air between two electrodes and {mparting an electrical charge to each dust particte, Then the air fs passed between parallel plates. The electrostatic fleld that is created between the Charged plates and the grounded plates drives the chargad partictes to the grounded plates where they accumulate, The grounded plates are usually coated with a thin, ayer of oll to insure that the dust particles stay on the plates, © Central separation, To filter dust particles from the air in thia method, the air ts Circulated at high speed, The centrifugal force that ts created will force the duet out of the ars 6 4. Airand water vapor, Because air-conditioning equipment must be able to maintain = certain humidity level (depending on the equipment's design) and the humidity level of the air Uepends on the amount of water vapor that it contains, you should be familiar with how water Water is uaually present in air, however, it will vary in q easier, Water vapor is prewen! iu air aw as si oi 12 In the forn: of supor-heatod steam, steam in the alr atarte to condense and may appear as a mist or condensation on cold surfa: Water vapor is not absorbed or di ‘and wat However, when air ts cooled to the dew point, jolved sy air; it 18 simply mixed with air as you might mix sand the temperatare ofthe water vapor and the a fe alwaye the aaine. (1) Saturated air, Saturated atr ts alr that contains all the water vapor it can possibly Lold, ‘This can be compared with a can filled with sand, Although the can 1s completely filled with sand, there will ctlll be alrspaves in it, If you were to pour water over the sand Until all the spaces were completely filled, as scon as no more water could be added, ‘you could say that the sand ip saturated with water, The same is true with air. Air wll hold different amounts of water vapor, When it ts holding all the water vapor pos= sible, it ig saturated, Ti amount of moisture in the alr at ats saturation point varies with the temperature of the air, ‘The higher the temperature of the air, the inore mol ture it can bold, (2) Dew point, The saturation point of air te usually referred to as the dew point. If the temperature of air fails below ite dew point, some of the water vapor in the air must condense to water, generally into drops. ‘The dew that appears on foliage early in the morning 18 condensation, Dew will normally form when the air {s moist and there 1s 1 drop in temperature, ‘The sweating of cold pipes is also the condensation of dew from the moist alr coming in contuct wlth the cold surface of the pipes, Similarly, water vapor condensing on surfaces with temperatures lower than 320 F will form as frost or tee, @ Condensation of saturated air, Condensatiou of water vapor from the air can take place at any temperature below the dew point, Innature, moisture ts condensed on foliage and other suriaces as dew if the dew point fs above $20 F, If the temperature is below freez~ Ing. the molsture condenses as five* Above the earth's surface, it condenses as mist; wahien the mist is very thick, tue m ‘ure is called fog, If such condersation on dust particles is high in the air, the fog -en called a cloud, Under certain conditions of Sudden cooling with a great amount . -ondensotion, the droplets g.ow so large that they Can no longer float in the alr and tley fell as rain, Sometimes a layer of air at a temper~ ature below 32°F existe in a high storm area, Through this cold layer, raindrops may be carried up and down several times by air currents until they freeze and fall as hall. Im cold weather, when the temperature is below 82°F, condensation on the dust particles {in the alr forms snowflakes, AIR TEMPERATURES AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS Air tomperaiure (1) Senstbte heat of air, Sensible heat {s measured by dry-bulb temperature, fe. the temperature of the air {elf without regard to the humidity that {t may contain, Sen= sable heat ts the heat of dry air, (2) Latent heat of atr, A complete absence of moisture in air rarely occurs, Probably tie onfy places on carth that this condition could be found would be in the desert regions, ‘Any water vapor that {8 present in the air contains the latent heat that made it a vapor. ‘Vhs latent heat of the moisture in the air is the latent heat of alr, (3) ‘Totat heat of alr, Air as tt exists around us 19 a mixture of sensible heat and latent neat, ‘The total heat of air would be the sum of the senstbte and latent heats, Air temperature measurements, Since afr conditioning deals with the various heats of air and the condensation of the moisture in it, three ¢ifferent temperatures must be considered, fhefore you can understand and control the operations of alr conuitioning. These ore dry-bulb, wetsbuib, and dew-point temperatures, (1) Dry-bulb temperature, ‘This i# a measure of sonsible heat in the air and is measured withan ordinary thermometer, The dry bulb does not take inte account the latent heat of the motsture in the alr, (2) Wot-bulb temperature, This ie an ordinary thermometer that has had its temperatur Jonaltive Up covered with a pleee of fabric, usually cotton or wool, which has been dip~ fed in clean, fresh water (preferably distilled), The fabric must be clean, completely free from oll, and it must also be thoroughly saturated with water, The wet-bulb thermometer Will measure the ability of the sir to absorb moisture. Therefore, the wet-bulb reading Will be lowor thon the dry-bulb, unleas the alr 1s already 100% saturated with moisture ‘The wet-bulb thermometer will indicate the total heat of the air that {s measured, The difference between the wet-bulb reading and the dry-bulb reading is known a9 the w bulb depression, What happens 4s that air moving over the satufated fabric will cause the motsture in the fabrie to evaporate; Since evaporation requires a transfer of heat, the heat will bo drawn from the thermometer's bulb, Therefore, the wet-bulb reading ‘will be lower by a certain number of degrees, The drier the alr that {c measured, the greater the wet-bulb depression, (3) Dewspotnt temperature, The dew point depends on the amount of water vapor in the alr. if air at a certain temperature {@ not saturated and the temperature of this air drops, ‘a point will be reached at which the air {s saturated, At this temperature, condensa~ ton begins, This is the dew-point temperature of the air for the quantity of water vapor ‘that 1s present. (4) Relationship between the temperatures, (a) When the air contains some moisture, but is not saturated, the dew-point temperature will be lower than the dry-bulb temperature and the wet-bulb temperature will be somewhere between the two, = (©) As the amount of motature in the air increases, the differences in the thre2 temper~ ‘atures will become le (c) Once tine air becomes saturated, all three temperatures will be the same, cs Dsychrometry. The word peychrometry means the measurement of cold, {t is the name that hai been glven to the science that deals with air and water vapor mixtures, ‘The amount of lrater vapor in the air has a great influence on human comfort, This atmospheric moisture ts Called humidity, The expression, “It isn't the heat, {t's the humidity, " {a an indication of the popular recognition of the discomfort produced by moisture-laden air in hot weather. 1) Retative humidity, Water vapor mixed with dey air in the atmosphere {8 known Rumldity, “The weight of the water vapor, which is expressed in pounds or grains Occurring in each pound of dry air, 4s called specific humidity, The amount of mois ture that\1 cuble foot of air holds at any given time is its absolute humidity. For ex- ample, if gallon bucket {8 1/2 full of water, it is 50% full, If. cuble foot of air that Gould hold 4 grains of moteture, actually contains only 2 grains, it is 50% full, The fio of the amount of moisture which the air does contain to what it could contain is Called the relative humidity, Generally it is the actual absolute humidity divided by the absolute humidity of the saturated air at a given temperature, The equation would be: factual grains of water vapor per pound of dry air’ Trasimer grains of water vapor par pound ofary x 100 air that could be contained at the given temperature, percent relative humidity = (in instrument used to measure relative humidity is called a hygrometer), (2) Payenrometers, Instruments for measuring both wet~ and dry-bulb temperatures at the Sane time are known as peychrometers, There are several different types of psychro= meters. ‘The one which you will use the most is a sling Psychrometer (fig 1-8) which is made up of a wet- and dry-bulb thermometer mounted side by side on a common base with handle that enables the wholegpparatus to ke whirled around in the air. The fabric cover~ {ng on the wet bulb fe saturated With distilled or clean, fresh wat fatus is whiried around in the air (four or five times) a8 fast as possible until the wet bulb Teaches ite equilibrium. ‘Then, a reading of both thermometers ta quickly taken. The differ- Shee between the two thermometers will depend on the relative humidity of the air. Another ato 14 and then the entire appa~ a type of paychrometer fs the aspiration type (fig 1-9), This {s a permanent setup, A ‘small fan is used to blow air past the two mounted thermometers until the wat-bulb equilibrium ia reached, The wet bulb la saturated with water by the fabric extending Into a wetting well into which water is placed, Fig 1-8, Sling psychrometer, Fig 1-8, Asptration-type paychrometer, Some air-conditioning syatems use recording-type paychrometers, These paychro~ meters are placed at various points in the duct system and provide a contintous record ‘of both the temperature and the relative humidity, thereby eliminating the necessity for frequent sling paychrometer readings, Whenever possible, distilled ater should be used to wet the fabric on the wet-bulb thermometer since mineral deposits in tap water ‘will bullé up on the fabric and destroy its capillary action, Ifa psychrometer is being used in an area where the air {6 heavily dust-laden and the mineral content of the water being used ts high, the fabric should be changed after every use, Paychrometric charts, These charte are used in conjunction with paychrometer read ings to find the properties of a given quantity of air, There is no practical way of iso lating water vapor from the air and actually counting the grains of motstusr: in It, How- ever, a wet-bulb depression is easily obtained and it is a direct index of the amount of moisture present in the air, The relationship between the wet-bulb depression and the ‘grains of water per r pund of dry air can be plotted on the psychrometric chart, With ‘no more than the we. and dry paychrometer readings, it 1s possible to determine rel tive humidity, dew point, moisture content in grains, and the total heat and volume per pound of dry air, Figure 1-10 shows a psychrometric chart which is constructed for standard atmospheric pressure at sea level, (29,92 Inches of mercury), Other charts are constructed for high altitudes and situations where abnormally low surface prés~ sures exist, 15 (a) Use, To use the psychrometric chart, assume that the readings taken with a sling payehrometer ware €5°F dry bulb and 70,8°F wet bulb, Locate the dry-bulb tem= perature (65°F) a. -he bottom of the char, Plot the 85° line straight up, then find the 70, 8°F wet-bulb temperature line located along the top curved line on the chart, Plot a line slanting downward from left to right, a fraction below and parallel to the 71° tine, until it intersects the 85° line already plotted, You will no ice that the point Of intersection te near the 50% relative humidity line (the heavy curved Hine). Now plot 2 line horizontally to the left until {t Intersects the wet-bulb scales this will give you 2 dew point of 64/5° F, The steep dlagonal Line running through the wet~ and dry-balb Intersection point telle you that 1 pound of air under these conditions will occupy ap~ proximately 14 cuble feet, Projecting a point herizontally to the right wil! show that there are 91 grains of waler per pound of dry air, Total heat, found by following the wet-bulb tine upward to the left, 4s 84,70 Btu per pound of air, This is the heat reps Terented by ary air plus the latent heat that 4s present at is degree of Partial satur~ ation (50% relative humidity), Now try a sample problem. Sample problems Assume that your eling paychrometer readings were 25°F Bey bulb and SEF wet bulb, Find the relative humidity, dew-point, cubic feet ‘er pound of dry air, grains of water per pound of dry alr, and total heat, Answers eNRelative humidity... + « 273% Dew point... « Dll = 80°F Cut per lb of dry air. Dil e142 Grains of water per tb of diy air ||) = 178 grains ‘Total heat = 50,3 Btu por Ib of dry air {b) Application, Most air-conditioning systems are designed to produce 74° to 60°F dry Ebb tempotature and maintain a relative hurnlalty between 45% and 60% in the air~ Conditioned spaces "By sing the paychrometric chart and the sling peychrometer, Jouare able fo determine whether the equipment {s operating efficiently and meeting Jenige condltionts “Air that is too ‘"wet™ prevents moisture from evaporating from the akin and causes more discomfort then atr that {s too warm, ‘Therefore, obtain ing the relative humidity of the alr-conditioned spaces should be the first step in tolmating the performances of air-conditioning equipment, Ifa system has been Properly designed and installed, high huraidities can be traced to improper operation Efretrigeration system components or to an increase in the volume of air (cuble feet Ser minke) that lB delivered to the air-conditioned spaces by the system's blower cera Common sense tells us that the alr luaving the evaporator cotls must be lower flan room temperature in order to produce a cooling effect, ‘This temperauure dif ference is usually betwees 15° and 200, However, the exact difference ts determined by the volume, In cuble fect per minute, of alr that is delivered to the space, ‘The Linger the volume of air, the less temperature diffewence is necessary between the oom and the alr leaving the evaporator coll, Conversely, the tess the volume of Zin the greater the temperature difference required, Size and placement of cool Sir outlet grilles determine the velocity of the delivered air as well as {ts volume per minute. Initially, this 1# 4 design problem in which the objectives are to supply Evftlolent coot air to take care of she heat load and to keep alr velocities down to a point wiiere objectionable drafts and noises are pravented. 16 sig ~ my Lag Jo Penog 280 8 Odea IN 0 BPM @a2s 828 fF 8S aeegReeae @ 2 3 : ‘ g | Be : | 3 ia ics 1-8, Mt URING AIK VELOCTTTES a, Atrflow Proper distribution of the epoled air is vital to the satisfactory operation of an air-conditioning unit, To ealeulate the volume of air in cuble feet per minute needed per ton of refrigerant capacity, the following factors must be known: (1) ‘The predetermined difference hetween inside alr (inside dry-bulb design temperature) and the tompe -ature of the air leaving the cooling colls, and (2) the sensible heat load of the conditioned space, After the volume of ‘alr dolivery has been determined, the system can be checked for proper operation by measuring the air velocity at coll faces, griltes, and in the interfor of ducts (there are various instruments luned to measure the alr velocity), Any reduction in the amount of air that {8 being delivered will Indicate that either the flow of alr 4s being blocked by the accumulation of frost, scale, oF ‘lust on the evaporator coils; or that Improper maiptenance of the blower and associated \lurt ork 1 causing a loss of efficiency. The most common instruments used to ineasure fait velocity are the manometer, pitot tube, anamometer, and the direct-reading velocity meter. b, Manonieters, There are two types of manometer used to measure air Velocity: the Ustype tg TV an the slant type (fig 1-12), GAGE TUBES TC gas overs | GAGE TUBES TOAIR ne mers Sag 1 INDICATION re | IW INCHES OF WATER. INDICATING FLUID INDICATION GRADUATED IW INCHES OF WATER Fig I-11, Ustype manometer, Fig 1-12, jant-type manometer, ‘The U-type manometer measures the pressure {n two places; {ta seale is calibrated in inches of woter, It is used to measure the pressure difference between an air passage and the atmosphere, or between two separate passages, To do elther one, use flexible tubing to connect «he openings fof the manometer to the spaces to be measured, The gage reading will he the pressure which ts ‘exerted on the free flowing Liquid and vill be in inches of water, ‘The slant-type manometer ts u ‘lly used to measure the pressure drop across a filter in a duct system, The slant-type manom= ter operates niueh the same as the U-type, but must be perfectly level wheneve: tis used, Tt Lbealso used with the pitot tube to determine alr velocity within a diet system, ce Mot tube (fg 1-15), ‘The pitot tube, used tp conjunction with 1 slant manometer, will stermine the total velocity pressure in a duct system in inches of water, The pitot tube 1s, ronstructed of two tubes, one enclosed ip the other, The end of the tube is’placed in the air psi se that the opening i the end of one tube will pick up the airflow and measure the total pressure, ‘The other opening consists of small holes siong the aide of the tube (arranged so the hir will flow pitst them) and measures the static pressure, When these to pressures are con- hhecined to the slant manometer, the difference between them will be the velocity in tnehes of Swater, “Iv isu correct velocity Feadings in a duct, xeveral readings should be taken in dif= ferent places in the duet and the readings averaged, 4, Direct flow velocity meters (Gig 1-14), "This type velonily meter is calibrated to read he tir celocty infect per minute, (may be placed directly in the ait stream or may b- con= ppvewd thisugh a flexible tubo te gpeetal jets whieh permit the taking of velncity readings. tats “ena rec | Fig 1-18, Pitot tube, Fig 1-14, Direct=reading velocity meter, fe. Anemometer (fig 1-15), The vnemometer is used to measure air velocities at duct open= ingss_ {is moved serosa the entire srea ofthe duct opening for a given period of time andthe average velocity in feet per minute is calculated, 7 Fig 1-15, Anemometer, 1-1, COOLING REQUIREMENTS Maintenance personnet need not be thoroughly versed In the intricate design computations ofan alr-conditioning system, However, they should be familiar with the many factors that fifect the design computations and the capacity of a particular unit, Before air-conditioning fquipment 1s installed in a particular space, an estimate of the hourly heat load in Btu's is made. This estimate includes heat that {a created by solar radiation, moisture infiltration, Tights, power equipment, sunlight coming through windows, latent and venstble heat given off by people, and the amount of activity within the air-conditioned space. This estimate will not apply throughout a 24-hour period during the cooling season, However, the equipment is 116 20 designed to operate efficiently under all of the combined effects of the heat-producing factors. ‘As a result of the estimate, it Is decided to install equipment that hes so many “tons of cooling capacity, One ton of refrigeration ‘x equal to the removal of 12,000 Btu's per hour. This would ‘be equivatent to the cooling effects of melting 1 ton of ice in 24 hours, Such design data can be ‘obtained from charts and original design specifications, and should be used to analyze the per= formance uf any individual air-conditioning system. 21 Chapter 2 REFRIGERATION COMPONENTS AS APPLIED TO AIR-CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT 2+1, GENERAL, PURPOSE AND APPLICATION OF UEFRIGERATION COMPONENTS a, Purpose, Refrigeration equipment cools, dehumidifies, and distributes alr to a given ‘area, Alf-conditioning equipment must also be able to romove impurities such as smoke, dust, and other particles from the air used to condition a given space, The requirement of removing’ heat und moisture remains the same; however, the methods of distributing the air and the ad- ditional requirement of filtration become quite complex, Methods of distributing the conditioned alr range from delivery into the space through louvers and grilles in the front of the unit vsuch fas wth a window unit) to delivery through intricate duet systems, Filtration of impurities from the ar ls accomplished by simple fiber filters to the more compiteated electrostatic filtering method, Although air conditioning ts usually associated with providing comfort, the military uses only # small percentage of afr-conditioning equipment for this purrose, Personnel effi- elency, safety, and protection of materials are the primary concerns of the military, Areas such 48 operating rooms, lines, recovery rooms, and similar medical facilities must have controlled temperatures and humidities at all times, Th same applies to storing of instrum electronic gear, armament, specialized machineéy, training devices, and certain explosives, Other operational facilities that require air conditicning we ‘ld be photographic laborstorie teleprone switchboard rooms, communiestion centers, control towers, and certain indoor train~ ing arevs, ‘Obvious reasons for the need to control temperature and humidity in areas housing these facilities and materials are to control corrosion and deterioration and to prvvent equip ment failure, In some of these areas {t {s necessary to control the humidity at a specific lovel, For Instance, operating rooms are kept at a relative hamidity of 55% to prevent static electricity, whereas spaces houain certain machinery an electronic equipment must be kept at or below 49% Felative humidity, The wide varcety of uses for alr-conditloning equipment on a miliary base take it necessary for maintenance personnel to be forever studying to keep up with the advances that are being made in the field of alt: conditioning, 1h, Application, Refrigeration comp: rents almilar to those used in refvige:ators, iceplants, freevers, ete, constitute the mst imro. tant portion of air-conditioning systems, Component parts suchas compressors, condensers, evaporators, metering devices, receivers, etc. art very similar and the theory that underlies the use of these components is essentially the same for each unit, The factors, however, that govern the design and arrangement of the equipment for the specific purpose of conditioning a given alr space are different, In this chapter we will discuss the use of shese components and their use within an air-conditioning system, 2-2, COMPRESSORS . General, “The purpose of a compressor within an alr-conditioning system is to remiove the heat-laden refrigerant gas {rom the evaporator, compress it to condensing pressure, and move it along to the condenser, Compressors are divided into three types: reciprocatirg, Totary, and centrifugal, These threw types can be manufactured in three different ways: open, Semissoaled, and hermetic (sealed), The ope. type compreteors are menufactured so that all parts ary: accessible for repair or replacentent and the drive motor {s usually connected to the Sompressor by drive belts, The semi-sealed compressors eliminate the drive belts and the Yecensity for a crankshaft seal, thus avoiding two major maintenance problems, The hermetic type ls a completety sealed unit and eliminates othar maintenance problems, The hermetic comp. eiior will be discussed in peragraph 2-20, b, Reciprocating compressors (fig 2-1), A reciprocating compressor is very similar to a 2-eyclo gasoline engine, Many of its components are similar not only in appearance but in their use, Pistons, connecting rods, bearings, crankshafts, and valves are employed in the construction of a reciprocating compressor, ‘The eycle of operation is also similar in that the intake is on the downstroke and the exhaust ia on the upstroke. The refrigerant gas is pulled into the compressor through the intake oF suction valve on the downstroke of the compres: When the piston reaches the termination polnt af its downstroke and begins its upstroke, the Intake valve closes, Aa the piston ascends, the refrigerant vapor ts compressed to condensing pressure, the exhaust or diacharge valve opens, and the compressed refrigerant vapor is al= Towed to escape to the condenser, Figure 2-1 shows the operating cycle of a reciprocating compressor, ae Fig 2-1, Operating cycle of a reciprocating compressor. c. Rotary compressor, ‘This type compressor is used in many amalt-tonnage units to cun~ vert lowspresuure, low-temperature refrigerant vapor to high-pressure, high-temperature vapor. ‘These compressors are simplicity Itself in that they have very few moving parts. ‘vhere re two types of rotary compreszors-~stationary-blade and rotating-blade. In the stationa: y~ blade type (fly 2-2), an eccentric 19 mounted on the shaft or th shaft tteelf ts cammed (enlarged fon one side) so that it rides constantly around the ou'ar wall dYthe ¢ ‘inder or chamber. A Spring-loaded blade ts mounted in the wall of the cylinder or chamb-r so that tt separates the {intake and outlet ports or valves, and maintains a constant pressure on the eccentric or shaft. [As the eccentric, oF the cammed aurface revolves within the cylinder, the low-pressure vapor tenters the cylinder, is carried avound the cylinder while being compressed, and ix finally forced out the nutlet port, The blade keeps the compressed vapor from escaping to the intake se of the compressor, “in the rotating-biade compressor (fig 2-3), the blades are mounted on the shaft (which {s mounted eecentrically Jn the cylinder) and rotate with it, The low-pressure gas ontera the eylinder through the inlet valve, and {8 trapped between the blades, and ts compressed ‘while it travels around the eylinder, ‘The gas escapes through the outlet valve as the blades pass by lt, It ts kept from escaping back to the inlet side by the extremely close clesrance vetwoen the blades and the eylinder walls, and the presence of lubricating ofl which causes a pressure-tight seal. CYLINDER Doactarge Line Fig 2-2, Schematic of rotary compressor, stationary-blade, 23. ag outlet valve fag intet valve ‘and passage «i, Contrifugal compresuor (fig 2=4), Centrifugal compressors are used in large alr~ conditioning systems, These aystems handle large volumes of refrigerant gas at low pressure, Centrifugal compressors operate on the principle of centrifugal force tq compress the gas and discharge it to the system, The refrigorant {8 fed into a hcusing where there is a rotating disk complete with impeller blades (tig 2-£), ‘The impeller rotates at a high speed forcing the gas ut against and around the housing to the discharge port, Because the efficiency of these com= pressors will vary with their speed, they are usually run at speeds much hieher than the speed Of thetr drive motors, Therefore, centrifugal compressors are usually equipped with a step~up gear train, Cutaway view of an enclosed Fig 2-5, Impeller from a centrifugal contrifuyal compressor, compressor, re 2-3 . 7 24 ©, Hermetic compressor (fig 2-8), ‘The most commonly used compressor in self-contained miliiury uir conditioners today is the hermetic compressor which has the motor rotor and the compressor crankshaft bullt az one complete unit, ‘Then the entire motor /eomproasor {9 sealed {into a gas~Light housing, The hermetic comprossor to relatively maintenance free as it elimi= nates compressor shaft seals, flywheels, motor pulleys, ond belts which cause many mainte nance problems, However, because it la a sealed unit, the valve plates become inacceseible and cooling of the unit becomes a major problem, Manufacturers have attempted to solve the cooling problem by several methods, Onc is to press the starter into a dome located on one fend of the seated housing, Thia provides easy hent transfer from the windings to the casing ‘and then to the surrounding atmosphere, Another method 1s to pass the returning gas around the windings before it {s compressed, This does, however, present a problem because the gas may hecome warm enough to cut down on the volumetric efficiency of:the comprossor, The hermetic compressor is by far the easiest to maintain, but if internal problems “o arise, the entire unit must be replaced since none of its parts are accessible for repair or replacemen Hermetic compressors vary in size from 1/18 hp up to 20 hp, The internal design will depend on the comprossor's size and the manufacturer, Some are spring mounted internally, while others are spring mounted externally, Small hermetics have a single cylinder, while 1/2 hp ‘and up will have two or more cylinders, Small hermeties use drive motors that are single phase, 2- or 4epole motors, but the larger hermetics gencrally use S-phase motors, Fig 2-6, Cutaway of a hermetically sealed rotary compressor, 2-3, CONNENSERS a, General, The function of a condenser in the refrigeration cycle of air-conditioning equip ‘mont 1 to convert the highepressure hot gas tnto a high-pressure liquid, ‘This is accomplished by the rondenser removing the latent heat of condensation from the refrigerant vapor. Conder sation continues until enough of the refrigerant becomes a Liquid at the pressure-temperature balance which exist~ in the high side of the system, Condensers can be generally classified as elther air-cooled or evaporetive, a4 25 b, Alr-cooled condensers; Air-cooled condensers consist of either bare tubing coils oF finned tubing colle over wileh alr is circulated, . small units, static airflow {s used over bare tubes, while in larger units, fans are usod to draw or blow air over the surface, ‘The air surface of a condenser is increseed through the use of equally and closely spaced fins, (Q) tn forced-convection-type units, fans are driven by the compressor motor or by a sep- arate motor in the cage of hermetic compressors, To increase the efficiency of a con denser that uses forced convection for cooling, a metal casing or shroud is vied, This causes a funneling of the air and directs all air movement over the condenser’s surface. These condensers are frequently built with 2 or 3 layers of tubes and are finned, @) Some large commerciat types of alr-conditioning units will have the condeuser mounted outdoors away from the rest of the system, ‘The refrigerant vapor is pumped from the compressors through the compressor discharge line to the condenser and the llauld is piped back to the bullding, ‘These condensers are usually quite large, dissipate a large ‘amount of heat, and ire forced-convection type. Figure 2-7 shows s’schematic of & simple atatie-type condenser while figure 2-8 shows a forced-convection type using & finned surface and a fan, flow tn ‘ondenser Tolet Tube Rote igerant flew out Warm afr rising out ‘of the condenser Fig 2-7, Simple statie-type air-cooled Fly 2-8, Forced-convection-type air~ condenser. ° cooled condenser, ec, Water-cooled condensers, Water-cooled condensers are usually employed in large commercialaiype alr-conditloning units similar to those used in meashalls, clubs, post exchanges, hospitals, and storage areas. Condensers used in these type units are of two types,” shell and tube type and tube-within-a-tube types (1). Snell-and-tube type fig 2-9). This type of condenser consists of a sealed tank or shell Containing a copper coll or tubes, The hot refrigerant gas is admitted into the shell of the condenser and allowed to circulate around the tubes through which pre-cooled water {is flowing, The latent heat of condensation is removed from the vapor and transferred to the circulating water, As the vapor coole and liquifles, it collects in the bottom of the shell, ‘This type of condenser construction is advantageous as it Ls compact and tliminates the need for a receiver and fans, The shell-and-tube-type condensers are designed in two types. One has a water coil inside the shell while the other has a x» a number of straight tubes inside the shell which are attached to water manifolds mounted fat either end of the ahell, With the later design, the water tubes are easily serviced by removing the manifolds and running a pipe cleaner through the tube type condenser (cutaway view), (tig 2-10), With this type of water-cooled condensers, ‘Cooled water cireulates in the inner tube and the refrigerant vapor in the outer tube, This type condenter can be constructed in cylin drieal, epiral, of ina rectangular style using soft copper tubes, They can also be constructed by using atralght copper pipes employing an end plate water manifold, ‘These condensers employ a counter-flow method of condensing the refrigerant vapor. ‘That 4s, the water enters the condenser where the refrigerant leaves and the refrig= rant onters where the water leave ook Liquid “cules Fig 2-10, Cutaway of a tube-within-a-tube condenser, 4. Evaporative condensers (fig 2-11), Those condensors operate on the cooling offect pro= ‘duced by the evaporation of a small amount of water, Standard evaporative condensers are mitch ike eooling towers in that they use a spray or drip chamber, a water-coliecting pan, a motor-driven pump, a motorcdriven fan, and are usually located outside, Adaitionally, it ts necessary in an evaporative condenser to have a refrigerant condensing coll, Refrigerant Vapor 1s circulated through the vondensing coll, water is sprayed over it and air is circulated ‘around the coil, The latent heat of condensation is transferred to the water, evaporating it, 26 ‘und the air carrien off the hoat, ‘The refrigerant in the coll then liquifies. Evaporative con~ densers can L> mounted inoors; however, alr ducts must be installed to provide the proper air elreulatisa, Tare atv diwoharae Wot refrigerant fae in cool Lequtd Fig 2-11, Schematic drawing of an evaporative condenser, 2-4, RECEIVERS a, Use, A receiver is used to temporarily store the high-pressure liquid refrigerant, ‘once tie Fefrigerant 1s condensed, it passes to the receiver where the liquid ts collected and kept untit it is needed by the metering device, bb, Construction, On units of 18 hp oF less she roceiver is usually a cylindrical stecl tank mounted on the base of the unit or underneath it, The receiver is normally equipped with an inlet valve (condenser service valve), outlet vaive (receiver or king valve), and a pressure Folief safety device, The safety device is sometimes’ a simple fusible safety plug of low-melting point metal (about 1600 F), or it can be a rellef valve that opens at a preset pressure. This presaure can be from 210 to 260 psl, depending on the unit's design and type of refrigerant Being used in the aystem, This type relief valve will close again when the pressure drops below tis prensure settings, Some receivers are equipped with a purging valve which is used to purge ‘irnd noncondensibies from the system, Many receivers are also equipped with two or more fom valves located at different levels in the recelver, These valves are also used to determine the hoight of the Liquid level in the receiver. For the same purpose, other receivers are eye" sight glasses, tubular glass gages, or magnetic or float-operated yrant-level gages, Figure 2-12 shows a liquid receiver. from the b, ‘Types, As far as air-conditioning 9; ‘wonsidared,-The direct-expansion-o-dry type and-the-shell~and-tube water chiller, 0 ) ©) Fig P18, Horizontal liquid rocelver, 2-8, EVAPORATORS . Eunction, The evaporator is the device within a refrigeration aystem in which the ze= frigerant {9 rel released and allowed to boil (or evaporate), thus removing fy absorption) best savironment, tems are concerned, only two gener: Direot-expanston-coll evaporators, In this type of evaporator, the air tok cooled ows ovens to tiber and fie giving ep het to the bollingsefrageratt fn the tb ‘This heat transfer causes the cooling of the alr that 1s delivered to the environment, Direct-expanston coils can be elther ary- or flooded-type valves, ) In the flooded-type valve (fig 2-15), the refrigerant {s metered into the evaporator coils by a float-type valve, This type of valve keeps the refrigerant in the evapor~ ator at a ‘constant level, Ta other words, as fast as the refrigerant boils away {evaporates), the float admits more liquid refrigerant to replace that which has been . This action of the valve keeps the evaporator almost full of refrigerant, The jwodedstype evaporator is very efficient because vaporization of the refrigerant can only take place wherever it fs in contact with the warm walls of the tubing, How= fever, flooded-type cotls are of litle use, and are rarely used in air conditioning because of the relatively large refrigerant charge that {8 necessary to keep the system satisfied, ‘The dryctype valve (Hig 2-14) uses an expan.ion valve to meter the refrigerant into the evaporator, In this type, the refrigerant enters the evaporator primarily as a Mgutd and by the time it has traveled through the evaporator, it has completely vaporized. ‘Therefore, the refrigerant in the greatest portion of the evaporator (s a mixture of !iquid and vapor, These types of evaporators are constructed with from two to twenty-two parallel circuits and are fed by one expansion valve, Some models use an additioual distributing device or devices, usually depending on capillary tubes, to evenly distribute the retrigerant to the separate circuits of the evaporator, The ZERO OHMS Fig 3-11, "Zero the Meter," fs 11.ce the test probes across or in parallel with the component to be measured. You do hot have to observe polarity (remember, the power is off), h, ‘Try to obtain the most accurate or “mid scale" reading, This is done by charging the resistance range settings, Remember to "zero" che meter each and every time vou change range switch settings, SWITCH COMPONENT =— Power source —— wartery) a Pi 3-12. Resistance Cheek, Continuity Checks, It means the sume as resistance checks, so the procedure is the same, Concinuity checks re normally associated with checks m de in connections or wires for breaks (Opens) and shorts (grounded), v1 6i (4) Ammeter, Your shop should be equipped with an rmmeter capable ef reading at least TOO amps. Tt whould be of the internal shunt type, Ammeters are connected in the cir= cull in werien and indicate the ainou,' nf amperage being uved or "pulled! by the circuit, ‘immeters will have a pos'.iv (8) lead and a negative (-) 1-ad and are hooked into the circuit wo thet the eleetron flow will be from negative to positive, When Inserting your ammeter into the elreult, make sure the power 18 aff. Once you are satisfied that your meter is hooked up correctly, turn on the power and obtain a reading, ‘To remnove the meter from the cireult, turn off the power, unhook the meter, reconnect the circuit, and turn the powas back on, I you are not sure of the direction of the electron flow in the elreuit, vnce you have the meter hooked up, turn on che power ‘momentarily and obuerve the pointer cr needle movement (most ammeter pointe. s move from left to righ, If the needle move: in the wrong direction, reverse the lads and you will be able to get a proper reading. A commonly used ammeter in the Marine Corps ts the hookean-type voltammoter (fig 3-18), ‘This rater simply hooke around the confuctor and the current can be measured safely without too much inconvenience. Voltage can usually be read with thig meer; however, the switeh would have to be set to volts ond the lead attached to voltage terminals across which voltage could be measured. Fig 8-13, Hook-on voltammeter. (5) Hourmeter. An hourmster can also be used ag a means of testing a unit. It can be used check the eyeziig or running ‘ime of a unit that is kept in continuous operation, By keeping a periodic check on a unit's hourmeter you can determine whether or not a.unit Te thorts or long=cyeling or if it is ranning continuously. An Hourmeter is also very help~ fal in the performance of preventive maintenance, Since maintenance is scheduled and hase! on unit running time, the hourmeter will Rive an accurate accounting of running, Une, thus al'owing for the performance of maintenance at the proper intervals, 3-4, USI OF THE BAK GAGE MANIFOLD a. Installing the bar gage manifold, The purpose of the bar gage manifold is to allow you to observe both Tow= and high-side operating pressures at the same time, Tt also permits charging, tcvacuating, adding oll, and purging of noncondensible gas with comparative ease, It is most Important that the bar gage manifold be installed carefully and correctly. fit isn’t, air may enter the system and teake may oceur. ‘The following is the proper procedure for installing the bor age manifold. (Refer to figures-14for picture of the bar gaye manifold, ) (1) Backseat the muction and the discharge service valve (2) Remove the cana from the gage ports. (3) Connoet the pressure gage Line from the bar gage manifold to the discharge service valve age port. Tighten the hose connections (4) Conneet the compound gage line fram the bar gage manifold to the suction service valve axe port, Leave the howe connection loose. (5) Make sure that the center charge port on the bar gage manifold is vapped tightly (6) Open the compount and pressure gage valves on the bar gaxle manifold 2 complete thins offtheir seats. (Turn the handles counterclockwise.) (7) Crack the discharge service valve off ite backseat, allowing the refrigerant 1» push air Gur through the laose hose connection om the guetion service valvo; then, Fighten the Home ‘Connection on the suction service valve, 62 (8) Close the compound and pressure gage valves on the bar gage manifold (9) Crack the suction service valve off its backs: (10) Observe the pressures, b. Removing bar gage manifold. It is also important to be equally careful when you remove your bar gage manifold. ‘The following is the proper procedure. (1) Beckseat the discharge service valve, (2) Open the compouna gage valve off its seat 2 complete turns. (3) Make sure that the unit is ranning (if possible), (4). Crack the pressure gage valve off its seat very slowly, allowing the discharge pressure in the gage lines to bleed into the low side of the compressor, (5) Backseat the suction service valve. (6) Remove the bar gage manifold and install the gage ports, caps, and valve cover: c. Evacuating, Before dismantling any air-conditioning unit, it is first necessary to remove the efFigerante “The only exception £0 this 1s when a pump-down operation (explained in para S-4di is applicable. It is considered a good practice to discard the refrigerant from small units (if fresh refrigeret {s available), On large units, the refrigerant van be reused if it is free of contamint tion, There are two ways or methods of evacuating a refrigeration system: using the unit's com~ pressor (if it is operative) and using a vacuum pump. If the unit's compressor is hermetic, should not be used for evacuation. (2) Bvacuating by using the unite compressor (fig 3-14), To evacuate by wsing the unit's (a) Stop the wait, () Backseat the discharge and suction service valve. (e) Install the bar gage manifold, (a) Place an evacuated (empty) refrigerant cylinder, of the right size to hold the system's refrigerant charge, ina container of ice water. (e) Connect a flexible charging line between the center port of the bar gage manifold and the service cylinder, Leave connection at the service cylinder loose. () Crack the discharge service valve. (g) Open the pressure gage valve on tne bar gage manifold. (h) After the air bleeds out of the lines (3-5 seconds), tighten connection at the service cylinder. (i) Open the service vylinder valve. () Start the unit, {k) Crack the suction service valve to obtain suction pressure readings. () Slowly frontseat the discharge service valve, observing the head pressure. If the head pressure reaches 150 psig, stop the unit until head pressure drops to 100 psig. Con- tinue the operation when the head pressure has dropped. 3-13 63 (m) Complete the evacuation, When the compound gage reads 0 psig, evacuation is com- plete, (n) Close the service cylinder valve, (©) Close the pressure gage valve and stop the unit, Warning: If any part is to be re- moved or opened for repair, make sure that the unit is not in a vacuum (below 0 psig). Figure3-14 illustrates evacuation by using the compressor. suerien Lie LUaponnTor saat” | WO ECEWER Fig 3-14, Evacuation by using the unit's comp essor, 64 3-14 (2) Bvacuating by using a vacuum pump, You should; (a) Stop the unit. (b) Backseat the discharge service valve and the suction service valve (e) Install the bar gage manifold. (2) Connect a flexible charging line between the center port of the bar gage manifold and the suction port of a vacuum pump. innect a flexible charging line from the discharge port of the vacuum pump to a servic cylinder, leaving service eylinder connection louse. ck the compressor discharge service valve. (@) Open the pressure gage valve and turn the pump over, purging the lines between the bar gage manifold and the service cylinder (i) "Tighten the wervice eylinder connections, (i) Close the pressure gage valve and open the compound Rage valve. 0) Open the aevvige cylinder valve, (k) Crack the auction aervice valve ofthe comprewior to obtain a suction pressire reading. (D) Start the pump, Evacuation is: completed when the compound gage reads 0 psig. (im) Close the service cyliner valve, then atop the pump. (0) Clone the compound gage salve. (0) Backseat the suction service valve, Warning: If the system is to be opened for re= pair, make sure that the unit is not in vacuum, 4. Pump-down (fg 8-15), ‘The purpose of pumping down a unit {8 to trap the refrigorant in the receiver in order to repair or replace components without evacuating the system, The sequence for pumpedown is: Thstall the bar gage manifold, close the king valve, get the low-pressure con- trol at 2 psig, and then operate the unit until it stops. ‘Turn off the power and check the compound! gage, Ifthe pressure builds vp above 2 psig, start the unft again and run ft until the gage remains at 2 psig. Once the compound gage remains at 2 psig, frontseat the discharge service valve, Now you can repair ar replace any linee or parts from the king valve up through the evaporator, meter= lng device, drier, and back to the discharge service valve; this Includes the compressor itself, Note: To make sure that the discharge reeds in the valve plate are not leaking back to the low ile, you should frontseat the suction service valve and run the unit until 0 psig is reached, ‘Then Stop the unit, If the compound gage remains at 0 psig, the discharge valves are not lean, ‘Once pump-down has been completer! and the parts have been repaired or replaced, you can restore the unit 10 operation, To do this, you would tighten all connections and then loosen the flare nut on the suction service valve with the valve frontevated, Next, open the king valve and allow the refrigerant to push whatever air has entered the system out through the Loose flare nut at the suction serview valve, ‘Tighten the flare nat on {he suction service valve and then open all other valves to resume normal operation, 6 Chars Refrigerant is added tothe unit by supplying it through the suction service valve (lowside charging) or through the discharge service valve (high-side charging). _In low-side charging, the. refrigerant is always alec! in gaseous form, Low-side charging offers good con= tro af the charging proces and should be ised whenever possible, Although it takes Iuger, iti rich Safer and you are in complete contral of the entire process. In high=side charging, the refrigeeant as always added in Liquid form. Wigh-side charging is very rapid, The amount of refrigerant 0 be added must be weighed or mearured, While the charging process is goime fon the service cylinder must be inverted (tumed upside down), 1-15, 65 Priced Nu Fig 5-15, Pump-down (1) Low-side charging (fig 3-16), For low-side charging, proceed as follow (a) Backseat service valves. (©) Install the bar gage manifold, leaving th connections loose at the service valves. (©) Open both of the valves on the bar gage manifold (i) Auach a flexible tine from the sesvice cylinder to the center port onthe bar gaae Note: Service cylinder will be in an upright position, (©) Momentarity open the service cylinder valve to purge the service lines, (0) Tighten all the connwetions at the service valves. (2) Close the compound and pressure gage valves. (i) Crack the suction service valve, () Crack the discharge service valve and get the head pressure reading, () Crack the compound gage vale. (k) Start the unit. (1) Koop suction pressure at approximately 30 psig by adjusting the compound gage valve, (in) Charge the required amount of refrigerant into the system, ower If the exact charge is unknown, charge a small yuautity at a time and continually check the operating pressures, sight glass, and frostline. ‘To speed up the charging process you ran place the service cylinder in a container of warm water, (n) When enough refrigerant has been added to the aystem, close the service tylinder valve. fo) Rackseat the discharge servicer valve, ()) Allow the compressor to draw the remaining refrigerant out of the Lines. 66, . (q) Close the compound pressure valve. (©) Backseat the auction service valve. (a) Check the unit for pr per operation. SUCTION LINE EVAPORATO! ig 3-16, (2) High-side charging, In high-side charging, you must remember several things: first that the refrigerant is always added in liquid form and that the exact charge must be in the eervice cylinder--no more and no less, Remember that the unit is not ranning, that that the service eylinder must be inverted, and that this is a rapid ricthod ef charging unit, You should also be aware that high-side charging is dangerous and unless it is. done correctly, lines may be ruptured and the compressor ean be damaged beyond re- pair, In order to charge liquid refrigerant into the high sid. of a system, the pressure in the service cylinder must be higher than that in the system. If the system you are charging Is water-cooled, the pressure In the liquid receiver, with the water running, will be low enough to force the refrigerant from the cylinder into the system, If the Unit to be charged is an air-cooled ayatem, the pressure in the refrigerant drum will have be increased, The high-side charging procedure is as follows: (a) Backsest both of the service valves. (b) Install the bar gage manifold and leave the connections loose at the service valves, (c) Open both of the valves on the bar gage manifold (a) Attach a flexible charging hose fromthe center port of the bar gage manifold to the service cylinder (©) Open the service cylinder valve and purge the lines to the service valves. 0) (9) ‘Tighten the connections at the service val (a) Cloxe both valves on the bar gage, manifold, : th) Invert the service cylinder with the exact charge and aupport, it securely. (1) Open the presture-gage valve. (0) Crack both service valves, (k) Liquid refrigerant will be forced into the condenser and receiver. (1) Apply heat to the service cylinder by using rags Is empty, remove the rags. faked in hot water;,when the cylinder (m) When the cylinder is empty, close the cylinder valve. : When charging through the high side with liquid refrigerant, the refrigerant will make a gurgling sound, When this stops you will know that the cylinder is empty. (0) Close the pressure gage valve, (0) Remove the service eylinder, {p) Start the unit and check its operation, Deucrmining the charge, ‘There are three methods of deterraining whether you have the Correct refrigerant charge in a system: sight glass, pressure determination, and weiuhing the charge. (a) Sight glags, tn a aystem that is fully charged, the sight glass will show a clear flaw oT refrigerant; in fact, ‘+ will appear empty. If the glass appears cloudy or bubbly, it usually means that the system is undercharged and that more refrigerant is necessary. (>) Pressu Afr charging a unit with an estimated charge, it may be necessary to determine if the charge is correct by using the pressure determination imechod. Thi can be done in two ways, either by using the head or discharge pres: sure, or by using the suction pressure. After the charge has been added to the sys- tom, the unit must be run until the pressure stabilizes. Once the pressure stabilizes, the ambient temperature must be determined. ‘The ambient temperature will vary clopending on the type of condensing unit that the system uses, The actual ter:perature of the condenser is taken and then a certain number of degrees Fahrenheit is added (see fig 3-17 for the correct number of degrees), ‘Then by checking the pressure/temper- ature cnart you can determine whether the pressure is correct, Example 1. To lotermine the head pressure of @ alural convection unit, first take the temperature of the condenser. If the temperature is 75° F, you add 35°F to ft (fig 3-17). ‘Thus; 75° + 35°F = Natural convection Ambient temp| 110" F, Now check tne pressure/temperature +35° F chart, If the refrigerant {8 F=12, you find that the pressure gage should rea 136.4 psig. If it | Forced convection Ambient temp reads Ines, more refrigerant is needed, If it +30" F reads more, some refrigerant will have te be eyacnated, Water-cooled Ambient temp] 420° F Fig 3-17, Temperature chart for determining ambient 68 temperature, 3-18 Example 2. ‘The normal suction pressure of a unit would be equal to the evaporator temmperatire mihug 10° F regardless of the iype of condensing unt. Assume you find that the evaporator temperature Is 30°F, Yot. subtract 10° to give you an ambient temperature of 20° F. The pressure/temperature chart shows that the gage should read 21,04 psig. (c) Weighing the charge, This is a simple method; however, the charge must be known Tradvance--Fivatan evacuated cylinder ls weighed and then the necessary refrigerant Is put into the cylinder. . Example: If an evacuated cylinder weighs 15 Ib and the TM'specifies tI at the unit heeds 5 Tb of F-12,. the filled cylinder should weigh 20 tb, ‘The cylinder iy placed (ona scale "nd the system is charged (filled) until the scale again reads 15 Ib, 1, Removing and adding refrigeration oils, (2) Removing refrigeration oils. In case there is an overcharge of oll in a system, the excess must be removed. Tf the oil has become contaminated, it must be changed. To remove oil from a system, follow this procedure: (a) “Attach a compound gage to the low side of the system. ib) Start the compressor and gradually frontseat the suction service valve until the pressure in the crankcase drops to 1 psig. (c) Stop the compressor and frontseat both the sevice valves (a) Drain the oil through any valve or plug below the service valves. (e) Replace the plug and tighten or close the valve, () Place the system back in operation, Note: Always purge air from a system, whenever it has been opencd. the low= (2) Adding refrigeration ol. ‘There are two maphods of adding al o a compressor: ‘side vacuum method and the oll plug method, (a) Oil plug method. To use this method, proceed as follows: Attach a compound gage to the low side. te suction service valve until a prea= Start the compressor ant slowly fronts sure of approximately 2 psig is reached. Slop the compressor and frontseat both of the service valves. Slowly remove the ofl gage or the oil filler plug, Slowly add the required amount of oll through a clean, dry funnel. Do not add more than 1/4 pint at a time Replace ni tighten oil plug or gage. Return the service valves to their normal positions. ()\Vncuum method (fig 3-18), ‘To add oll to the compressor using the vacuum method, proceed as follows: Install the bar gage manifold, ‘Run the unit unil the compound gage egister's @ 15-inch vacuum, 4, Stop the unit. Install a flexible charging line from the center port of the bar gags the oil container manifold to Note: Awa /3 place the end of the charging line well below the surface of the vil in the oil ‘This will insure that only moisture-free oil is drawn into the compre: Crack the compound gage valve; atmosphere pressure will force the oll into the compressor crankcase. ‘Aud only about 1/4 pint of oll at a time, <1, Adding ofl to’the compressor, vacuum method. 3-20 METHODS OF MAKING A JOINT a, General, As an atrsecaditioning mechanic, you Will have to be able to solder and braze joints, These Joinis must be gastight to prevent leakage of refrigerant or loss of pressure, ‘To make these Jnints, you will be using the aolder and brazing kit and associated materials found in the expend= ble supplies kit (solder, solder and brazing flux, and acetylene), ‘There are two typex of solder joints: soft golder Joints and hard solder or brazed joints, ‘The difference in the joints is determined by th degree of temperature and the stress that the individual joint must with~ stand, Joints that are under little or no stress and are required to withstand temperatures not excceding 250° F can be sofl-soldered, Other joints will be hard-soldered or brazed. When making Joints of any typ, you must remember that they have to be strong anc leakproof, This is especiaily important when sorking with solder because you can't take a wrench and tighten a solder Joint, There are six things to remember when making a solder connection: @ ‘The joint must fit properly and have the right clearance. ‘The surfaces that are to be connected must be thoroughly cleaned. Flux must be applied evenly over the connecting surface The joints must be properly assembled and supported. ‘The joint and connection mist be uniformly heated and the bonding material properly applied. 7 @ Once the connection is completed, it must be cleaned, leering, In most cases you will be dealing with joints that must withstand temperatures of Wess Than 250" F and that will be under Little or no stress: therefore, you will be making soft subler joints, Also, you will be dealing with tubing of less than Linch in diameter. First, the Tubing Must be squarely cut. To do this, you should use a tubing cutter, However, If a cutter is not available, "you can-use a hacksaw if a miter box is available to insure a square cut. Next, Hhorawthly clean the ends of tubing, both inside and out, You can use 00 sand paper, 00 steel Wool, vrapus cloth, or emery paper for cleaning the tubing ends. Make sure that you wipe the clvane:t surfaces off with lint-free cloth, Now apply a noncorrosive flux or soldering paste, insuring that the serfaces are thoroughly covered, The flux or paste prevents oxidation which world rause the joint to be weak or to leak, ‘Then, assemble the joint, Now select one of the small lips from sour brazing and soldering kit aad prepare to hvat the joint, feat nvust be applied Sealy over the entire join’ area, When th join! is hot enough, touch the solder to the metal suirfaee and allow it to run into the Join’, Do not molt the solder with the lame from the torch. Allow the joint to became hot enough to mélt the solder ant run Into the join:, "Once the joint is compleiely soldered (ths joint is completed when a thin lin2 of solder appears at the top wf the goon), allow it 10 coolant harden, Do n9t cost a soldered vosneetion by any means other than hate: al cooling, Then, elean the Saint te remove excess solder aad flux, ft is not necessary to lust a lot of solder: only use what 8 necessary to seal the joint and make it gastight. 1. Hard soldering and brazing. ‘The terms hard soldering ant brazing are often ised .wer= changeahny however, there isa difference, Brazing requires heating of the metal surfaces to a temperature alive their melting point anc allowing the metal to fuse together with the use of a brazing rod, Brazing lux is used to prevent oxidation and weakening of the joint. Note; Critical point and composition of the metal must be known, and an experienced Supervisor should be on hand whenever brazing is attempted, Hard soldering requires the use of silver alloy solder which has a high melting point. Hard sollering techniques are much the same as those used for soft solder ng, however, hard solder= Ing requires more heat, To get more heat to the joint arcas, you wotld use a medium tip or maybe even the large tip, depenling on the sige of the joint and the amount of heat required, When making a hard solder yoint, vow still must cut it squarely, properly clean it, areperly put it together, and Wwpls flay The ynint ds then evenly heated to the meval’s melting po.nt and the silver solder splicd sta sou Soule when using soft solder, Once the joint is completed, st must also be cleaned, Figure $18 shows the proper sequence for soldering and brazing. 71 5 “Ciean bots the Filing and the ting, Apply @noncorroniwe Aux. ‘ Portion te Tita squarely om Uniormiy Feat balk te Hating he tine tnd the 1 ta. “s “Alow tis solder or brazing ‘Cian the completed joint and en ‘material foram info the Joint unt move on to he nent connection. int andthe bg Fig S19, Soquence for making « soldered or brazed joint. 6. TROUBLESHOOTING ‘Troubleshooting is being able to discover what {8 wrong with a unit or system and to determine what to da to fix it, Tables 4-1 and 4-2 are troubleshooting charts which are generally applicable to all types of air conditioners, These charts will list a complaint followed by one or more causes: land the possible remedy, Although these charts apply to most air conditioners, manufacturers in= Elude more detailed and specific information in publications (TMs, operating manuals, ete.) per= Vable 3-1.: Troubleshooting Chart for Air Conditioners with Openstype Comp Complaint Cage Possible remedy a, Hlectele motor will not 1, Power failure, | Cheek elreult for power source, stark Lowate cause and repair, stuck. . . Belt is too tight, 3, Adjust the belt tension, Manual roset in 4, Hind cause of the overload and starter is open, repaie it, Heset overload cutout. 5. Thermostat is, Lowe w setting. » set 100 high. 6. Low voltage. 6. Cheek out with voltmeter then all base maintenance or an electrivian, Burned-out motor, 7, Repair or replace motor, 8, Frozen compres> 8 Remove and repair the com= sor caused by a pressor. locked! or damag- ed mechanism, Unit eyeles on and off, bste=mittent 1, ‘Tighten conneetions or replace power inter defective power supply parts. ruption. High-pressure 2, Replace hiph-prosaure cutout. eutout is de fective 3. High-pressur 3, Raise the cutout pressure. cutout is set Check the voltage and current tov low. Over= being drawn, Inad opons once it haw been reset. 4, Leaky Hquid Tine Repair or replace solenoid valve, 5. Dirty or iced 5. Clean or defrost the evaporate evaporator Cheek the filters and fan drive, 5. Overcharge of 6, Remove any excess refrigerant refrigerant or for purge: system of nonconden= noncondensilsle sible gas. Ras. 7. Leak of eet 7. Leeate and repair leak then wrant, recharge the system, 8. Restricted Clean or replace the strainer, aque Tine Vale $1, Proubl yootingg Chart for Air Ci ndilioners with Openstype Compressor Compliint b, Unit cyeles on and off. Cause ty motor, Possible remo 8, Repair or replace the motor, es Coll frosts. Phe unit runs but will not coat, Dirty fitters, 2, Npt enough air cireulating over the coil, Defevtive x= pansion valves Phe unit bi not fully charged, 2, Leaky suction or discharge valve, Expansion valve is improperly set. A. Strainer is clog= ged, 5. Al in the refrig- erant, 8, Moisture in the expansion valve orifice, 7, Flash gas in Nquid Tine, Clean or place filters. 2, Clean out or remove any restrictions from the supply or return air duc or grilles, 3, Replace the val 1, Recharge slightly, then lovate aud repair any leaks, Then recharge the unit, 2, Remove the compressor eylinder head and elean or replace the valve plate, Adjust the ‘xpansion valve, 4, Remove, clean, and replace the strainer, 5. Purge air from the unit, 6, Clean the valve orifi install silica-gel dryer. Addl refrigerant, fs Near blowing From he supply grille, Fo Discharge pressure is tn high. 1. ee or dirt on the evaporator, ‘The blower belt is broken ap loose, Blower bearing is Frozen, Condenser is not ‘operating properly. 2. Alp in the systems 1, Clean the coil or defrost, 2, Adjust tension or replace the belt. 4, Free of ruphice bearing, 1, Correct the inflow, 2. Purges Fable 4-1, ‘Troubleshooting Chart for Air Conditioners with Open type Compressor=-eontd ‘Complain 1 Discharge pressu is toe high, -econt'd Disehisge pressure 1s too low, © Overcharge of s refrigerant. Lack of refrigerant, 1, Pasaible remedy Remove excess or pure the system, Locate and repair leak, Charice, 2. Rroken or Weeky 2, Remove the heatly Tocate und compressor dis= place any valves that are oper charge valves, ating improperly. Siistion pressure 18 Tr Gverfending of the 1. Regulate thw expansion valves tu highs expansion valve, Superheat aetting. Check to fee that the remote bulb is properly attached to the suction Line, 2, Expansion valve is 2, Repair or replace the valve, stuck open, 3. Broken suctivy 3, Remove the head, ovate and valve va the com= "replace any valves that are pressor. operating improperly. i, System pressure is 1. Lack of refrigerant, 1, Locate and repair leak, Charge, too low, 2,.Cloggged Liquid line 2, Clean or replace, strainer. Expansion valve ay power clement has Tnst ites charge. Obstructed expan= 4 ssion valve, Control thermostat 5. contacts are stick in closed position, Replace the valve's power element. Clean valve, Replace if neces= sary. Repair thermostat, Replice if necessary, 425, 7 a Cable 4-2, Troubleshooting Chart for Air Conditioners with Hermetic Compressor Cai Caine Pasnibie remedy a. Conpressur © 1. Air over the 1, Remove the restriction ar continuously: condenser is increase the air circulation, end restricted. effect, hb Compressor rans 1, The -mostatic 1, Replace the thermostatic continuously: unit switch eontaces switch, fs too cold, are badly burned, 2, Thermostatic. 2, Secure the bulb in plac switch bulb has become loose. Thermostatic switch is im= properly ad- Roadjusst ev: swetly. Juste, ©. Compressor runs 1, Extremely dirty 4, Clean the condenser, coat insuontty; tte condensers refriqenalion ofFoet. 2, Noaircireulas 2, Provide proper air circulation, ting over the condense 3. Ambient temper= Provide ventilatisn oF move unit ature is too high, to a cooler location. 4, Load is too great, 4. Analyze the load and make appro= priate changes, 4, Compressor runs L.A restriction pre= 1, Locate the possible points of eon imuusty; a6) venting the refrige "restriction, and try jarring pefrige nation effect, erant from enters witha plastic hammer, or ing the evaporator, heating to a temperature of (A restriction is about 110° F, If the restriction usually indicated by due mot open, replace the unit. a slight refrigerant effect at the point of restriction.) 2, Compressor not 2. Replace the unity pumping. This would be invtivated by a eool discharae Hine and 2 hot com pressor housing, “The wattage is i erally low. 1, Short of refrigerant. 4, Check manufacturer's instruct ions dani! alel pot rigenant, subleshooting Chart for Air Conditioners with Hermetic Compressor --contd Coranlaint Cause ‘Possible remedy e. Compressor short sycles; poor refrig- erating effect 1 3 4 Loose electrical connections. Defective ther= mostatic switch. Defective motor starter, ‘Air restricted at the evaporator, Locate and tighten loose con- , nections. 2, Replace the thermostatic switch, 3, Replace the motor starter or relay. 4, Remove the restriction, 1, Compressor short cycles; no refrig= erating effect. 1 2 3 5. Dirty condenser, Aypbient tem= péravure is too high. Defective wiring, |. Thermostatic switch is operating erratically, Relay erratic. 1, Clean the condenser, Provide ventilation or move the unit to a cooler location. 3, Repair or replace the wiring. 4, Replace thermostatic switch, 5, Replace the relay. g. Compressor runs too frequently, |. Load too great + Poor sir elreu= lation around the condenser, Ambient tem= perature too high. Worn compressor. Generally acco: panied by rattles, land knocks. Increase the air circulation, 2, If possible, increase ventilation or move unit to a cooler location, 3, Analyze load, Replace unit. b, Compressor does Motor is not oper= ating. 1, If trouble is outside sealed unit, it should be corrected; f.e.,wires, switches, and relays repaired or replaced. If the trouble is inside the seal~ ed unit, replace the unit. 3-27 77 Table roubleshooting Chart for Air Conditiony With Hermetic Compressor--contd Complaint Possible remedy i. Compressor will not run (assume here that the thermostatic swite and relay, .clectric wiring, and current ‘supply are in good condition and oper= ating properly), = I the cabinet has been moved, some ofl may be on top of the piston, . Compressor may be sty “ky or some internal parts. broken. |. Connections broken internally, for motor windings may be open. Piston stuck in eylinder due to long period of standing tule, 1, Wait about an hour and the attempt to tart the motor by turn= ing the current on and off several times, With some compressors, ft may be necessary to wait 6 to 8 hours. 2, Replace th 3, Replace unit, 4. May be possible to start the compressor by turning on cur= rent and tapping the outer housing with a rubber mallet J. Compressor is unusually hot. ' 5 Dirty condenser, . Lack of alr cireu= lation. Unusually heavy nerview or load, Low voltage. A shortage of oil. 1, Clean the condenser. 2, Increase air circulation, If possible decreave the load. Perhaps another unit {8 re= qui 4. Check unit's wiring. Wires may bbe too small, Hot wires indicate they are too small for the Toad land should be replaced with larger ones, If wires are okay, call an electrician and have power source checked. 5, Adi! oi1 if porsible; if not possible, replace the unit. k, No refrigerating effect when start in afters Lome shut own oF upon livers Generally, during a long shutdown, fan amount of Liquid refmigerant will et into the erank= cease af the com= pressor, When this occurs, the compressor oper dation will cause ne refrigerating effect tuntil after all the: Niquid refrigerant has evaporated from the erankease, 1, Allow compressor to operate until its internal heat drives al the liquid from the erankease, Under kome conditions this may take as long as 24 hours, Ty 73 ‘Yable 4-2, Troubleshooting Chart for Air Conditioners with Hermetic Compresvor--vontd Cornplaiit Cauae Possible remedy 1, Noisy compressor, 1, Mountings have be= 1. Replace the rubber mountings, come worn or de= teriorated, 2, Unit is placed near Place sound-absorbing material a wall of an extreme on wall, or move the unit to a ly hard surface which different location, greatly amplifies any slightest noise, 3, Shortage of ofl and/ 3, If possible, add oil and refrig= or refrigerant, erant, If not possible. replace the unit, 4, ‘The sealed unit 4, Replace the unit, mechanism has m, After each defrost 1, Slight shortage of 1, Replace refrigerant If possible; ng there is a long refrigerant, if not, replace the unit, on eyele before the refrigerating effect 2, Dirty condenser, 2, Clean the condenser, ss auain normal, 3, Thermostatic switch 3, Secure the bulb in place, bulb is loose. 4, Restriction between 4, Attempt to remove the restriction the receiver or con donser and/or the evaporator, by jarring with a plastic hammer, or by heating to about 110° F. If this does not correct the problem, unit will have to be replaced oF brought to the shop for repairs, $29 79 4-7, REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT OF MAJOR COMPONENT! « +s lung and Satisfactory operation of air-contitivaing units and systems, there drm additional texte and miuintenance procedures necessary to determine whether to repair or replace a major component of a unit or system, ‘These components are compressors, con~ densers, motors, metering devices, evaporetors, an controls, We will diseuss general pro= cedures that are necessary to determin proper operation of these components. vera, Tam b, Motor services, Motors are usually quite rugged and reliable, ‘Therefore, moter main= tenance Brusvally Simple, Major motor repairs, such as rewinding, are not attempted at your evel uf maintenance, As far ay you are concerned, motor care will consixt mainly of Lubrication, cleaning, and seving that the motor is not abused, "You may experience problems with bearings, dint and grease, and, in the ease of ope 1 motor /compressors, belts. (1) Hearings. "Phe most common causes of bearing trouble are Improper alinement during instatlation and inadequate lubrication, Ifa bearing gives you trouble, It must br re= placed, Bearings should not be removed umievessarily because they are easily damaged, Normally, to remove a ball bearing, the end bells of the motor are removed! and the rotor, shaft, and bearing assembly are removed from the motor, If the bearing housing han a removable outer cap, it is sometimes possible to remove the bearings without removing the end bells, When removing a ball bearing from the shaft, you should exert pressure only on the inner race (fig 3-20), If this {s not possible, pressure on the outer race must br evenly distributed over the entire race, Pressure should be applied! steadily and parallel to the shaft, Hefore removing a sleeve bearing, an air gap measurement is normally made to determine the amount of woar and to see if the hearing ix out-of-round, Small sleeve bearings may be carefully tapped out, but bearing pullers are usually required to remove the larger size sleeve-type bearings, Hearings are replaced by applying steady, even pressure or by tapping lightly. Rall bearings must not be forced onto a shaft thet is too large or badly worn, Grease retainers and ofl singers must he in place, Dirt and forsign matter must be kept out of bearing recesses as they will sear the surfaces and cause the races of ball bearings te become distorted, If 4 race Is distorted, the bulls will get out-of=round and cause an exevasive friction load on the motor, After installation, bearings should be rotated by hand to see that they roll freely and without noise, Protective covers must be tn place and be tight to prevent dirt and motsture from entering the bearing housing. Fig 4-20. Single-row radial ball bearings, (2) Cleaning, Excerpt for totally enclosed motors such as those in hermetic units, dirt, Cosh, aint grease will accumulate inside a motor during long periods of use. When ever a motor is dismantled, vou should clean i thoroughly, Only fluids of eond Fieloetrie quality should be used, ‘There are several fails appraved lor motor cleans C0 Letts, Belts: wil be: found on units that employ an openstype motor/eompresson, ht brie tw ablain long atu satisfactory ase from V-belts, the motor pulley and fywheet biist be inexact alinement and the belts under proper tension, Hoth the motor ard the Inpeesner must be securely mnountest an the base, Au improperly: adjusted bell wall hanse shppage, excessive Wear, ata! deferioration=-aften to the point of burning, A borrecth adjusted belt caw he depressed 1/240 5/4 meh by the pressure of one Heiter pint midway between the mate pulley ane! the flywheed, You ean adjust the bolts 30 Sy the adjustable motor rails or by adjusting the beltetightening devise, When multiple V-belt drive ix neceshary, @ complete new se bf matehed belts should be installed, Rely stretch considerably during the first few hours of pperation, Ifyou were to replace a single belt, the load balance would become npset between the old and new belts causing the load to be unbalanced, Belts, motor pulleys, and flywhcels should be kept free of ofl and grease and kept dry at all times by mevn replaveanent of ne belt of sor testing and servicing. Common troubles with compressors are: Teak at the “ange valves, Taka at ihe gaskets, and leaks past the piston and piston rings we of refrigerating ability, 6. Comper suction oF disc Those leaks may cause such malfunctions ast (1) A sudden deere: (2) a gradual decrease of refrigerating ability, or (8) an inability to produce or maintain the. necessary low=side pressures or vacuums which would cause the compressor to either run continuously or too long during eaeh eyeley + (1) Compressor testy, Before you tear inte > compressor you mutt be sure that the trouble \S'in the compressor and not in another part of the system. Below are the procedures: for texting for compressor leaks at valves, pistons, or gaskets, Step 1. Conngct a compound gage to the suction s the dincharge service valve. ce valve and a pressure sage to top 2. (preliminary pansp-down), Start the Compressor and partly close the suction survice valve, ‘This must be done carefully so that the vacuum ty reduced to 20 to 25 inches of mercury in not less than 10 minuteg, (You will have fo constantly adjust the suction Kervice valve aid Keep your eye on the compound gage and the clock.) By slowly reducing the low-side pressure, you prevent rapid Separation of the refrigerant from, the crankease oil and excess i from getting on the compressor valves which may make them temporarily free of leaks, If you caunot obtain a yacuurn of more than 10 or 15 inches of mercury, or if it takes a long time (18 min or longer) to get the vacuum down to 20 or mare inches of mercury, indications are that the suction service valve or com= pressor valves are leaky, , compressor, open the suction service valve all the way, and wait for sure buildup, you can open Step 3. Stop th O psig low-side pressure to bull up, To speed up the prt the cabiney doors or warm the evaporators with warm rags or water. fn, Close the suction service valve and wait for a max~ Stop 4. Start the compressor a stop the compressor, Tmum vacuum to build up. A@soon as maximum vacuum is obtained Maximum vacuum should be reached in 30 seconds or less. ‘This vacuum should remain almost without change for as long as 5 minutes, If the vacuum does not hold, it indicates hither leaky valves or leaks past the pistot! or piston rings, This could also indicate « Teaky head gaske ‘You should not attempt the test for maintaining a vacuum until after preliminary pumpedown (step 2) because so much refrigerznt may be released fron, the Crankease ofl that the gage pressure could be raised even with the suction service valve closed, ote Wait for the vacuum to decrease. “Phen close Step 5, Open the suction serview valve ie discharge servieG valve, Step Be Using the flywheel, turn the compressor over slowly by hand until the pressure imatreaches 124 to 130 psiite W thy pressire riseseslowly, or rises and falls, ay does hot rise: lah enough, if would indfeate thats the discharge velve 18 leaking, there are he head gasket is Leaking, Teaaks: past the piston or piston rings, oF Ie the pressure drops rapidly after the compressor has been stopped, the same faults Tistest showeaneimmeated. Tethere are ne leaks, tie heal pressure will inerease to a certain pat ‘ to 150 psig) ang remiin constant, After observations have been made anil yo tre seeen 1 efi ait Hr wha 8 ie not wrong, the high pressure shoul! be relieve (2) Be icing, When servicing the compressor, you should remove only the parts necessary pairs, ‘Before reassembling the compressor, inspect any other parts which have become are ible, All parts should be carefully Cleaned with an approved clean= ing fluid and alle .eul to dry in-air, When you disasyemble a compressor, be very care= ful not to scratch of mar gasket sealing surfaces, New gaskets of the correct material ul thickness must be installed when you reassemble a compressor, When you are dis= axkembling a compressor, all parts should be clearly marked so that they may be replaced in their original positions, Clean lubricant should be applicd to all bearing and rubbing surfaces of parte that are being installed, ‘The compressor crankcase should be drained, Cleaned, and filled with fresh oil, (4) Servicing compressor valves. Once tests have shown @ decided possibility of valve trouble, Tie valve plate will become accessible by removing the cylinder head. Check the staling. surfaces to instire that there are no dirt particles or foreign matter on them: that would cause the valves to leak, Also check to ec that the sealing surfaces are not scarred or marred as this will also eause leaking, If the valves are defective in any way, it is ad= visable to replace the entire assembly, Usually, if valve operation is faulty, the valve Seats ax well ax the valves are damaged. Broken valves will usually cause seratches in the valve plate seat, Ifa broken valve is discovered, every piece must be accounted for. Hany piece is left in the eounpressor, damage to the piston, piston rings, cylinders, or bearings may result, New valves should not be used in ola or damaged seats unless seats are pul in perfec. condition, This is done by lapping which should not be used unless you have the: proper tools and are qualifigd to do the job, A machinist or an experienced automotive mechanic will usually do the job for you, However, in case of emergency you muy do it if you have the proper tools and lapping compound of the right grit (lapping compound if found in your expendable supplies toolkit). After lapping, the parts should be washed! in an approved cleaning solvent and dried, ‘They then should be coated with oil to protect them against fingerprints and moisture until they are to be put back into the compressor, Once you have the valve plato reassembled and put back into the compressor all sealing surfaces cleaned, and new gaskets installed, put the head back on. All head bolts should be turned down sugly, but not tightly. Then tighten all head bolts to the praper torque, starting with the center bolt and working outward, Clean the seating surfaces for service valves and install new gaskets, Then bolt both service valves in place, (4) Servicing the crank As a rule, you will encounter only a couple of troubles rankshan a squeaky noise caused by adry seal, and a leaky seal caused hy a scored seal surface. A noigy seal left uncorrected will soon become leaky. Air that caters a system because of a leaky seal jg indicated by high condensing pree7ures. Testing with @ halide torch for shaft seal leaks can often be misteading because the nor: mally small aniount of ofl that leaks through the seal will have traces of refrigerant in it iul the halide torch will pick them up, ‘The best method for testing for shaft seal leaks is to use a Soap solution, To use this method, you first must raise the low-side pressure, then apply the soap solution as you would when testing for refrigerant leaks. These seals shnuli be capable of holding the highest va, um possible (approximately 30 Inches of piereury) for many hours, Jf a shaft seal is found to be defective it should be replaced, The tolerances and surface finish of these seals are very critical, ‘To remove the seal, the compressor {4 pamped down and the low-side pressure balanced, ‘The drive belty are removed and then the flywheel {s removed, [f the seal cover docs not extend below the ofl level in the erunkease, you can remove the seal without draining the off; {ft does, you must drain the erankense, The xeal parts are taken outmext (you must mark :val parts sv that they can be correetly replaced), Frequently, seal parts are attached to a flange thet must he eanefully pried out, Ni Hf you have a bad leal and suspect the weal jg broken, do not pump down the compressor heeause ait arm moisture will be drawn into the system, In this case, close the service valves, relieve the internal pressure, drain the oil, and leave the drain open, Then process! as before, All parts are cleaned and the sealing surfaces lapped to each ther, Some seals use a trolled synthetic rubber gasket instead of metal-to-mietal Contuet, When « new seal is installed, all parts are coated with clean off and special care is exercived in alining and replacing the unit, If the seal iy to function efficiently, ‘Ccritival spring tension ust be maintained op the sealing surfaces, Always your TV's atkl manufacturer's instructions befere you start to repair a compressor. 82 (5) Servicing other compressor components, Pistons, pins, rots, bearings, crankshafts, cylinders, block, etc, in compressors will seldom become damaged or give you trouble unions they ure abused, A refrigerating compressor is seldom subject to a wide vurt= dation of loads and pressures, [tis used to pump glean, cool refrigerant gas at a con= stant head pressure, Therefore, the component parts of a refrigevating compressor Will usually give long and trouble-free service. Any work that must be done on component 7 parts (other than valves and shaft seals) is done by methods similar to those nised in work= ing on an automotive engine, If you have to work on a compressor, remember to keep all parts perfectly clean and free from moisture, Also, carefully mark all parts so that they Can be properly reassembled, After repairs are complete, the compressor should be sted, Air must be purged from the compressor and oil repliced in the crankcase, Run tie compressur for about an hour to make sure that pistone and bearings are free, You va. test the compressor for .eaks by using a couple of spare service valves, Admit com= } -eased air (about 40 pai) through the valve ports with the valves closed. Air admitted through the discharge valve will 1. ak past defective discharge valves. Air admitted throweh the suction valve will leak through a bad shaft seal, A suap solution should be used when you perform these tests, dl. Hermetic compressor test ant replacement, Although a hermetic compressor is relatively trouble free, there will be 9} hen testing and possible replacement will be ecessary. Histons will hang up or becwue senzen, valves will erack or break, and internal motor efreults will develop shor" or opens, Because these internal problems will necessitate the replacement of the unit, it f, & perative that you are sure that the problems are internal and are not caused by external failur # such a8 probleme with the control circuits, witches, and external wiring. (1) Compr -ssor-motor test, A rather simple test hookup that can be put together in your shop and used to cher & compressor motor (.apscitor start/induction run or capacitor start/eapacitor run) is shown in figure 3-21, It consists of a starting capacite @ run~ ning capacitor anda simple switch, To use this test hookup, you must first re..ove all ‘vires from the compressor terminals, (Be sure thet you tag each wire to insur that they can be correctly reconnected, ) Then connect the hookup to the starting, running, and com- mon terminals as shown in the figure, Now pl the test circuit into the power supply and immediately close the switch for 1 to 2 seconds (holding the switch closed for a long pertod cf time may result in the starting winding being burned out) then ope the awitch. ‘The com= presscr motor should continue to run if it is not defective, If the compressor motor does not run then the compressor unit must be replaced, STARTING CAPACITOR CLEPS f PUSHBUTTON 10S" rons OMS = = coumersson banal ae TSSTLATED WIRE C MOF COW RES => — ooo AT [GATOR CLIPS L, Joon = FUSE RON (20 ANP) Pig J-2, Hermetic motor running test, “83 Seg eeeel fee bee \ymptoms of defective valves, If the comoressor valves of a hermetic compressor are broke Tittle oF no cooling will occur In the evaporator and little or no heat Ing of the condenser, Once the unit 18 started the wattage will drop to an abnormally low reading. The pump will need no balance time after it is stopped, Little or no capillary food noise will be heard, (3) Symptom ce of oll, Noticoable signs of an oll overcharge are: oxcexsive Compressor noize and vibration, low capacity, and continuous nigh wattage. To remedy this situation, the compressor will have to be changed. (4) Replacing hermetic compressor, Defective hermetic units should be replaced with new ov factory rebuilt ones. "When replacing hermetic units, it should be remembered that electric wiring, thermostatic svitehes, relays, and motor starter are not considered parts of the sealed unit and therefore must be removed from the old unit and remounted on the new one, Because a sealed compressor operates at higher speeds than an open type, the valves, pistons, and valve orifices are much smaller than in an open type. Consequently, great care must be exercised when installing a sealed unit to insure that any foreign matter i kept from entering the sealed unit when it is open during installation, The follow ing procedure bs used te remove and replave a sealed unit, (a) Using a pair of side-cutting pliers, cut the discharge line in two, allo ving the unit Charge to escape into the air, A cloth should be placed over this eut section to prevent the possibility of oil being blown around, Note: If the escaping refrigerant has a burned odor, it indicates a shorted stator ghd the condenser and evayorator should also be replaced. (b) White the gas 18 escaping, “emove the compressor terminal cover and the relay bracket mounting screw, (c) Remove the clectrical leads from the compressor termiuals (if not previously removed during diagnosis), Lift away this clectrical assembly. Tag the electrical leads for reference w! 2 reconnecting them, (Remove the compresscr holddown bolts, (Cut thy suction Line near the compressor with your side-euttigg pers, Again, place a raj over the cut to eateh any oil that may eseape (0) Lift the old unit off the base, Pinch the discharge and suction tube several times with your side=cutters and then bend the tube ends over, This will prevent any cil loss and keop foreign matter out of the compressor, yO Check the abing on the new compressor and on the unit to determine where ft shonld be cut, ‘Ther witha tubing cutter, cut all tube ends, “eave about two inches of straight tabingg 40 anat Fitting s ean be installed, (1) ‘Transfer the rubber mount grommets or vibration isolators fram the ole compressor to the new one and Lift the new compressor into place on the unit!s base, dw Ie euhber. grommets or vibration isolators are defective in any way they must be replaced () Asse mmble the proper fittings on the tube ends, (Q) fnstall a tee assembly in the suction Line, Insure that the leg of the tee is pointing in such a direction that a flare nut ean be connected liter for recharging, that tie cap Seal and bonnet are Gxbt (0) Install a tee assembly a the diseharge Line, Ins () Reassemble Hie electrical connections and the compressor mounting washers and nuts, (2m) After insuring that all conneetions are properly made and are tight, check the unit for leaks, ae BY ©. Condenser repair and service, In an airconditioning system, the job of a condenser 16 to remow the heat that is absorbed by the refrigerant. ‘The refrigerant absorbs heat from the ovup= orator und absorbs more heat that as caused by frietion in the suction Line aud the cumpressors T condenser must be able to efficiently and cont sally remove all this heat, In order for the condenser to perform properly, it must be kep. clean betk inside and ont, and repairs made when necessary. There are two general types of condensers: air-cooled and water-cooled, ay aning and repairing ‘ouled condensers. Dirt and dust either in or passing through an air-cooled condenser Will stick To the outside surfaces, The accumulation of this dirt and dust cuts down the coulonser's efficieney by reducing the rate of heat transfer. ‘This, ih turn, allows temperatures within the condenser to become too high, causing the oil to carbonize, ‘This carboniaed oll sticks lo the inLernal surface of tie condenser and causes a further reduction in efficiency, Ifa condenser is very dirly on the outside, it will be al= most as bad on the ineide, ‘To retura a condenser to its proper.cffieiency, it mumt be clean ed both inside and out, Dirty outside surfaces may be cleaned with ordinary brushes and mild soap solutions, However, in such places as bakery shops and meat peecessing rooms, particles of grease, sugar, and flour along with dirt and dust will build up on the condenser, An alkaline solution will have to be used to diskolve and remove these deposits. (A good remover may be made by mixing 1/2 Ib of trisodium phosphate in-l gallon of water.) If the condenser has carbon deposits on the inside, you ehould replace the condenser and possibly the metering devie (a) Leaks, When a condenser develops a leak it is usually better to replace it rather than to repair it, Soldering a leak in a condenser will usually cause another leak because of the expanding ard contracting of the metals due to heating and cooling. However, it you do decide to attempt repair, you must remove the condenser fron, the system. You will have to pump down the unit and drain the Fefrigerant, (0) Brackets, holders, hangers, and frames. These items should be permanently solde Triction-fitted, or bolted in place, Loose frames or brackets could rub holes in a cone denser.’ If the condenser is allowed to vibrate, the vibration could cause discharge lines to break, Always check these items and insure that they are properly and securely in place, . a (e) Discharge lines, Discharge tines murt be large enough to carry the heat=laden gas Trom the head of the compressor to the condenser, ‘They must be arranged! sm that any Hiquid that might condense in them cannot flow back into the compressor heail, To do this, form the tubing into a U-shape right aftor it leaves the compressor with the hottom of the U extending briow the level of the compressor head, Because the hottest gas in a refrigeration system Is carried In the dischacge tine, thede ines are subject to greater carbonization than the condenser. Also the gas is at its highest velocity in the dist barge ine, This high velocity tends to wear out the tubing, It is good practice to replace the Hischarge line whenever you averhaul the condenses, () Condenser-to-receiver line, This line carries Liquid refrigerant under high pressure from the condens.F to he receiver. Since this line carries the sume amount of Hiouid ax the Liquid Line, it should be the same size, Only In extronie cases will the ves e ver Hine become coates! with carbo, “oposite, This Line still should be cleaned om he ever you clean the condenser, If you have any doubt as to ite capacity of stru: tural strength, you can replace it easily when the condenser (s being overhauled, (2) Servicing and repairing water joled vondensers consist of tine Sheli-tube, the double-pip. and the spiral Types. ‘These condensers van be made of iron pipe, steel pipe, or coppy e tubing, There are two methods af elecaing shell-anu= Iinbwtype and doublespipe-type condensers, The best way is with special brushes and ros (similar to ones you use for cleaning your rifle, only larger) previded by tae: manu= facturer. ‘These brushes are graduated in size, You should start with the smaller sizea an work up untit you reach the size of the inside diaméter of the pipe or tube that yu are Cleaning, You should not use exeestsive foree to push the brush through the nipe o> tubes The wasiest way i8 to put the Orush andl For! inte a large, tow spires! rill cand Tet st 0 slowly through the pipe of tubing. If you farce the: brushes you may Kear or Seriously weaken the walls af Uw piper lube, ‘The other methon ef cleamang 1a with & strong saustic, soda of a mild murtatic solution, However, when you use this method, you must vate tentn af the xalution to be ueed on another tube of the same material to insure that the solntion is nnt too strong, Mf the solution is too strong, it will attack and weaken ve tiaterisl used in the construction of the condenser, Just about the only way to elean the Rptral-type condensers is with caustic soda or muriatic weld solutions. If the tubes of thone condensers become weak or develop leaks, it is best to replace them or, in the case bt a double=pipe type, the entire condenser, Sometimes it is possible to blow out condenser (ubes that have scale deposit built up around connections and fittings, Compressed air Schon dioxide of less than 100 psi can be used to do this, Probably the biggest problem jaw will have with water-cooled condensers is with the water system controls, The most vemmmon trouble is Incorrect water flow, ‘This can be caused by faulty water valves, Clogged screens, improper adjustment, broken cor i, leakage, oF Stoppay Jauhave problems with the water valve you can cither replace it, fix it, or adjust it, Water system controls can usually be removed from the system without pumping down the Hyatem., However, to clean or teplace condensers and condenser tubes, the condenser will havi: to be pumped down and opened, ra f. Evaporator servicing and repair, ‘The evaporator itself very seldom causes any trouble, jpohlenma witir tw evaporator can usually be corrected by adjusting, repairing, or replacing system voonents and controls that dirvetly affeet the refrigerant's action in the evaporator or thos that faporator free from excessive frost buildup, Those components and controls are the ‘Jovives dufroat controls, and fans or blewers (if it Is a forced convection-type evaporator), Deohiems with the evaporator itself are usually caused by leaks due to corrosion or a puncture heeaune of abuse, an evaporator becomes corroded, it is best to replace it. If a leak develops throgh abuse, it ean be soldered in all cases except when the evaporator is made of aluminum. If in evaporator is made of aluminum it can be repaired by using epoxy cement (follow directions for: juuividheal bran? used), If problems with evaporators do not result from leaks or corrosion and do hot result from inoperative system components and controls, then it is stopped up from oll car nd should be replaced. kewp th meterin Service and adjustment of automatic controls, Exact procedures in adjusting the various autenatorcontrals used in different systems will va: , with each switch design, All we can do hone in give you some general rules for adjusting and servicing typical controls, (Always consult Tilston the particular system beforeattempting service or adjusiment,) Cycling or motor: coy i nwitehes start the compressor when temperature and low-side pressure rise fo @ pre~ cee fae Lene! and stop the compressor when tem, erature and pressure fall to another Level that se viinrmened by @ range setting. It is a general rule that operating pressures or temperatures a inert by decreasing the spring tension of a control unit and raised by inereasing the spring sion. Same cycling control devices are provided with a differential adjustment that Is usvd te Sot the difference between th. cutsin and cutout points. of a low-side (1) Typical pressure-type control adjustment, "The range and different poeasure control may be adjusted ag follows: (a) Attach a compound gage to the suction service valve. (u) Set the range adjustment for the lowest pressuce “ne differential sdjsstment for the largest! difference. (e) Shart the con pressor and operate it until the compound gage shows the desired pressure cevacyun for cutein or staring the compressor in normal operation, (a) Change the range: adjustment until the control cuts out the -ompressor, (o) Move the range adjustment slowly in the opposite direetion until the control euts in the 8 compressor, TRIS sets the cut-in point, (0) Let the compressor run until the gage shows the pressure at which cutout is desi (i) August the sfferentiel Towly until the antral outs aut, Thies sets the cutout points (oo Loot the system Cperate normally through at Teast our complete eyeic, and on the next eee aae gre the wake: readings at which cutout and cut-in accur, 11 18 possible that slight adjustments: will have to be made. van 86 (2) Temperature control adjustment, ‘The procedure used to adjust a temperature or thermostatic type oF évellng control is very similar to that used to adjust a pressure eoutrol, low-ver, insteat! of using a compound gage, vou would use a thermometer at the plice where thts temperature control sensing bulb {x located, Rememiber that « temperature control should always start the compressor when the sensing bulb {s warmed by land, Tf it doesn’t, the bulb and bellows have lost their gharge, Iefore attempting. ny vepiulrs or adjustments of a temperature-type cycling control, make sure that the xensing huh 1s properly mounted, Normally, with this type of control, the range 1s tuljusted hefore the differential is changed, Only in unusual cases will the differential have to he changed on domentic units; howaver, on larger commercial units, the disfer- ential Will sometimes hi ged to accommodate different types of service, ald alo ren ‘you aljust thin (ype of control, mange adjustment will atfuet the differential and vise verau, One you have completed adjustments, and have observed temperatures and pressures and found them to be right, check that ll Tocking nuta or serews are tights (8) Control switehon. Since the exact m vis, presaures, and temneratures used in setting atomatic control devices differ depending on the characteristics and type of ervice of an invlividual em, only some general examples can be given here. Consult TM's and manufacturer's directions for detailed operation and repair of individual syst m controls, (a) High-pressure cutout swite,., ‘This type of switeh is usually installed as @ safety loview, The eutout is determin! by the manufacturer and is stated in the operating Instructions, ‘These switches will cut out at a certain pressure (when the no.mal operating pressure 18 rxcended); when the pressure :lrops, they cut in automatically, out are quipped with a reset Sutton t! .t must be pushed manually, Sometimeu this type of switch 5 the suction-pressure control witch, is mounted in the same hous ig, (h) Suctinn-pressure control switches, ‘These switches stop and start the compressor “aecording to the demand for refrigerant in the evaporator voil, ‘The suction-pressure contro] should be set at a suction pressure that correspond. to a temperature that is 4 fow degrees lower than the temperature to be maintaine* in the evaporator. Example: If the evaporator was {0 maintain a temperatire of 4° F and the refrigerant fs F=12, thy suction-pressure control should be get between 31,7 and 26.8 peig, (Te pressure is found by consulting your refrigerant charts.) wrmastatie switches, Thermostatic switches control solewoidl valves that feed the igi refrigerant the evaporator, These controls open the soleroids at a predetermined temperature and cloge them at a lower predetermined temperature, It 18 a good practice to set che cutrin point 2 Fahrenheit degrees higuer than what is requecsd, SUMMARY In this chapter you have learned the proper procedures for inssalling a: air-conditioning xvstem, You learned that before doing anything you must first visually inspect the unit for any Apparent damage oy malfunction, ‘Then you must insure that the unit {8 properly leveled, that thi sufficient air cireulation to enable it to function at its proper capaci y, that all electrical ‘ounections re properly made, and that the refrigerant 1s released before tie unit Jr ever start= al, Then, once the unit is installed and operating, you nave seen what shou'd be done in the way hf preventive mainienance to keep the unit ayerating efficiently, Filters anv condenser fing must be kept elvan, periodic Lubrication must be on schedule, and the evaporator must he kept frew af dirt and any excessive frost buildup, Wer basi also covered he variout methods of testing an air-conditioning system, When testing far leaks it is possible to use one of several methods or a combination of methods, In Poview, the methotls are: pressare and vacuum test, seap ct oil bubble test, and the halid hr oh, You mut remember that the pressurv and vacuum tests are nonpositive tests and will incicate a nak but not where the lea'e {83 whereas the halide toreh, soap, and oil bubble test will positively identify the exaet location of ¢ leak, We ulso covered the varfous electrical instruments fixes! to text gaits and “he p-uper methods of carneeting che instruments to the eireuits and what woud be umticated by eeadiygs obtained from these iusimomonts. ‘Also covered in this chapter were the installation and use of the bar gage manifold. We have shawn haw they are ised when performing tests, evacuation, pump-down, charging, sand removing sur aching, refrigeration alls, . We also covered the methads of making a joint and stressed the importance of maicing it properly, An improperly made Joint in an aitconditionang system will seriously affect the proper Sprration of that system, Troubleshooting was covered to enable you to properly Identify problems that commonly ocvur in mast air-conditioning systems, and to identify the proper remedies for these problems. ranhloshating i mot Importint, for without proper diagnosis it be nnlikely that the proper repairs can be mad Repair and replacement of the major components of an air-conditioning system were also Cover. We have discussed the proper methods of repairing or replacing all the components btasvstem, from the compressor, condenser, and evaporator right through the serview, adjust mont, or replacement of any of a system's wutomatic controls. 1 is important to remember that when« Jer you, as a mechanic, are working or any system br unit, yeu should consult the proper TM or manufacturer's repair manual for that parLicular tunt-or system, Also wlien servicing a unit or system, take into consideration the job that must Incaccomplishiel by that system oF anit, Ingure that It is capable of the designated yob before attempting repairs that may not help the unit or system to accomplish that job, Chapter 4 COMMENCLAL AND TACTICAL AUL-CONDITIONING UNTTS Section ty COMMERCIAL. UNITS Jat, WINDOW O8 THROUGH-THE-WALL, UNITS 48, Deweription, “Those units mount in a window and are relatively easy to Install, They will H-into elther double-hung oF casement windows or they can be installed in a hole cut in tie wall of the building, They usually operate with two separate airflows and the reirigerant {is controlled by either @ capillary tube or a bypass-type, attomatic-expansion valve. ‘The con~ trol switehes are usually an Integral part of the unft and are mounted on elther the top, face, or aides of the unit, Window units are air-cooled and operate on 120-v of 220-v aingle-phase circuits, ‘They will vary {n capacity from 4,000 to 40,000 Btu's per hour, b, Installation, When a unit fs installed in a window, metal plates, gaskets, nealing com= pond, weather stripping, brackets, and braces will be necessary for proper installation, ‘The Firat step'ts to remove the untt from tte housing or cabinet, It wil! slide out easily, Be careful whim hundling the unit and do not Lift or carry it by any of its components other than the base, bo not use tublny oF colle as a handhold, Next, place the housing in the window opening and secure it tn place, Be ure that all braces and brackets are securely fastened, Next, the filler board or metal plates must be put in position, Maki" sure the filler boards do not extend above the top of the cabinet, but are level with It so that the window will close flush on the cabinet and filler boards, Check and make sure that the cabinet t's approximately 1/4" to the rear 0 that the unit will drain properly, Make any adjustments before the un!t is placed in the cab= not, Once the cabinet {s securely tn place, close the window flush with the top of the cabtnet land make any further necessary adjustment, Slide the unit into the cabin-t and install contro! knobs and front cover. The unit should slide into the eebinet freely, If it doesn't, do not fore. 4H, because the cabinet has not been installed properly and It Is not placed squarely in the win dow. level (o square up the cabinet installation, Once the entire unit is in the window, ‘check for any air gaps around the installation, They must be sealed with caulking or sealing compound, Ifthe unit {s installed in a double-hung window, there will be an air gap between the nnper and lower sash, This space should be fllted with a sponge-rubLer strip, When in= ‘stalling a un ina casement window, :-1u vse basically the same procedure, However, the flags will have to be removed from the window and the braces und fillers will have to be in= Stalled a little differently, Window unite should be hooked up electrically on a separate circuit, Ut possthic, Once :he unit is in the window and plugged in, it ts rendy for operation, Figure 4-1 stows a unit installed in a doubleshung window; figure 4-2 sh. ss 2 unit installed in a case= iment window, Enel manufscturer includes Instructions for inst: (ling hiv particular units, Follow thexe instructions carefilly as each manufacturer has different procedures for instal~ lation, although the basis principles ave the same, et MOUNTING BEACE agri STRIPANG [AND SEALING COMPOUND. Fig 1, Unit installed in doabie RS ‘conditioner installed in a casement window, Fig FE, cc. Operation, A window unit contains the basir refrigeration components, sucti asi condon~ aot, evaporator! compressor, Tefrigerant metering device, liquid recetver, and fan, ‘The “Shucnser is air-cooled, ani che alr is forced over it by a fan. The air is ciroiated withta fhe room by avther fan that blows the alr over the evaporator colis and into the room. “Mois + {ure that will condense on the evaporator coils from the humid air that 1s e{reulated over the cvaporator ¢olts, sill be collected a” the base of the un... and drain toward the back. Tne coun Senger fas "iil pick up some of this moisture and use ft an Ligh: spray oF mist to help evo! the ae gu condenser coll. ‘The remaining moisture will drain out the rear of the unit, Window unite use two Separate airflows, ‘Thwe nir to coo! the condenser is pulled in through the aides of the unit and {s blown over the condenser to dissipate the heat. Room + is pulled in over the evaporator colle, cooled, and blown back into the room, Figure 4-3 is a schematle of these two separate atrnows, NE Te Fig 4-3, Schematic of condenser and conditioned airF ow, 4, Maintenance, Refrigerating components of window unit are serviced and maintained an proviously discussed in chapter 3, Filters should be checked on a monthly basis and should be clouned of replaced, depending on the type of filter, as necessary. Evaporator coil, con- denser coll, fan blades and motors, and the cabinet should be cleaned and serviced just prior to putting a'unit Into service for the season and just after removing it for the winter months, All motor bearings should be lubricated at these times unless they are the permanently sealed type. Electrical wiring should be checked over and repaired if necessary prior to placing a unit into operation, Any troubles with the wiring system can be checked out as discussed in chapter 3, Fan motors are usually 2- oF Sespeed and wiring dlagrams should be consulted whenever you are checking the circuits, Whenever you are servicing a window unit, have the ‘manufacturer's operating and servicing instructions handy, 4r2, CONSOLE UNITS 4, Description, A console-type alr-conditioning unit 1s a complete system mounted in a aingie cabinet, These rystems are usually’ water-cooled and vary in size from 2 to 10 hp. Con sole units can be found in small clubs, PX's, messi..lls, restaurants, etc, Ifa console unit is Atr-cooled, ft will need ducts to the outside, both for bringing in air fox condenser cooling and discharging the heat-laden air back outalde again, Console units are usually constructed with the condensing unit in the lower section, the blower in the middle section, and the evaporaior in the top section, Air enters a console through the lower grille : 1d cool a'r is discharged through the upper grilles, Ducté can be attached to sections of the alr di-onarge grilles to dis~ tribute alr to 2reae that are partitioned off from the rest of the air-conditioned space, Console units are equipped with filters at the air intake, Some of these units also contain filters at the air discharge, b, Installation, Because console unite are assembled at the factory, installation is limited to physically moving the unit into place and making any necessary external connections, such ‘a9 plumbing, electrical, and duct work, Once the unit is in place it should be leveled. Any necessary duct work should be installed according to the volume of air needed and the manu facturer’s inetructions, All refrigerant components rnd controls should be checked prior to putting the unit into operation, A console unit must be hooked up on a eireult of its own and ‘should have a quick-disconnect switch mounted close by. €. Maintonance, Filters ina console unit must be checked monthly and cleaned oF replaced \iired, The evaporator coll, fins, and the fan motor should be cleaned periodically, If the fan moter is not constructed with permanently sealed bearings, it shuuld be lubricated in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, If the uuit ts water-cooled, the drain pan and drain tube should be cleaned at least every 2 months. Sometimes tint and dust will build up on the lining of a console unit, The lint should be removed either with a vacuum cleaner oF by brushing it away, Maintenance of the refrigerant components and the water system is complished in accordance with the methods outlined in chapter 3. 03 => as ) REMOTE UNIS Romote utreconditioning units have the refrigerating equipment located away from the space that 1s to be air conditioned, Thege unite range in capacity from 2 tons to thousands of tons. Some of these units condition the air then distribute it to the conditioned spaces through fa duct aystem, Other systems use chilled water to condition the spaces, In chilled water sys: tems the water {# chilied and then circulated to wall or baseboard coolers within the areas to be cooled, Most remote unite are complete comfort units and provide cooling in the summer and heating in the winter, The chilled water systems usually use an absorption system to pro- ‘vide refrigeration, whereas moat of the chilled oir systems use a mechanical refrigeration system, The newer chilled water systems use water as the refrigerant and lithium bromide (Galt solution) as the absorber, The older units use the ammonia and water systems. Systems Using water aad lithium bromide are large industrial units running into hundreds of tons" capac lty and presenting special installation and maintenance problems, These systems are built to fit a particular act of cooling clreumstances and will often completely baffle experienced per= sonnel when {t comes to servicing or repairing one of them unless they are familiar with the particular installation, Because of this and the fact that you, as a refrigeration mechanic in the Corpa, will probably never be called upon to service or repair a remote unit of this type, the installation and maintenance will not be covered. 4-4, TROUBLESHOOTING ‘Troubleshooting commercial units ts accomplished in the same manner as discussed in chapter 3, The charts in chapter 3 cover most problems that you might encounter with any ‘commercial type air conditioner that you may encounter in the Corps. Always remember to ‘consult the manufarturer's instructions when troubleshooting, If they are not available, check with someone who has worked on that particular unit, Remember that each unit is used for a ‘speetfle purpose and a specific set of cooling circumstances, Section I. TACTICAL UNITS, MARINE CORPS MILITARY STANDARD AIR CONDITIONERS 4-5, GENERAL DESCRIPTION ‘The Marine Corps military standard alr conditioners consist of self-contained vertical and horizontal unite. ‘They are normally rated from 7,000 to 54, 000 Bta, Various models are designed to operate on 115-, 208-, or 240-volt, 60-Hertz or 100-Herty power xnurces, When installed within an area to be conditioned, one of these units will provide for cooling or heating the alr to maintain temperatures within @ desired, predetermined range for both equipment and personnel. These unite are factory tested and shipped completely assembled and charged with Fefrigerant, They are manufactured by esthor Tranv Co., American Alr Filter Co., or Keco Go, and are used 43 4 principal means to control the environment of an area, Each of these units contains three systems: a refrigeration system, an cir-handling aystem, and an elec~ trical system, We will discuss the vertical unite first. Horizontal type unite will be discussed Murting ln paragraph 4-10, . a, Refrigi cation sygiem, The reirigeration aystem includes a hermetically seated motor compressor, condenses, evaporator, thermal expansion valves, aolenotd valve, fiter-drier, charging valves, regulating valve, pressuce rellet valve, and a high-pressure cutout control. ig 4-4 shows the refrigeration sehematic for the A/E 820-17 air conditioner, This refrig ration sehematie {a the same in each Trane military air conditioner, A compnesson | re | SUCTION PRESSURE BS FLANGE = | | | | \ REGULATOR ze a 3 HOT GAS el J SOLENOID VALVE Ne O. y {QUENCIT ENPANSION ® — VALVE ESPANSION VALVE PRESKURE RELIEF VALVE QUENCH SOLENOID a SOLENOM SAVERS 0. ea cick yauve —- —- a Fig 4-4, Refrigeration schematic A/E 320-17, b, Atrshandiing system, The atr-handling systera includes a return-air register: supply sip negiater: evaporator fan; condenaer fan: evaporator and condenser fan motors; mist elim= ihutnes fragh air duct; nuclear, Blologieal, chemteal(NBC) duct; and a fresh air damper. c. Electrical system, The electrical system consists of main powerline voltage to the fan motors, compressor, and strip heaters ihrougit relays ur contactors, Control voltage ts routed through @ 187-¥ d.c. rectifier to fuses, solenolda, outside thermostat, conditioned space thermostat, clecult breakers, and heater thermostat, All internal wiring t completed at the factory. Refer to foldout figure 4-82 at end of chapter for wiring dlagram of A/E32C=176 15, 4. Model differences, The following figures and tables explatn the design differences in he moleie Tie units may have been made by o™ of three companies: Trane, Air Filter, or Koco. ‘the major assemblies may have some minor differences but the description will remain teenie The performance characteristics and specificattons will be the same no matter what SSapany makes the unit, ‘Table 4-1 gives you the operation and technical characteristics of Seen Mpablns 462, 4-8. 4-4, and 4-5 degeribe the major assemblies of the units. Figures SG, and t-7 ahow the various Units, The major difference in the unite [8 as follows: A/F BuGe117, A/ES2C-24, A/B32C-26, A/ES2C~20, and A/B52C-39 ~ verate on 60 Hz current and the A/E32C-18, A/E82C-25, and A/E32C-27 operate on 400 liz current, Figure 4-8 shows @ [ine drawing of the A/ES2C-29 air-conditioning unit with Its dimensions. Figure 4-9 thowa & Line drawing, with dimensions, of the A/ES2C-30, The mayor difierence with this model is that It wae designed so that the components are protected in a ruggedized frame and cabinet to allow Shipping without erating, 45 94 WW: 32227 air-conditioning unis. Fig vey, AVE aBe- a 95 ‘Table, 4-1, Operational And Technical Characteristics [sate _| sectrseat Charnctoriaticn | Atrtiow Physical Data SEB a ee ST Eee peste ea pes eee 17o1/16 x 1721/16 x 82-9/92 Powe ee Pee Pepe PP epee p spe Notes ‘Nominal capacities per verified test results ‘Maximum capucttios CEM 6 0.25" 11,0 Width, depth, beight dimensions in inches Cubie foot ivas c 37 Table 4-2, Major Assemblies, A/E S2C+17 And AJE 32C-18 each, . No, Item Description . Manufacturer © eq. Evaporator Direct motor dfive (fans mounted on oppo- _Welco 1 Condenser site ends of double extended shaft); power input-208 volts, 60 Hertz or 400 Hertz, 4 phase; built-in thermal overload and over-current protoctor, 1.42 hp for 50- Hertz motor, 1. 62 hp for 400-Tiertz motor. Compressor Hormetically seated rotary type, Whirlpoot 1 Condenser Fan Cast aluminur. propelter type; counter= ‘Trane 1 clockwise rotation, facing room air inlet, Evaporator Fan Centrifugal type with airfoil blade, (BI- ‘Trane. 1 ‘ingle width), counterclockwise rotation, facing room alr inlet. Condenser'Col ined tube Trane 1 Ligul Line Pilot-operated expansion valve Aleo 1 Expt son Valve © Evaporator Coil Fined tube ‘Trane 1 Liquid Line Pilot-operated solenotd valve Asco 1 Solenoid Valve Liquid Bypa Direct-acting solexoid valve Asco 1 Solenola Valve Hot Gas Bypass _Direct~acting solenoid valve Asco 1 Solenoid Valve System Access __Packless charging valves Hoke 2 Valves Filter-prier Desiceant Drier Sporian 1 Statntes ij 120 wits, 60 wane ndeeco 6 Major Assemblies, A/E 92-17 And a/E 32C+18--contd No. tem Description Manufacturer Req. High-Limit ‘Open 194°F (90°C), closed 140°F (60°C) —_Kitxon 1 ‘Thermostat Controt Switeh Manual, S=péaition, rotary selector switch Cutler-Hammer 1 Conditioned Air Range, *40° to 900F Ponn Controls 1 Thermostat ‘Table 4-3, Major Assemblies, A/E 32C-24 And A/E 820-25, No. tem Description Manufacturer Rea, Evaporator Fan "Direct motor drive (fans mounted en oppo _ Welco Motor site onds of double extended shaft); power > Anput-208 volts, 60 Hertz or 400 Hertz, 3 phage; bullt-in thermal overload and over= ‘hrrent protector; 0,7 hp for 80-Hertz motor, 0,6 bp for 400-Herts motor. Condens Direct motor drive; power input-208 volte, Welco Motor 60 or 400 Hertz, 3 phase; built-in thermal overload and over-curront peotector; 0,7 hp for 60-Hertz motor, 2,2 hp for 400-Hertz moter, ‘Trane Military Model ““J"", Hermetically ‘Trane sealed reciprocating type; 2 cylinders; 2” bore; 31/32" stroke: force-feed lubrication. 208 volts, 60 Hertz or 400 Herts, 3 phase. Condenser Vane axial type, Trene 1 Evaporator Fan Centrifugal (airfoil, single width) ‘Trane 2 Condenser Coll Finned tube ‘Trane 1 Liquid Line Multi-outlet thermal expansion valve Alco 1 Expansion Valve 4 Evaporator Coil Fined tube ‘Trane 1 en ‘Yable 4-3, Major Assemblies, A/E 2C-24 And A/E 22C-25-~contd No, Item Description Manuineturer — Heq, Liguid Line Pilot-operated solenoid valve sco 1 Solenotd Valve , Liguld Bypas: Pilot-operated solenoid valve Asco 1 Solenoid Valve Hot Gas Bypass —_Pilot-operated solenoid vaive Asco 1 Solenotd Valve ° System Access —-Packless charging valves, Hoke 2 Valves > | Pilter-Drier Destecant Drive Sporian 1 ‘Table 4-4, Major Assemblies, A/E 92C-26 And A/E 32-27 tem Deseription Manufacturer Evaporator Fan Direét motor drive (fans mounted on oppo= _ Welco 1 Motor faite ends of double extended shaft); power tnput-208 volts, 60 Hertz or 400 Hertz, 3 phase; bullt~in thermal overload and over= ' current protector; 1.25 hp for 60-Hertz motor, 1,80 hp for 400-Hertz motor, Condenser Fan Direct motor drive; power input-208 volts, Welco 1 Motor 80 and 400 Hertz, 3 phase; built-in thermal ; overload and overcurrent protector; 4,0 hp for 60-Hertz motor, 5.0 for 400-Hertz motor, Compressor ‘Trane Military Model "J", Hermetically, Trane 1 sealed, reciprocating type; 3 cylinders; 2" bore: $1/32" stroke: forced-feed lub ‘cation, 208 volts, 60 Hertz or 400 Hertz, 3 puns Condenser Fan we ania Liss ‘Trane 1 Evaporator Fan Centrifugal (airfoil, single width) ‘Trane 2 Condenser Coll Fined tube ‘Trane 1 ana aos ‘Table 4-4. smblies, A/E $2C-28 And A/E $2C-27+econtd No. tem Description Manufacturer Req. Liquid Line ‘Maltioutlet thermat expansion valve ‘Aloo 1 Expansion Valve Evaporator Coll Fined tube . ‘Trane 1 Liquid Line Pilot-operated solenoid valve ‘Asco 1 Solenoid Vaive Liguld Hypasa ——-Plot-operated solenoid valve Asco Solenoid Valve Hot Gas Bypass " Pilot-operated solenoid valve Asro 1 Solenoid Valve System Access _Packleas charging valves Hoke 2 Valves Filter-Drier Decterant Drier Sperian 1 ‘Table 4-5. Major Assemblies A/E 320-28. ftom ese “Iption fanafactarer No. ese “Ipt ‘Manufé a High-Limtt ‘Open 184° F(80® C), Closed 140 F (60° ¢)—_Kltxon 1 ‘Thermostat Control switch Manual, S-position, rotary selection, Cutter-Hammer 1 awiten Conditioned Air Range, +40° to 90° F Penn Controle 1 ‘Thermostat Evaporator Direct motor drive (fans mounted on oppo- _ Welco 1 Condenser Motor site ends of double extended shalt); power Input=-118 or 230 volts, 60 Hertz, single phase or 208 volts, 400 Hertz, 3 phase; built-in thermal overload and fover-current protector; 1,15 hp for 80-Hertz motor, 1,40 hp for 400-Hertz motor, Compressor Hermetically seated rotary type. Wairipoot 1 Condenser Fan Vane axial type; counterclockwise rotation, Trane 1 facing room aly inlet, Cast aluminum, 192 ‘Table 4-5. Major Assombllos, A/E 82C-20--contd No. em Deseription Manvfecturer Reg, Evaporator Fan Centrifugal, alrfol blades, stngte width, Trane 1 counterelockwlac rotation, facing room air inlet, Condenser Coll —_Finned tube vrrane 1 Llgutd Line Multi-outlet thermostatic expaneion valve, Alco 1 Expansion Vaive i LLiguld Bypas ‘Thermostatic expansion valve, + ‘Trane ’ Expanolon Valve ° Liquid Line and “ Direct-seting solenoid valve, A three-way sco 1 Liquid Hypuse rolenotd valve ts used for the Liquid Une 7 |. Solenetd valve and the ligeld bypass sote= rnold valve, Hot Gas Bypate —Direct-acting solenoid valve. Asco 1 Solenoid Vaive System Acces —_Packlogs changing valves, Hoke 2 Vaiver Piiter+Drier Dortegant Drier Sportan 1 Electric Heaters Stainless stee! sheath; 115 volta, 900 Indeveo 6 watts cach, 4-6, OPERATIONAL THEORY ‘as Goneral, Al) of these ts are equipped with threo operating cycles: cootint, heating, and veitllsting, The parsieular operational cycle is determined by setting the selector switch Ghd thermostat located on the control panel to the desired environmental conditions, Cooling, ctor switch is set to the COOL position, the compressor and tan snokets Sag engized snd tl” comprrasor operates on the cooling cycle unl the conditioned Aa maeeksstat le satintied,. Tho aystem then transfers to bypaas operation urtfl the alr femper Suse ine condleloned space rises above the sotting of the conditioned afr thermostat, t which time the system automatteally transfers back to the cooling eyele, (1) Cooling eyete (ig 4-10), During the coottng cycle, the Usuld refrigerant, which ts Seana nang prosoure, ig metered ino the evaporator through a thermostatically seatrolled expansion valve, Aa the refrigerant passes through the valve into the rela~ {hulp low-peesnure evaporator, a certain portion of the Liquid Immediately flashes Wapdciscal: ‘This Mashing deus heat (rom the rensalning liquld in the evaporatcr, seeing ts teriperatures, Heat {a thon transferred from the warm tndoor alr passing Qaring cvaporstion coll to the chilled refrigerant, enusing the refrigerant to vaportz Sith the heatsladen refrigerast vapor {e draw from the evaporater, through the suc= Teens, wo the compressor. Upon entering the compressor, the refrigerant vapor is CShprowaed to condensing pressure ana pasnea throu {i> ut yee te tu ac conden” Sore eae compressing refrigerant vapor substantially raises its condensing temper ‘lute, ihe relatively warm outdoor alr passing over the condenser cotl surfaces ts Suiticlont to condense the refrigerant vapor to-a Liquid, “The !qula thon teaves the Sohdoneer and returns to the expansion valve, through the ligula ine, to complote the Mee A oack-pressure rogulating valve prevents frost from forming on the evapo 193 spat f Fig 4-10, Cooling eycle, (2) typass oycte tig 4-11), When the temperature of the conditioned afr falls below the tiermontat setting, the cfreult which controls the refrigerant valves la energized, ‘This causes: (@) ‘The liquid line Valve to close, stopping the flow of Liquid refrigerant to the evaporator, ‘This completely halts the cooling function, (b) ‘The hot gas bypass valve to open, cycling a major portion of the compressed refriger= ant vapor directly back to the sutian side of the compressor, (c) ‘The liquid bypass valve to open, which transfers a small amount of Hiquid refriger= ant through an expansion valve into the suction piping. When the unit is operating in this bypass coadition, the flow of refrigerant into the suction line places a small Toad on the system, This reduces the temperature of the suction gas which prevents the compressor from overheating, Beat Fig 4-11, Bypass cycle, ce, Heating, Two ranges of heating are provided by a bank of electrical resistance heaters which are mauited in the conditioned alr stream directly behind the evaporator cotl, Placing the selector ewitch in the LO-HEAT position energizes half of the heaters, The remalalng heaters ave onergized when the switch is placed in the HI-HEAT position, thus providing max= {mum heating capacity. When the selector switch is in the HI-HEAT position, the fan motor {8 in operation and one bank of heaters is on continuously while vhe secund bank is controiied by the conditioned air thermostat, As the air temperature falls below the set point of the 41s logy ‘conditioned air thermostat, the thermostat contacts will close. This energizes the heater con- tactor which supplies power to the aecond bank of heaters through the normally closed contacts of the high temperature contiol, Moving the selector awiteh to the LO-HEAT nsition provides the same control sequence, but reduces the heating capacity by supplying power so the first bank of hoaters only as called for by the conditioned air thermostat, 4, Ventilating, With the selector switch at VENT, the fan motor operates, the compressor and hoster snaubs are off; and air in crculated as determined bythe camper’ controle Note: When the selector switch is set to OFF, power is supplied only to the compressor cerankeage heater, The unit must be disconnected from the powe# soucee to dis connect all etreutt ’ INSTALLATION ‘The inatallation of an aL=conditioning system will be determined by the requirements and space limitations, 7 ‘a, Throughsthecvall, When this method ‘9 used, tho unit rests inside the area to be con= ditionad while the cotdensing and fresh air inlet side are vented through an opening in the wall to the outside, An cpening, 1/4 in, larger than the outside dimensions of the unit, is cut in the wall, ‘The clearance helps prevent transmission of vibration to the wall structure (fig 4-12). ‘The unit 1s centored in the opening and bolted to the floor, All unite have 15/32-in, «diameter holes with 7/16-14 nuts in the base for mounting, Aluminum or steel angles with rubber ga: keting inay be Installed around the unt to seal the opening, A drain line 1s connected to one of the 1/2 in, NPT drain connections looated at the front, back, and sides of the unit, A trap or loop {a required in the drain line to achieve proper drainage, Electrical connection is general ly made at the back of the unit with an MS connector, Alternate connections are located on each side of the unit. Shelter Walt i7s® clearance Acc Unit ane Goske Fig 4-12, Through-the-wall Installation, b, Telescoping rail, The telescoping rail arrangement is particularly applicable when the air-conditioning unit 1s 70 be installed in a var. or shelter. Mounted on a telescoping rail ar- Fangement, the unit {s moved laterally through the wall before use, When not in use, the rails fare retracted, placing the unit inside the shelter (fig 4-13). An opening {s cut in the side of the shelter, The telescoping rail assembly is centered in the opening and bolted in place, ‘The unit {5 then bolted to the bage, A flexible canvas or rubber boot is installed to close the opening betwen the shelter and the unit, The electrical and drain connections are made as eseribed in the through=the-wall installation, Either flexitte or removable duct connections fare used to accommodate the movement of the unit, To complete the installation, the wall open- luig is covered by a hinged or removable door, et ‘Unit mounted through aide wall of van. a il Sean tbe wed Inigo wen net usg/vehicle in motion, Fig 4-18, Telescoping rail installation, Sid mounted, Skid-mounted units are designed for mobility, They are used to provide ir conditioning at location remote from the area to be conditioned by a system of exible duets, Remote location is desirable shen exceptionally low sonnd level 8 required, Installa~ tion consists of a “retrofit” package with connecting flexible ductwork and eables to perma nent flares onthe anit and shelter (rea tobe condoned). Figure 4-14 shows the compo Bene of the retrofit packs kldemounted version (eae fig 4-1 oaey aceene for maintenance and fciittes rapid replacement ofthe complet uni, “The tbelas ing frame, wilen 18 Integral with the skid base, provides support for the ducting storage canister. ar Py a4-14, Retrofit Fig 418, Skid-mounted sir conditioner package components, ‘using retrofit package. @, Exterior mounted, This method {s a variation of the through-the-wall method deseribed above, anr'is one that saves valuable working space in small areas such 28 shelters. A per~ manent of temporary platform ia attached to the outer wall of the shelter, Openings are cut {in the shelter wall for supply and return alr connections, ‘The unit is then bolted to th. platforms and the air and other connections made as necessary. . General installation ingtructios (1) Move the unit to the inatallatior. sitedefore removing the shipping carton, Remove the top, ends, and sides of the carton and the kimpae covering the unit, Retain both tie carton and the kimpac covering for use in future moves, Note: The unit must be set in the upright position for at least 12 hours prio: to running refrigorant system, (2) ‘The unit is secured to the shipping base by four 7/16" =14 x 2 1/4” hexagon hond serews, four 7/18" lat washers, and four 7/16" Kant-Link washers, Remove these fasteners land move unit off the shipping base. (3) inwpect the entire unit for aigns of in-tranait damage, Pay particular attention to the evaporator and condenser eoils and the cuil grilles, (1) The unte shouts! be wet level to allow proper condensate drainage, tlowever, operation will bo satéefas ory with the unit aitting at no more than an 6, 5° angle and using one of thw alternate drain connections, G) tor ler for the unit to operate efficiently at rated capacity, you must consider acces sibiLaty and unobstructed airtlow when Locating the unit, () ‘The removable lower front pane! and the conditioned afr supply and return air grilles mat be aceesaiite for normal service and maintenance, (0) The condenser air intake grilte must he unobstructed to allow sufficient air condens= ne puepes™s, Kor mastinitn unft eapactty, the conditione:! alr supply and return openings at the front of the unit should be free of obstruction, 6} Slounting hole dimensions for fastening the unit to the Noor aro given in figures 4-16, 107 “2. Se » pe OF. " Xne Ane NEY 4 2 Hou Conese revunw ain | in DRCHARCE ‘SE DETAIL ba Nut may be removed for ew bolting 13732 1A (CLEARANCE Hou oP foe u L/ortsine oe .w tek FRONT Shale 1/2" ver DRAIN connteTION NoHT sng CONDENSER oft OTH SIDES, FRONT © BACK Dimensions (woorTaTsTeclo]lelTrleja]o] «Tipe >e yt ate [MnectsL ee] [we f aes xl a [axl] ti) ed] onl &) oa }or ° ST Tv Tv wayyy 2 ae oe Toi & ee wae of Tar ay wipe PFT ie Sa Fig 4-16. Installation diagram, A/E 32C-17, A/E 32C-18, RIGHT SIDE wpe = [prscrance| Nac AIR | Sin BDI, etn AiR Tay 94 | A entg® FOR MOUNTING 1 i vera 6 Bl eve a" . Repetto oka a ik “ ' Pm es CLEARANCE HOLL |, iodo < Vat _—— te Yf x Bik, FO CONDENSER 1/2" NPT DRAIN cOMMECTION +A /ES2C-27 & A/E32C-26 only AIR DISCHARGE ROTH SIDES, FRONT 6 BACK, 2 Dimensions MODEL 4 ATeTcyovTetTr rece aor ssl 90 | 10 | 25% | 12% | 20% ‘A/f32C-26 asesac27 1 5%] 4 | 20 | 20%] 4 | 20%) vpw tx ]v]z [aa al 34 [aala | me | wl 4 o [is [a] 3% [29s Tf a% ig 4-17, Installation diagram A/E 32C-24, A/E 32C-25, A/E 32C-26, and A/E 32C-27, : 109 (7) Connect a druln hose to the 1/2" NPT condensate outlet at the base of the unit, T.ead - the drain hose away from the unit, As shown in figure 4-18, include a 3" gooseneck trap in the drain connection next to the unit, Alternate 1/2" NPT drain connections fare provided at both sides and the front of the unit, If one of the alternate drain con~ nections {8 used, insert 2 1/2" square-head plug in the rear drain connection, Fig 4-18, Condensate conection, (0) Ail unit internat wiring is complete as shipped, (a) [bitterent units have different électrical characteristics. ‘The correct power source for cach unit is stenciled on the side of the unit and a wiring diagram is lo- ‘eated on the back of the lower frunt panel (o) An MSS1O0R receptacie is located on the back panel of the unit, Connect the proper electrical power source to this receptacle using an MS3106R plug or acceptable al ‘termate, (c) Alternate power connections are located on both sides of the unit, A change to an lalternate power location can be easily accomplished in the fleld, Caution; When you connect the power, energize the unit briefly in the ventilation ‘mode and check condenser fan rotation, Note rotation arrow on back of unit, if rotation is backward,: reverse any two of the power leads to:the Power connector, Recheck for rotation, (9) ‘The control panel, shown in figures 4-19 through 4-28 and in figure 4~24, is located at the front of the unit, This panel may be mounted remotely by means of an inter~ connecting cable assombly, A blank cover panel may be installed in the front panel ‘opening when remote control 1s use Note: Ifthe remote cable is not shielded, the radio frequency interference (RFD) Antogrity of the unit will be destroyed, lig srasuizen MOUNTING pes ant 1M Tce tH Bhuhet Conta. AR INLET ia gore HAIR Sorbe™ Fags Al rower Betiacus Cove RE —conpensen cot ae ner ‘Wt SeneeN | erounone I sme Auranatt CONDENSATE ‘RAN Fig 4-19, Component location, A/E32C~17 and A/¥32C-18, stamuzen YAPORATOR COIL MOUNTS SUPRA AIR GAIL WOVE coven rare Son ai tse ‘oursoon ae st Rte dat connor sean rowen SBEaRON AUENATE ON ru, Fig 4-20, Component location, A/E32C~26 and A/E32C-27 4-22 111 FaESHL AIR INLET Daren CONTROL GROUNDING ‘so Se ‘CONDENGATE ‘DRAIN ‘coven nate] Fousne ont AreenaTe owen RCEErACLE ‘ocation Fig 4-21, Component location, A/E32C-29, 4-23 112 psi wien Fig 4-22, Component location, A/E 82C~24 and A/E 32¢-25, (10) Ductwork may be installed from the outside to the fresh air inlet at the back of the tunit; from a nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) filter system to a second {nlet at the back of the untt; o from the front of the unit to the areas to be air condl~ toned, Ductwork and the NBC filter system are furnished by other manufacturers (11) The atr-conditloning unit contains a full operating charge of refrigerant and compres- sor ofl, Further service is not required, The evaporator and condenser fan motors fare permanently lubricated by the manufacturer and require no additional lubrication, 4-8, OPERATION + Operator's service requirements, To make gure that the air conditioner Is ready for operation at all times, the operater must inapect it systematically so that defects may be dls covered and corrected before they result in serious damage or failure, ‘The necessary pre~ ventive maintenance services to be performed are outlined in paragraph 4-03, b, Controls and instruments, The various controls and instrumen.s which govern the oper= ation of the air-conditioning unit are described below. (1) Selector switch, The selector ewitch, located on the control panel (fig 4=23), 1s a five- position switch which controis the type operation the unit is to perform, (a) HLHEAT, Enorgizes the evaporator fan motor, One bank of electrical heaters is on ‘eontinuotaly and the second bank is under control of the temperature control (condi= tloned air thermostat), t ©) LOMEAT, energizes the evaporator fan motor. One bank of electrical heaters 1s, Under the control of the temperature control (conditioned air thermostat) and the second bank is inoperative, (c) VENT, Energizes the evaporator fan motor but all oer systems are inactive, (@) COOL, -Lnergizer the fan and compressor motors, Whenever the air temperature Tails below the temperature control setting, the compressor, while continuing to operate, transfers to a bypass (no load) condition, (e) 1 nergized except for the crankcase heater. "Tae power etreult is de Note; Wren the selector ewitch is set to OFF, power is supplied to the com= | pressor crankcase heater, The unit must be disconnected from the ower source to disconnect ail etrcuit, (2) Temperative contro! (conditioned air thermostat), The temperature control is also Tocated on the control punel, It provides both heating and cooling contro! over a 50°F temperature range (40° to 90°F), Center position is approximate! crease the temperature, turn the knob counterclockwise; to inerea turn the knob clockwise, _ ens Fig 4-23, Control panel, (9) Damper control, ‘The fresh air inlet damper, located within the unit, is coritrolled by ‘pull chain on the front of the amallest units and by a kaob on the two biggest units (thls knob may be on the front or on the back of the unit), When the fresh air damper fs opened, the louvers on the conditioned air inlet on the front of the unit should be closed if the maximum of fresh alr ia desired, ‘These louvers are controlled by a lever fon the front of the unit, An air inlet is provided on the back of the unit for attaching the NBC filtered air ayatem to the unit, When the NBC system is in use, the fresh ‘air inlet damper must be closed, Figure 4-24 shows how to operate the damper knob, ne sag nk ven Fig 4-24, Damper control knobs, 425 114 (4) Outside atv thermostat, The function of the outside alr thermostat {s to prevent com= ressor start-up when the outside air temperature (ambient temperature) drops below & Specified point, This srevents operation at a time wher, low condensing and suction prea- sures will hamper sysiem operation, On the two smallest size unite, the outside alr ther~ mostat ie #et to cut out at S0CF ambient, while on all others it (3 net to cut at O°F ambient. (5) ght glage (fig 4-25), ‘The quid line aight las Tocated on the back panel, indicates if there 1s molature in the refrige-ant or if there 18 a shortay of refrigerant, Motsture le shown by the indicator ‘turning from green to yellow. A shortage of refrigerant is indicated by bubbles appearing con= tinuously in the aight glas DICATOR Fig 4-25, Sight glasi (6) High-temperature control, The high-temperature control switch functions to prevent overshoating when the system is operating on the heating cycle, This device is d ‘signed to cut out at 184° F (900C) and automatically reset at 140°F (60°C), Note: 194° will be reached only if the evaporator fan becomes inoperative, ut switch, ‘The high-pressure cutout switch ts Contacts open at 445 psig + 10 psig, and will close after being re alg oF below (seo fig 4-19), manual reset type, ‘manually at 985, (8) Back-pressure regulator, ‘The back-pressure regulator ts designed to regulate evap- ofator pressure to a minimum of 88 psig to prevent evaporator coil freezeup, . Operating instructions, There are a few things to check before you start the unit, For inetance, you should age if the unit 1s secure on its'mount and make sure thece are no obstruc~ Hons to the {ree flow of air to both front and rear intake grilles, Tur the selector switch to OFF, Apply power to the unit, (This energizes the compressor crankcase heater to vaporize ‘any refrigerant present inthe oll--this may take § hours, ) ‘The first step 1s to jor the fan motor by turning the selector switch F fan for proper rotation (refer-to (2) Starting the unt, to COOL and then back to OFF, Check the conden: paragraph 4-Te (8) Caution), (a) Cooling operation, Set the temperature control at the desired temperature setting, then set the selector switch to the COOL. position, thus starting the compressor. Allow the system to operate until tt is discharging cooled air, Raise or lower the temperature control to maintain the desired temperature, (©) Bypass, With the selector suitch in the COOL position, raise the thermostat setting, 1s the set point passes above the ambient temperature, the unit should go into bypass operation, (c) Heating operation, Turn the selector switch LO HEAT, For additional heating capacity, turn the elector awitch to HUHEAT, Raise or lower the temperature conz trol to maintain the desired temperature, (@) Positioning of controls, Adjust the temperature control setting, fresh air intet dam~ er, and select awiteh in accordance with the system operating information in figure 4-26, Tre Troe ory Seer ‘Ae Cobb ee ‘i ‘souk O hegure ‘Sma mp Ding Poon Dod Op Good Toor a Conny Wah Bard fina ‘Oe 4 re Makeup Ave Temperature Ged hina shag Wm Brora Oper Teed 701 Fret Makeep ar ‘Temperature = 7 Binwe ot : mee ur "ado Ar . eran Tsing 107 Dard or Gest TpHEAT or Nice’ ae open a Bitar Reig Wak Dew Bama On Tourar a Feb Gea ae Ripe | Cnc Heaar Henny Band ‘Ope Goal LORTAT & setae np Hear 7 {Outdoor Air Veainnes—Nanman [An Goel On VENTA ara aid “Te laring of he Inior etre damper enue «enter prin othe etl aeflon tebe dann om he ean, Fig 4-26, Operating information, Note: ‘The center of the temperature control scale corresponds to approximately ese, (2) Stopping the unit, To shut down the unit, turn the selector switch to OFF, To shut the system down for an extended period of time, proceed as follows: (a) ‘Turn the selector switch to OFF, (©) Disconnect the power supply. (c) Close the fresh alr inlet damper, (a) Cover the condenser air intake and outlet openings, (3) Operating precautions, The following precautions shall be observed at all times: (a) Keep hands away from fans when unit is operating, () Do not remove any panels to perform work or tests on the atr conditioner while con~ ny ditioner is connected to power source, (e) {f the motor or the compressor become overt check for the cause, 1d, stop the unit immediately and ~ (a) Should Liquid refrigerant come in contact with the skin, the injury should be treated a8 for frostbite or frozen condition, fe) Do not use water on,a motor fr ‘The unit {s designed to operate over the range re~ (1) Extreme heat, “he unit {a designed to operate satisfactorily up to a temporaturv of Taser ambient, ‘The outalde air thermostat prevents the com} ‘when the outside air temperature is below a specified point (8) Dusty oF sandy areis, Remove and clean the air filter as described in paragraph 4-0a(0V(@) and (), Under extreme conditions of extended operating periods, clean the evaporator condensate drain pan and the unit drain pan to remove accumulated dust or sand, sor from being started Paragraph 4-2b(4)). 4-0, MAINTENANCE In thie paragraph we will cover instructione for periodic inspection, servicing, and maine tenance of the alr-conditioning unit, Periodic inspection and proper maintenance will result in better operation and minimum repair, Deficiencies may also be discovered before they cause major damage permanently lubricated and the compressor and compressor motor are fully lubricated by the ‘manufacturer and require no additional lubrication, (1) Pestodte inspection, Periodic inspection intervals are listed in chart form, (Refer to table 4-6 for the periodic inspection intervals.) Al deficiencies noted during inspec~ tion should be corrected before further operation of the unit {s attempted, Adjustment and repair procedures that are beyond the scope of operational maintenane shall be referred to maintenance personnel posressing the proper tools, equipment, and infor- mation to perform the needed repairs, ‘The intervals appearing in the periodic inspec Hon chart are for a normal 8-hour day operation, During abnormal conditions it may be necessary to shorten intervals accordingl7, In addition to the daily inspections, the operator shall at all times be alert for any unusual noises or other indications of ‘malfunctions during operation of the air conditioner, ‘Table 4-6, Periodic Inspection Chart Component T. FREQUENGY [Ban PE Montiiy [6 Wont GENRRAL check for visual damage. x Check legibiity of decals and instruction plates, x Cheek tor obstructions to free movement of air x at front and rear of unit, [check for clogged or damayed grilles. x COMPRESSOR AND PIPING [chee< compressor for any unusual no}aes x Jéurtag operation, [Check Uquid sight indieato® for bubbles or {indication of moisture, 117 4:6, Periodic tnspection Chart--contd Sater bart ne « DRAIN PAN, : Inspect drain pan for presence of foreign matter | x ren avo come one 7 Check filters and mist eliminator for dirt or 7 | x So es tas acie delat el « Silt ah niece sss etn ag tn x ©) Service, land other foreign matter on the grilles will restrict the @) Grittes, Dust, insoct les, Cleaning instructions which follow apply-to any of Tow of alr through the the gritles scuring the grille to the caning. Remove screws, wasners, and lockwashers Remove the grilte, ‘Wash the grilte thoroughly Sy flushing in hot water and allow the grille to dry thoroughly. 2 After cleaning the evaporator intake or discharge grille, inspect gasket for damage or loose cement, Install the grille and secure it with the screws, flat washers, and lockwashers previously removed, ° follows: () Mist eliminator, Clean the mist eliminator scuring tap cover panel 1, Remove the screws, flat washers, and lockwashers assembly to the casing, Lift the panel from the unit, 4-29 lig ‘Slide the mist eliminator up and out of the evaporator coil slides, Flush the mist eliminator with hot water, Do not oft, Iustall the mist eliminator in its slides, scure ft with the screws, flat washers, and lock- Install the top cover panel and shers previously removed, — (c) Alrintake filter, ‘Tho att intake flter 1s permanent and-requires.only. periodic ‘leaning, L a Remove the evaporator air Intake grille, Remove the five screws, flat washers, and lockwashers, and lockwashers secur~ ing filter support to bottom of drain pan, Remove the support from the air condi~ toner, Slide the filter up and out of the air conditioner, Wash the filter with hot water or steam, When dry, dip the filter in Standard Air Maze Filterkote or its equivalent, 5, Install the filter in the air conditioner and tnstall the support over the end of the filter, Secure the support with screws, flat washers, and lockwashers, (a) Fresh air filter, The fresh air filter 4s also a permanent type requiring only peri~ ‘odie -Teaning. 1, Remove the serews, flat washers to the casing. 2 Remove the filter cover and filter, Wash the filter with hot water or steam, When dry, dip the filter into Standard Air Maze Pilterkote or its equivalent, Install the filter and filter cover over the fresh air intet and secure the cover with 4 screws, flat washers and lockwashers {(e) Evaporator coll, The evaporator coll is cleaned without removing the coll from the ‘alr conditioner, jembly an, mist eliminator as instructed in subparagraph 1, Remove top cover panel () above, 2, Clean the surface of the coil and blow any dirt out from between the fins with com- pressed air, Hold the nozzle of the alr hose at least 6 to 6 inches away from coil to avold damaging the fins. Warning: De . 3 Install the mist eliminator and the top cover panels (® Condenser coll, The condenser coil is cleaned without removing it from the alt conditioner, Remove the front panel by toosening the panel fastening screws at the top of the panel, 2, Remove the condenser alr intake grille by removing the screws flat washers, and lockwashers, 3s Clean the surface of the coll and blow any accumulated dirt out from between the fing with comprossed air, Hold the-nozzle of alr hoge at leaat 6 to 8 inches away from coll to avoid damaging the fins, Warning: Do not use steam to clean colle, Install the afr intake grille and secure {t with screws, flat washers, and lock- Install tne front panel and tighten the panel fastening screws, 7 G@) Refrigerant sigit incléator, “The iiquld sight indicator should be checked periodically for indications of moisture or shortage of refrigerant, Indications of moisture oF shortage of refrigerant shatl be reported to higher authority for correction, 1, Motsture in the refrigerant {s shown by the indicator turning from green to yellow, 2, A shortage of refrigerant is indicated by bubbles in the indleator, (4) Drain plping, ‘The drain pan and drain piping ohall be kept clean to provide adequate Urainage of condensate, Romove the top cover panel assembly and mist eliminator aa instructed in para graph, 4-09(2)0), Remove the front lower panel, Loosen the lower hose clamp and work the drain connection smly from hoaé Remove the cotter pin from the end of check valve housing and remove the check valve bail aud spring. Clean both the ball and spring. Cifan the inaide of the tubing fooseneck and housing. Plush the drain pan and the piping, Install the check vatve ball and spring in thetr housing and secure them with the cotter pin, Install the dfain connection assembly into hose and tighten the hose clamp, Install the mist eliminator and top cover panel ai jembly, Install the front lower panel, - - b, ‘Troubleshooting, Troubleshooting procedures and instructinns for the isolation of causes of conimion problems that may arise during operation are listed in table 4-7, ‘Table 4-7, ‘Troubleshooting Guide “Trouble Probable Cause Romeuy Compressor will 1, No power to air conditioner, 1, Conmet power, not start, 4 Selector switch improperly sete Contacts of elreult breaker 3, open, Outside air temperature below 0° F, , pen control cireutt. Loose electrical connections or faulty wlring, Set selector switch to "COOL". elreutt breaker, Normal. Make continuity check of ctr= ‘cult, Replace defective con= trols oF refer to higher au- thority. : ‘Tighten loose connections, Repair wiring if necessary. Defective circuit breaker, 7, Check elreult breaker, 18, Defective compress motor, 8, Cheek motor for open wind= ngs and grounds, b. Compressor starts 1, Fan motor failure. 1, Check fan motor, ‘but gees out on overload, High head pressure, 2, Clean condenser cotl and con- denser air intake grille (Check condenser fan for proper operation, If this does not ‘correct the trouble, refer to Ihigher authority. ‘e, No heat or low Selector switch improperly 1, Set selector switch to “LO capacity heat, sete HEAT" or “HT HEAT" 2) Ingufficlent air movement 2, Check evaporator coll, mist over heating elements, Loose connections or defective 3, wiring in heater or fan cireuits, Defective fan motor, 4 eliminator, filters, and grilies for dirt oF other obstructions, Clean if necessary. ‘Tighten loose connections Repair damaged wiring, ‘Test motor, 5. Defective high temperature Replace thermostat, thermostat, 4d, System losing cool 1, Malfunciton or combination Run pressure test, Trouble- {ng capacity ov otherwise indicates improper function ing. of malfunctions resulting in abnormal operating pressures, shoot any abnormal pressure readings 4-32 12i ‘Table 4-7, ‘Troubleshooting Gulde-contd, ‘Trouble Probable Cause Remedy Low suction 1, Inguffictent volume of air 1, Clean any dirt or obstructions pressure, passing over evaporator coll, "from grilles, filters, or mist eliminator, 2, Excessively low air tempera~ 2, Raise temperature coutrol ture in the conditioned space, "setting, 3, Defective expansion valve, ‘Check operation of expansion valve, 4, Clogged filter drier, re- 4, Refer to higher authority, strleting the flow of refrig= ‘evant in the liquid line, 1, Low discharge 1, “Lignld bypass valve leaking 1, Check solenoid valves, preasure, quid refrigerant into the auction lin 2, Defective compressor. 2, Refer to higher authority, fg. figh suction 1, High temperature in the Condition will remedy itself pressure, conditioned are: temperature is reduced, 2, Faulty expansion valve, Check operation of expansion valve, 3, Hot gas bypass valve leak- 3. Replace valve, ing discharge gas into sue~ ‘fon line, 4. Defective valves in compres 4, Refer to higher authority, nor. Compressor pumping refrigerant vapor into suc~ ton line, High head 1, Insufficient volume of air 1, Clean condenser coil aid con~ pressure, passing over condenser coil, denser air intake grillo. Check condenser fan for proper operation, 2. Overcharge of refrigerant, Refer to higher authority, i, High suction 1, Defective compressor valves, 1, Refcr to higher authority, with low dia= charge pressure, j. Low suction and 1, Lack of refrigerant, 1, Check for bubbles in liguid llscharge pressures, sight indleator. Check for leaks, c, ‘Tonting procedures, ‘The test procedures given herein should be used in conjunction with the troubleshooting chart to {solate malfunctions and verify troubleshooting results, Remedies that are bayond the acope of operational maintenance should be referred to maintenance person~ nel having the proper tools, equipment, and information needed to perform the repairs. (1) Clreuit breaker, The cirouit breaker will trip instantaneously if there is a short in the compressor motor, It cannot be switched on again until the compressor has been réplaced, If the olreult breaker is suspected of being defective, it can be checked by attaching two inaulated jumper-wires, one to each of the two lower terminals on the breaker, and then momentarily touching the other ends of the jumper wires to the two ‘upper terminals on the breaker; touch the jumper attached to the lower Left terminal to the upper left terminal and the jumper on the lower right terminal to the upper right terminal, If the compressor motor starts when the jumpors are touched to the upper terminals, the clreult breaker ts defective and must be replaced, @ eiroult, ‘The cause for a system's failure to operate can be greatly narrowed GREET eiuch couse the failure can be faoiated, ile the function of safety vices to open the elreult under certain conditions; therefore, addftional checking may be required to determine whother the safety device is open because it is defective oF {s performing ita designed function, The following steps contair instructions for check= {ng the control elreuit and additional information on safety devices, (a) Disconnect the power from the air conditioner, () Test the continuity across each control in the affected clreult with an ohmmeter. (©) Replace any defective parts or refer to higher authority, taking into consideration, ‘that open safety devices may not be defective (a The outador ate thermostatic switch will open the circuit when the outdoor alr is below 00 F 49%, ifthe eviteh is cutting out above O° F 205, is must be replaced. (e) The etreult breaker will break the elreult if the compressor is drawing high current ‘caused by high head pressure, defective compréssur motor, or low voltage, Refer to (1) above for cireuit breaker test, (8) The compressor winding thermal cutout will opin if compressor is not receiving ade~ quate cooling, head pressure is high, or voltage is low, Refer to the compressor wiring diagram (fg 4-27), - 7 a 438 123 EATER TERMINAL BLOCK. WINDING THERMOSTAT: MOTOR TERMINAL BLOCK; WIRES FROM CRANKCASE HEATER Fig 4-27, Compressor wiring diagram, : (3) Motorg. ‘There are three motors in the air conditioner; the compressor motor, the condenser fan motor, and the evaporator fan motor, ‘The following test procedures apply to all motors. . (a) Disconnect the power supply to the unit and test the continuity acrot ton of the motor terminals, Lack of continuity indicat (©) Place one contact vf insulation tester or megi houolog and the other against one ofthe tormabals of the motor. if the 1 substantially below 1 megohm, the motor is grounded, (4) Refrigerant solenoid valves, Tost the valves as followst (a), Energize the valve and note if the valve clicks, If it falls to click, check the coil connection and the coll wiring, Replace or repair the wiring as required, (©) Place your hand on the downstream piping from the valve; ifthe piping warm: vaive ia opening properly, Ifthe piping cools, the valve is not opening tully, “Attempt to free the valve by tapping the valve body, If this fails, refer to higher authority for replacement of the coll or valve, (6) Hot gas bypass solenoid valve, Energize the valve and place your hand on the down 4troam piping, I the piping warms up immediately, the valve is operating properly. If the piping warms up slowly oF fails to warm, check the coll vonnection and coll wiring, If this falls to correct the condition, refer to higher authority, (6) Evaporator expansion valve, A faulty evaporator expansion valve will result in over~ Feeding or underfeeding the evaporator. (a) Qvorfoeding the evaporator coil results in an abnormally high suction pressure and, extreme eases, the carryover of liquid to the compressor, ‘The condition is usually ‘caused hy an aproper expansion valve superheat adjustment or the remote bulb of the valve not making good contact with the auction Lins. Tighten the remote bulb clamp and make certain that the full leagth of the bulb is contacting the bare suction 4-35 ne, If this fails to correct tne symptom, the superhest adjustment of the valve should be checked, Refer to higher authority, (©) Underfeeding of the evaporator results in an abnormally low suction pressure, The . ‘operation of the power element {s tested in the following manner. + Stop the system and allow the vuction line to warm up to room temperature. Remove the remote bulb from the suction Line and place it in a container of ice, ip Start the aystem. Pe Remove the bulb from the container and warm it in your hand; at the samo time feel the suction line, Ifa temperature drop is noticed, the power element is oper ating, If there fs little change in the suction line temperature, the power element s faulty end must be replaced, 7 7 Refer to higher authority for power element replacement and for checking the valve superheat adjustment, Caution: Do not allow liquid to enter the suction Line for any longer than is, ive flood= necestary to check the operation of the valva, Exce ‘back will damage the compressor, o Install pressure gages on the ga charge dlaphragm valves, ‘Turn valves two turns to open, exposing gagt tem pressure, Compare the gage readings with the normal ranges of system , shown in table 4-8, ‘Table 4-8, Normal Operating Pressures-PSIG OUTDOOR AMBIENT - DEGREES F [v» 100 us 90° F DB RETURN AIR TO UNIT Suction 50-65 38-70 60-75 15 +90 Discharge 125 = 160 115 = 210 255 = 205 310 = 410 809F DB RETURN A TOUNIT ‘Suetion 58-65 58 = 70 60 - 75 65-15 Discharge 120+ 158 170 = 208 250 - 290 370 = 410 (8) Leak test, Check al! plping and connections with a halide leak detector, The halide Teak detector consists mainly of a amall bottle of propane gas (sometimes alcohol) ‘with a bumer, valve, and exploring tube, With the flame lit and adjusted slightly fabove the top of the bumer, the exploring tube is placed at the point of inspection. A sampling of air from this point will be drawn to the burner through the exploring tube, I refrigerant 1s present in the air sample, the color of the flame will change; green~ {ah tinge for small leaks and purple for large lesks, If any leaks are present, the con- dition shall be reported ‘o higher authority for correction anderecharging. Repairs, Repairs and replacements of defective parts are limited to those covered in the fotiowing paragraphs of this section, Repair and replacement beyond the scope of opera~ tonal maintenance should be referred to maintenance personnel having the proper tools, equip ment, and information to perform the needed operations, 4-36 125 (1) Heater thermostat, The heater thermostat is designed to cut out at 194° and auto- matically reset at 140° F, If the switch becomes tuoperative proceed as follows: (a) Disconnect the power frem the untt, ® (c) Disconnect the switch from the heaters, (€) Remove the two mounting screws and uwiteh, (e) Install the new switch and mounting screws, (0 Connect the switch leads'to the heaters thown in wiring diagram, (@) Install the top cover pane! and lockwashers, ymbly and secure the panel with screws, flat washers, 2) Quiside afr thermostatic switch, Replace the outside air thermostatic switch as fol= iow (a) Remove the evaporator air intake grille and filter, (©) Remove the switch mounting sere ruta, and flat washers, Remove the gasket, (c) Disconnect the switch leads and remove the switch, (@) Connect the leads and install the new switch and gasket on the casing, Secure with serews, nuts, and flat washers, (e) Install the filter and intake grille, (3) Control panel, Replace the control panel ag follows: (a) Remove the front panel, (©) Remove the evaporator air inta rile and filter, {e) Loosen the clamp serew and pull the thermos! compressor compartment, He bulb from the clamp and into (@) Disconnect the harness connector at the control panel raceptacl (e) Romove the serews, flat washers, and lockwashers securing the control panel to the mounting bracket, Lift the panel from the bracket, (install the control pasel on the bracket :- i secure it with screws, flat washers, lockwashers, (@) Connect the wiring harness to the contro. panel, (2) Instat the butb and tighten the clamp, (0) install the air Intake filter and grilte, (Install the front panel. (4) Selector suitcn, (See figure 4-26), Replace the selector switch a8 follows: (a) Remove the control panel as Instructed in (3a) through (e) above, 4-37 126 (©) Remove the control knobs, > (c) Remove the screws and nuts securing the control panel case to the mounting plate, Partially separave the plate fom the c: (@) Disconnect the wiring from the switch and remove the switch, (e) Install the awitch in the case and connect the wiring, Make sure the witing connec- “~ tions are correct. (Insta the mounting plate on the caso and secure them with serews and nuts, * (@) Install the controt knobs, {) Install the control panel as instructed in (3)() through (j) above 6) Temperature control, (See figure 4-28), Replace the temperature control on the ‘control panel as follow = (@) Remove the control panel ((3Ma) through (e) above), (b) Remove the contro! knobs, (c) Remove the screws and nuts securing the mounting plate to the case, Partially separate the panel from the case, . (@) Disconnect the wiring from the temperature control, (©) Hemove the switch mounting screws and self-locking nuts, and remove the switch, (0 Install the ewiteh on the mounting plate and secure it with screws and self-locking nuts, (@) Connect the wiring to the ewiten, 4{2) Install the panel on the case and secure it with screws and nuts, () Inscatl the control knobs, ) Install the control panel as instructed tn (2)(f) through (;) above, 127 Fig 4-28, Control panel with case removed, 4-10, HORIZONTAL UNITS, & Genoral, The alr condiitoners being procured for FMF application also include two hori zontal models es shown below in table 4-9, Maximum use is being made of 5VHz power to the exclusion of 400Hz power, The Marine Corps will make use of the skid-mounted, remote version wilerever possible, as it fo the eastest to maintain and has the greatest degree of flexibility of application, ‘Table 4-8, Horizontal Unite NOMENCLATURE EOWER NOMINAL COOLING. Marine Corps Std, ‘Horizontal, cote 9,000 Btu/hr Air Conditioner, Marine Corps Std, Horizontal, oH ‘MCOHALE-208 7 to meet military specifications for use on shelters, vans, compartments, and trailers in mobile, portable, and transportable applications, They provide complete envire*mental air conditioning ncluding cooling, heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and filtering), b, Technical description, Hoth the horizontal modela and the vertical modela are designed for economy of space and ease of movement, and for minimum power requirements, without sacrificing maximum efficiency, reliability, or maintainability, AU components are manufac~ tured to Insure complete interchangeability with air conditioners of the same capacities. The nits are self-contained, air-cooled, and motor-driven. The compressors are herme'ically jealed and have a force-t2ed lubrication system. Both the evaporator and the condenaer are constructed a8 compact, fin/tube heat exchangers, with lightweight aluminum fans, directly ‘connected to aqulrrel-cage, induction-type motors. Condeneate drain pans are protected from corrosion by a coat of nonabeorbent latex material, In the vertical models, pipe nipples are ‘lush-mounted on each side of the drain pan to allow condensate drainage when the unit ie tilted Im any direction. In the horizontal models, ecadensate ie allowed to drain when the alr con~ ditioner te Ulted up to 6° from horisontal, In any direction. ‘The evaporator wections Inaulated with foam rubber for protection against moisture condensation and to reduce external heat gain to the unit. The control panel s designed ao that it can be removed from the unit to allow remote mounting of the alr conditioner, ‘Thermostatic control provides automatic heating 4-30 128 and cooling modes, ‘Two-stage heating {8 obtained with tubular, resistance-type heating elements. ‘Tho cooling mode utilizes a hot gas bypass system which permite the compressor to run con- tinuously, thereby avolding voltage fluctuations due fo frequent starting and stopping. Each tunit haa an opening covered with a removable plate for interfacing (connecting) with an NBC -filter unit. Both condenser and fresh-air openinge in all unito have a fine mesh screen to prevent entry of insects. ‘The condenser fan inlet and discharge openings are protected by heavy-duty guards, Provision for admission of fresh air i provided for all operation modes of all units, The flow of fresh alr ia controlled by an adjustable damper. The untt is con~ ‘structed of a heavy gage aluminum external casing-with removable panels. This affords easy ‘access fo unit components for maintenance and repair. ‘The air.conditioners are designed to operate in excess of 4, 000 hours without major overhaul, 4. Horizontal models. ‘The MC9HALS-208 and the MCISHALS-208 were selected for FMF applications requiring the sir conditioner to be moutted either Inside, through the wall, or ‘hung on the exterior wall of the application, (3) Tectnteal ics, ‘The following tables give some of the technical character~ ities of the horizontal model air conditioners, ‘Table 4-10, Performance Data McoHALé-208 | 208 50/60 mcisnats-208| 208 50/60 ‘Table 4-11, Dimensions and Welghte Model MCOWALS-208 MCIBHAL6-208 (2) Initial service and installation, When unloading the air conditioner, be ure to use a forklift or handtruck that has at least © 300-Ib capacity, Keep the air conditioner right side up during the unloading. If possible, unload the unit near the place it is going to be inatalled. Remove the crate, being careful not to damage the air conditioner, Inspect the entire alr conditioner for signs of damage and loose or missing hardware, ‘Make sure that all wiring, lines, and tusing are secure. Pay particular attention to the evaporator and condenser coils and main power receptacle connectors. Make sure that visible wiring and insulation is not frayed or broken. Check the evaporator and condenser fan motors, Report all damage and defects to organizational maintenance, Perform the services as listed below in table 4-12, Be sure all hardware is, securely in plac Table 4-12, Initial Checks and Servis Trem fo be inapected Procedure Uvaporator outlet louver, Remove obstructions. Clean louvers, Tighten mounting screws, Evaporator inlet Lower. Remove obstructions. Clean louvers. Check for ease of op- eration, Tighten mounting screws, Condenser cover. With cover rolled up for operation, check securing tiee for damage, Fresh air inlet screen, Inspect for obstruction? and loose mounting. Remove obstruc= tions, clean and tighten loose, mounting screws, Drains. Inspect drains for obstructions, Remove obstructions. 440 129 ‘Table 4-12, Tem to be inapected Initial Checks and Service: Procedure Condenger louver. Condenser guard, Controis. Main power receptacle Check for loose mounting and damaged Louvei Remove obstructions and clean guard. Cheek for vieual damage, Check operation of damper control. Check for secure power connection, Tigisten if nec ny. Remember, when the air conditioner is shipped from the factory, it is assembled and ready for operation (to include a full charge of refrigerant and compressor oil), Ina should be installed in the unit on a firm, Le 1 surface to allow proper condensate drainage. ‘The unit jay as to permit easy access to it by operator and malh= eb tenance personnel, Make sure that obstructions are removed so that the unit will have sufficient air, ase mounting hole dimensions are shown below in figure 4-29, * = Meminte-208 Pe wane] aan 20 3 en | «720 Fig 4-28, Base mounting holes. Connect the main power cabl ion, connect @ No, 1OAWG (min) ground wire to ground con- If alr ducts are required, connect them aleo, mounting ‘an air filter in the ductwork if an evaporator return air duct {s required. Just a Little word of caution here become clogged. (9) Operation ‘The following Hat of steps is a briet explar “if you operate the unit without filtration, the coils will ton of things to do to put the FRorlzontal model air conditioners into operation and to shut them down, Refer to figures 4°40 and 4-31 for location of controls, eat 13) TEMPERATURE SELECTOR CONTROL CIRCUIT BREAKER EVAPORATOR FAN SPEED 7. ALTERNATE POWER NODE SELECTOR CONNECTION MODEL. UNSER 18, VENT CONTROL ACTUATOR COMPR CIRCUIT BRR Fig 4-90, Horizontal air conditioner, front view. WAIN POWER SUPPLY REFRIGERANT SIGHT GLASS (UTSIDE AIR THERNOSTAT FRESH AIR. INLET CCO*DENSATE ORAIN PLUG (CONDENSER AIR INLET CONDENSER AIR OTSCHARGE Fig 4-31, Horizontal air conditioner, rear view. © Cooling Step 1. Be sure condenser cover {a rolled up. Step 2 Litt tabs and open intake louvers. Step 3, Turn vent controt actuator to close damper door. Stop 4, ‘Turn temperatur lector switch to furthest clockwise position (warmer), Stop 5, Turn on control eireutt bre Stop 6, Turn mode selector switch to VENTILATE and allow fan to reach full speed, then turn to COOL, Step 7, Adjust temperature jector awitch to degr of cooling di Step 6. Set evaporator fan speed switch to desired postion. Step 5, Adjust pir outlet louvers to direct airflow as desired, Steps 1-3. Same ax above, Step 4, Turn temperature selector switch to furthest counterclockwise position (cooler). Stop 5, Same as abov Step 6, Turn mods lector switch to LOW HEAT, Turn to HIGH if more heat is desired, Step 7, Turn vent control actuator to open damper door. Step 8, Partially close intake louver bladi Stop 9, Adjust temperature selector switch to desired enclosure temperatur: Step 10,, Adjust alr outlet louvers to direct airflow as desired, Step 1, Be sure conden 9 cover is rolled up, Step 2, Turn vent control actuator to open damper door. ‘Step 3, Partially close intake louvers, Step 4, Turn mode selector switch to VENTILATE, ‘To Stop Unit Stop 1. Turn mode selector switch to OFF, Step 2, Close intake louver: Step 8, Turn actuator to close fresh air vent damper. Note: If the unit I9 going to be ahut down for an extended period of time, cover the con- denser and evaporator grilles and disconnect the power cabli ‘The principles and procedures covered earlier in the course apply, in to the horizontal model air conditioners also, So, we will cover here (4) Maintenanc 4-43 some charts and precautionary notes and refer you to the pertinent TM (TM 5-4120- 250-14 for the 9, 000 Btu unite and TM §~4120-243-14 for the 18, 000 Btu units) for # more detetled explanation to follow in maintaining or repairing the unit. Also TM~ £120-15/1A will provide help with the technical characteristics of our air conditions fote: The evaporator fan and condenser fan motors are permanently lubricated by the manufacturers and require NO additional lubrication, The compressor and com- pressor motor are fully lubriested by the manufacturers and require NO additional, lubrication, = ‘Table 4-13, Operator's Preventive Maintenance Tnterval and sequence “7 number vom to be Before | During inspected Procedure Joperation | operation Evaporator outlet | Remove obstructions, Cl n louvers, Tighten louver. ‘mounting, screws. 2 Evaporator inlet | Remove obstructions. Clean louvers. Check tou for ease of operation, Tighten mounting 3 Condenser cover. | With cover rolled up for operation, check 7 curing ties for damage 4 Fresh air inlet | Inapect for obstructions and insecure mounting, screen. Remove obstructions clean and tighten loos mounting screws. 5 Drains. Inapect drains for obstructions. Remove obstruction: 6 Condenser louver. | Check for insecure mounting and damaged louvers. 7 Condenser guard, | Remove obstructions and clean guard. 8 Controle. Cheek for visual damage. Check operation of damper control, Main power r Cheek for secure power connection. Tighten ceptable connector.| if necessary. Liquid sight indi- | Check for moisture and low refrigerant ator. charge, Yellow indicates moisture, bubbl. for milky appearance indicates low charge. Air conditioner | Cheek for abnormal operation, vibration, ‘operation, lunusual noise, failure to respond to controls, Condenser cover. | Cheek for damaged fasteners ‘Teble 4-14, Operator's Troubleshooting Chart ‘a, Connect power cable to receptacle, Maltunetion Probable Cause 1. Air conditioner faile to |, Main power cable disconnected. operate. ve b. Control or compressor circuit | b, Reset circuit breaker. breaker in "OPE" position. Mode selector switeh in "Ove" | ¢, Turn selector knob to desired position. operation. 2, insufficient cooling. | a, Mode elector switch impro- | a, Set ewiteh to COOL. perly positioned. Temperature selector switch set Incorrectly. cc, Inauffielent air passing over evaparator coil. b, Adjust setting to COOLER. 7 c. Open evaporator inlet louvers. Remove any obstructions from evaporator inlet and outlet louvers, 1d, Too much outside air enter- | d, Close or adjust damper door. tng unite 133 ‘Table 4-14, Operator's Troubleshooting Chart--contd Malfunction Probable Ca Corrective Action e, Insufficient refrigerant in system.[e, Check liquid sight indicator, f, Evaporator fan speed switch set [f. Kevet switch to high speed. at low speed. 8. Insutfictent air passing through -]g, Remove any obstruction from condenser coil. condenser fan inlet and outlet, Make sure louvers are open. 3. No heat’or low capacity |s, Mode selector switch impro- a, ‘Set switch to LOW HEAT or heat. perly. HIGH HEAT, Temperature selector switch}, Reset switch. get incorrectly. ‘e. Ingufficient alr movement over Remove any obstructions from heater. evaporator alr intake and dis~ charge lowers. Make sure in take louvers are open. ‘Table 4-15. Organizational Preventive Maintenance-Monthly Schedule Fequence number Trem to be Ingbected Procedures 1 | Bvaporator inlet and discharge louvers 2 | Air filter 3 | Condenser guard spect and clean, Replace if dam 24 | Fresh air screen Ingpect and clean or replace as nect 5 | Bvaporator coit Clean and inspect. 6 Clean and inspect 7 Inspect, clean, and repair or replace if damaged. 8 | Housing covers Repair or replace damaged covers. 9 | Fans Check fans for damage. Check motors for evidence ‘of overheating. Replace damaged fans and motors. 10 | Heaters Check for breaks in wiring and insulation. Tighten loose connections. 11 | Controls and instruments Check for damage to any controls in control mo~ dale. Replace defective parts or control module, 12 | dunction box tomponents Check for defective relays and ctreult breaker. 13 | Wiring and electrical components Check for damaged or frayed wiring, Check for defective electrical components, Repair or replace defective wiring, Replace defective electrical components. 14 | Liquid sight indicator ‘Check for damage. : 19 | Refrigeration 2; Check compressor, valves, aud piping for damay Report damage to 3d echelon maintenance oF mony ‘Table 4-18, Organizational Troubleshooting Chart Malfunetion Probable Cause Corrective Action 1, Air conditioner fails to | a, Main power cable disconnected. | a, Connect cable. operate, b, Main power receptable connec | b, Replace connector. 2 tor defective, c. Loose electrical connections, |. Tighten connections 4. Rotary selector switch (mpro- | d, ‘Turn selector switch to COOL perly adjusted or defective, or VENTILATE. Replace a de- fective switch, ‘e. Control or compressor circuit | e,, Reset circult breaker(s) or breaker in OFF position or de replace fective Defective phat defective phase 134 2 Ingutflctent cooling. Evaporator or conden Compressor will not hn. ser fan fails to operate, |b. a. £ he L Defective control eireult tran former. Defective control eireult reeti- fie ‘Mode selector switch impro- erly positioned, Inaufticient refrigerant char; Condenser coil dirty. Evaporator return air filter, dirty ‘Temperature selector awitch set incorrectly or detective Fresh air damper control set incorrectly or incorrectly ad- just Defective compressor. Evaporator outlet louver bent or ‘stuck in closed position. Evaporator fan motor worn oF defective, Evaperator fan loose or def tive, Evaporator fan motor thermal tor defective. ower cable disconnected. Defective fan motor, Evaporator or condenser fan defective or binding, Defective condenser motor thermal protector. Defective evaporator fan motor thermal protector. Defective receptacle or plug connector Defective high-low condenser fan thermostatic switch, Detective condenser fan rel Defective evaporator fan speed control awiten. Mode selector awitch impro- sperly adjusted or defective, Compressor or control cireuit breakers or selector ewitch m- properly set. Contacts of high- or low pressure cutout awitch open. Loose electrical connections or faulty wiring. Open control circuit, Defective eireuit breaker. Defective control transformer, Defective rectifier. Defective time delay relay. Defective compressor relay. h. Replace defective rectifier. Set switch to COOL, Report condition to 34 echelon maintenance, Clean coll. Clean filter. Adjust setting or replace switch, Check setting of control. Adjust fresh air damper control. Report condition to 4th echelon malntenane Repair or replace louver, Report deflciency to 84 echelon maintenance or replace motor. ‘Tighten or replace fa Replace thermal protector. Connect cable. Replace motor, Relieve binding or replace, Replace thermal protector, Replace thermal protector, Replace connectors or recepta- cles. Replace thermostatic switch. Replace defective relay. Replace defective switch. Replace a defective switch. Reset controls properly. Reset pressure switches. Report @eficiency to 3d echelon maintenance if condition contin- ‘Tighten loose connections, Re- palr wiring if necessary. Make continaity chiack of'cireuit. Replace defective control or com- Replace defective transformer, Replace defective rectifier. Replace defective relay. Replace defective relay. ‘Table 4-16, Malfunction 8, Compressor starts but ‘g0e8 out on overload, Evaporator air output volume low. 1. Condenser air output volume low, 8, Air conditioner fails toh Excessive noie ke 1» & & he Defective starting relay or capa-| sor), (three “phase compressor). Defective or tripped compressor internal ‘temperature overload switen. Defective compressor motor. Condenser fan motor failure, High head pressure, Detective or “tripped” com= pressor internal temperature Overload switch, Improperly adjusted or defective refrigerant control valve Evaporator fan speed switch set at low speed, Dirty or damaged filter or lou- Teed or dirty evaporator coil. Defective evaporator fan. Detective fon motor, Evaporator fan speed switeh 6 at low speed. Dirty condenser coil or guard. Defective HIGH-LOW conden= ser fan thermostatic switch, Detective condenser fan, cloged position, Selector switch improperly ad- janes, Temperature control switch set incorrect. Dirty evaporator return alr fil- ter. Defective evaporator fan motor. Defective temperature Switch or mode-selector awiten, Detective heatera or wiring. Detective heater relay Defective heater high tempera~~ ture cutout thermostatic switch, Evaporator or coudenser fan, Evaporator or condenser fan motor worn oF defectiv Compressor knocks or chatters, f ke % Organizational Troubleshooting Chart--contd Corrective Action Replace defective capacitor or relay. Replace defective relay. ‘Allow unit to col. Report de- ficiency to 3d echelon main- tenance if condition continues, Check and report deficiency to 4th echelon maintenance if motor is defective, Replace defective motor. Clean condenser coll and louvers. Check fan for proper operation, Allow untt to cool, Report de~ Feleney to 8d echelon main- tenance if condition continue Report condition to 8d echelon maintenance. Hoset switch to high, speed, Fotean or replace filter, Clean ‘or replace louvers ax required. Device and clean call. Replace fan. Replace motor, Replace switch, Replace fan, Replace motor. ree louvers and control cable. Adjust control or refer to 3d ‘echelon maintenance if actuating cylinder ia not funetioning pro- perly. Reset selector switch to LO HEA or Hl HEAT. Reset switch, Clean ter. Replace moter. Replace defective switeb, ‘Tighten connections and repair damaged wiring. Replace defec- tive heater « Replace defective relay. Replace defective thermostatic awiten, ‘Tighten fane on shafts, Tighten all mounting screw Replace worn or defective motor. Stop alr conditioner and report ‘condition to 8d echelon main- tgnanc Is, 5. h * able 4-17. ‘Malfunction Fleld Maintenance Level Troubleshooting Chart Compressor wilt not start, . Compressor starte but ‘goes out on overload. Little or no heating ‘capacity. Ingufficient cooling. Low suction pressure, Low discharge. Low suction and die~ charge pressure, r Wherever possible. Safety and first aid were briefly covered. {t should be remembered that a good source of information covering first aid is the Marine Easential Subjects handbook whieh all Marines should have and read. ovenonen? PAINNG OFFICE! 1982-0-981-918/536 139 5 | ~ , is . ely Hoa at ( . 7) | eee if {it ra oa | fe Hb ‘ Pe Sas fit i FB [econes ore [oreo] BROER Og + Freche toto] £ aah; a it see AA! it a até Ee} — fe i rebar a x Hoes saasar = ee teats EE oe cs i Boge : capes esa oe eee EE re Pye eenn ee fost oe a space tt — Fig 4-82, Wiring diagram for A/ES2C-17 &48, ast 140 ra 11,15 UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS: AIR-CONDITIONING MECHANIC Course Introduction AIR-CONDITIONING MECHANIC is designed to provide yo. ‘th a general background of air conditioners and air-conditioning systems including: theory, operational procedures, instal- lation, servicing, and limited repair of these units and systems, This course will arsist Cor- Porals and below in MOS 1161 in becoming better qualified air-conditioning mechanics. The Course will provide theoretical knowledge to back up practical experience in the field, 1 2 2 4 3 4 4 3 2 is EXAMINATION: MATERIALS; RETURN OF MATERIALS: ORDER OF STUDIES Reserve Retirement 7 Credit + Subject Matter Principles of Air Conditioning Refrigeration Components as Applied to Air= Conditioning Equipment Servicing Air-Conditioning Systems Commercial and Tactical Air-Conditioning Unite - FINAL EXAMINATION ‘Supervised final examination without textbook or notes; time limit, 2 hours, MCT 11,15a, Air-Conditioning Mechanic Lesson sheets and answer sheets, Students who successfully complete this course are permitted to keep the course materials, Students disenrolled for inactivity or at the request of their commanding officer will return all course materials, 142 UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS: 11,15 MARINE CORPS INDTITUTE MARINE BARRACKS DOR t778, WasninaTon. 2. 20013 . AIR-CONDITIONING MECHANIC ‘Lesson 1 Principles of Air Conditioning STUDY ASSIGNMENT: Information for MCI Student: Course introduction. MCI 11.15b, Air-Conditioning Mechante, chap 1, Upon successful completion of this lesson you will be able to identity the components of air and their effect on air-conditioning equipment and its design. You will be able to identify basic refrigeration theory and its application to air conditioning, You will be able to identify the correct methods of converting temperature from Fahrenheit to centi~ grade and vice versa, You will be able to identify sensible, latent, and total heat of air. You will be able to deterniine the correct procedures for obtaining wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and dew-point temperatures. You will be able to use a paychrometric chart for determining the properties of air from wets and dry-bulb temperature readings, You will be able to identify the inatrumente that are used to measure air velocities within an air-conditioning system. LESSON OBJECTIVE: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT: A, Multiple Choice: Select the ONE answer which BEST completes the statement or answers the question, After the corresponding number on the answer sheet, blacken the appropriate box, Value: 1 point each 1, What is the main purpose of the air: conditioning equipment used by the military? a, To provide comfort for troops b, To control humidity in areas where delicate equipment is used and/or stored cc. Tocontrol the environment in areas where troops and/or equipment work and operate 4, To remove dust and foreign matter from the air 2, Heat is produced in a substance by slowing the molecular action, b. increasing the molecular action, ¢. increasing the substance's size. d. lowering the substance's resistance. 3, What is sensible heat? Heat that causes a change of state b. The amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 pound of c. Heat that does not change the temperature of a substance 4, Heat that can be added to or gubtracted from a substance without changing its state substance 1° F 143 Asn 1; pe 1 4, What is apecitic heat? Heat that 18 hidden 1b. Heat that raises or lowers tho temperature of a substance The quantity of heat 4. The amount of heat required to change the, temperature of 1 pound of a substance 1°.F 5. How many Btu's are required to raise the temperature of 16 pounds of iron from 35° to OF? a, 69,01 fe. 89,010 b. 72.315 : 4, 98,101 + 6, How te « Btu defined? ‘The amount of heat required t8 change the temperature of 1 pound of copper 1" F 5. ‘The amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 pound of water 1° F c, The amount of heat required to melt one pound of tee 4, The amount of heat required to boil one pound of water ‘1. How much heat must be added to 75 pounds of water to raise its temperature from 45° to corr? : + 125,5 Bea ec. 1125 Btu bi 750:Btu i. 2511.82 Btu 8, Heat transferred from one part of an object to another part of the same object is known as ‘a, convection, ec, transition, b. conduction, 4. radiation, 8, To best ald heat transfer by convection you would use a, large heating surfaces. es ght background, b, dark background. 4, fans or blowers. 10, Heat transfer that is accomplished through the use of heating coils and a reflecting surface {8 called ', conduction, c. radiation. b. reflection, 4. convection, 41, What instrument is used to measure the temperature of a substance? a. Fevchremeter fe, Anemometer b, Thermometer 4, Barometer 12, On the centigrade scale, water will boil at doar a, 100 ec, m2 b, 180 4. 215 uN ‘ 135 ten ty p. 2 144 18, Convert 41° C into Fahrenheit, a 8 ec. 2,77 be 16,8° 4.105. 8° 14, Convert 48° F into centigrade, ne es 5.58 bh 26.2" a. 82.6" 15, What is standard atmospheric pressure? a. 0 pote +e 14,7 patg bi 14.7 psta a. 4'paig 16, Standard atmospheric pressure will support a column of mercury of ___ inche a fo. 23,98 b. 29,92 a ait 11. Normally, if you take a pressure reading with a gage, the pressure you read will be ‘above atmospheric pressure. c. absolute pressure, below atmospheric pressure. d,_ in inches of mercury, 18, What fo the absolute pressure when the gage reading is 23 psi? a. 8,3 pola oc. 37.7 pala b, 23, 7pele aL 65.3 poia 19, What is used to counteract the effects of weather and heat gain or loss to equipment and personnel? a. Refrigeration equipment c. Fans b, Air-conditioning equipment a. Blowers 20, Filtration that {s accomplished by foreing air through a spray chamber or a screen of water 4 called, ‘tration, wet e. electrostatic bi alr wash centrifugal 21, What is the difference between a wet filter and a dry filter? a, Water is circulated through a wet filter. b. The air ie forced through @ screen of water in a wet filter, fc. Awet filter 1s coated with a viscous material, || Awet filter fe kept coated with moisture that is removed from the conditioned air. 22, Porous materials euch as hemp fibers or steel woo! (without oll coating) are used to construct ~type filters ary ec, electrostatic bi. wet wash @) centrifugal 23, Whleh types of filters can be disposable? a. Electrostatic and wet e. Atr wash and dry b, Centrifugal and dry 4. Wet and dry 1,15 ten ts pe 3 145 24, Water vapor present in air is the air. a, dissolved by c. separate from b, absorbed by 4, mixed with 25, What is the temperature relationship betw staclt? any water vapor present in air and the alr ‘a. The water vapor is cooler than the air b, The air is cooler than the water vapor 62 ‘The alr and the water vapor are the same temperature 26, What begins to happen when air reaches its dew-point temperature? a, The alr becomes dry b. ‘The water vapor condenses c, ‘The water vapor is absorbed by the air 4. ‘The alr dissolves the water vapor 27, Ate that contains all the water vapor it can possibly hold is eaid to be at ite e, lowest humidity point, b. dew point. 4, freezing point, 28, The amount of moisture contained in the air at its dew point varies with the alr's ‘a, temperature, total heat only. 'b. saturation point, 4. latent heat only. 29, What is required for water vapor to condense directly to th ‘2, An air temperature at of below 92° F b. A water vapor at or below 32° F fc, A surface at or below 32° F 4, ‘Finely subdivided drops combined into Liquid form 30, What {s the sensible heat of air? ‘A, The heat of the moisture in the air 'b, ‘The heat that 9 measured with a wet-bulb thermometer fe, The heat of dry air 4. The dew pointot air 31, The three temperatures that are considered in alr conditfoning are 4a, Wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and senstbl jensitle, dew-point, and dry-bulb, point, sensible, and wet-bulb. wet-bulb, ‘dry-bulb, and dewepoint. * 145 32, What will a wet-bulb thermometer measure? ‘2, The sensible heat of the air b, The latent heat of the air €. The ability of the air to absorb moisture 4, ‘The amount of aenaible heat minus the latent heat of the air 33, What is the dew-point temperature? ‘a, ‘The sum of the latent and sensible heat of the air 'b. ‘The amount of moisture in the air fc. The temperature where air can absorb more moisture 4, The temperature ut which condensation begins 34, If the wet- and dry bulb temperature readings are75* F, what will the dew-point temperature be? a, SF b. OF 5, The science that deals with air and water vapor mixtures is called a. hygrology. ec. hygrometry. b. payehrometry, 4, hygrostatic Note: Items 36 through 38 are based on the following situation: ‘Assuine that your sling peychrometer readings were 00° F dry-bulb and 780 F wet-bulb Using the psychrometric chart, find: 36, Relative humidity (percent) a. 90 e, 83 b, 78 a. 48 31, Dew point ” a. 6rF oF b. TOF 4. 78 F 38, Cuble feet per pound of dry air * a. 12,62" fe. 15.86 bi taar a. 16.41 ‘Total Points: 38 tats Isnt; ps 6 . nose . 147 INITED STATES MARINE CORPS Manin COMPS INBTITUTE MARINE BARRACKS 12.158 WABHINOTON. B. 20018 AIR-CONDITIONING MECHANIC Lesson 2 Refrigeration Components as Applied to 7 ‘Air-Conditioning Equipment STUDY ASSKINMENT; MCI 11,15, Air-Conditioning Mechanic, chap 2. LESSON OBJECTIVE: Upon successful completion of this lesson, combined with on-the-job training uaing the principles p:esented, you will be able to: identify the Procedures involved in installing, operating, and maintaining an air~ Conditioning system and accessory material; recognize the general nomenclature of the components of an air-conditioning system and deter- ‘mine the functions of the various components, parts, and accessories there= of; determine the characteristics of refrigerants and identify the methods of proper storage and handling of refrigerants; and recognize the symp- toms of overexposure to refrigerant gases and the first ald methods to be used to counteract the. effects, WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT; A, Multiple Choice: Select the ONE answer which BEST completes the statement or answers the question. After the corresponding number on the answer sheet, blacken the appropriate box. Value: 1 point each ‘What purpose does the compressor in an airconditioning system serve? Acts as a pump to move the refrigerant throughout the system. Removes the refrigerant gas from the evaporator, compresses it, and moves it on to the condenser, ©, Regulates the running time of the system, 4, Ingures a constant and steady pressure throughout the system, 2, The operational cycle of a reciprocating compressor is very similar to the operational eyele of aan) a, gasoline engine. ©. turbine engine, b. electric motor. 4, steam-driven motor, 3. When does the refrigerant vape. enter a reciprocating compressor? 4, On the downstroke of the piston b, On the upstroke of the piston ©. When the revolving blade moves tc allow the inlet to be unobstructed 4d, When the enlarged portion of the eccentric is direetly opposite the inlet port 4. Ina rotary compressor that employs rotating blades, gas is kept from escaping back to the Inlet side due to extremely close tolerances between the blases and the cylinder walls and the Presence of ‘a, lubricating oft. e b. spring-loaded valves, 4, liquid refrigerant, 143 tsn2; p. 1 5, Which compressor employs a epring-loaded blade to separate the suction and exhaust ports? a, Stationary-blade rotary compressor ¢, Reciprocating compressor b, Rotating-blade rotary compressor d, Centrifugal compressor 6, Which type of compressor is equipped with a step-up gear train? a, Reciprocating b. Rotary 17, Self-contained military air-conditjoning systems usually u open b, sem. -sealed y 8, Although hermetic compre; ors eliminate many maintenance problems, one major problem that exists ts ~~ a. lubrication, cheating, be charging. yd) cooling. 98, What is the function of a condenser in an air-conditioning system? a, To convert low-pressure gas into a high-pressure gas bi To convert low-pressure gas into a low-pressure liquid ce. To convert high+pressure gas into @ high-pressure liquid 4, To convert high-pressure gas into « low-pressure gas 10, How does the condenser accomplish condensation of the refrigerant vapor? a, By removing the latent heat of condensation bi By adding the latent heat of condonsation By reducing the ambient temperature @. By increasing the ambient temperature ed? 11, How ie the air surface of a static airflow condenser incr a. By increasing the amount of airspace between the parallel tubes bi By decreasing the distance between the parallel tubes . c, By using equally and closely spaced fins @. By using widely spaced fins 12, Which type of condenser eliminates the need for a receiver in an air-conditioning system? a ube fe, Static airflow be 4, Forced conveetion 13, The counterfiow method of condensing the refrigerant vapor is employed in the condensers. a, tube-within-a-tube fe, static airflow b. shell and tube 4, forced convection 14, What is the purpose of a receiver? jure Liquid refrigerant until (t 18 needed by the system a. To temporarily store high=pres jure refrigerant vapor until it is needed by the system b, To temporarily store high-pres ec, To store the refrigeration all 4, To store the lubricating, oll Mas sn 2; p. 2 149 15, ‘The eight glass or tubular glass gage mounted on the receiver is used to determine the ‘4, amount of moisture in the system. bb, level of lubricating oil in the ay 1 height of the liquid level in the receiver. “a, state of the refrigerant charge, 16, ‘The device within an|str-conditiohing system in which the refrigerant bole and absorbs heat from the surrounding environment 1s the as condenser. c. receiver. bs heat exchanger. 4. evaporator. 17, Which evaporator js mopt commonly used in air-conditioning systems? . ‘a, Flooded-direct-xpansion-typé 0. ‘Shell-and-tube. b. Dry-expanslon-type 4, Flooded shell-and-tube . 18, What type tubing 1s used for the Lines in an air-conditioning system using ammonia as its re- frigerant? . 4. Soft copper tubing ec. Aluminum tubing bl Hard-drawn eopper tubing 4, Thinewall steel tubing 19, How chould copper tubing be kept during handling and storage to keep it free from dirt and motsture? 7 BL The ends si 7 ‘ 4. No special precautions are necessary . a 20, When installing tubing in a system, horizontal loops are used to prevent excessive : + alr surface, cheat tos bi vibration, a. quid flow. the use of braces and clamps? 21, Which type copper tubing requir. ‘4. Short lengths of aluminum tubing c, Hurd-drawn copper tubing bi Thinewall steel tubing @. Soft-drawn copper tubing "22, Flape-type fittings are usually used in confunction with what type tubing? Hard-drawn copper tubing fe. Aluminum tubing ; Softedrawn copper tubing 4, Small diameter thin-wall steel tubing 23, What should be used in conjunction with hard-drawn tubing to make it conform to system, requirements? a, Soldertens fittings ¢. Hand bending set 7 . Db, Soldertype fittings 4. Mechanical benders 24, Why are strainers used in an air-conditioning syste.a? a, To remove moisture from the system b. To remove dirt and foreign matter from the system cc. To separate the lubricating oil from the refrigerant 4, To control the Liquid flow in the quid line nas Isa 2p. 3 28, Detydratore are used in an alr-oonditloning system to remove a, motsture, cc, foreign matter. b. dist. dt scale. 26, Strainers are placed in each end of a dehydrator to prevent moisture from entering the 9 b. moisture from entering the dehydr fe, the drying agent from entering the system. 4, Uquid refrigerant from entering the dehydrator. 21, A dehydrator should never be replaced with one that is _ the origin the same size as 28, Bubbles in the Liquid sight glass could indicate that a system is a, undercherged, ec. operaing correctly. bi overcharged. 4, on the defrost cycle, 20, The Liquid sight glass in an air-conditioning system 10 used to check the refrigerant and to determine the ‘8. condition of the charge. bi molature content of the refrigerant. fc, foreign matter content of the refrigerant. 4, , off level in the retrigerant. 30, Fusible metal plugs are installed in ar a! a, drain plugs for the bi cleaning plugs for w €. high-pressure-release safety device: 4, low-pressure safety device 31, Why are heat exchang metering device? 2. To prevent premature ‘gassing off" of the Mquid tn the Liquid line b, To prevent the auction gases from condensing el To maintain a sperific desired temperature level in the receiver 4, Towarm the ligula Line and maistain its temperature at a specific level ‘employed in an air-conditioning unit using an expansion valve as ite 12, Service valves are used in a aystem to accomplish repairs, purge or charge a system, install vice gages or epecial controls, and ‘4, {solate one part of 2 system from the rest of the aystem. Bi afd in reducing compressor load. fe. prevent molature from entering the syste". 4, control the refrigerant gas entering the compressor. 33. Which type of valve can be fitted with a tube and used as a draw-off valve for the receiver? a, Two-way ce. Reliet b. Three-way 3. Regulating 11s Yon 2: pe 4 151 84, Which type valve 1s usually ‘as compressor service valve? fc. Automatic 4. Single action 35, In order to remove the compressor from a system, in what position must the valve stem of the suction and discharge service valves be? a, ‘Turned all the way out bi Turned to the middle position Turned all the way in ‘36. Which vaive is installed on receivers to prevent damage to the system from high preséure? Check c. Three-way service b. Relief 4. Four-way service 37, What type of valve {a installed in a system to insure refrigerant flow in one-direction only? Line-check Globe . Regulating bi Gate 38, The refrigerant metering device that operates on low preasure and maintains a constant- evaporator pressure is alan) automatic-expansion valve, float valve. thermostatic expansion valve, , capillary tube, 38, What would happen if a system were equipped with a I-ton compressor and an automatic expansion valve of 8/4+ton capacity? ‘The refrigerant would become a gas in the liquid line, causing the compressor to stop. Liquid refrigerant would get into the auctiod line, causing possible damage to the com= pressor, Not enough refrigerant would be allowed to enter the evaporator, causing the compressor to overwork. 4, ‘The suction line would frost or sweat and Liquid refrigerant would be allowed to enter the 40, thermostatic expansion valve control the refrigerant flow into the evaporator? a, By & pressure/teinperature difference between the evaporator and the condenser b. By‘ pressure difference between the evaporator and the valve By a temperature difference between the high and low aide of the evaporator 4. By apr temperature difference between the thermal bulb and the evaporator 41, Where should the thermal bulb of the thermostatic expansion valve be located in an air= conditioning system? 8, At the inlet eide of the evaporator b, Attached to the surtion Line at the outlet of the ev:porator Attached to the center of the evaporator on the air discharge side 4. Attached to the liquid line before the expansion valve 42, What is the most important thing to remember about a capillary tube? a, te spray action bi Ite throttling or reducing action €. The fact that most of ite Length will be coiled 4d, ‘The length and diameter of the tube nas sh 25 p. 8 1 cn wD 43, What type aolenoid valve is used extensively in heat pumps to open or close several ports? e. Four-way Single action 44, A 2eway soleno{d would be used to control refrigerant flow in Unes, one Line oniy. directions. 4. several Lines, but flow in one direction. 45, The differential of a control is defined at 4a, “The axis around which the control knob rotates, BL The difference In temperature or pressure, between the cut-in and cut-out points of @ control, ©, The difference between the operationa: range of a control and the boiling point of the re= frigerant. ‘d, The operational range of the control, 46, The total amount of pressure or temperature over which a control can operate is the control's a. range. os cutein, b. differential. 4, cutout. 47, 3 low-pressure cut-out will allow the compressor to start whenever the presoure a, rises above a predetermined point. b, falls below a predetermined point. fc. remains within the pressure range of the control. ‘4, romaine within the differential of the control. 48, A low-side pressure control is a throttling valve that is used to reduce the condensing pressure, ‘maintain a constant pressure in the receiver, ‘maintain a constant pressure in the evaporator. increase the suction pressure, 40, A high-pressure cutout {8 a safety device which will stop the compressor whenever the pressure becomes excessive, a, condensing cs high side b. evaporator head 0, Which control operates on the difference between the pressures in the low side of the system and the ofl pump discharge? cc. Dual-pressure control 4, Oil-failure cutout ataphragm, jure controls in that along with a bellows 51, Temperature controls differ trom p they aleo employ @ a, thermal bulb, c. high-pressure cutout. b, mercury switch, 4, float valve, 1118 sn 2; p. & 153 52, Magnetic across-the-line atarters consist of two electrical circuits, ‘They are the circuit and the otreutt, a, power=-heater . power=-control Bb. control--holding 4, control--overload 53, When firat obtaining & magnetic across-the-line starter, which part (a) is (are) not usually included? 8. Lower contact points Overload contact points BL Holding eof 4, Heaters 54, Which type control is used on air-conditioning unite and systems to prevent the evaporator coll from freezing? Temperature ©, Low-pressure b. Defrost 4. Dual 55. Which type motor is easily jentifiable by a hump located on top of the motor? a. Split-phase ©. Polyphase b, Shaded-pole 4. Capacito: 58. Which type motor would be found operating a amall fan, blower, or pump? Split-phase ce Polyphas BL Shaded-pole 4. Capacitor 57, Which type motor rotor has no insulation, brushes, slipringe, or commutator? 42, Slip-ring polyphase G. Capacitor-start Db. Squirrel-cage i. Splitephas 58, Refrigerants in common u similar to today are affected by pressure and temperature in a manner a, gasoline, fc. mercury. b. water. 4, bottled ga normal condensing temperature and 50, What relationship must exis. between a refrigerant Pressure and its critical temperature and pressure? ‘The critical temperature and pressure should be exactly the same as the normal condens= ‘ing pressure and temperature, ‘The eritical temperature and pressure should be well below the normal condensing tem= erature and pressure, c. The critical temperature and pr pressure, 4. The normal condensing temperature and pressure should be well above the critical tem= perature and pressure, sure should be well above the normal temperature and 60, Which refrigerants are most commonly used in the Marine Corps today? Ammonia, P-114,and F=12 fe. Fe12, 22, and methyl chlorta + be P+12, F=22, and ammonia 4, Ammonia, methyl chloride, and ° -802 61, Which refrigerant bolls at -21, a Raz fe. Fatt bl P22 4. Ammonia 1 tan 2; ps 7 62, F+22 boils at __ degrees Fahrenheit. 221.7 fe, 232.7 a) a. 40 63, Which material would NOT be used in a system that uses F-12 as its refrigerant? ¢, Neoprene 4, Natural rubber 64, The most dangerous of the commonly used refrigerants used in the Corps today 18 . ammonia, fe. Pena, Bal, a reid, 65, Agents such fair, water, and brine are examples of _ refrigerants. ‘a, primary e. perfect BL secondary @. natural 68, Which statement about seconaary refrigerants is NOT true? a, They are not, in themselves, retrigerant b, They must be cooled and then circulated around or over an area to be cooled. They can be used in the primary syatem, 4. They must be used only in the secondary system, 67, All compressed 1 under specifications cylinders used by the Corps to package ref: igerants are manufactured fet forth by. a. HQMC, e. Ic, b, DoD, 4, SEC. All compressed gat cylinders are essentially the same except those that are used for a. refrigerants, fe. oxygen. b. propane ga 4. acetylene. 60, Cylinders containing F-12 and =22 are painted what color? a, Brown fe. Green 5 b. Yellow 4. Orange 70, Where would you find the name of the gas stenciled on a cylinder? 4, On the oylinder body, along the longitudinal axis b, On the base of the cylinder fe, Around the upper band on the cylinder 4, Around the neck of the cylinder just above the ICC mark ‘71, Ventilation must be provided in any area in which compressed gas cylinders are stored in order to keep temperature below F, a, 100 oc. 125 be uz b, 136 nas en 2; p.8 155 tr ‘rue-talas Items 72-76 complete the sentence below, Blacken a or b on your answer sheet after the corresponding number to indleste your cholee of true or false. Value: 1 point each Proper storage of compres cylinders ts accomplished by aoe 72, protecting them from any extreme weather condition, “TF 13, storing them in a cool, damp area, TOF 14, segregating the cylinders as to epecitic gases, . Tor 7. storing them in a well-ventilated area, T OF 76, marking the empty cylinders with paint. TOF C, Multiple Choice: Select the ONE answer which BEST completes the statement or answers the question, After the corresponding number on the answer sheet, blacken the appropriate box. Value: 1 point each 17, Which statement is true concerning handling of compressed gas cylinders? 7. 60, aL. tas len 2, a, Repair immediately any damaged cylinder. bi, Cylinders may be filled with any gas of the same family, c. Never alter or change any of a cylinder's permanent markings 4, When transferring refrigerants, ingure that the cylinder is completely filled, ‘Which statement is true concerning handling of compressed gas cylinders? 8, Empty cylinders may be used as supports or rollers if proper cireumétances aris: b. Electromagnets may be used to lift cylinders, ce Never use wrenches, other than a cylinder valve wrench, to open cylinder valve 4. Valve regulators, gages, hoses, and other attachments can be interchanged bevween aifferent compressed gave When filling a service cylinder with refrigerant, what should be done after the cylinder is inttially weighed? ‘4, Connect it to the supply eylinder, BL Connect and purge the charging hose . €. Chill the service cylinder. 4, Weigh the supply cylinder, When teansferring refrigerants, how should you heat the supply cylinder? With a blow torch b. Immerse it in bolling water Use the flame from the halide torch @, Immerse it in hot water of leas than 125° F When transferring refrigerants, how do you determine that the proper amount has been transferred? a. By the weight of the service cylinder i By the weight of the supply eylinder fe. By an indi ating gage on the service cylinder 4. When the hissing sound stope at the supply cylinder me 15. 82, If any guid halogenstype refrigerants come in contact with the skin, bow should the area be treated? &. Treat as if the victim has 8d degree burns, ‘Treat the victim for frostbite, ‘¢, ‘Treat the victim for skin poisoning. @, Treat the victim as if he has sunstroke. 83, What is the firet thing that should be done if a person is overcome by refrigerant fumes? ‘a. Remove him'from the area fc. Loosen his clothing Apply artifietal respiration 4d, Summon medical help 64, What should be used to remove liquid ammonia from the eyes or skin? a Water €. Sterile salt solution b, Sterile mineral off * a) Gauze pads 85, Refrigeration lubricating oils have what type of base? Water b. Carbon 86, What does it mean if you say an ofl has a low viscosity? ‘a, That {t won't break down at high temperatures or lose ite fluidity at low temperatures b. That an oil and the refrigerant will mix together without causing a chemie’ eaction That the cl will not burn at high temperatures causing carbon deposits at not epots @. That the off will not deposit wax throughout the system 87, What ie meant by an oil having a low pour point? a. ‘That {t wou't break down at low temperatures bl The lowest temperature st which en ofl remains a fluid ‘The ability of the oll and retrigerant to mix . ‘Fhe amount of wax contained in the olf 88, What should be done with any oil that is removed from a system? a." Throw tt away. fe, Save it a0 it can be reclaimed. , Save it if it {# not contaminated. d,_ Reuse it in the aystem, £89, If discoloration or odor 1s present in oll just removed from a aystem, {t indicates that the compressor is operating at extremely high temperatures. the condenser is operating inefficiently. there is moisture in the system, the low-side pressure is too high. nas lan 2; p. 10 157 11,15b ‘TES “WARINE CORPS INE CORPS INGTTUTE MARINE BARRACKS, nox 1778 wasningronB., 2001 AT-CONDITDNING MECHANIC Lesson 3 Servicing Air-Conditioning Systema STUDY ASSIGNMENT: MCI 11,15b, Air-Conditioning Méshanle, chap 8. : LESSON OBJECTIVE: Upon auccessful completion of this leston combined with on-the-job {raining using the principles presented, you will be able to Identity the Proper steps and methods of installing an air-conditioning unit or system. You will be able to recognize the prog er preventive maintenance precederes, ‘You will be able to identi 7 the propur procedures necessary to locate leake and to diagnose electrical problema. Furthe:, you will be able to recognice ing identify the proper procedures for evacu ting, pumping down, charging, and adding or removing refrigeration oils. You will also be able'ts rec ognize faults in a unit and to identify possible ce wses and remedies for these faults, You will also be anle to identity the proper methods ef hee airing o replacing major components within a unit or system, WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT; ‘A+ Multiple Choice: Select the ONE arswer that BEST comletes the statement or answers the ‘Suestion. After the corresponding number on the answer sheet, blacken the appropriate tex, 1 point each * edie iagtling an alr-conditioning system, whun should you first check for loose connections, Teaks and signs of weak or cracked tubing? @, During the initial charging b, After the system has been run for 48 hours ©. Right after the system has been uncrated 4. After the eystem has been installed but prior to the initial starting ‘Why should a bleed be provided when installing an evaporative condenser oF a cooling tower? 8. To equalize the pressure across the condenser b. To reduce the pressure drop across the condenser . To allow the drainage of the used water 4. To prevent a buildup of impurities S When installing an air-cooled air-conditioning system, how would you prevent an excessive rrige in the ambient temperature? Provide a means of exhausting the used condenser cooling air . Install the condensing unit in a cool, dark area € Increase the amount of water circulating through the cooling coile ©, Increase the unit's motor speed ‘hen, if ever. can a unit designed for free airflow application on the outdoor portion be in-talled with duct connections to the outdoors ? a. Never b. Whenever the need for ducts arises ©. Only if specific approval is given by the manufacturer 158 Isn 3; pe 1 (Other than keeping the condenser free from dirt and dust, what is the most important ares of preventive maintenance to air-conditioning systems? Evaporator ¢. Automatic controls b. Filters 4, Belte What ahould be done to keep copper tubing from hitting on something and causing unnecessary noise? Install shorter tublig 'b, Carefully bend it away from whatever it is hitting ¢) Install vibration absorbers on the unit's base 4d, -Brage tubing to whatever it tu hitting 7, What is the most commin cause of leake in an air-conditioning unit? Excessive w Excessive vibration ‘8. Poor workmanship b, Excessive temperature 8. A method of leak testing that not only determines if leak is present but gives the exact ‘ocation i method a, positive onpositive special 8, Aspecial method of leak detection is w method that 1, indicates a leak ts present but Yoes not give ite exact location, BL can only be used with certain types of refrigerants. cannot be used in a primary refrigerant circuit. 10, Ahalide torch wonld be used to test for leaks on systems using which type refrigerant? a. F22 ec F220 b, Ammonia 4) Lithium Bromide MM, When testing with the halide torch, what color will the flame become whe~ a leak is detected? a Blue e. Yellow b, Green 4. Red 12, When preparing to use the halide torch, how should the flame be adjusted? ‘2, Small blue flame cc, Large blue-green flame b, Small green fame 4. Large reddish-orange flame 13, When testing with the halide torch, how should the exploring tube be moved over the test area? 4, Quickly, 60 a8 not to allow any stray air currence to enter the tube Bl Quickly, and as clote to the area being texted as possible €: Slowly, and aa close to the ares heing tected as possible 4, Slowly, 90 as not to foul the torch 14, What is the best positive method of leak detection when testing under hazardous conditions? a, Halide torch c, Pressure or vacuum t , Soap or ofl bubble test 4. Liquia 1115 en 3; p. 2 159 15, Which test instrument should be used to determine if the compressor motor has an open starting winding? a, Ammeter c, Multimeter b. Galvanometer d, Wattmeter 16, If the starting winding of a compressor motor is open, what readings, if any, would you get on a wattmeter? a. None - ©. Overswing reading only b. Running reading only d, Overswing and running reading only 17, When preparing to test an air-conditioning unit for continuity or resistance, what should you do first? Discharge any capacitors in the circuit, b, Disconnect all power from the circuit to be tested, ¢. Disconnect the wiring from one side of the part to be tested. . Set the selector switch to ohms. 18, When using the Simpson 260 multimeter to test for voltage, which position should the selector point to if the maximum voltage value is unknown ? a RX100 b, SOV C, 100MA D. S00V 10. Which electrical measuring device must always be hooked into the circuit in series? Multimeter ~ ©, Ammeter b, Odometer 4. Wattmeter 20, ‘The electrical measuring device that must always be hooked into a circuit in parallel, when checking for voltage, is the a, ammeter. hourmeter, c, multimeter, 21, The multimeter is used to measure resistance, current, and a, wattag capacitance, c. voltage, 22, When installing the bar gage manifold, the compound gage line is connected to the a. suction service valve, c. vacuum sump, b, discharge service valve, 4, refrigerant cylinder, 23. When connecting the bar gage manifold to a unit for the purpose of obtaining pressure readings, the center charge port is @. connected to a vacuum pump, ©. connected to the suction service valve. b. capped tightly, 4, connected to the discharge service valve, 24, When installing the bar gage manifold, the pressure gage line is connected to the a, suction service valve, c, refrigerant eylind b. discharge service valve, 4. vacuum pump, 25, When evacuating using the unit's compressor, you must inure that the head pressure does not exceed paig. a. 150 ce. 50 b. 100 ao nas sn 33 p. 3 169 26, When {a evacuation of a unit considered to be complete? a, When the head pressure drops to 100 psig bi When the pressure gage reads 0 psig ‘¢, When the compound gage reads 0 puig 4, When the compound gage indicates a complete vacuum 27, Before a unit can be opened for repair you must insure that the unit {e not in a vacuum. , the head pressure is below 100 psig. all air has been bled from the service hoses. ._ the king valve is closed. 2, What is the purpose of pumping down a unit? ‘2, To remove the refrigerant from the system without having to discard it b, To check pressure tolerances of the evaporator and condenser cc. To trap the refrigerant in the receiver in order to repair or replace components with- out evacuating the system. 4d, To remove air and noncondensibles from the system 29, When pumping down unit, you should continue the process until the compound gage indicates a, 30hg. c. 2peig. b. Opals. 4,30 psig. 30, Once pump-down is completed, which component CANNOT be removed from the unit for re~ pair? a, Compressor ec, Metering device bl Evaporator 4, Condenser 31, When charging a unit through the high’ side, how is the refrigerant added to the system? fa, In gaseous form through the suction service valve In gaseous form through the discharge service valve c, In Liquid form through the suction service valve 4, In Liquid form through the discharge service valve 32, When charging a unit through the low side, how is the refrigerant added to the system? ‘a, In gaseous form through the suction service valve ‘b._ In gaseous form through the discharge service valve ©, In ligutd form through the suction service valve 4d. In guid form through the discharge service valve 32, When charging through the low side, what should be done right after the service lines are purged? fa, Tighten all connectione at the service valv‘ . Adjust compound gage valve eo as to maintain pressure at approximately 30 psig. fc. Open the service cylinder valve. 4d, Backseat the suction service valve. When charging through the high side, the refrigerant charge in the service cylinder must be ‘a, In gaseous form, b, under a lower pressure than in the system, fe. exact and in Uquid form. 18, cooled to lower the pressure, nis Ish 3; pet 7 161 38, When using the sight glass to determine the refrigerant charge, if the system is fully charged, how will the aight glass appear? a. Cloudy c. Misty 7 bi Bubbly 4. Clear . 36, Before removing refrigeration oll, the crankcase pressure must be reduced to___pal. a2 7 e. uz . bo a ale 87, Once the cranket Pressure has been reduced, how is the oll drained from it? By using a siphon ho . ‘Through the dlacharge service valve b. By using a vacuum pump 4. ‘Through any valve or plug below the oil level 38, When replacing refrigeration ofl in a unit, how much oil should be added at one time? a, 1 pint ce. 1/2 pint 3/4 pint 1/4 pint 39, Soft+solder Joints can be made if the Joints hhave to withstand temperatures thnt excet re under little oF no strain and if they do not 175 e280 b, 200 4. 300 40, When making a solder joint, how is the heat applied? a. Directly to the solder b. To the solder and the joint at the eame time c. Evenly over the entire joint area 4. Just below or above the joint area 41, When making « solder joint, why is flux or soldering paste applied to the joint? a, To prevent oxidation + BL To keep the solder from running fc. Ithelps the joint harden quickly, 4. To clean the joint before soldering 42, How should a completed solder joint be cooled? 8. With cold water cc. Let it cool naturally b, With warm water 4, Wrap with water soaked rags 43, You-receive a maintenance call on a self-contained unit with en open-type compressor. When you arrive you find that the mater will not run, What could be a possible cause? a, Thermostat set too low cs Lack of refrigerant bi Belts loose 4. Compressor stuck 44. You receive a maintenance call on an open-type self-contained unit and discover that the evaporator is iced and that the unit 1s eyeling on and off. What would be the remedy? a. Locate and repair refrigerant leak, b. Raise the high-pressure cutout valve setting. ‘c. Defrost evaporator and check filtera and fan drive, 4, Replace ar clean the liguid Line atrainer. sas Ish 3; ps 162 45, What would cause a hormetic compressor to run continuously, yet produce no refrigurating effect? -a.” No air efreulating over the condenser 'b, Ambient temperature is too high c. Thermostatic switch is improperly adjusted 4, A restriction preventing the refrigerant from entering the evaporator 45, What would cause a hermetic compressor to be noisy during operation? 12, Loose drive belts cc. Piston stuck in eylinder Bb, Worn compressor mountings 8, Oil on top of the piston 47, What are the most common causes of bearing trouble? ‘2, Dirt or dust between the bearings and the motor shaft bi Improper alinement at installation and inadequate lubrication e, The motor shaft becomes worn or warped 4, Extreme friction and wear caused by long periods of motor overload 48, When removing ball bearings from the shaft, where should you exert pressure? a. Only on the inner race bi Only on the outer race fe. Evenly over the entire beariig, surface 4, Parallel to the bearing and at right angles to the shaft 49, If one belt in a set of matched V-belts breaks, you should replace 4, the broken belt only, bl the broken belt and any others that may show excessive wear, . the entire set. 50, With the n-essure of one finger exerted at a point midway between the motor pulley and the flywhsl, "a properly adjusted belt can be depressed __to_ inches. 14 on 112 ce 8/4 end bi. lle += 3/4 a beetle 51, When testing a compressor for leaks, what would be an indication that the suction service valves are leaking? ‘4, Maximum vacuum of 20-25 inches of mercury is reached in 10 min during preliminary pumpedown, b, Maximum vacuum of 20-25 inches of mercury can be held for 5 min, cL Maximum vacuum of 20 inches of mercury oF more is reached after 15 min of preliminary pump-down, 52, After turning the compressor over by hand, at what point should the head pressure remain ec. tant to indicate no leaks? Between 20 and 28 inches of mercury Between 10 and 15 inches of mercury Between 50 and 100 peig {d. Between 125 and 150 psig, - 51, When opening a compressor for repair, what parts should be removed from the unit? 1a, The entire compressor should be disassembled and all parts cleaned and checked, b! Only the parts necessary to make the repairs All gaskets plus the parts necessary to make repairs 1s sn 3; ps 6 163 54, If valve operation is faulty, what should be replaced? a. The faulty valve €. The valve asserhbly and the head bi The entire valve assembly 4. Replace the entirg’fompressor 55, What is the best method of testing for a shaft seal leak? a, Pressure test fe. Halide torch bi, Liquid leuk detector 4. Soap solution 56, In checking a unit with a hermetic compressor, you discover that there Is Little or no cool ing in the’evaporator, little or no heating of the condenser, and that once the unit starts the wattage is abnormally low. What should this indicate? a. An overcharge of off fe, Detective valves b. An open running winding 4. Defective control etreult ‘91, When checking « hermetic unit, what would exc capacity, and continuous high wattage indicate? Ive compressor noise and vibration, low a, Defective wiring cs Broken valves bi Defective mounts @, Overcharge of oll 58, When removing a hermetic compressor from a unit you discover that the escaping refrigerant hhas a decidedly burned odor, what does this indicate? a, Broken compressor valves fc. Shorted stator b. Dehydrator stopped up 4. Oil on top of the piston 58, When removing & hermetic compressor from a unit, with which tool should the tubing be cut? | Tubereutter ec. Hacksaw BL Side-eutter . 4, "Pinchoff toot 60, After removing a hermetic compressor from a unit, how should motsture and foreign matter bbe kept out of it and lose of oll prevented? Stuff oil-soaked rags in tube end openings : Pinch off tubing ends and bend them over. €. Tape tube ends closed with friction tape. 4, Place the compressor in a moisture-free, dirt-proof container. 51, Whenever a condenser is removed from a unit for cleaning or repsir, what other component should be replaced? a, Condenser=to-receiver line c. Receiver b. Discharge line 4, Dehydrator 62, What in the bést way to clean the internal gurfaces of a double pipe, water-cooled condenser? Superheated steam €. Muriatie solution bt Caustic soda solution 4. Special rods and brushes 83, How is a leak repaired in an evaporator which is constructed of aluminum? a, Soldering cs Epoxy cement b. Brazing 4. Evaporator #ealing compound 64, What should be done with an evaporator that has become stopped up due to ofl carbonization? Replace tt. c+ Clean it with a mild muriatic solution. BL Clean it with superheated steam, d,Clean it with o strong caustic soda solution, 11s Ish 3s pe 7 Manne GOnre INSTTUTE AD MEBARRACKS 11.18 wasumaron D6. 20018 AIR-CONDITIONING MFCHANIC Lesson 4 ‘Commercial and Tactical Air-Conditioning Unite STUDY ASSIGNMENT: MCT 11,15b, Air-Conditioning Mechanto, chap 4, LESSON OBJECTIVE: Upon successful completion of this lesson combined with on-the-job training, you will be able to: identify the atepe of installing, perform= {ing preventive maintenance on, and repair procedures for air-conditioning systems; identify the sequence of steps for testing air-conditioning syatems; identify the nomenclature of air-cenditioning equipment peculiar to the Marine Corps and how it functions; ientify safety precautions per~ taining to air-conditioning systems and related equipment. WRITTEN ASSIGNMEN: ‘A, Multiple Chole: Select the ONE answer which BEST completes the statement or answers the question. After the corresponding number on the answer sheet, blacken the appropriate box, Value: 1 point each 1, The refrigerant in a window or through-the-wall alr conditioner is controlled by which valve? ‘Thermostatic ©. Throttle b. Solenoid 4d, Automatic-expansion capillary 2, Commercial window units operate on clreuits, a, 120-v or 220-v single-phase ©. 208-v three-phase + BL 120+y or 220-v three-phase 4d. 115ev single-phase 3. You are given the job of installing an air conditioner ina barracks window. After getting the unit and materials ready, what is your first step? ‘a, Fit the entire unit into the window opening, b, Secure the housing in the window opening. cc. Remove the unit from {ts housing (cabinet), . Securely fasten the braces and brackets. + 4, Window unite use separate airflows, a5 e3 boa aa 45, How often, should the filter be checked on a window unit? a, Every 6 monthe c, Every 3 months . b. Every 4 months Every month 6, Cousole air conditioners are usvally constructed with the condensing unit in the __ sections a. middle c. lower bi side a top . 165 len 4: p 1 7, What cre the three systoms in the rallitary standard air-conditioners? a, Refrigeration, evaporator, and automatic b, ‘Thermostatic, “condensing, and refrigeration fc, Refrigeration, electrical, andair-t dling 4, Electrical, alr-handling, and motor 8, The voltage in the control ayster of the military standard air-conditioners, is routed through a rectifier, e, 180-v de, . @ ittev des a, 180-v a, BL 220-va, ‘Tne heating capacity in Btuh of the A/E 32C-26 Ls a. 4,400, fe. 26,600, bi, 12,300, ad, 41,100, 10, ‘The A/E 32C-17 air-conditiouer operates on 60 Hz power; the A/E 32C-18 operat Ha, a, 60 e208 b, 118 400 11, What Js the maximum weight in pounds of the A/E 32C-247 a, "150 ‘ c. M5 bi, 225 4, 585 12, A feature of the A/E 82C-30 alr-conditloning unit 1s that It 1e constructed with Lightweight frame, (o, ruggedized frame. “horizontal” type tram 4, wooden frame, 13, The evaporator fan motor on the A/E $2C-27 air-conditioning unit operates on either He, 60 or 115 c. 115 or 208 b, 600r 400 4, 115 or 400 14, Vac cooling capacity of the A/E $2C-18 Le Btuh, a, 18,000 $6,000 b, 20,000 4, 49, 000 15, ‘The control switch on the A/E 32C~29 air-conditioning unit has __ Position(s), 1 a 3 at 16, When does the system transfor to the bypass operation? a, When the compressor and fan motors are energized bl When the alr temperature rises above the thermostat setting €. During the cooling cycle 4, When the conditioned air thermostat is satistied 11,15, wa 45 p. 2 166 Ww 19, 20, a, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, bove the thermostat setting, the system will When the alr temperature “is ‘2. transfer to the heating cycle. e. dé-energize the compressor. bi transfer to the ecoling eycle, 4) transfer to the bypass operation, During the cooling cycle the Liquid refrigerant is metered into the evaporator through a valve, ‘a, hand expansion ¢, automatie-expansion b. capillary 4. thermostatic expansion I the liquid bypass valve faite to open it would cause the compressor to bw ec, overheat, 1 4. short cycle. ‘When the selector switch is set to OFF, power is oupplied only to the a. compressor motor, €. erankease heater, i, fan motor, 4. control panel. ‘When installing an air conditioner in the through=the-woll method, @ hole, 1/4" larger than the outside dimensions of the unit, 1s cut in the wall. What is the purpose of making this hole larger? a, Reduce noise Factittate draiuage bi Prevent vib ' ellitate electrical connections tion, ‘The purpose of the NPT drain is to a, drain off exce bi drain off exces refrigerant, es drain off condensation, oll, How long must the unit be in the upright position prior to running refrigerant system? 2. 8 hr e. 10 hr be Bhe a iahr ‘The unit should be sitting at level position, but will operate satis/actorily sitting at a angle, a as bs ast When the selectur switch is on LO HEAT, one bank of the electrical heaters Js inoperative and the other is under -¢ control of the a. conditioned air thermostat, ©. evaporator fan motor, bi compressor. expansion valve. ‘The temperature control ranges from a, =20° to 80°F, c. 409 t 95°F, bi 409 to 909 F, 4, 50° to 100°, 167 an, 28, 20, 30, a 33, 4, 35. 36. mas ‘When the NBC system is in use, the fresh air inlet damper must be ce ups 6. down, Except for the two smallest units, the outside air thermostat is set to cut out at, ambient temperature a, 50°F e, 20°F b, 30°F, 4, 0°F ‘The high temperature control cuts out at oF, a, 186 == 200 bi, 180 =~ 134 How often should the piping be checked for leaks using the halide leak detector? a. Dally fe. Mon bly. b. Weekly 4) kvery 6 monthe ‘What would cause the compressor not to start? a. Fan motor fallure b. Defective high temperature thermostat ©. High head pressure 4d, Outside air temperature below °F ‘70 determine if the elrcult breaker is defective, you would attach twa insulated jumper wired, one to each of the terminals. a, two side c. midéle bi two upper 4. two lower Excessive floodback of refrigerant will damage the a, compressor. fe. condenser. BL evaporaor. 4, motor. White energising spe revigerantsolenold valve, 1 fate wo ssh, whet sould you check? 1a, Compressor motor and condenser fan motor b, Evapo: or motor and control panel fc, Coil eusinection and the coil wiring If the outdoor ambient temperature is 80°F, the suction pressure should read a, 58°65 pel. c. 125-160 pat, bl §8-70 psi, 175-210 pst, ‘What would be the second step in removing the control panel? a, Remove front paael Loosen clamp screw 1b. Diseonnect harness connector , Remove evaporator air intake grille and fitter lend, pe 168 37, When using air conditioners in FMF applications, what method of installation dove the Marine Corps recommend? ‘Through-the-wali ¢. Window mount BL Interior mount 4. Skid mount 38, Which method of installing an air conditioner would allow the gre for maintenance? a. Window mount ¢. Through-the-wall Bi Skid mount 4. Interior mount B True + False: In the cluster true-false group of items below, use anewer ahcet column a for true and column b for false, Value: 1 point each ‘The Marine Corps militaty standard alr conditioners share certain characteristics. Some of these inclu 39, All componerts are completely isterchangaable In conditioners of the same capacith 40, ‘The control penel is designed so that it can be removed for remote operation, 41, The flow of fresh air is automatically controlled by the damper. 42. The conditioners are designed to operate in exceas of 4,000 hours without a major overhaul, 43, The evaporator sections are insulated with foam rubber to minimize internal heat loss. Multiple Choice: Select the ONE answer which BEST completes the statement or answers the question, After the corresponding number on the answer siteet, blacken the appropriate box. Value: 1 point each 44, What is the cooling capacity in Btu's of the MCSHALS~208 7 a. 7,000 fe. 12,000 bi 8,000 4. 18,000 45, You have just unerated an MCOHALS-208 alr conditioner and are checking {t out, Which of the following components ie NOT part of the initial check ? a. Evaporator c. Fan motors b. Condenser 4. Compressor 45, What is the f nction of the control at C on the accompanying illustration ? a, Top sm clowga the damper. BL Heel, che mode of operation, 1 Te controls the temperature settin 4, Te aelects the wan speed, ras. Isn 4: p. 5 169 47, The air-conditioner operates, but does not cool down as it should, Which of the following would be a orabable cause? ‘4, Loose electrical connection Too much outside air entering unit Defective evaporator @) Defective circuit breaker 48, How often should the fresh air screen on the MCSHAL6-208 be serviced? Dally Monthly bi Weeldy 4. Quarterly 49, ‘The compressor etarts but goes out on overload, You check it and determine that the refrigerant control valve is defective, What Le the lowest echelon of maintenance that Is authorized to repair or replace the valve? a, ad cath bi ad a. 5th 50, What must the air-conditioning mechanic do before servicing electrical equipment? 4, FUN out the safety form, Build a working platform, Make sure unit 1s grounded, 4, Disconnect the units power source, 51, Ifa Marine air-conditioning mechanic accidently swallows some solvent, what should he do? a, Seek Immediate medical attention Drink warm mitk b, Use his finger to make hlmself vomit 4, Drink large amounts of water 52, What flrst ald measure should be administered to a victim of electrical shock whose bre: has stopped? a, Apply closed heart massage c, Koep vietim warm bL Apply artificial respiration 4, Elevate the lower limbs 53. Where should the Marine air-conditioning mechanic refer to for further details and instructions con first ald measures? a. Ecgineer records manual 6, Marine's Handbonk on squad tactics bi Marine's Handbook on essential subjects vs, corenn PRIYTING OFFICE! 1982-0-981-318/595 ‘Total Points: 53 11,18 Isa 4; p. 6 170