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Ch. 12 Kinetics of Particles Newton's Second Law

Ch. 12 Kinetics of Particles Newton's Second Law

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﻿Kinetics of Partie es: ewton's Second Law

Chapter 12 Kinetics of Particles:

Newton's Second Law

12.1 12.2 12.3

12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7

12.8

12.9

12.10 12.11

12.12 12.13

692

Introduction

Newton's Second Law of Motion Linear Momentum of a Particle. Rale of Change of Linear Momentum

Systems of Units

Equations of Motion

Dynamic Equilibrium

Angular Momentum of a Particle. Rale of Change of Angular Momentum

Equations of Motion in Terms of Radial and Transverse Components

Motion Under a Central Force. Conservation of Angular Momentum

Newton's Law of Gravitation Trajectory of a Particle Under a Central Force

Application to Space Mechanics Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

12.1 INTRODUCTION

Newton's first and third laws of motion wer used ext n 'iv Iy in statics to study bodies at rest and the forces acting upon them. These two laws are also us d in dynamics; in fact, they are sufficient for the study of til motion of bodies which hav 110 acceleration, Howev r, wh n bodies are accelerated, i.e., when the magnitude or the direction of their velocity changcs, it is nccessmy to usc Newton's second law of motion to relate the motion of the body with the forces acting on it.

Tn this chapter w will discuss Newton's s cond law and appl it to tile analysis of the motion of particles. As we state in Sec. 12.2, if the resultant of the forces acting on a particle is not zero, the parti .le will have an a .eleration proportional to the magnitude of th resultant and in the direction of this resultant fore . Mor over, the ratio of tile magnitudes of the resultant force and of tile acceleration CeU1 be used to define the mass of the particle.

In S c. 12.3, th linear 1I101II(;:IItlllll of a particle is d fined as the product L = my of the mass 111 and velocity Y of the particle, and it is demonstrated that Newton's second law can be expressed in an alternative form relating the rate of hange of the linear momentum with th resultant of th forces acting on that particl .

Section 12.4 stresses the need for consistent units in tile solution of dynamics problems and provides a review of the International System of nits (5T units) and the system of .. .ustomary units.

In S cs. 12.5 and 12.6 and in the Sample Problems which follow, ewton's second law is applied to the solution of engineering problems, using either rectangular components or tangential and normal components of tire forces and accel rations invol d. We recall that an actual body-including bodies as large as a car, rocket, or airplanc=-can b consider d as a partie! for thc pmposc of anaIyzin r its motion as long as the effe t of a rotation of the body about its mass cent r can b ignored.

The second part of tile chapter is devoted to tile solution of problems in terms of radial and transverse components, with particular '1lIplrasis 011 the I1IOtiOIl of a partie] uuder a c ntral force. In Sec. 12.7, the (1Ilg_1I1(1I" momentum Ho of a particle about a point 0 is dcfined as the momcnt about 0 of thc linear momentum of the parti .le: 1-10 = r X lilY. It then follows from ewtous second law that the rat of ehang of th an1,'ular mom utum Ho or a particle is equal to tile sum of the moments about ° of the forces acting on that particle,

, e -!ion 12.9 deals with the motion of a parf ,Ie under a cent ral [orce, i.e., under a force directed toward or away from a Ilxed point O. Since such a force has zero moment about 0, it follows that the annular momentum of the parti .le about ° is conserved. This propert I Ir atl sliuplill s the anal sis of tire motion of a particle lind r a central force- in Sec. 12.10 it is applied to the solution of problems involving the orbital motion of bodies under gravitational attra .tion.

_ e .tions 12.11 through 12.13 are optional. TIl(' present a more extensive dis .ussion or orhital motion and xmluin a number of probI 'illS related to space I11C .hani ·S.

12.2 NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

Newton's second law can be stat d as follow':

If the resultant force acting on a particle is not zero, the particle will have (Ill acceleration proportional to the magnitude of the resultout ruu! ill the direction of this resultant force.

ewton's second law of motion is best understood hy imagining the following experiment: A particle is subjected to a force FI of constant direction and constant magnitude Fl. nder the action of that force, th particl is obs rved to mov in a straight line and in the direction of the force (Fig. 12.1a). B determining the position of the particle at various instants, we find that its acceleration has a xmstant magnitude (/1. If th experiment is repeated with for .es F2, F3, ... , of different magnitlld or direction (FiC1• 12.1h and c), w find each time that the particle moves in the direction of the force acting on it and that the magnitudes ai, a2, a3, ... , of the accelerations ar proportional to the lIIagnihld s FI, F2, F3, ... , of th corresponding forces:

Fl F2 F3

- = - = - = ... = constant

(II {/2 {/3

Th constant value obtain d for th ratio of the magnitud's of the forces and accelerations is a characteristic of the particle under consideration; it is called tho mass of the particle and is denoted by m. When a parti ·Ie of mass 111 is a ted upon by a lor ~ F, the for e F and the aecel ration a of th particle must th refore satisfy th relation

F = ma

(12.1)

This relation provides a complete formulation of Newton's se -ond law; it eXllresses not only that the magnitudes of F and a are proportional but also (since m is a positive scalar) that the vectors F and a have the same direction (Fig. 12.2). v\ e should note that q. (12.1) still holds when F is not constant hut aries with time in Ilia rnitude or direction. The magnitudes of F and a remain proportional, and the two vectors have the same direction at any given instant. However, they will not, in general, be tangent to the path of the parti ·Ie.

\,\ hell a particle is subjected sirnultaneousl , to several forces, Eq. (12.1) should b replaced by

~F = ilia

(12.2)

where ~F repr sents the SIII11, or r sultaut, of all the forces aeting on the particle.

it should be noted that the system of axes with respect to whi ·h the ,I(: 'eleralioll a is detenuiued is not arhitrar . These axes must have a constant orientation with respect to the stars, and their ori rin must -ithcr Iw atta .hcd to the sun f or move with a :onstant vclo 'ity

I Mort' UC.'('ul.lh·)'. 10 Illl' IIIIL'S l'('Uh'1 uf tlw ~()I." ~ '~lt'IIl.

12.2 Newlon's Second low of Merion 693

(n)

(1))

(r) Fig. 12.1

III

Fig. 12.2

Photo 12.1 When the rocecor occelerales forward the rear tires have a frielion force acting on them in the direction the car is moving.

694 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Fig. 12.3

with respect to the sun. Such a system of axes is called a newtonian frame of reference. t A system of axes attached to the earth does not constitute a newtonian frame of reference, since th earth rotates with respect to the stars and is accelerated with respect to the sun. However in most engineeJing applications, the acceleration a can be determined witl r 'pe 't to axes atta .hed to the earth and Eq . (12.1) and (12.2) used without any appreciable error. On the other hand, these equations do not hold if a represents a relative acceleration measured with resp ct to moving axes, such as axes attached to an accelerated car or to a rotating piece of machinery.

\\ e observe that if the resultant ~F of the forces acting on the particle is zero, it follows from Eq. (12.2) that the acceleration a of th particl is also z roo If til parti ·Ie is initially at rest (Yo = 0) with respect to th newtonian frame of reference used, it will thus remain at rest (Y = 0). If originally moving with a velocity Yo, the particle will maintain a constant velocity Y = Yo: that is, it will move with the .oustant speed Vo in a straight line. This, we re 'all, is th statement of Newton's first law (Sec. 2.10). Thus, Newton's first lav is a particular case of Newton's second law and can be omitted from the fundamental principl s of mechanics.

12.3 LINEAR MOMENTUM OF A PARTICLE. RATE OF CHANGE OF LINEAR MOMENTUM

Replacing the accel ration a by the derivativ dv/dt in Eq. (12.2), we write

dy ~F = mdt

or, since the mass III of the particle is constant, d

~F = cit (my)

(12.3)

The vector lilY is call d the linear 1110111 >11111111, or simp] th momentum, of the particle. It has the same direction as the velocity of the particle, and its magnitudc is equal to the product of the mass III and the 'peed (/ of the particle (Fig. 12. ). Equation (12. ) expresses that the resultant of the forces acting on the particle is equal to the rate of change of the linear mom sntum of the particle. It is in this form that the sc :ond law of motion was originally stated

b ewton. Denoting b L the lin ur momentum of the particle,

L = lilY

(12.4)

and by i, its derivative with respect to t . \ e can write Eq. (12.3) in the all rnative 101'111

~F = i

(12.5)

tSinc(' ~1.INi ~.r(' Hot netuull t flxt'ci. a !nUl'" ri~ol'oll~ cI(,nuilicm of U newtnnlun Iruuu- of ,!'Ii'n'lll'" ("h" (,,,I1"d "" i,w,-tl,,1 '!1'/I'III) j, IIIII' ,cilil "'\'/".,., 10 II hsrh E'I' (122) I",ltll.

It should be noted that the mass m of the particle is assumed to be constant in Eqs. (12.3) to (12.5). Equation (12.3) or (12.5) should therefore not b used to solve problems involving the motion of bodies, such as rockets, which gain or lose mass. Problems of that type will be considered in ec. 14.12. f

Tt follows from q. (12. ) that tli rate of chanze of the linear momentum mv is zero when LF = O. Thus, if the resultant force acting on a particle is zero, the linear" momentum of the particle remains C() nsta nt, in both magnitude and direction. This is the principle of conseroation of linear momentum for a partiel ,which call b r cog" nized as an alternative statement of ewtons first law (Sec. 2.10).

12.4 SYSTEMS OF UNITS

In using the fundamental equation F = ma, the units of force, mass, length, and time cannot be chosen arbitrarily. if they are, the mag" nitude of the force F required to give all a . .eleration a to the mass m will Hot be numerically equal to the product nut; it will be only proportional to this product. Thus, we can choose three of the four units arbitrarily but must choose the lourth unit so that the equation F = ma is satisfied. The units are then said to form a s stem of consistent kinetic units.

Two systems of consistent kinetic units arc currently used by Arneri "all engineers, the International System of nits (Sf unitsf ) and the system of U.S. clIstomalY units. Both systems were discussed in detail in Scc. l.3 and arc described only brieflyin this section.

International System of Units (SI Units). III this syst III, th base units are the units of lengtll, mass, and time and are called, respectively, thc meter (Ill), the kilogram (kg), and the second (5). All three ar arbitrarily defln d (Sec. 1.3). Th unit of force is a de Jived unit. It is called the newton ( ) and is defined as the force which gives an acceleration of 1 m/s2 to a mass of 1 kg (Fig. 12.4). From 'q. (12.1) we write

1 1 = (1 kg) ( 1 m/s2) = 1 kg . I11/s2

The SI units are said to form an absolute system of units. This means that the three base units chosen are independent of the 10 .ation where measur ments are made. The 111 "tel', the kilo'rall1, and the second may be used anywhere on the earth, th 'may even be used on another planet. Thcy will always have the same significance.

The weight W of a body, or force of gm 'HI) ex 'It eel on that bod, should, like an other force. he expressed in newtons. Since a body subje ·ted to its own weight acquires an acceleration equal to the a .celcrution of gravity g, it follows from e\ ton's se .ond law that the lila mitude ,v of' the wei rht of' a hod of IlJaSS III is

,v = IIlg

(12.6)

IOn t),c' ot), .. r ),"ncl. 8'1s. (12.3) ""e1 (12,5) tin h"ltI in rt'/lIllcl\lIr 111('('11(111/('\. whr'" tIl(' muss III of tl1<' purticlo is .,,,,,,".'clto ',II}' wtth t),r 'l,..c·,1 of 111<' pnrticl«,

lSI ,la"e1, for '~!J,'I"III" /IIII'IlIlII/WIIII d·Ulllt,'., (F"'II(·)').

Fig. 12.4

F I >J

12,4 Syslems 01 UnilS 695

696 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

:t.zY.'lt m/s:!

\I' = 'lSI :>l

Fig. 12.5

,,= .\2.211/-

Fig. 12.6

F.llh

Fig. 12.7

Recalling that g = 9. 1 m/s2, we find that the weight of a body of mass 1 kg (Fig. ] 2.05) is

W = (1 kg)(9.81 m/s2) = 9. 1 N

Multiples and submultiples of the units of length, mass, and force ar frequ ntly us d in n rin lin' practic . Th are, r sp ctively, tile kilometer (krn) and the millimeter (mrn), the megagralll t (Mg) and thc gram (g); and thc kiloneuiton (kl ). By definition,

1 km = 1000 m 1 mm = 0.001 m

1 Mg = 1000 kg 1 g = 0.001 kg

1 kN = 1000

Th conversion of th se units to meters, kilograms, and n wtons, respectively, can be effected simply by moving the decimal point three places to the light or to the left.

Units other than the units of mas', length, and time 'an all be expressed in terms of these three base units. For example, the unit of linear momentum can be obtained by recalling the definition of linear momentum and writing

I7W = (kg)( m/s) = kg . m/s

U.S. Customary Units. I lost practicing American engineers still .ouunouly use a system ill whi ,It the base units are the units of len ,th, force, and time. These units are, respectivel , the fOOL (It), the pound (lb), and the second (s). The second is the same as tile corresponding I unit. The foot is defined as 0.304 m. The pound is defin d as tit weight of a platinum . tandard, call d til standard pound, which is kept at tile ational Institute of Standards and Technology outside Washington and thc mass of which is 0.453 592 43 kg. Sin 'e the weight of a bod depends upon the gravitational attra tion of the earth, which vari s with location, it is sp cHI d that th St.U1- dard pound should be placed at sea level and at a latitude of 45° to prop rly define a force of 1 lb. 'Iearly, the .S. customai r units do not form an absolute S st >111 of units. B canst:' or their dependence upon the rravitational attraction of the earth, they ar said to form a gravitational system of units.

\\ hi le the standard pound also serves as the unit of mass in comm rcial transactions in tip Unit d Stat s, it cannot Ip so used in engineering computations since such a unit \ ould not be eonsistcnt with the base units defined in thc preceding p<lI'<lgraph. lnde .d, when a 'ted IIpon b a for 'e of I Ih, that is, when subjected to its own w>ight, th standard pound recei es the acceleration of rravit , g = 32.2 ftls2 (Fig. 12.6), and not the unit acceleration required b

• q. (12.1). The unit of mass consistent with the foot. the pound, and tit> S eeoud is the ImL~S which receiv s an accel rat ion of I ftls2 when a force of 1 lb is applied to it (Fig. 12.7). This unit, sometimes called a S/IIg, can be derived from th ' equation F = lila alter substituting 1 Ib and 1 lils2 for F and a, respectively. We write

F = 1II(f I III = (I sin t)( I rtls2)

I AI", kuowu '" " >lid lie 11111.

and obtain

1 Ib 9

1 slug = --. = 1 Ib . s-/ft 1 ft/s-

Comparing Figs. 12.6 and 12.7, we conclude that the slug is a rna s 32.2 times larger than the mass of the standard pound.

Th fad that bodl s ar charact rized in th U.S. customai system of units b) their weight in pounds rather than by their mass in slugs was a convenience in the study of statics, where we wer dealing for the most part with weights and other for' s and only seldom with masses. How ver, in th stud of kinetics, which involves forces, masses, and accelerations, it will be repeatedly necessaly to express in slugs the mass In of a body, the weight \V of which has been giv n in pounds. Re 'alling Eq. (12.6), we will write

H'

111=(I

(12.7)

where g is the acceleration of gravity (g = 32.2 ftls2).

Units other than th units of fore, Icnrtll, and time can all b expressed in terms of these three base units. For example, the unit of linear momentum can b obtained by using the definition of linear momentum to write

1110 = (Ib . s2/ft)(ftls) = Ib . s

Conversion from One System of Units to Another. The conversion from .. customary units to SI units, and vice versa, was dis .ussed in ec, 1.4. You will re 'all that the .onversion fa 'tors obtained for th units of length, fore , and mass are, r sp ctivel ,

Length:

Force: [ass:

1 fl = 0.304 III 1 lh = 4.448

1 sing = 1 Ib . 521ft = 14.59 kg

Although it cannot be used as a consistent unit of mass, the mass of tile standard pound is, by definition,

J pound-mass = 0.4536 kg

This constant 'an be used to determine thc 1I1(/.I'.~ in Sl units (kilograms) of a bod whi 'h has heen characterized by it· weigh' in .S. customary units (pounds).

12.5 EQUATIONS OF MOTION

onsider it particle of mass III acted lIpon b several forces. We recall [rom Se '. 12.2 that cwtons second law 'an be expressed by the equation

LF = lila

(l2.2)

whi ·h relates th ' [or '('S a 'tin r on tlu- parti ·Ie and the V(' 'tor lila (Fig. 12. ). In (mIN to solve problems iuvol ill r thc' motion of a parti .lc, however, it \ ill 1)(' [ouud more .onvenient 1'0 replace

i'q. (12.2) by 'qui ul -nt equations involv in r S 'alar quantities.

12.5 EqUOlions of Molion 697

LF2 lila

I

" I"

Fig. 12.8

698 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Photo 12.2 The pilot 01 a fighter aircraft will experience very large normal forces when taking a sharp turn.

Rectangular Components. Resolving ea h for .e F and the acceleration a into rectanzular components, we write

L(F) + Fyj + Fzk) = m(o) + Oyj + ozk)

from which it follows that

LFx = mat LFy = 1II0y LF: = /lUI: (12. )

Recallms from Sec. 11.11 that the components of the acceleration arc equal to the second derivatives of the coordinates of the particle, we have

LF, = IIlr LFy = Ill!i LF: = Ill:: (12. ')

onsider, as an example, the motion of a projectile. If the resistance of the air is negle .ted, th only for .e a 'ting on the proje .tile after it has been fired is its weight W = - Wj. The equations defining the motion of the projectile are therefore

/fiX = 0

my = -w

III: = 0

and the components of the acceleration of the projectile are W

i = 0 ij = -- = -g :: = 0

111

where g is 9.81 n1l52 or 32.2 ftls2, The equations obtained can be integrated independently, as shown in Sec. 11.11. to obtain the velocit and displa .ement of the proje 'tile at an instant.

\\ hen a problem involves two or mol' bodies, equations of motion should be written for each of the bodies (see ample Probs. 12.3 and 12.4). You will recall from ee. 12.2 that all accelerations should b measured with resp ct to a newtonian frame of r C renee. In most engineeling applications, accelerations can be determined with respect to axes attached to the earth, but relative accelerations measured with respe 't to 1110\~ng axes, su .h as axes atta hed to an a :celerated body, cannot be substitut d lor a in the quations of motion.

Tangential and Nonnal Components. Resolving the forces and the a xelcration of the parti .le into components along the tangent to the path (in th direction of motion) and the normal (toward the inside of

l1\yF

/1

loFt III

Fig. 12.9

the path) (Fi'. 12.9), and substituting into Eq. (12.2), we obtain the two scalar equations

LFI = ni«, LF" = 111ft" (12.9)

Substituting for (/1 and (I" from Eqs, (11. 0), we have

II' .2

~FI = 111-, 'iF = 111-

c I " P

(12.9')

The equations obtained 111<1 he solved ror two unknowns.

12.6 DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

R turnin 1 to Eq. (12.2) and transposin th rizht-hand member, we write j ewtons second law in the alternative fonn

~F - ma = 0

(12.10)

which e).1,ress s that if we add th vector -111a to the forces acting on the particle, {ve obtain a system of vectors equivalent to zero (Fig. 12.10). Tilt: vector -lila, of magnitude ilia and of direction opposite to that of the acceleration, is called an inertia vector. The particle may thus be considered to be in equilibrium under the given forces and the in rtia ve ·tor. The particle is said to be in dynamic equilihrium, and the problem und I' consideration can he solved by th methods developed earlier in statics.

In the case of coplanar forces, all the vectors shown in Fig. 12.10, inciudtng the inertia vector, 'an he drawn tip-to-tail to form a .losedvector poly 'on. Or the su ms of the components of all the vectors in Fig, 12.10, again including the inertia vector, can be equated to zero,

sing rectangular components, we therefore write

~Fx = 0

including inertia 'vector (12.11)

'When tangential and normal components are used, it is more convenient to repres nt the inertia vector by its t\ 0 compon nts -ilia, and +ma, in the sketch itself (Fig, 12.11). The tangential component of thc inertia vector provides a measure of thc resistance the particle oflers to a 'hange in speed, while its normal xnnponent (also .alled centrifllgal force) represents the t endenc of the particle to leave its curved path, v\ e should note that either of these two components may be zero under special :onditions: (1) if the particle starts from rest, its initial velo 'ity is zero aud the normal xnuponent of the inertia ve tor is zero at t = 0; (2) if the particle moves at constant speed along its path, the hmgential component of the inertia vector is zero and only its normal xnnponent needs to be :onsidered.

Because they measur the resistance that particles offer when we n to set them in motion or when \ e tr to change the conditions of their motion, inertia vectors arc often called inertia forces, The inertia for .es, however, are not force' like the forces found in stati s, which are either contact forces or gravitational forces (weights),

lany people, therefore, object to the lise of the word "force" when referring to the vector -1IIa or even avoid altogether the con ept of dynamic ·qllilibrilllll. Others poillt out that inertia forces and actual forces such as gravitational forces, affect 0111' senses in the sam' way and cannot be distinguished by physical measurements. A man riding ill an elevator whi .h is a .celerated upward will have the f, eling that his weight has suddenly increased; ami 110 m asurernenr made within th el evator could establish whether the elevator is trul r accelcrat xl or whether the force of attra 'tion exerted by the earth has suddenly ill .reased.

Sample problems huve been solved in this text h the dirt' ,t appli 'at ion of iwtons se '011(1 law, as illustrut d ill l'igs. 12.8 and 12,9, rath .r than b tht, method of d -numi ' cqnilihrium.

12.6 Dynamic Equilibrium 699

\ x.,

o

-Hla

Fig. 12.10

/I

o

-mOl,

-ma,.

Fig. 12.11

Photo 12.3 The angle each rider is with respect to the horizontal will depend an the weight of lhe rider and the speed of ralatian,

W=2001b

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.1

A 200-lb block rests on a horizontal plane. Find the magnitude of the force P required to give the block an acceleration of 10 ftlsz to the right. The coefllcieut of kinetic friction between the block and the plane i IJ4. = 0.25.

SOLUTION

The mass of the block is

\V 200 Ib

III = - = = 6.21 II> . s2/ft

g 32.2 ftls2

We note that F = 1L4 = 0.2,51 and that 1I = 10 ftis2. Expre sing that the forces acting on the block ar equivalent to th vector ilia, we write

III = fi.21 Ih·,2/ft

"=7~'; ,

700

P cos 30° - 0.25 = (6.21 Ib . sZ/ft)(10 ftls2) P cos 30° - 0.25N = 62.1 Ib

- P sin 30° - 200 Ib = 0

(1) (2)

Soh~lIg (2) for N and substituting the result into (I), we obtain , = P sin 30° + 200 Ib

P cos 30° - 0.2.5(P sin 30° + 200 11» = 62.1 Ib

P = ],51 II>

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.2

An SO-kg block rests on a horizontal plane. Find the magnihlde of the forte P r (I'lir II to give the block an a .celerution of 2.5 m/s2 to the ri zht. Th coeffident of kinetic: [riction b tween th block and the plane is 1L4 = 0.25.

SOLUTION

The weight of the block is

W = III/!. = (80 kg)(9. 1 lll/s2) == 7 5 N

We note that F = J.L4N = O.25N and that (f = 2.5 Ill/S1. Expressing thut the forces actillg on the block are equivalent to the vector ilia, we write

P cos 30° - 0.2.5N = (80 kg)(2.5 m/s") p cos 30° - 0.25 r = 200 I

- I' sin 30° - 7 .5 N = 0

(I) (2)

111 = IiO kg +ll:Fy == 0:

Solving (2) for t and substituting the result into (I). we obtain r = P sill 30° + 7R5

P cos . 0° - 0.2.'5(P sill 3()0 + 785 N) ,... 200 '

J> - In') 1\

A

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.3

The two hlocks shown shut from rest. The horizontal plane and the pulley are frictionless, aud the pulley is assumed to be of negligible mass. Determille the acceleration of each block and the ten ion in each cord.

B

mA= 100 kg

IIIIJ = 300 kg

"I<" 2910 1\

o

SOLUTION

Kinematics. We note that if block A moves through XA to the right, block B moves down through

Diff r ntiating twic with resp ct to t , w have lIH ee ~lIj\

(1)

Kinetics. "Ve appl' Newton's second law successively to block A, block B, and pulley C.

Block A, Denoting by TI the tension in cord ACD, we write

(2)

Block B. Ohserving that the weight of block B is

\VB = 1IlBf!. = (300 kg)(9, 1 Ill/52) = 29~0 and dcnoting by T2 the tension in cord BC, we write

+!~Fy = 11l8{/B: 2940 - Tz = 300{/8

or, substituting for (/u from (1),

2940 - T2 = 300(~(/A) Tz = 29110 - 1,50aA

(3)

Pulley C. Since IIIr is assumed to be zero, we have

Suhstituting for TI and T2 from (2) and (3), respectively, into (4) we write 2940 - 150aA - 2(l00aA) = 0

2940 - 3:-0{/,\ = 0 «, - HAO '1l/~2 <III

Substituting the value obtained Ior a" into (1) and (2), we havl'

fiB = k{/A = k( .40 m/s2)

TI = 100aA = (l00 kg)( 040 IIl/s2)

fill = 1.20 Ill/52 T, = fl40

Recalling ('1), we write

T2 = 2( 40 N)

Tz 1()!,)O N

\. e note that til(' value obtuined for Tz is 1101 equal to III(' weight of block H.

701

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.4

The 12-lb block B starts from rest and slides on the 30-lb wedge A, which is supported by a horizontal surface. Neglecuug friction, determine (a) the acceleratiou of the wedge, (b) the acceleration of the block relative to the wedge.

A

SOLUTION

Kinematics. W first xamin th ace I ration of the w dg and the aeceleration of the block.

Wedge A. Since the wedge i constrained to move on the horizontal surface, its acceleration a.<\ is horizontal. We will assume that it is directed to the right.

Block B. The acceleration a8 of block B can be expressed as the sum of the acceleration of A and the acceleration of B relative to A. \>Ve have

where aHlA is directed along the inclined surface of the wedge.

Kinetics. \> I..' draw the rre -body diagrams of the wedge and of the block and apply Newton's second law,

'- ~ III lal Wedge A. We denote th forces exelted by the bloek and the horizontal

surface on w d re A by N) and 2, respectively.

702

IV) sin 30° = I/IAlIII 0.5/ ) = (\V,/g)flA

(I)

Block B. sillg the coordinate axes shown aud resolving as into its '0111-

pOllents a" and a8/", we write

-\VB sin 30° = III~/A cos 30° - IlI~JHIA

- \VX sin 30° = (\V8Ig)(lIlI ens 30° - lIRI .. )

(Ill/II = (III cos 30° + g sill 30° (2)

+ 'LFy = III/tf/y: ,\ I - "',I cos 30° = -'IIS(l" sin 30°

lVl - 11'8 cos 30° = -(\V,/g)flil sin 30° (3)

a. Acceleration of Wedge A. Suhstitutin r for ) from Eq. ( I) into Eq. (3), we have

Solving for (IA and suhstituting the numerical data, \\'1' write

\118 cos 0° (12 I h ) cos 30° ( f'.)

(/11 = " = 32.2 t/s-

2W + \VX sill 30°" 2(30Ib) + (12 Ill) sin 30°

lIlI = +.5,07 rtf 2 a, - 5.07 rvs~->

b. Acceleration of Block B Relative to A. SlIbstitntillg the value obtained for (/A into Eq, (2), we have

fllI/,' = (5,07 n/.~2) cos 3()0 + (32.2 ft/S2) ~il1 3(}0

(/HI.~ = +20 .. '5 ft/sz II,. I zor> n/,~ 7:30° <ill

'---t---

ilia,

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.5

The bob of a 2-111 pendulum d scribes an arc of circle ill a vertical plane. rr th tension in tile cord is 2.5 times the weighl of the bob for the position shown, Ilnd tile velocity and tile acceleration of the bub in that position.

SOLUTION

Tile welght of tile bob is IV = IIlg; tile tension in tile cord is thus 2.5 IIIg. Recallillg that a" is directed toward 0 and assuming a, as shown, we apply . ewtons second law and obtai n

+ ,/'LF, = 11/(/,:

IIlg sin 0° = 111(/,

(I, = g sin 30° = +4.90 lll/s2 a, = ·1.90 III/S2,/

+ 'LF" = 111(/.: 2 .. 5 IIlg - mg .os 30° = 11/(1"

o; = 1.634 g = + 16.03 m/52 a, = J(i.03 m/s2

Since (I" = vZ/p, we have VZ = pa; = (2 m)(16.03 m/s'l)

Ii = :!:5.66 rn/s v = .5.66 m/s.l' (up or down)

8 = LSO

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.6

Determine the rated speed of a highway curve of radius p = 400 ft bank xl through an angle 8 = 1 0. The rated speed of a banked highway curve is the speed at which a car should travel if no lateral friction Ioree is to be exerted on its wheels.

SOLUTION

The car travels in a horizontal circular path of radius p. 1'111' uormal COIIIpOllPnt a" of tl1l' acceleration is directed toward the center of the path, its l1IagnihldEo' is a" = Zip, where Ii is tilE! speed of the car in ftls. The III:L~S III of the car is Wig, where IV is the \\"!'ight of the car. ince 110 lateral friction force is to Iw exerted on the car, the reaction R of the road is shown perpendiculur to the roadwuv, ppl)'illg ewtons SI'COlld law, WEo' write

w /{ =-("os8

(I)

/{cos8-\lf=0

\V /{sill(} = (I.

f!.

(2)

Suhstltlltillg for 11 Iron: (1) into (2), and recalling that (I" = Ii'llp,

w IV 'l

--sill(}=-- -=gptaI18

cos 8 g p

, \lhstihl~illg P = '100 ft· and 0 = I ° into this {'qlla~i()II, we ohtuin 2 -= (32.2 ft/s2)(400 II) tun I 0

64.7 fils I' - 11.1 Illilll ~

703

In thc problems for this lesson, you will apply Newton's second Iaso of Illation, LF = ma, to relate the for es acting on a parti .le to the motion of the pal-tiel .

1. Writing the equations of motion. v hen applying I ewton's second law to the types of motion discussed in this lesson, you will find it most eonvcnient to eX1Jress the v ctors F and a in t rms of either their r 'tanglliar omponents or th ir tangential and normal components.

a. When using rectangular components, and re 'alling from Se·. 11.11 the expressions found for ax, (Jy' and a.; you will write

LFx = IJ"LT LFy = my LF: = m::

b. When using tangential and normal components, and rccalling from e '. 11.13 the expressions fonnd lor a, and (I", YOll will write

d· LF = /11-

, dt

.2 LF = 111-

" P

2. Drawing a free-body diagram showin the appli d fore s and (Ill equicalent diagralll showing the vector ma or its components will provid you with a pictorial rcprescntation of cwtons second law [Samp] Probs. 12.1 through 12.6). These diagrams \\~II I e of great help to you when writing the equations of' notion. Note that when a problem involves h 0 or more bodies, it is usually best to consider each body separately.

3. Applying Newton's second law. As we observed in Sec. 12.2, the acceleration used in the equation LF = ma should alwa is be the ahsolute acceleration of the particle (that is, it should be measured with respect to a newtonian frame of referenc ). Also, if the sense of the acceleration a is unknoum or is not easily deduced, assume an arbitrai I sense for a (usually the positive direction of a coordinate axis) and the-n I I til, solution provide LI! COlT ct sense. Finall , not hOI th solutions of Sample Probs. 12.3 and 12.4 were divided into a kinemati .~ portion and a kinetics portion, and how in Sample Prob. 12.4 we used two systems of coordinat . axes to simplif the equations of motion.

4. When a problem involves dry friction, be sure to revi \ the relevant se -t ions of Static [Sees. 8.1 to 8.3] before attempting to solve that problem. In particular, YOll should know when each of the equations F = 1'-,1 and F = I'-k may be used.

704

You should also recognize that if the motion of a system is not specified, it is neeess<ll)' first to assume a possible motion and then to che ·k the validity of that assumption.

5. Solving problems involving relative motion. When a body B moves with respect to a body 1\, as in Sample Prob. 12.4, it is often convenient to exprcss the a . .eleration of B as

as = aA + aSIA

where aSIA is the acceleration of B relative to A, that is, the acceleration of B as observ d Irorn a frame of r Ierence attach d to A and in trail slation. H B is observed to move in a straight line, a/j/A will be directed alonv that line. On the other hand, if B is observed to move along a circular path, the relative acceleration a/j/A should be resolved into components tangential and normal to that path.

6. Finally, always consider the implications of any assumption you make. Thus, in a problem in olving two cords, if you assume that the tension in one of the cords is equal to its maximum allowable value. check whether <my requirem nts set for the other cord will then be satisfied. For instance, will the tension T in that cord satisfy the r lation 0 -s T -s r:» That is, will the cord r main taut and will its tension be less than its maximum allowable value?

705

12.1 The \1111le of g. at allY latitude I/> may be obtained from the formula

g. = 32.09(1 + 0.0053 sin2 l/»ftls2

which takes into account the effect of the rotation of the earth, as well as the fact that the earth is not truly spherical. Determine to four si rnificunt fizures (0) the weight in pounds, (b) the m[L~S in pounds, (e) the mass in Ib . s2/ft, at the latitudes of 0·, 45·, 60·, of a silver bar, the mass of which has b en officially desi runted as 5 lb.

12.2 The acceleration dill' to 'ravit)' on the moon is 1.62 m/s~. Determine (II) the weight in newtons, (b) the mass in kilograms, on the moon, of a gold bar, the mass of which has been officially desi ,nated as 2 kg.

12.3 A 200-kg satellite is in a circular orbit 1500 km above the surface of Venus. The acceleration due to the ravitational attraction of Venus at this altitude is 5.52 m/s2 Determine the magnitllde of th linear mom ntum of the satellite knowins that its orbital speed is 23.4 X [03 km/h.

J2.4 A spring scale A and a lever scale B having equal lever arms are fastened to the roof of an elevator, and identical packag s are attached to the scales as shown. KnOWing that when the elevator moves downward with an acceleration of 4 ft/s2 the spring sea] indicates a load of 111.1 Ib, determine ((/) the weight of the packages, (b) the load indicated hy the spring scale and the mass ne ded to balanc the lever scale when the elevator 1II0\'e5 upward with an acceleration of 4 ft/52.

A

/J

Fig. P12.4

12.5 A ho 'key pla'l'r hit· a puck so that it xnnes to rest in 9 s IInl'r slidillg 0 III Oil thl' i ·C'. DI'tl'l'IIIi ne (II) till' initial velocity or the pll .k, (b) thl' c()(,ffjc:i('nt of rri 'lion lx-twceu lhl' puck ami till' i ·C'.

706

12.6 Determine the maximum theoretical speed that an automobile starting from rest can reach after traveling 400 111. Assume that the coefficient of static friction is O. 0 between the tires and the pavement and that (a) the automobile has front-wheel drive and the front wheels support 62 percent of the automobile's weight, (b) the automobile has rear-wheel drive ami the rear wheels support 43 percent of the automobile's weight.

12.7 In anticipation of a long 7° upgrade, a bus driver accelerates at a constant rate of 3 ftls~ while still on a level section of the higl,way. Knowing that the speed of the bus i 60 mi/h 'L~ it begins to climb the grade and that the driver does not change the setting of his throttle or shift gears. determine the distance traveled by the bus up the grade when its speed has decreased to 50 mi/h,

12.8 If an antornobile' braking distanc from 60 Iliph is 150 ft Oil level pavement, determine the automobile's hraking distance [rmu 60 mph when it is (a) going lip a 5· incline, (b) going down a 3-percellt incline. Assume the braking force is independent of grade.

Problems 707

12.9 A 20-kg pa ·kage is at rest 011 all incline \ hell a force P is applied to it. Determine the magnitllde of P if 10 s is required for the pa ·kage to travelS m lip the in ·Iille. The tali' and kineli . coefn .ients of friclion hetween the pa ·kage und t'he in .line are hoth

e(1l1al to 0.3. Fig_ P12.9

12.12 The two blocks shown art' origillaily at rest. eglectillg the musses or till' pulleys and tilt, efT,,·t olfrl ·tion in thl' pulleys and assllinin' that tht' 'oerrl 'it'lits or [ri .tiou )'('(W('('II block ami til(' horlzoutul sllrli, '(0 are' /J-. - 0.25 and /J-( - 0.20, determine (II) th(' a . x-k-ru-

tioll of ('a·h ),10 .k, (b) til(' tcusinn ill th(' .abk-. Fig. P12.11 and P12.12

12.10 The acceleration of a packu e sliclin, at point A is 3 lll/s2. Assurnin« that the coeffl -ient or kin tic friction is the sam Ior each s ction, detpnnine the ace leration or th pncku ze at point B.

Fig. P12.10

12.11 The two blocks shown arc origillally at rest. eglectillg the masses or the pulleys and the ('ITeet of [riction ill the pulleys und between block A and the borizontal surface, determine (1I) the accclcrutiou o! each block, (b) the tCI1SiOIl ill the cable.

708 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Fig. P12.1S and P12.16

12.13 The coefficients of friction between the load ami the nat-bed trailer shown are IL. = 0.40 and ILk = 0.30. Knowing that the speed of the rig is 45 mi/h, determine the shortest distance in which the rig can be hrought to a stop if the load is not to shift.

10 n

Fig. PJ2.J3

12.14 A tractor-trailer is traveling at 60 mi/h when the driver applies his brakes. Knowing that the brakillg forces of the tractor and the trailer arc 3600 Ib and 13,-00 lb, respectively, determine (a) the distance traveled by the tractor-trailer before it comes to a stop, (b) the horizontal component of the force in the lutch between the tractor and the trailer while they arc slowing down.

Fig. PJ2.J4

12.15 Block A has a mass of 40 k '. and block B has a mass of ko. The coefficients of friction between all surfaces of contact are Ii, = 0.20 and Ii~ = 0.15. If P = O. determine ((/) the acceleration of block B. (b) the tension in the cord.

12.16 Block A has a mass of 40 kg. and block B has a mass of 8 kg. The coefficients of friction between all surfaces of contact are u; = 0.20 und Ii~ = 0.15. If P = 40 ...... dptprillinl' ((/) tllP uccek-rution of block B. (b) the tension ill the cord.

12.17 Bows and B are at rest on a conveyor belt that is initiall at

rest. The belt is sudden I • started in an upward direction so that slipping occurs between the helt and the boxes. Knowing that the coefficients of kinetic friction between the helt and the boxes are (li4)i\ = 0.30 and (1i~)8 = 0.32. cletprmine the initial acceleration of each box.

~.

Fig. P12.17

J2. J8 Knowing that the s stem shown starts from rest, find the velocity at t = 1.2 s of (a) collar A, (b) collar B. Neglect the JmL~SeS of the pulleys and the effect of f riction.

Problems 709

Fig. PI2.IB

15 kg

12.19 Each of the systems shown is initially at rest. J eglectill axle friction and the masses of the pull ys, determine for each system (a) the acceleration of block A, (b) the velocity of block A after it has moved throllgh 10 ft, (e) the tim required for block A to reach 1I vclocit of 20 ft/s.

12.20 A man standing ill all elevator that is JJloving with a coustunt acedcrution holds a 3-kg block 8 between two other blocks in such a way that tlu- motion of 8 relative to A alld C is iJllpcndillg. Knowing that the coefficients of friction between all surfaces are u; = 0.30 and iJ.k = 0.25, determine (a) the acceleration of the elevator if it is Jllo"illg upward and each of tile forces cxertcd by the man 011 blocks A aud has a horizontal component equal to twice the weight of 8. (b) the horizontal compone-nts of the forces exerted

by the JIIan 011 blocks A and if the acceleration of the elevator

is 2.0 111/52 downward, Fig. P12.20

(l) Fig. P12.19

200lb (2)

220011, (3)

12.21 A pll ·kage is at rest on a conveyor belt which is initially at rest,

The belt is started and JJ1()\'es to the right for 1.3 s with a constant acceleration of 2 m/s~. The belt then moves with a constant decelerutiou a2 and comes to a stop after a total displacement of 2.2 m. Kuowin« thai till' ·O(·rn 'il'nls of Irictiou lx-rwccu the pa .ku 'c' ami lh(' helt arc' u, - 0.3.5 ami iJ.( - 0.2.5, d('(,J'lllim' (II) lhc' dl' x-k-rution a~ or Ihe hell, (b) the displu '('uWIlI olth« pa .ku 'c' rclutiv 10

tlu- Iwlt as the b('11 'OllIC'S 10 a stop, Fig. P12.21

710 Kinelic, of Parlicles: NeWlon', Second law

12.22 To transport a series of bundles of shingles A to a roof, a contractor uses a motor-driven lift consisting of a horizontal platform Be which rides on rails attached to the sides of a ladder. The lift starts from rest and initially moves with a constant acceleration al as shown. The lift then decelerates at a constant rate a2 and comes to rest at D, near the top of the ladder. Knowing that the coefficient of static friction between a blind le of shingles and the horizontal platform is 0.30, determine the largest allowable acceleration al and the largest allowable deceleration <12 if the bundle is not to slide on the platform.

4A III

L

I 13

0'1"1

Fig. PJ2.22

12.23 To unloud a hound stuck of plywood from n truck, til(> driver first tilts the bed of tlte truck and then uccelerates from rest. K lIowilig that the t'cwff'icients of fri .tion hetwee» the hottom sheet of plywood and tlte hed are /J-, = 0.40 and /J-k = 0.30, determine (II) tlte smallest at' ,pie ration of the truck which will cause Ihe stuck of plywood to slide, (IJ) tllP an'eleration of the truck wid .h causes corner A of the stuck to r('a 'h Ill(' eud of tlu-

Fig. P12.23 I)('d in 0.9 s.

12.24 Tilt' propellers of a ship of weight \II can produce a propulsive lorce Fo; tlu-v produce a force of the same magnitude hut of opposite direction when the engines are reversed, Kn()\ving that the ship was procepding forward at its maxinuuu speed VII wit en the t'llgilles were put into reverse, dcn-rmine Ih(' distun ", tht' ship travels hcfore 'oilling to u slop. SS1IIIll' Ihat thc' lrlcttonal resistance of the water aries dire 'II)' with the sqnare oi' the veloctty,

12.25 A constant force P is applied to a piston and rod of total mass 111 to make them move in a cylinder filled with oil. As the piston moves, the oil is forced through orifices in the piston and exerts on the piston a force of magnitude k» in a direction opposite to the motion of the piston. Knowing that the piston starts from rest at t = 0 and x = 0, show that the equation relating .r, v. and t, where x is the distance traveled by the piston and V is the speed of the piston, is linear in each of these variables.

12.26 A sprin' AB of constant k is attach d to a support at A and to a collar of mass 111. Tlw unstretched length of th spring is l. Knowing that the collar is releas d from r est at r = Xo and neglect. ing friction between the collar and the horizontal rod, determin the magnitud of the velocity of the collar as it passes throuzh point C.

I

I

.1

Fig. P12.26

12.27 Dete-rmine the maximum theoretical speed that a 2700·lb uutomobile starting from rest can reach after traveling a quarter of a mile if air resistance is considered. Assume that the coefficient of static friction between the tires ami the pavement is 0.70, that the automohile has front-x heel drive, that the front wheels support 62 p'rcent of the uutornohile's weigh!, and that the aerodynamic drag D has a l1lagnitude D = 0.012v-, where D ami J) are expressed in pounds and ftls, respectively.

12.28 The coefficients of fri ·lion between blocks A and C and the horizontal surfa .es are Jk, = 0.24 and Jkk = 0.20. Knowillg that iliA = 5 kg, 1118 = 10 kg, alld IIle = 10 kg, dl'tenninl' (II) the teusion ill (hl' .onl, (iJ) the ucceleruuon of each block.

Fig. P12.28

12.29 Solve Proh. 12.28, tlssllluin' iliA - 5 kz, 1118 - 10 k,. and lIIe - 20 ku.

Problems 711

Fig. P12.25

712 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Fig. P12.30 and P12.31

Fig. PJ2.33

B

c

(tI)

Fig. PJ2.34

12.30 Blocks A and B weigh 20 Ib each, block C weighs 14 lb, and block D weighs 16 lb. Knowinz that a downward force of magnitude 24 Ib is applied to block D, determine (a) the acceleration of each block, (b) the tension in cord ABC. Neglect the weights of the pulleys and the effect of friction.

12.31 Blocks A and B weigh 20 Ib each, block C weighs 1-1 Ib, and block D weighs 16 lb. Knowing that a downward force of magnitude 10 Ib is applied to block B and that the system starts from rest, determine at t = 3 s the velocity (a) of D relative to A, (b) of C relative to D. eglect the weights of the pulleys and the effect of friction.

12.32 The IS-kg block B is support d hy the 25-kg block A and is attached to a cord to which a 225- horizontal force is applied as shown. I eglecting friction, determine (a) the acceleration of block A, (b) the acceleration of block B relative to A.

2.') kg

Fig. PJ2.32

12.33 Blot:k B of mass 10 kg rests as shown on the npper surface of a 22-kg wedge A. Knowing that the S)'St(~1II is released from rest and ne rlecting friction, det >nnine (a) the acceleration of B, (b) the velocity of B relative to A at I = 0.5 s.

12.34 A 110-11> sliding panel is supported b rollers at B ami C. A 25-lb conntcrweight A is attached to a cuble as shown and, i n C~lSPs a and c, is initially in contact with a vertical ed te of the panel. Neglpcting friction, determine in pach case shown the acceleration of the panel and the tension in the cord inunediutely after the s stem is released [rom rest.

B

c

c

B

(Ii)

(r)

12.35 A SOO-Ib crate B is suspended [rom a cable attached to a 40-lb trolley A which rides on an inclined l-beam as shown. Knowing that at the instant shown the trolley has an acceleration of 1.2 ft/s2 up and to the right, determine (a) the acceleration of B relative to A, (b) the t nsion in cable CD.

12_36 During a hammer thrower's practic swings, the 7.1-kg head A of the hammer revolves at a constant speed l) in a horizontal cirel as shown. If p = 0.93 m and (J = 60°, determine (a) the tension in wire BC, (b) the speed of the hammer's head.

Fig. P12.36

12.37 A 4.50-g tetherball A is movinz along a horizontal circular path at a constant speed of 4 m/s. Determiue (II) the angle (J that the cord forms with pole BC, (h) the tension in the .ord,

/

Fig_ P12.37

Fig. PJ2.35

Problems 713

T

8

714 Kinetics of Porticles: Newton's Second Low

12.38 A single wire ACB of length 80 in. passes through a ring at C that is attached to a sphere which revolv S at a constant speed . in the horizontal circle shown. Knowing the 8, = 60° and 82 = 30° and that the tension is the same in both portions of the wire, deterrnin the speed o,

Fig. P12.38, P12.39, and P12.40

12.39 A single wire ACB passes throllgh a ring at C that is attached to a 12-lh sphere which revolves at a constant speed (; in the horizontal circle shown, Knowing that 8t = 50° and d = 30 in. and that the tension in both portions of the wire is 7.6 Ib, determine (l/) the angle O2 (b) the speed c,

12.40 Two wires AC and BC are ti ad at C to a 7-kg sphere which revolv s at a constant speed Li in till' horizontal circle shown. Knowin r that 8, = 55° and 8_ = 30° and that d = 1.01 m, determine the range of val lies of Li fill' which both win's remain taut.

12.41 IOO-g spIlt"'" J) is at rest I'l'latiw to <lrllll' ABC which rotutr-s at

a coustuiu rute. I'rll'ctillg fri -t ion, dl't('l'Inine tllP rallgl' III' till' allowuble values of till' ,'('Iodt t: of tI.l' 'phl'l'I' if ,witl'l'r of till' uonnul forces eXl'rtp<1 h till' splwrl' on till' inclined surfaces of tit!' drum is to !'xceed 1.1

Fig. P12.41

'12.42 As part of an outdoor display, a 12-lb model G of the earth is attached to wires ;\G and BG and revolves at a constant speed v in the horizontal circle shown, Determine the range of the a.110\\'able values of IJ if both wires ar to remain taut and if the tension in either of the wires is not to exceed 26 lb.

Problems 715

c

1.21[,

Fig. P12.42

'12.43 The 1.2-11> flyballs of a centrifugal gO\'ernor revolve at a constant speed ill the horizontal cir ,Ie of G-in. radius shown, leglectillg the weights of links AB, BG, D, and DE and requiring that the link SUppOl-t 0111 <tensll forces, determine the rallge of the allowable values of v so that the magnitudes of the forces in the links

do not exceed 171b, Fig_ P12.43

12.44 A child having a muss of 22 kg sits on a swing and is h ild in the position shown by a second child, Nc fleeting the muss of the swing, dctcrmin ' the tension ill rope B ((/) while the second child holds the swing with his arms outstretched horizontal! " (b) iuunediatcly after the swing is released,

A

Fig. P12.44

716 Kinetics of Porticles: Newton's Second Low

Fig. P12.4S

12.45 A GO-kg wrecldng ball B is attached to a 15-m-long steel cabl AB and swings in the vertical arc shown. Determine the tension in the cable (a) at the top C of the swing, (b) at the bottom D of the swing, where the speed of B is 4.2 m/s.

12.46 D"ring a high-speed chase, a 2400-lb 'ports car traveling at a speed of 100 mi/l, just loses contact with the road as it reaches the crest A of a hill. (a) Determine the radius of curvature p of the vertical profile of the road at A. (b) si"g the value of p found in part a, determine the force exerted 0" a IGO-Ib driver by the seat of his 3100-lb car as the car, tmveling at a con ·tant speed of 50 mi/h, passes through A.

A

Fig. P12.46

12.47 The portion of a tobuggan ruu shown is .ontalned ill a vertical plane. ections AB and CD have radii of .urvature as indicated, and section BC is straight and forms an angle of 20· with the horizontal. Knowing that the 'oefficient of kinetic friction betwe n a sled and the run is 0.10 and that tl,e speed of the sled is 2 ftls at B, determine the tangential 'U1nponent of the ac .elerutiou of the sled (lI) just before it reach s B, (b) just after it passes C.

A 60ft

40 n

l

/0"

Fig. P12.47

12.48 A series of small packages. each with a mass of 0.5 kg, ar dis- Problems 717

dmrg d from a conveyor belt as shuwn. Knowing that the coefflcient of static friction between each package and the conveyor belt is 0.4, determine {a} the force exerted by the belt on the package just after it has passed point A, {b} the angle (J defining the point B where the packages first slip relative to the belt.

12.49 A 54-kg pilot flies a jet trainer in a half vertical loop uf 1200-1Il radius so that the speed of the trainer decrease' at a constant rate. Knowing that the pilot's apparent weights at pOints 1\ and Care 16 0 and 350 N, respective] " determine the force exerted 011

Iter hy the seat of the trainer when the trainer is at point B. Fig. P12.48

c
..... "
"
,
\
1200.11 \ --------_--

8

I I

I

/ /

" _-

---

A

Fig. P12.49

12.50 A 2,50-g block fits inside a small cnvit cut in arm OA, whi 'h rotates in the vertical plane at a constant rate such that = 3 m/s. Knowing that the spring exerts on block B a fore of magnitllde P = 1.,5 and neglecting the efr, ct of friction, det nnine the I1In 'P of val lies of 11 for which block B is in contact with the Iace of the cavit clos st to th axis of rotation O.

II

Fig. P12.S0

12.51 A .u rve ill a speed track has a radius of 1000-ft and a rated 'peed of 120 mi/l). (See Sample Proh, 12.6 for the definition of rated speed.) Knowing that a racing car starts skiddillg on the curve when trawling at a 'Iwl'd of 180 mi/h, dl'll'rl11illl' (II) tlte banking angle 0, {b} tlte xx-Iflclcut of stutlc friction lx-twceu tltl' tires and the tra .k under the prevailing xmditlous. (c) tlte minhuum pl'('d

at whi ,It the sallie -ur .ould 11(' fotiatl' tlu- '111'\,l', Fig. P12.S1

718 Kinetics of Porticles: Newton's Second Low

12.52 A car is tra"ding on a banked road at a constant speed u, Determine the range of values of v for which the car does not skid. Express your answer in terms of the radius r of the curve, the banking angle (J, and the angle of static friction 4J, between the tires and the pavelllent.

12.53 Tilting trains, such a' the America,. Flyer which will TI1l1 from Washington to ew York and Boston, are designed to travel safely at high speeds on curved sections of track which were built for slower, conventional trains, s it enters a curve, each car is tilted b hvdraulic actuators mounted on its trucks, The tilting feature or'the cars also increases passenger comfort b), eliminating or greatly reducing the side force F, (parallel to the floor of the car) to which passengers feel subjected. For a train traveling at 100 rni/h on a curved section of track banked through an angle (J = 6° and wit It a rated speed of 60 mi/h, determine (1I) the magnihlde of the side force felt b), a passenger of weight w in a standard car with no tilt (</J = 0), (b) the required angle of tilt </J if the passenger is to feel no side force. (See Sample Prob. 12.6 for the definition of rated speed.)

Fig. P12.53 and P12.54

12.54 Tests carried out with the tilting trains described in Proh. 12.53 revealed that passen rers 1'1'1'1 clueas' when tIle), see throu rh the car windows that the train is roundillg a curve at Itiglt speed. yet do not fpel any side for '(', ('sigtu·rs. therefore, prefer to reduce, but not climiuute that force. For the t ruiu of Prob. 12 . .53. determille till' requirccl 1I11gl(· or tilt </J if passengers are to f{'el sit!(' forces equul to 10 if or their wl'ights.

12.55 A small, 300-g collar D call slide on portion AS of a rod which is bent as shown. Knowing that a = 40° and that the rod rotates about the vertical AC at a constant rate of 5 rad/s, determine the value of r for which the collar will not slide on the rod if the effect of friction between the rod and the collar is neglected.

12.56 A small, 200-g collar D call slide on portion AS of a rod which is bent as shown, Knowing that the rod rotates about the vertical AC at a constant rate and that a = 30° and r = 600 111111, determine the rallge of valu s of the speed u for which the collar will not slide on the rod if the coefflcieut of tatic friction between the rod and the collar is 0.30.

12.57 A small, O.o-Ib 'ollar D 'an slide on portion 8 of a rod which is bent as shown. Knowing that r = II in. and that the rod rotates about the verti ·,,1 AC at a constant rate of 10 rad/s, determine the smallest allowable value of the 'oem 'ient of stati ' fri -tion between the ·ollar and the rod if the collar is not to slide when (a) a = 1.'50, (b) a = 45°. Indicate for each .ase the dire .tion of the impending motion.

12.58 A semicircular slot of LD-in. radius is cut in a nat plate which rotates about the vertical AD at a constant rate of 14 rad/s. small, O. -Ib block E is desi rned to slide in the slot as the plate rotates. Knowin r that the coefficients of friction are J.l,\ = 0.35 and iJ.k = 0.25, determine wllPtlll'r the block will slid« in till' slot if it is rei used in the position corresponding to (a) 8 = 80°, (b) 8 = 40°. Also determin the rna ruitude and the direction of the friction fim_.e exerted on the block Immediately after it is released.

12.59 Three seconds after a polisher is started [rom rest, small tufts of Ileece from along the circumference of the 225-mm-dianlPter polishing pad are observed to By free of the pad. If the polisher is started so that the fleece along the circumfsrenee undergoes a constant tangential acceleration of 4 lll/s2, determine (il) the speed u of a tuft as it leaves the pad, (IJ) the magnih.tde of the force required to free a tllft if the average III'L~S of a tuft is 1.6 mg.

Fig. P12.S9

Problems 719

B

Fig. P12.SS, P12.S6, and P12.S7

1-26 in.

c

Fig. P12.S8

12.60 A turntable A is built into a stage for lise in a theatrical production, It is obse-rved durillg a rehearsal that a trunk H starts to slide (III tht' turntable 105 after tlu- turntable bpgills to rotate. Knowing that thl' trunk IIndergoes a constant tallgential a' 'eleration 01'0.24111/52, dl'tl'l'Illin' the ,()(,ffj 'iellt of stati ' fri ·tion bcrwcen the trunk ami

tlu- turntable, Fig. P12.60

720 Kinelic, of Porticlas: Newton', Second law

1 l, ---.j

Fig. P12.63

12.61 The parallel-link mechanism ABeD is used to transport a compo· nent I betw n manufacturing processes at stations E, F, and G by picking it lip at a station when 0 = 0 and depositing it at the next station when 0 = 1 0°. Knowing that member Be remain' horizontal throughout its motion and that links AB and Cl) rotate at a constant rate in a vertical plane in such a way that V8 = 2.2 ftls. determine (a) the minimum value of the coefficient of static friction between the component and Be if the component is not to slide Oil Be while being trans ferred, (b) the values of 0 for which sliding Los impending.

Fig. P12.61

12.62 Knowing that the coefficients of friction between the component 1 and member Be of the mechanism of Proh. 12.61 are IL, = 0.35 and ILl = 0.25, tI termine (0) the maximum allowable constant speed V8 if the component is not to slide on Be whll bein r trans~ IT d, (b) the values of (J for whi .h slidin , is impending.

12.63 In the cathode-ru , tube shown, I set ron S emitted b the cathode and attracted by th anode pass throllgh a small hole in the anod and then travel in a strai rht line with a speed Co until they strike the screen at A. However, if a difference of potential V is established between the two purullel plates, the electrons will 1)(, slIbjected to a forcl! F perpendicular to tIll' plutes \ hill' till! travel between the plates ane! will strike the SCI"('eIl at point B, which is at a distance li [rom A. The Iliagnitlide of till' force F is F = eV/d, when> -I' is the dlarge of an electron and d is dIP distance between tlw plates. Derive an expression for the deflection dill terms of V, Co, the charge =t: and the mass III of llll electron, and the dimensions d, I, and L.

12.64 III Prob. 12.63, determine the smallest allowable value of the ratio (III ill te-rms of e, III, VII, and if at x = I the minimum pe-rmissible distance between till' path of the electrons and the positive plate is 0.05cl.

12.65 The current model or a cathode-ray tube is to he modified so that the lellgth or the tube and the spacing between tile plates are reduced h . 40 percent and 20 percent, respective! . rr the size or rhc s 'fl'('11 is to remain 1'111.' sallie, detl'rl1lillt' tln- 11('\ It·ngth l' of tilt· plates asslIlllillg that all of thl' other .haruclcristics of the tlilp are to remnin 1111 -hallged. (S('(' 1 rob. 12.6 for a til'S .ription of tl cathode-ru tube.)

12.7 ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A PARTICLE. RATE OF CHANGE OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM

12.7 Angulor Momenrum of 0 Porricle. Rore of 721 Change of Angular Momenlum

onsid I' a parti le P or rna s m moving with I' s1' 't to a n wtonian frame of reference OX!};:'. As we saw in Sec. 12.3, the linear momentum of the particle at a given instant is defined as the vector mv obtained by multiplying the velocity y of the particle by its mass m. The mom nt about 0 of the vector mv is called the moment of momentum, or the anglli(ll" momentum, of the particle about 0 at that instant and is denoted by Ho. Rcealling the definition of the moment of a ve 'tor ( ec. .6) and denoting by )" the position ve tor of P, W write

Ho = r X mv

(12.12)

and note that Ho is a vector perpendicular to the ph-me containing

I" and mv and of magnitucle ITo

'J

Ho = mw sin cJ>

(12.13)

111\

where cJ> is the angle between ). and mv (Fig. 12.12). The sense of Ho can b det rmined from the sense of my by applying the right-hand rule. Th unit of angular momentum is obtained by multiplyin 1 the

units of length and of linear momentum (Sec. 12.4). With SI units,

we have Fig. 12.12

r

(m)(kg . m/s) = kg . m%

With .5. customary units, W write

(ft)(Ib . s) = ft . Ib . s

Resolvi ng th vectors I" and IIlV into cOll1pon ents and appl in r formula (3.10), \ e write

Ho = x

'1

j k

(12.14)

1Il.r m y 111;

Th . eompon euts of Ho, which also represent the moments of the linear muun-utum II/V about the coordinate axes, 'an be obtained h expanding the determinant in (12.1 ). ''''e have

ll , = m(YG; - ;; 'y) I-I!! = m(;:, 'T - xv;) Hz = m(x'y - Y x>

(12.15)

III th cas of a particle moving ill th xy plane, we have z = v: = 0 and the components H, and H y reduce to zero. The angular momentum is thus prrp mdi .ular to tit .l'y plane; it is th n (,'0111" pkt!;'l)' c1ellrwd h tile scalar

(12.16)

722 Kinelie, of Porticlas: Newton', Seeond low

oL_~~-------------

Fig. 12.13

which will be positive or negative according to the sense in which the particle is observed to move from O. If polar coordinates are used, we resolve the linear momentum of the particle into radial and transverse components (Fig. 12.13) and write

Ho = rmv sin 4> = rmo8

(12.17)

or, re 'alling from (11.45) that 00 = rO,

(12.1 )

Let us now compute the derivative with respect to t of the angular momentum Ho of a particle P moving in space. Differentiating both 111 II1b rs of Eq. (12.12), and recalllnz the rui for th differentiation of a vector product (Sec. 11.10) we write

80 = j. x mv + r X Ill" = V X lilY + I' X ilia

Since the vectors Y and lilY are collinear, the first term of the expression obtained is zero, and, b Newton's second law, lila is equal to the slim LF of the forces acting on P. oting that r x LF represents the sum LMO of the moments about 0 of these forces, we write

(12.19)

Equation (12.19), which results directly from Newtons second law, states that the SII./II of the moments about 0 of the fore es acting Oil the particle is equal to the rate of change of the moment of momentum, or anoular momentum, of the particle about O.

12.8 EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN TERMS OF RADIAL AND TRANSVERSE COMPONENTS

.onsid .r a parti .lc P. of polar coordinates rand O. \ hich moves in a plane untier the a -tion or se eral for '1.'5. Rt'soh~ng the lor x-s and the acceleration of the particle into radial and trans erse components (Fi '. 12.14) and snbstituting into Eq, (12.2), we obtain tile two scalar equations

(12.20)

Snbstihlting for a; and (/0 from Eqs. (11.46), we have

LFr = 111(;; - r(2)

Photo 12.4 The forces on the specimens used L "/I = 1/1 (rO + 2;-0)

in a high speed centrifuge con be described in

terms of rodiol ond transverse componenls. The equations obtained '.111 be solved (ill' two unknowns.

(12.21) (12.22)

OL_~~------------

Fig. 12.14

Equation (12.22) could have be n derived from Eq. (12.19).

Recalling (12.18) and noting that "2:.Mo = r"2:.FQ' Eq. (12.19) yields

d o· -z», = dt(mdJ)

= 111 (r2jj +2rfO)

and after dividina both members hy r,

"2:.Fo = m(rjj + 2fiJ)

(12.22)

12.9 MOTION UNDER A CENTRAL FORCE.

CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM

When the only force acting on a particle P is a force F directed toward or away from a fixed point 0, the particle is said to be moving under a central Jon .e, and the point ° is referred to as the center oj [orce (Fitf. 12.15). Since the lin or a .tion or F passe~ throuzh 0, we must have "2:.Mo = 0 at any given instant. Suhstituting into 'q. (12.19), we therefore ohtain

Ho = 0

for all values of t and, integrating in t,

Ho = constant

(12.23) Fig. 12.15

vVe thus conclude that tlie lIngular momentum oj a particle IIwvillg untler a central [orce is constant, ill botl, lIIagllitflde IIlId direction, Recalling the definition of the angular momentum of a partie] (Sec. 12.7), we write

I' X mv = Ho = constant

(12.24)

from whi .h it follows that the position ve ·tor l' of th ' purti .lc P must be P irpcndi '1I1ar to the onstant vc 'tor Jl(). Thus, a patti ·1(' under

12.9 MOlion Under 0 Cenrrol Force. 723 Conservotion of Angulor Momenlum

Ij

o·~-----------------

s

724 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Fig. 12.16

O<F---'-Fig. 12.17

Fig. 12.18

a central force moves in a fixed plane perpendicular to Ho. The vector Ho and the fixed plane are defined by the initial position vector 1'0 and the initial velocity Vo of th particle. For convenience, let us assume that the plane of the fIgure coincides with the fixed plane of motion (Fig. 12.16).

ill .e th lI1agnitlid Ho of the angular 1I10m nhun of th partide P is constant, the ri ht-hand member in Eq. (12.13) must be constant. \\ e therefore write

rmv sin cP = romvn sin CPo

(12.25)

This relation applies to the motion of any particle under a central force. Since the gravitational force exerted by the sun on a planet is a c ntral for e dire 'ted toward the center of the sun, Eq. (J 2.2.5) is fundamental to the study of planetary motion. For a similar reason, it is also fundam ntal to the study of the motion of space vehicles in orbit about the earth,

Alternatively, re -ailing Eq. (12.18), we 'an express the fa .t that the magnitude Ho of the angular momentum of the particle P is constant by writing

..

mr-B = Ho = constant

(12.26)

or, dividing b 111 and denoting by h the anguhu' momentum per unit mass Holm,

,-2iJ = h

(12.27)

Equation (12.27) 'an be riv n all inl restin zeom etric int rpretation. Observing from Fig. 12.17 that the radius vector OP sweeps an infinitesimal area ciA = ~r2 dB as it rotates through an angle dB, and defining the areal ielociti] of th particle as the quotient dAidl, we note that the left-hand member of Eq. (12.27) I' pI' - sents twice the areal elocity of the particle. \ e thus conclude that when a particle mows [meier a central force, its areal . locitt] is CIJII.~I{/III.

12.10 NEWTON'S LAW OF GRAVITATION

As you saw in the preccding section, the gravitational force exerted b the 51111 011 a planet or II the earth 011 all orhitin I satellite is an important example or a central force. In this section, YOIl will learn how to determine the magnitllde of a gravitational force.

In his I(fW of unicersal gravitation, ewton states that two partiel s or masses M and 111 at a distance r from each oth r attract ach other with equal and opposite forces F and -F directed along the Line joining the particles (Fig. 12.1 ). Th . common mal:.'nitude F of the two forces is

Hili

P = J 0

r

(12.2 ')

\ here G is a universal constant, called the constant of gravitation. Experiments show that the value of G is (66.73 ± 0.03) X 10-12 m Ik., . s2 in I unit, or approximately 34.4 X 10-9 ft411b . 54 in

.5. customary units. Gravitational forces exist between all) pair of bodies, but their effect is appreciable only when one of the bodies has aery larze lIIass. The err .t of zravitattonal lore s is apparent in the cases of the motion of a planet about the sun, of satellites orbitin about the earth, or of bodies falling on the surface of the earth.

ince the force exerted by the arth on a body of mass III located on or near its surface is defined as the wetzht W of the bod, we Call substitute the magnitllde ,V = mg of the weight for F, and the radius R of the earth for r, in Eg. (12.~8). We obtain

CM CM

W = mg = HZ III or g = R2 (12.29)

where M is the mass of the earth. Since the earth is not truly spherical, the distance H from the center of th earth depends upon the point sel cted on its surfac , and th values of \V and [!, will thus vmy with the altitude and latitude of the point considered. Another reason for the variation of \V and g with latitud is that a system of axes atta .hed to the earth does 1I0t .onstitute a newtonian Frame of reference (see Sec. 12.2). more accurat definition of the wei rht of a bod should therefore include a component representing the centrifugal force due to the rotation of the earth. Values of g at sea I vel vary Irom 9.781 I11/s:1-, or 32.09 ftls2, at the equator 10 9.833 Ill/52, or 32.26 ftls2, at the poles. t

The force exerted by the earth on a body of mass III located in space at a distance r from its center can be found from Eq. (12.28). Th computations \ ill b somewhat Simplified if we not that according to Eg. (12.29), the product of the constant of gravitation C and the mass M of the earth can be expressed as

GM = gH2 (12.30)

where g and tb ' radius R of the earth will be !:,riven their average values g = 9.81 I11/S2 and R = 6.37 X 10° m in 51 units] and g = 32.2 ft/S2 uud R = (3960 IlIi)(.5280 fVllIi) ill .S. (;IISI0111<1I), units.

The discovery of the law of universal gravitation has often been attributed to thc belief that, after observing an apple htllin' from a h'ee, ewton had relle .ted that the earth I1II1St attra .t all apple and th moon in much the same wa . " hile it is doubtful that this incident actually took place, it may be said that Newton would not hav formulated his law if he had not first perceived that the acceleration of a fallin t body must Itaw tlte same .ause as the a 'deration \ hi ·11 keeps the mOOJJ in its orbit. This basic concept of tile continuit of gravitational attraction is more easil understood today, when tile gap b etween the apple and the 1110011 is heing Hll ed with artificial earth satellit s.

I A 1<,,.,,,,,1.1 c·.\pr{·»iH~ I! in lrr"'~ of lh .. latitudr '" wu: ~i\'('u in Proh, 12, I.

ITIl<' \~IIo,,· of 11 I, "HSit) rouncilr OIl(' "'(>.111. 11",1 II .. , dr{'UIHrC'r{'uc .. I' Ihr earth I<

21tH 40 X 10'; HI.

12.10 Newton's lcrw of Grovitotion 725

o

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.7

A block B of mass III can slide freely on ~l frictionless ann OA which rotates in a horizontal plane at a constant rate 80, Knowing that B is released at a distance ro from 0, express as a function of r, (a) the compon III or of the velocity of B alollg OA, (b) the lIlagllitude of the horizontal force F exerted on B by the ann OA.

SOLUTION

Since all other forces are perpendicular to tbe plane of the figure, the only force shown acting on B is the force F perpendicular to OA.

Equations of Motion. sing radial and transverse components,

+)" F; = IIW,.: 0 = 111(;: - riP) (1)

+ "LFo = 111(/0: F = lII(r8 + 2,'8) (2)

a. Component v, of Velocity. Since r = r, we have

.. . do, d r dr d , r = Or = J, = "d; rtf = r"d;

ui>stitutillg for;: in (1), recalling that iJ = 80. mId sep,mltillg the variables, vrdv, =~,. dr

M IIJtipJ)~ng by 2, and integratin from 0 to Or and from 1'0 to r,

V; = 0~(1..2 - r~) t, = 80(r2 - r~) 12

b. Horizontal Force F. Setting 9 = 00, ij = 0, r = Dr in ECJ. (2). and substitllting for Dr the expression obtained in palt a,

F = 211190(,.2 - ,.~)11290 F = 21119r,(,.2 ,.g)12 ~

B

IU'H

726

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.8

satellite is launched ill a dire .tiou purullel to the Mlrfa 'e of the earth with a velo 'ity of I • 20 Ini/II Innu all ulutud > uf240 mi. Deteruune the velocity of the satellite as it rea .lies its maxinuun altitude of 2340 mi. It is recalled tlrat lile radius uf the earlh is 3960 mi.

SOLUTION

ince the satellite- is J1Iovillg under a central force directed toward the center 0 of the earth, its 'Ulgulm' momentum Ho is constant, From Eel' (12.13) we haw

I1IIV sin c/> = H () = constant

which shows that o is minimum at B, where both r and in c/> are maximum.

Expressing conservation or all~,'ular JII01l1e1lt1l1l1 between and B.

In this lesson we continued our study of Newton's second law by expressing the for 'e and the ac :eleration in term of their radial and transverse components, wh re the corresponding equations of motion are

LFr = /lUi,: LFr = 111(;': - r(2)

LFo = m(/o: LFo = lI!(rO + 21~(j)

We introduced the moment of the momentum, or the angular momentum, Ho of a partie] about 0:

Ho = I' X IIIV (12.12)

and found that Ho is :onstant when the particl moves under a central force with its c nter located at O.

1. Using radial and transverse components. Radial and transverse components wer introduc din th last I sson of hap.) 1 l c. 11.14]; you should r vi w that material before attempting to solve the following problems. Also, our comments in the preceding lesson regm'ding the application of cwton's second law (drawing a free-body diagram and a ma diagram, et '.) still apply [Sample Prob. 12.7)' Finally, note that th solution of that sample problem cI pends on th application of techniques developed in hap. ll-you will need to lise similar techniques to solve some of the problems of this lesson.

2. Solving problems involving the motion of a particle under a central force. In problems of this type, the angular momentum Ho of the particle about the center of force 0 is conserved. You will find it convenient to introduce the c:onstant h = Ho/Ill repr senLing lite angular momentum per unit mass. ons rvation of the angular momentum of the particle P about 0 can then be expressed by either of the following equations

ro sin ¢ = II

or

where r and (j are the polar coordinates of P, and ¢ is the an rle that the velocity v of the particle forms with the linc P ( <ig. 12.16). The constant It can be determined from the inilia] xmditioux ali(I eilitt'1' of the above eCluatiOlls ';·111 he solved for one lin known.

icontinued)

727

3. In space-mechanics problems involving th orbital motion of a plan t about the sun, or a satellite about the earth, the moon, or some other planet, the central force F is the force of gravitationRI attraction; it is directed toward the center of force 0 and has the magnitude

Mm F=G-

,-2

(12.2 )

ote that in the particular case of the gravitational force exerted by the earth, the product GM can be r plac d b gR2, wh r R is th radius of the earth [Eg. 12.30)'

Th follo~~n" two cases of orbital motion ar frequently encountered:

a. For a satellite in a circular orbit, the force F is normal to the orbit and you can write F = 111(1,,; substituting for F from Eq. (12.28) and observing that (In = v2/p = v2/r, you will obtain

C MI7l v2

-- = 111- r2 r

or

o GM

v- =--

r

b. For a satellite in an elliptic orbit, th radius v ctor I' and th v locity Y of the satellite are perpendicular to each other at the points A and B which ar , respectively. farthest and closest to the center of force 0 [Sample Prob, 12.8). Thus, con .ervation of angular momentum of the satellite between thes two points can b express d as

728

12.66 Rod OA rotates about 0 in a horizontal plane. TIle motion of the 300-g :ollar B is defined II tlw I' lations r = . 00 + 100 .os (0.5 7TI) and (J = 1T(12 - 31), where r is expressed in millimeters, I in se .onds, and (J in radians. Determine the radial anti transverse ximponents ofthe force exerted on the .ollar when (0) 1 = 0, (b) 1 = 0.5 s.

12.67 For the motion defined in Proh. 12.66, d t rmine th radial and transverse comport nts of the force exerted on the collar when 1 = 1..5 s.

12.68 Rod OA oscillates about 0 in a horizontal plane. The motion of Fig. P12.66 and P12.68 the 5-lb collar B is defined bv th r lutlons r = 10/(1 + 4) and

(J = (2/1T) sin -m, wh re r is expressed in feet, I in seconds, and

the force xerted on the collar wh n (0) 1 = I s, (h) t = 6 s.

12.69 A collar B of Ill:L~S III slides 011 the Irtctionless ann AA'. The ann is attached to drum D and rotates about 0 in a horizontal plan at the rate 9 = ct, where c is a constant. s th ann-drum assembly rotates, a mechanism within the drum winds in the cord so that the collar moves toward 0 with a constant speed k. Knowing that at t = 0, r = r 0, express as a function of 1/1, c, k, ro, and t, (a) tilt' tension T in the cord, (b) the rna rnitude of the horizontal force Q exerted nn B by arm AN.

Fig. P12.69 and P12.70

12.70 The 3-kg collar B slides 011 the frictionless ann AN. TIle arm is uttuchcd to W'UIII D alit! rotates about 0 ill a horizontal plane at tile rule () = 0.75/. where (j uud I are expres 'ed in r.ttVS and seconds, respectlvely, As tire arm-drum assembl rotates. a mechanism within the drum releases cord so that the collar moves outward [rom 0 with a constant speed of 0.5 "1/5. K"uwi"g tlrat at I = 0, ,. = 0, detenuine tilt' time at wl riel I the tension ill the COlli is equal to tire maguihlde or tlrt' horizontal fon.-e exerted Oil B hy arm Ai\'.

E

12.71 TlreiOO-g pill 8 slides al(Jllg the slot ill tire !'Otating ann 0 and al(Jllg tire slot DE which is .ut ill a fixed horizontul plate. leglect[n ' rri .tiou aud kllowillg that rod OC rotates at the constant rate L

00 12 rud/s, dl'tl'nllill(' for unv giV!'1I vnlu« of 0 «(I) the radial ami

IrnIlSV('I'S(' C()IIII'X)IIl'''ts of tlu- n-xultuut f(u' '(' F (' ertcd Oil pill 8,

(b) tlt(' f(U'C('S P ami l'x('rt('d Oil pill 8 by rod ami tlu- wall 0.2 In

or slot DE, I'('SIW'li\1'ly. Fig. P12.71

729

730 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Fig. P12.72

Fig. P12.76

·'2.72 Slider C has a weight of 0.5 III and may move in a slot cut in arm 1\B, which rotates at the constant rate 80 = 10 radJs in a horizontal plane. The slider is attached to a spring of constant k = 2.5 Ihlft, which is unstretched when r = O. Knowing that the slider is released from rest with 110 radial velocity ill the position r = 1 in. and neglecting friction, determine for the position r = 12 in. (a) the radial and transverse components of tile velocity of the slider, (b) the radial and transverse components of its acceleration, (c) the horizontal force exerted on the slider b arm AB.

·'2.73 Solve Prob, 12.72, assuming that the spring is unstretched when slider C is located 2 in. to the left of tile midpoint 0 of arm AB (r = -2 in.).

12.74 A particle of mass 111 is projected from point 1\ with an initial velocity Vo perpendicular to line OA and moves under a central lorce F along a semicircular path of diameter OA. Observing that r = ro cos 8 and using Eq. (12.27), show that the speed of the particle is I) = vO/cos2 8.

~-------ro--------~

Fig. P12.74

12.75 For the particle of Proh, 12.74, determine the tang ntial COI1lPOnent fl, of the central force F alollg the tangent to the path of the particle for (a) 8 = 0, (b) (J = 4.5°.

12.76 A particle of mass III is projected From point A with all initial velocity Vo perpendicular to line OA and moves under a central f(n'ce F directed away from the center of force O. Knowillg tim! the particl ' follows a path deflned b the equation r = ro cos 28 and using Eq. (12.27), express the radial and tram ... ·erse components uf the velo 'ity v of the particle as functions of (J.

12.77 For til(-' particle uf Prob, 12.76, show (II) that the velo 'it)' of the particle aud the central force Fare proportional tu the distance r [rom the particle to the center of force O. (b) that the radius of curvature of the path is proportiunal to rJ.

12.78 The radius of the orbit of a moun of a gh'cn planet is equal tu twi .(' tlu- radius of that planet. Denotmu b p tht' 111(':111 density III' th" plunet, show thaI th· tilll(, required by tht' Ill(K)1I to COII1- pletc Oil' full revolution about the plnnet is (241T1 ,p)112. where

is the constuut of gravital iou.

12.79 Show that the radius r of the orhit of a 11100n of a given planet can he determined from the radius R of the planet, the accel ration of gravity at the surface of the planet, ami the time T required by the moon to complete one full r volution about the planet. Determine the acceleration of gravity at the surface of the planet Jupiter knowing that H = 71 492 kill ant! that T = 3.551 days and r = 670.9 X 103 kin for its 1110011 Europa.

Problems 731

12_80 Communi 'ation satellites are placed in a geos. nchronous orbit, i.e., ill a .l r .ular orbit such that they complete one fllll revolution about the earth ill one sidereal day (23.934 h), and thus appear stationary with respect to the ground. Deternune (0) the altitude of these satellite' above the surface of the earth, (b) the velo 'it)' with whi ·1, they des ·ribe their orbit. Civ the answers in hoth SI and .S. customary units,

12.81 Determin the mass of the earth knowing that the mean radius of the moon's orbit about the earth is 238,910 mi and that the moon reqllir S 27.32 days to complete one full revolution ahout the earth.

12.82 A spacecraft is placed into a polar orbit about the planet Mars at an altitude of 380 km. Knowiug that the mean density of Mars is 3.94 Mg/1l13 and that the radius of Mars is 3397 km, determine (a) the time T required fur the spacecraft to complete one full revolution about Mars. (b) the velocity with which the spacecraft describes its orbit.

12.83 A satellite is pia 'ed into a cir -ular orbit about the planet Saturn at an altitude of 2100 mi. The atellue describes it orbit \ ith a vel" 'ity of .54.7 X 103 mi/h. Knowillg that the radius of the orbit about Saturn and the periodic tillle of Atlas, 0111' ofSaturn's 1ll00IlS, are 85.54 X 103 mi anti 0.6017 days, respe ·tively, detel'lnine (1I) the radills 01' Saturn, (iJ) til!' mass of Saturn. he periodic t im« of a satellite is III{' tillle it I"PIl"ires to complete one full revolution nhout the planet.)

12.84 The ppriodie times (see Proh. 12. 3) uf the planet ranns's moons [uliet and Titania have been observed to 1)(' 0.11931 du s and 8.706 days, respectively. Knowing that the radius of Juliet's orhit is 6'1 360 kill, determine (a) the muss of runus, (I)) the radius of Tituuia's orbit,

12.85 A 1200-11> spacecraft first is placed into a circular orbit about the earth at an altitude of 2800 lui and then is transferred to a circular orhit about the moon. Knowing that the mass of the moon is 0.01230 times the mass of the earth und that the radius 0(' the IIIU()1I is 1080 mi. determine (a) the gravitational force exerted Oil the spa '(' 'raft as it was orhitin t the earth. (b) the required radius o('thl' orbit o('thl' space 'ral'! abont tilt' moon ifthe pcriodi . times (Sl'l' Prob, 12.\ ) of the t wo orbits are to Ill' ('I)nal, (c) t he a . x-lt'ration of travit)' at tht, S1I1'lll x- 0(' thl' 1110011.

732 Kinelic, of Porticlas: NeWlon', Second low

1\

Fig. P12.87

S"l1J11t! lrallsr,'r urhil

Fig. P12.88

12.86 To place a communications satellite into a geo~ynchronOtL~ orbit (see Prob, 12, 0) at an altitude of 22,240 mi above the surface of the earth, the satellite first is released from a space shuttle, which is in a circular orbit at an altitude of 185 mi, and then is propelled by an upper-~tage booster to its final altitude, A.~ the satellite passes through A, the booster's motor is fired to insert the satellite into an elliptic transfer orbit. The booster is again fired at B to insert the satellite intu a geos)mchronuus orbit. Knuwing that the second firing increases the speed of the satellite by 4810 ftls, determine (a) the speed of the satellite as it approaches B on the elliptic transfer orbit, (b) the increase in speed resulting from the first firing at A.

Fig. P12.86

12.87 A space vehicle is in a circular orbit of 2200-klll radius around the moon. To transfer it to a smaller circular orbit of 2080-kll1 radius, the vehicle is first placed on UII elliptic path i\/3 by redUl:illg its speed by 26.3 lI1/s as it pass('s throuvh A. Kllowillg that the mass of the moon is 73.49 X 1021 kg, determine (a) the speed of the vehicle as it approaches B on the elliptic path, (b) the amount by which its speed should 1)(' reduced us it approaches /3 to insert it into the smaller circular orbit.

12.88 Plans for all unmanned landillg mission on the planet Mars called for the earth-return vehicle to first describe a circular orbit at an altitude dA = 2200 km above the surface of tllP planet with a velocity of 2771 III/S. S it passed throllgh point A, the vehicle , as to Ix> inserted into all elliptic transfer orbit hy finn' its engine ami increasing its speed bv /l'A = 10£16 m/s. As it passed throllgh point B, at all altitude dH = 100000 kill, the vehicle was to be inserted into a second transfer orbit located ill a slightly (lifferent plane, h changing the direction of its velocit and I'l>dlleing its ~'Pped by /lUB = -22.0 m/s, Finally, as til(' vt-hi ,1(' passed through point '. at an ultitud« ele = 1000 kill. its sp('('d , as to I>P in 'Il'as"d hy /l c: = 660 II./S to insert it intu its 1'<'1111'11 tr'~(·<:lor)'. Knowillg that til(> radius of' till' plnuct Mill'S is I~ = 400 kill. dcn-nmnc the' volocit of the \'(·hi -I" :lfh'r compk-tion of the lasl II 1n1l('IIV<' 1'.

12.91 '01' tile collar of Prob. 12.90, assuming that tile rod initially rotates

at the rate f) = 12 rad/s, determine lor position B of the collar II~iiJiiili~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii{.....;~~

(a) the transverse component of the velocity of the collar, (iJ) the III A

radial and transverse components of its acceleration, (c) the acceleration of the collar relative to the rod.

12.89 A space shuttle S and a satellite A are in the circular orbits shown. In order lor the shuttle to recover th satellite, the shuttle is first placed in an elliptic path BC by increasing its speed by IlvH = 2 0 ft/s as it passes through B. As the shuttle approaches C, its speed is increased b)i Ilvc; = 260 ftls to insert it into a second elliptic transfer orbit CO. Knowing that the distance from o to C is 42 9 mi, determine the amount by which tile speed or the shuttle should be increased as it approaches 0 to insert it into the circular orbit of the satellite.

12.90 A 3-lb collar call slide on a horizontal rod which is free to rotate about a vertical sl III ft. Tile collar is initially held at A by a cord attached to the shaft, A spri ng of constant 2 Ib/ft is attached to the collar and to the shaft and is undeformed when the collar is at A. As the rod rotates at the rate iJ = 16 radls, the cord is cut and the collar moves out along the rod. Neglecting friction and the mass or the rod, determine (a) the radial and transverse components of tile acceleration of the collar at A, (b) the ace .. eleration of the collar relative to the rod at A, (c) the transverse component of the velocity of the collar at B.

Problems 733

i5

Fig_ P12.89

12.92 A 200-g ball A and a 400-g ball Bare mounted on a horizontal rod which rotates freely about a vertical shaft. Tile balls are held

ill tile positions shown by pins. The pin holding B is suddenly Fig. P12.90

removed and the ball moves to position C as the rod rotates.

Neglecting friction and the mass of the rod and knowing til at the

Initial speed of A is VA = 2.5 111/5. determine ((/) the radial and

transverse cOlllpollellts of the acceleration of ball B immediately

after tile pill is removed, (b) the acceleration of ball B relative to

the rod at that in taut, (c) the speed of ball A after ball B has

reached the stop at C.

Fig. PJ2.92

12.93 A small hall swill's ill a hC)rizolllal clrcle OIl Iht' end of a cord or i"lIglll/" \ hidl forllls 1111 allgi(' (II with tlu- V('rlit'al. Tlu- t'(]I'd is 111('11 slowi drawn Illrollgh (lu- slIpporl III IIIIIil III(' 1(,lIglh of III(' fll'(' "lId is I_. (f/) J)"I'iV{' II r('ialiull IllllOllg 11.lz, (II, arid (12' (Ii) If' III(' hall is s('t ill nmtion so thut iuitinlly II = O. III IIlld (I, = 35°, (Jt.tt'rlllirl(' I lu- allgl(' (12 wlu-n 12 = O.n III.

Fig. P12.93

734 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

*12.11 TRAJECTORY OF A PARTICLE UNDER A CENTRAL FORCE

onsid I' a partie] P llIoving under a . ntral force F. We propose to obtain the differential equation v hich defines its trajectory.

Assuming that the force F is directed toward the center of force 0, v e not that LF.- and LFo reduce, respectively, to - F and zero in Eqs. (12.21) and (12.22). 'vV; th I' for writ

111(;' - 1'(2) = -F m(rO + 2i·iJ) = 0

(12.31) (12.32)

These equations define the motion of P. We wi II , however, replace Eg. (12.32) by Eg. (12.27), which is equivalent to Eg. (12.32), as can easily be checked by differentiating it with respect to t, but which is more conveni nt to use. V e write

.dO

I~-=h

dt

(12.33)

or

Equation (12.33) can b used to eliminate the indep nd nt aliable t from Eq. (12.31). Solving Eq. (12.33) for (J or d(Jldt, we have

. de h

e = dt = ,.z (12.34)

from which it follows that

r = dr = dr de = !!._ dr = -h!!_(~)

cit c/e dt ,-2 de de I'

.. dr dr de h di-

I' = dt = c/e dt = ,.2 de

(12.35)

or, substituting lor i: from (12.3.-),

r = ~(~~[ -h(~~(7)] ,,2 d2 (1)

r = - rl1. d02 -;:

(12.36)

Substituting for (J and r from (12.34) and (12.36), respectively, in • g. (12.31) and introducing the [unction 1/ = III', we obtain after redu ·tions

(12.37)

In deriving Eq. (12.3-), th force F W,L~ assum d directed toward O. The magnitude F should thcr '{ore be positive if F is actuall ,directed toward ° (attractive force) and negative if F is directed away from ° (I' pulsive force). H F is a known function of ,. and thus of u, • g. (12.37) is a differential equation in u and O. This differential

equation defines the traje 'tory followed h the patti ·Ie under the central force F. TIl(' equatioll of th« lrajc· 'to! 'an 1)(> oluainod h

. olvinc the differential equation (12.37) for 1/ as a fun ition of 8 and determining th· .onstunts of intc rration from th· initial ·onditions.

*12.12 APPLICATION TO SPACE MECHANICS

After the last stases of their launchlnz rockets hav bum d out, earth satellites and other space vehicles are subjected to only the gravitational pull of the earth. Their motion can therefore be determined from Eqs. (12.33) and (12.37), which uovem th motion 01' a particle under a central force, after F has been replaced by the expression obtained for the force of gravitational attraction. t Sctting in Eq. (12.37)

GMm •

F = --= GMmllr2

where M = mass of earth

III = mass of space vehicl

r = distance from center of arth to vehicle II = III"

we obtain the clifferen tiul equation

(12.38)

where the right-hand member is observed to be a constant.

The solution or the differential equation (12.38) is obtained by addinv the particular solution II = GMlllz to the g'n ral solution /I = C cos (0 - On) of the corresponding homogeneous equation (i.e., the equation obtained by setting the light-hand member equal to zero).

hoosing the I olar axi so that 00 = 0, we write

1 GM

- = [I = -- + C cos (]

r 112

(12.39)

Equation (12.39) is the equation of a conic section (ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola) ill the polar coordinates rand O. The origin 0 of thc 'oordinates, whi ·h is 10 "It d at the 'enter of the earth, is afoClIR or this conic section, and the polar axis is on of its axes of symmetry (Fig. 12.19).

The ratio of the constants C and GM//i2 defines the eccentricity e or th ' COllie section, letti ng

C /i2

e=---=--

GM/IIZ GM

we can write Eq. (12.39) in the form

1 GM(

= 1 + e

I" 112

(12.40)

·os 0)

(l2.39')

This equation represents three possible trajectories,

1. s > 1, or C > lvIlli2; There are two values 01 and -01 of the polar angle, defined by ·os 01 = -GMIC/i2, lor whi ·h the

lit is ,1<.1I1IW" IIUll III(' 'r,Il" ,(·hkl(,s c01lsi"('rr" I,rrr .or(' ullrucl"d hy II", enrth only und tluu tlu-lr "'"SS is 1U')(li,;hl,' compun-d \\11h Ill(' 1lI.ISS () II,~ "III1h. Ir" ,'chid" IIIltH'S "N)' f,,1' rom the' e.irth, it.' p.lt), 1lI11)' II{' uITc't'lrd hv IIII' ,,1Ir.iNion of til(' sun, Ih., "'(~"" III' "",.11",,· I'lalll'l,

12.12 AppliCOlion 10 Spoce Med.onics 735

Photo 12.S The Hubble lelescope was carried into orbit by the space shuttle in 1990 (Iirsl geosynchronous from NASAl.

Fig. 12.19

736 Kinelic, of Porlicles: NeWlon', Second low

Fig. 12.20

Lallnching

Fig. 12.21

A

light-hand member of Eq. (12.39) becomes zero. For both these values, the radius vector r becomes infinite; the conic section is a hyperholn (Fi . 12.20).

2. e = 1, or C = CMlh2: The radius vector becomes infinite for 8 = 180°; the conic section is a parabola.

3. e < I, or C < GMlh2: The radius ector remains I1nit for evely value of 8; the conic section is an ellipse. In the particular case when e = C = 0, the length of the radius "ector is constant; the conic section is a circle.

Let us now s e how the constants C and GM/h2, which characterize the rraje ·tolY uf a spa' vehi .le, can be d rermined [rom the

ehicles position and velocity at the beginnm 1 of its free flight. We will assume that, as is generally the case, the powered phase of its flight has been programmed in such a \\ray that as th last stage of the launching rock t burns out, the vehicle has a velocity parall I to th surface of the earth (Fig. 12.21). In other words we will assume that the space vehicle bcgins its frcc flight at the vertex A of its trajcctory. t

Denoting the radius ve ·tor and speed of the vehi ·Ie at the be rinning of its free flight hy 1'0 ann 0O, respectively, W observ that the. velocity reduces to its transverse component and, thus, that 00 = 1'080' RecalJing Eq. (12.27). we ex-press the anguJar momentum per unit mass h as

(12.41)

Th value obtained for h can be us d to d t rmine th constant CMlh2. We also note that the computation of this constant will be simplified if we use the relation obtained in Scc. 12.10.

GM = gR2 (12.30)

where R is the radius of the earth (Ii = 6.37 X 106 m or 3960 mi) and g is the acceleration of gravity at the surface of the earth.

The constant C is obtained by s tting e = 0, ,. = 1'0 in 02.39):

1 GM C=---

rn 112

(12.42)

Suhstitutin r for" [rnru (12.41), we 'an then easil t'xlJress C in terms of 1'0 and vo.

Let us now determine the initial conditions corresponding to each of the three [undurnental trajectories indicated above. onsidering first til parabolic trajectory, we set C equal to GMI1I2 in Eq. (12. 2) and eliminate h between Eqs. (12.41) and (12.42). Solving for 00, we obtain

f2GNI VI) = \1 "7."--

ru

vVe can eusil check that a larger alue of the initial velocity correspond . to a hyp -rbolic traje ·tOI and a small er value :orr 'spends to an ellipti . orbit. . ill .(. 111(' vnlue or 00 ohlailH'(l fill' IhlA paruholic I raj(At'IOl

IPl1Ihlt·,,,, i",uhilll! ubli'l",·I"""t·hi"l!' will hI' 1"",ill,·,"('(IIII SI·t" 13.9.

is the smallest value for which the space vehicle does not return to its starting point, it is called the escape celociuj. "Ve write therefore

V",e = or li.,e = f2iiR2 (12.43)

TO \j~

if we make use of Eq. (12.30). We note that the trajectory will be (1) hyperbolic if 'u > lip«. (2) parabolic if Vo = "<C' and (3) elliptic if Vo < ·e.C'

Among the various possible elliptic orbits, th on obtained when C = 0, the circular orbit, is of special interest. The value of the initial v locity corresponding to a circular orbit is casil found to bc

Velre = '\~ or lieon: = gR2 (12.44)

~ 1'0

if Eq. (12.30) is tak n into account. "'e not from Fig. 12.22 that for values of Vo larg r than Velre but small r than lie>c, point A wh re free flight begins is the point of the orbit closest to the earth; this point is called the perigee, whil point A'. which is farthest away from the earth, is known as the apogee. For values of '0 smaller than Vcire, point A is the apogee, whil point A", on the oth r side of the orbit, is the perigee. For values of vo much smaller than lid,.", the trajectory of the space vehicle intersects the surface of the earth; in such a case, th v hide does 1I0t go into orbit.

Ballistic missiles, which were designed to hit the surface of the earth, also travel along elliptic trajectories, In fact, we should now realize that any obje ·t proje ted in va 'l1l1111 with an initial velo ity '0 smaller than Vose will move along an elliptic path. It is only \ h n the distances involved are small that the gravitational field of the earth can be assumed uniform and that the elliptic path can b approximated hy a parabolic path, as was done earlier (Se·. 11.11) in the cas of conventional projectiles.

Periodic Time. An important .hara ·teristic of th motion of an earth satellite is the time required b the .atellite to describe its orbit. This tim" knox n as thc periodic time of th 'sat llitc, is denoted h 'T. We [irst observe, in view of th definition of areal velocity (Sec. 12.9), that 'T can he obtained hy dividing the area Inside the orbit by the areal velocity. Noting that the area of lU1 ellipse is equal to wah, where a and b denote the scrnimajor and semiminor axes, respe tively, and that the areal velo 'ity is equal to /'/2, we write

2wah

'T =--

h

(12.<15)

12.12 AppliCOlion 10 Spoce Med.onics 737

Fig. 12.22

Wht Ie" 'an be I' eadily d termined from 1'0 and 0 in the C,L~ of a satellite launched in a direction parallel to the surface of the earth, the serniaxes a and b ur not directly related to the initial conditions, Since, on the other hand, the ·a1l1es ro and rl of r corresponding to the pf"lig<'e and apogt·(;, of tilt' orhit can (';L~il)' lx- drler111illt'd Iron I '<t. (12.39), W(' will e:-'l1ress the semiuxes a and /) ill terms or 1"0 and rl.

onsid r th elliptic orbit shown in Fi r, ]2.2 . The earths 'entel' is 10 .ared at 0 and xiin 'ides with 011(' of tIlt' two foci of the Fig. 12.23

738 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Fig. 12.23 (repealed)

ellipse, while the points A and A' represent, respectiv ly, the perigee and apog e of th orbit. ,,\ easily ch ·k that

and thus

(12.46)

Recallins that the slim of th distances from ach of th foci to an point of the ellipse is constant, we write

O'B + BO = O'A + OA = 20

or

BO = a

On the other hand, we have CO = a - 1'0' \ e can therefore write /72 = (BC)2 = (BO)2 - (CO)2 = {/2 - (a - "0)2

/)2 = 1'0(20 - 1'0) = 1"01'1

and thus

(12.47)

Formulas (12.46) and (12.47) indicate that the sernimajor and semiminor axes of the orbit are equal, respectively, to th arithmetic and geomebic means of the maximum and minimum values of the radius vector. Once ro and rl have been determined, the lengths of the s miaxes call be asil computed and substitut d for (f and h in formula (12.45).

*12.13 KEPLER'S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION

The equations goveming the motion of an earth satellite can be used to describe the motion of thc moon around thc earth. In that case, however, the mass of the moon is not negligible :ompared with the mass of the earth, and the results obtained are not entirely accurate.

The theory developed in the preceding sections can also be applied to the study of the motion of the planets around the sun. Although another error is introdu 'eel by n rle 'ling the lor .es exerted by the planets on one another, the approximation obtained is excellent. Indeed, even before ewton had formulated his fundamental theory, the properties expressed by Eq. (12.39), where M nov repres nts th m,L~S of the sun, and hy Eq. (I2.33) had been di covered by the German astronomer Johann Kepler (157]-1630) from astronomical obs .rvations of tile motion of the planets,

Kepler's three laws of planetan] motion can be stated as follows:

1. Each piau t des 'lib s an ellips , with the sun 10 .ated at one or its foci.

2. Th> radius vector drawn from tile sun to a planet ~w('eps equal areas in equal times.

3. The s<]t1ar's of th pertodic times of the planets are proportional to the cubes of the semirnajor axes of their orbits.

Th first law states a particular case of the result establish d in Sec. 12.12, and the second law e>q)resses that the areal velocity of en ·h planet is constunt (5 ., icc, 12'!-»). Kepi er's third law can also be ck-ri t·t! lrom Ih(' results ohtnined ill SI;·l'. 12.12. t

IS,·,· Pro". 12.lwl.

Mm'illllllllaititlldr

SAMPLE PROBLEM 12.9

A satellite is launched in a direction parallel to the surface of the earth with a velocity of 36 900 km/h [rom an altitude of 500 km. Del rmine (a) the maxiIl1ul11 altitude reached by the satellite, (b) the periodi . time of tile satellite.

SOLUTION

a. Maximum Altitude. After the satellite is launched. it is subjected only to the gra\~tational attraction of tile earth; its motion is thus gO\'emed by Eq. (12.39),

1 cu

- = -- + C cos (J

r h~

(1)

Since the rndial component of the velocity is zero at th point of launching A, we have h = "0(;0. Recalling that for tile earth R = 6:rO ).."111, we compute

"u = 6370 km + 500 km = 68-0 km = 6. - X 106m

36.9 X 106 "'

(;u = 36900 km/h = J = 10.25 X 1031l1/s

3.6 X 10 S

'I = "000 = (6.l7 X LO(,m)(10.25 X 103111/s) = 70.4 X 1091112/s /,- = 4.96 X 1021 1114/82

Since eM = gR2, where R is the radius of the earth, we have

Cst = gR2 = (9. 1 lI1/s2)(6.37 X 106111)2 = 398 X 10121113/.2

I" 3 "

eM = 39 X 10.~m:s~ = 80.3 X 10-9111 I

/,2 4.96 X 10- HI Is-

Substituting tlus value into (1), we obtain

1 9 I

- = 80.3 X 10 III + C cos (J (2)

,.

Noting that at point A we have (J = 0 und r = "u = 6. 7 X lOb m, we computc the constant C:

10 I) III I + C cos 0°

C = 65.3 X 10 9 III I

" the poiut 011 the ol'hit farthest fl"OlIl tlu- earth, we have (J = I 0°. sing (2), we couiput .. till' correspond!n r distallce 1'1:

I

- = 0.3 X 10 9 III I + (65.3 X 10 9 III I) CO· 1 0° 1'1

1'1 = 66.7 X IOn III = 66 700 kill

Muxinuun altitude = 66 700 krn - 6370 kill = 60 300 kill

b. Periodic Time. Since A ami A I are the peJigee and apo fee, respectively, of the elliptic orbit. we use Eqs, (12.46) ami (12.47) and compute the semimajor and scmiminor uxes of til(' orbit;

1I = ~(ru + 1'1) = ~(6.87 + 66.7)(10f,) III = 36. X 106111 11 = r"rl = V("6.87)(66.7l X 10(; III = 21.4 X 10(; III

2'1Tflb 21T(36.S X IO'm)(21.4 X 106m)

'T - -,-, - - 70.4 X IOU Ill-Is

T ~ 70.3 X 101 s ~ 11711l1in - 19 h 31 min

739

In this lesson, we continued our study of the motion of a particle under a central fore anti applied the results to problems in spac III chanics. We Iound that the trajectory of a particle under a central force is defined by the differential equation

d2" F

-+" =--

d02 mh2u2

where II is the reciprocal of the distance r of t.h particle to the center of force (II. = lIr), F is the magnitude of the central force F, and 11 is a constant equal to the angular momentum per unit mass of thc particle. In space-mechanics problems, F is the for e of gravitational attra ·tion exerted on the satellite or 'pa :ecraft b the sun, earth, or other planet about which it travels. Substttnting F = GMIl1/~ = CMIllU2 into Eq. (12.3-) we obtain for that case

(12.37)

d2u -+u d(J2

where the right-hand member is a constant.

(12.3 )

1. Analyzing the motion of satellites and spacecraft. The solution of the differential equation (12.38) defines the trajectory of a satellite or spacecraft. It was obtained in Sec. 12.12 and was given in the altemative forms

1 CM

- = -- + C cosO r 172

or

1 CM

- = - (1 + 8 cos 0) (12.39 12.39') r 112

Remember when applying these equations that 0 = 0 always corresponds to the pelig e (the point of closest approach) of the trajectory (Fig. 12.19) and that h is a constant for a given traj ctoi . Depending on the value of the eccentricity 8, the trajector will b a hyperbola, a parabola, or an ellipse.

a. F > 1: The trajectory is a hyperbola, so that for this .ase the spa 'e -raft never returns to its starting point.

b. e = 1: The trajectory is a parabola. This is tit> Iimitin' cas' betwee n open (hyperbolic) and closed (elliptic) trajectories. We had observed for this case that the velocity 00 at the perigee is cquul to the cscapc velocity

0u = v,.". = {2GM

V --;:;:-

(12.43)

Not> that the escape velocit 1 is the smallest velocity for which the spacecraft does not return to its starting point.

c. e < 1: The trajectory is an elliptic orbit. For problems involving elliptic

orbits, YOll may find that the relation derived in Prob. 12.102,

1 1 2CM

-+-=--

1"" '-1 ,,2

740

will be useful in the solution of sub cqucnt problems. Whcn YOIl apply this equation, remember that '-0 and rl are the distances From the center of force to the p rige (8 = 0) and apoO'e (8 = 1 0°), respectivel ; that h = ,-otJo = rlvl; and that, for a satellite orbiting the earth, CM~"rth = gR2, where R is the radius of the earth, Also recall that the trajectory is a circle when e = O.

2. Determining the point of impact of a descending spacecraft. For problems of this type, you may assume that the trajectory is elliptic and that the initial point of the descent trajectory is the apogee of the path (Fig. 12.22). ote that at the point of impact, th di tance r in Eqs. 02.39) and (12.39') is equal to th radius R of the body on which the spacecraft lands or crashes. In addition, we have h = Rv/ sin (PJ, where l)/ is the speed of the spacecraft at impact and cP/ is tile anglc that its path forms with the verti .al at th point of impa t.

3. Calculating the time to travel between two points on a trajectory. For central force motion, the time t required for a particle to travel along a portion of its tf'<lj ctoi can be determin d b recalling Irom S '. 12.9 that th rate at which area is swept per unit time b the position vector r is equal to one-half of the angular momentum pCI' unit mass h of tile particle: ciA/cit = h12. It follows, since h is a .onstant for a given trajectory, that

2A

t=-

h

wh re A is tile total area swept in tile ti me t.

a. In the case of an elliptic trajectory, the time required to complete onc orbit is -alled the period! . time and is expr ssed as

2( 7Tah)

7' = ---

II

(12.45)

where a and IJ arc the semi major and semi minor axes, resp .ctivcly, of the ellipse and are related to the distan es ro and rl by

a = ~('-o + rl) and I, = v;:;;r;- (12.46, 12.47)

b. Kepler's third law provides a convenient relation between the periodic times of' two satellites d'scrihillg lliptic orbits about th S;WI bod [ e '. 12.l3]. Denoting the semi major ~LXeS of the two orbits b a I and {/2, respectively, and the corresponding pcriodi ' times by 7'1 and 1'2, we have

2 3

T I (f I

-=-

c. In the case of a parabolic trajectory, 011 rna be able to lise tile e ;pression given on the inside of the front co er of the book for a parabolic or a sr-miparuholi . area to .alculute tilt' tinu- required to tra pi hel\ eeu two points of the trujc ito: .

741

Fig. P12.94

Fig. P12.95

Fig. P12.99

742

12.94 A particle of mass 111 des -rihes tlw cardioid r = "0(1 + :os 8)/2 under a .entrul force F di recred toward the 'enter of force O. sing Eq, (12.37), show that F is inversely proportionul to the fourth power of the distan 'e r from the parti ·11' to O.

12.95 A particle of mass III is proj ected from point A with an initial velocity Vo perpendicular to OA and 11100'es under a central force F along an elliptic path defined by the equation r = ,.0/(2 - cos 9). sing Eq, (12.37), show that F is inversely proportional to the square of the distance r [rom the particle to the center of force 0,

12.96 A particle of mass III describes the path defined by the equation r = "0 sin () under a central force F directed toward th cent r of force O. sin' Eq. (12.37), show that F is inversely proportional to the fifth power of tIl dtstunce r from the particle to 0.

12.97 Fol' the parti ·Ie of Proh. 12.70, allllusing q. (12.37), how that the central for :e F is proportioual to the distance r [rom the particle to the center of force O.

12.98 It was observed that durimr the Calileo spacecraft's first flyby of the earth, its minimum altitude W'L~ 960 km aIJO\'e the surface of thc earth. Assumiug that the trajectory of the spacecraft was parabolic, determine tit ' maximum velocity of alileo during its first nyby of the earth.

12.99 As a space probe approaching the planet Venus on a parubolic traj('ctOl 'reaches point A closest to l'iw planet, its velocity is d('crpas('d to insert it into a circular orbit. Knowing that the muss und tIlt' radius of Vpnus are 4.< 7 X tO~' kg and 6052 k111, respectively, determine (II) the velocit of tIl(' probe as it approaches A, (h) tlt(' decrease in velocit . r('(luired to insert it into the circular orbit.

'2.roo It \\~IS observed tluu dllrillg it' '(:'col1{l n 'b "ftll(' enrth, till:' ,alilp() spaC('Crarl liad a velol'ity of 46.2 X 103 ftls a~ it I't>adwd its miniuuun altitllde> or 1 8.3 !IIi above tl.e s1lrface of tIll' e,u·th. I)~ te>nnine the ecc('lItrit'it of the traj(:,(·tory of tli(' spat'(>l'raft durill' this portion of its fli ,lit.

r2. ro, It was observed that as the ,alileo spueccraft reached the point on its trajectory closest to lo, a 111UUlI of tlu- planet jupiter, it was at a distunce of ti50 mi from lilt, center or to and had a wlocltv of 49.4 X 10) ft/s. KII()willg tlillt tIl{' Il1aSS or to is O.OI4t 6 till!t<, lli{' IIlaSS of til' earth, ck-rerminc tho ('l'C..'{'ntri 'it)' of the tn~(' .tory of tli{' spa x- 'raft as it approached 10.

where " is the angular momentum pcr unit mass of the satellite.

12.103 At main engine cutoff of its thirteenth flight, the space shuttle Discovery W:L~ in an elliptic orbit of minimum altitude 40.3 mi and maximum altitude 336 mi above the surface of the earth. Knowing that at point A the shuttle had a velocity Vo parallel to the surface of the earth and that the shuttle was transferred to a circular orbit as it passed through point B, determine (a) the speed DO of the shuttle at A, (b) the increase in speed required at B to insert the Fig. P12.102 shuttle into the ci rcular orbit.

12.102 A satellite describes an elliptic orbit about a planet of mass AI.

Denoting by ro and rIo respectively, the minimum and maximum values of the distance r from the satellite to the center of the planet. derive the relation

1 1

-+-=

"0 "1

12.104 A space probe is describing a circular orbit about a planet of radius R. The altitude of the probe above the surface of the planet is aR and its speed is Dft. To place the probe in an elliptic orbit which will hting it closer to the planet, its spe d is reduced from "0 to {3Do, where {3 < 1, b firing its engine for a short interval of ti me. Determine the smallest permissible value of {3 if the probe is not to crash on the surface of the planet.

12.10S As it describes an elliptic orhit about the sun, a spacecraft reaches a maximum distance of 202 X 106 mi from the center of the sun at point 1\ (called the aphelion) and a minimum distance of 92 X 106 mi at point B (called the perihelion). Tn place the spacecraft in a smaller elliptic orbit \ ith aphelion at 'and perihelion at B', where A' and B' are locat d L64.5 X LOG mi and 85.5 X 106 mi. respectively, from the center of the sun, the speed of the spac - craft is first reduced as it passes thronuh A and then is further reduce-d as it passes through B'. Knowing that the mass of the sun is 332.8 X JO times the mass of the earth, determine ((/) the speed of the spacecraft at A, (b) the amounts hy which the speed of the spacecraft should he reduced at A and B' to insert it into the desired elliptic orbit,

A

Fig. P12.105

Problems 743

R = 3960 mi

Fig. P12.103

744 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Approach traj('clory

Fig. P12.106

1\

Fig. P12.109

~arth at inscrtiori

Fig. P12.110

12.106 A space probe is to be placed in a circular orbit of 5600-mi radius about the planet Venus in a specified plane. As the probe reach s A. the point of its ol'iginaJ trajectory closest to Venus, it is inserted in a first elliptic transfer orbit by r dllcing its spe d of ~VA' This orbit brings it to point B with a much reduced velocity. There the probe is inserted in a second transfer orbit located in the specified plane by changing the direction of its velocity ami further reducing its speed by IlVB. Finally, as the probe reaches point C, it is inserted ill the desired circular orbit by reducing its speed by ~~c:. Knowing that the mass of Venus is 0.82 times the mass of the earth, that ~.\ = 9.3 X 103 mi ami re = 190 X 103 mi, and that the probe approaches A 011 a parabolic trajectory, determine by how much the velocity of the probe should be reduced (1I) at A, (b) at B, (c) at C.

12.107 For the space probe of Proh. 12.106. it is known that rA = 9.3 X 103 mi and that the velocity of the probe is reduced to 20,000 ftls as it passes through A. Determine (1I) the distance from the center of Venus to point B, (b) the amounts by which the velocity of the probe should be reduced at Band C, respectively.

12.108 Determine the time needed for the probe of 12.106 to travel from A to B on its first transfer orbit.

12.109 The Clementine spacecralt described an elliptic orbit of minimum altitude h,t = 400 km ami maximum altitude 1,8 = 2940 km above the surface of th moon. Knowin r that the radius of the mOOI1 is li3i km and that till' lI1'l~S of the 1I100n is O.OJ 230 times the mass of th earth, determine the periodic time of the spacecraft.

12.110 A space probe in a low earth orbit is inserted into an elliptic transfer orbit to the planet \ enus. Knowillg that the mass of the sun is 332. X 103 times the mass of the earth and assuming that the probe is subjected only to the gravitational attraction of the sun, determine the valu of~, which defines the relative position of Veuus \ ith respect to the earth at the time the probe is inserted into the transfer orbit.

12.1 JJ Based on observations made dllring the 19\)6 sighting of cornet Hyakutuke, it was concluded that the trajectory uf the cornet is a highly elongated ellipse fur which tile eccentricit is approximately e = 0.\)99 '7. Knuwing that fi)!' the 1996 sightillg the minimum distance lietweeu thc cornet and the SIIII was O.23UR£, where He is tile meun distance [rom the SIIII to the earth, determine the periodic tillle of the COIl1Pt.

12.112 llalley's -omet Ira els ill all elongated ellipti ' orbit for whicl, the mi II i 11111 111 distance from the SUII is approxbuuteiy ~ rs, where rs = 1.50 X JOb kill is the meun distance from the SIIII to the earth. Knowiug that the periudi . time ofl lalley's comet is about i6 years. t1('t('rlllill(' liI(' IlHlxi1l111111 distuu x- 1'1'11111 tll(· 51111 F('II 'lIed by llu- '0111('1.

12.JJ3 OI'l('l'Il1il1(' tlu- t iuu- 11('('d('d for III(' Sp:l('(' prolll' ofPrnh. 12.9910 II':IVI'I ('rOiIi 8 to "

12.114 A space probe is describing a circular orbit of radius nR with a velocity lin about a planet of radius Ii and center O. As the probe passes through point A. its velocity is reduced From lio to {3vo, where {3 < 1, to place the probe on a crash trajectory, Express in terms of II and {3 the angle I\OB, where B denotes the point of impact of the probe on the planet.

12.115 Prior to the polio missions to the moon, several Lunar Orbiter spacecraft were used to photograph the lunar surface to obtain information regarding possible landing sites. At the conclusion of each mission, the trajectory of the spacecraft was adjusted so that the spacecraft would crash on the moon to further study the characteristics of the lunar surface. Shown is the elliptic orbit of Lunar Orbiter 2. Knowing that the mass of the moon is 0.01230 times the mass of the earth, determine the amount by which the speed of the orbiter should be reduced at point B so that it impacts the lunar surface at pOint C. tllint: Point B is the apogee of the elliptic impact trajectory.)

12.116 As a spa .ecruft appl"Oa ·hes the planet Jupiter, it releases a probe whi ·h is to enter the planers at.nOSI here at point 8 at an alutude of 4.50 krn above the surface of tl.e planet. TIlt' traje ·tory of ti,e probe is a hyperbola of .centricit e = 1.031. Kllowing that tl~e rudius and the mass of [upit rare -1.492 X 103 km and 1.9 X 102, kg, respe ,lively, and that the velo 'ity VB of the probe at B fimns all an de of 82.90 with the dire .tiou of OA, detel"lnille (1/) the 'lIlgle A08, (b) the speed B of the probe ut 8.

12.JJ7 A spa'e huttle is des ,.ibill' a circular orbit at all altitude of .0 mi abow the slll-fa :t' of li,t' earth. As it pas.o;es tiliullgh pOill1 A, it fires its en ,ine for a short interval of time to reduce its speed hy, 00 ftls and begill its des 'ent 1<), ,\I'(I the earth. Determine the angle AOB so that the ultitude of the shllttle at point 8 i 7.- uri. (Hilll: Point A is the apogee of 11.10' elllptic des :elll trajectoIY.)

12.118 A satellite describes an elliptic orbit about a planet. Denoting hy "'0 and "'. the distances corresponding, respectivel • to tlw p rigel' and apogee of the orbit, show that the curvature of the orbit at each (If tll('s!' two points can II(' expressed as

I 1 (1 I)

= +

p 2 ru "'1

Problems 745

Fig. P12.11S

;0.1> x I (}llon

Fig. P12.116 -0 Ill;

A

R = ~960 mi

12. JJ9 (a) Express t),e eccentricity e (if the elltptic orbit described by a satel- Fig. P12.1I7

lue about a pluuet ill terms of the distances "'u uud r. correspolldillg, ~ _

respectively, tu the perigee alld apugee of the urhit. (iJ) Use 1111' result obtained ill part (/ and the data 'iV{'1I ill Prob. 12.111, w),ere R£ = J49.6 X 106 kiu. to determine the upproxiuuue maximum distau :e frolll the sun reached b comet Ilyakutuke.

12.121 I ('riVl' K(·pl(·r·s third law of plauetury motlon from '1)5. (12.39)

alld (12.115). Fig. P12.118 and PJ2.1I9

12.120 Show that the an rular tnouu-ntum pl:'r unit mass" of a satellite dl:'sl'rihing an dliptic orbit of Sl:'lIlimajnr axis (/ and el'l'Plltri 'ity e uhout a planet of mass M call be expressed as

" = • !If II ( 1 - e")

This chapter was devoted to Newton's second law and its application to the analysis of the motion of parti ·Ies.

Newton's second low Denoting by 1I1 the mass of' a particle, by :LF th sum, or resultant, of th forces acting on the particl , and by a the acceleration of the particle relative to a newtonian frame of reference [Sec. 12.2], we wrote

:LF = ma

(12.2)

Linear momentum Introducing the linear momentum of' a particle, L = mv [ ec. 12.3], we saw that N wtou's se .ond law ~'Ill also he written ill the fonu

I.F = L

(12.5)

which expresses that the resultant of the forces acting on a particle is equal to the rate of change of the linear IIIlJI/l znlum of II!, particle.

Consistent systems of units Equation (12.2) holds onl if a consistent 5 t III of units i used. \ ith SI units, the forces should be expressed in newtons, th masses in kilograms, and the accelerations in 111/52; with .. customary units, the forces should be expressed in pounds, the rna .ses in Ib . 521ft (also referred to as slllgs), and the accelerations in ftls2 [ ee. 12.4].

Equations of motion for a particle To solve a problem involving the motion of a particle, Eq. (12.2) should be replaced hy equations contailling scalar quantities [ ec. 12.5]. sing rectangular components of F and a, we wrote

I.F. = lIlar

(12. )

sing tangential and normal components, we had

d I.F = lil-

t dt

,2 I.FII = mp

(12.9')

Dynamic equilibrium We also noted [Sec. 12.6] that the equations of' motion of a particle can be replaced b quations similar to the equilibrium equutions used ill stuti ·s if' a ve 'lor -lila of lIIagllilllde IIW bill of 'ells(:' opposite to that or the acceleration is added to the forces applied to the particle, the particle is then said to be in dYllalllic equilibrium. For the sake of unilormit , however, all the ample Problems were solved h using tlu- equations 0(' motion, firsl with 1'(' 'langular components [. ample Probs, 12.1 throu rh 12.41. then with tangential und normal ximponcnts [ 'ample Probs. 12.5 and 1:...6).

746

In the second part of the chapter, we defined the anoular momentum Review ond Summory 747

Ho of a particle about a point 0 as th moment about 0 of the linear

mom ntum mv of that particle [Sec. 12.~). We wrote Angular momentum

Ho = r X III

(12.12)

!I

and noted that Ho is a ve ·tor perpendi .ular to the plan :ontainillg

rand mv (Fig. 12.24) and of masnitude 110

Ho = rmv sin 4>

(12.13)

Ill'

Resol ing the vectors rand IIIV into rectangular components, we expressed the angular momentum Ho in the determinant form

x

j k
Ho = r I) ;:;
mvx nwy mv; (12.14)

Fig. 12.24

In rh cas of a particle movin T in th xI) plan , w have z = v: = O. The angular momentum is perpendicular to the xlj plane and is completely defined by its magnitude. We wrote

(12.16)

omputiug the rate of 'hange 110 of the angular momentum "0,

and '!pplying wren's second law, we wrote the quation

Rate of change of angular momentum

(12.19)

whi ·h states that the SIIIlI oj the nunuents ohou! 0 oj the [orces actinu on a particle is equal to the rate oj clianoe of the annular momentum of the particle ahout O.

Tn man problems involVing the plane motion of a parti .le, it is found Radial and transverse components convenient to lise radial ant! transoerse components [Sec. 12. , Sam-

ple Prob. L2.7J and to \ lite the equations

'LF,. = lI1(i: - riP) "i.Fo = m(rO + 2;-8)

(12.21) (12.22)

When the only force acting on a particle P is a force F directed Motion under a central force toward or away from a Hxcd point 0, thc particl ' is said to bc moving

under a central force [Se '. 12.9). Sin .e "i.Mo = 0 at <my given instant.

it follows [rom Eq. (12.19) that Ho = 0 for all values of t and, thus,

that

Ho = constant

(12.23)

vVe con .ludod thaltl/(' rmgrdarlllOlIU'lltlllll oj (I particle 1110 'illg under (I ientra! force is constant, both ill maglliillde atu! direction, and that tire purti ,1(' 1I10V('S ill a plane perpeudiculur to the vector IIo.

748 Kinelie, of Porlieles: NeWlon', Seeond low

Fig. 12.25

Newton's law of universal gravitation

Recalling Eg. (12.13), we wrote the relation rnw sin cP = rolllvo sin cPo

(12.25)

for the motion of any particle under a central force (Fig. 12.25). sing polar coordinates and recalling Eq. (12.1 ), we also had

(12.27)

where Ii is a constant representing the angular momentum per unit mass, [-/o/m, of the particle. \ e observed (Fig. 12.26) that the infinitesimal area dA swept 11 til radius vector OP as it rotates through de is equal to kr2de and, thus, that the left-hand mernbcr of Eq, (12.27) represents twice the areal oelocitt] ciA/cit of the parti .le. There-fore, the areal lJelocity of a particle 1110 .inv under a central force is cons/ant.

o~--1-Fig. 12.26

An important application of the motion under a central force is provided by the orbital motion of bodies under gravitational attraction l Sec. 12,10]' A . .ordin , to Neuiton's laso I?f IIl1i iersal. uracitat ion, two particles at a distance r from each other and of masses M and 111, respe 'lively, attract each other with equal and opposite for .es F and - F directed alonu the line joining the parti .les (Fig. 12.27). The common ma mitud F of th two forces is

31111 F = C-.r:

(12.28)

where C is th e constan! (if gmvi(atil!ll. I II the case of a body of mass III subjected to the gravitational attraction of the earth, the product CM, where M is the mass of thc earth, can be expressed as

(12.30)

where {.! = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ftls2 and R is the radius of the earth.

Orbital motion I t was shown in Sec. 12.11 that a particle rnovinz under a central force des 'Jibe'S a tra]c 'tor defined by the differcnttul equation

(12,37)

where F > 0 corresponds to an attractive force and u = 111'. In the

cas of' a parti ·Ie moving und r a lor' of gravitational attra .tion [Sec. 12.12), we substituted for F the expression 'riven in Eq. (12.28). Measuring 0 from the <"LUS OA joining the focus 0 to the point A of the trajectory closest to 0 (Fig. 12.28), we found that the solution to Eq. (12.37) was

1 GM

- = !I. = -2- + C cos 0

I' h

(12.39)

Review ond Summory 749

This is the equation of a conic of eccentricity E = Ch2/CM. The conic is an ellipse if E < 1, a parabola if E = 1, and a hyperbola if E > 1. The constants C and" can be del nnin d frorn the initial Fig. 12.28 conditions; if the particle is project d from point A (0 = 0, I' = 1'0)

with an initial velocity Vo perpendicular to OA, we have h = l"uUo

[Sample Prob. 12.9).

It was also shown that th values of the initial elocity corresponding, Escape velocity respectively, to a parabolic and a circular trajectory were

(12.43)

ell'!

(12.44)

Vdl'c =

and that the Iirst of these allies, called the escape velocity, is the small st value of VI) for which the particle will not r turn to its starting point.

The periodic lillie T of a planet or satellite , as d ,nlPd as the time Periodic time required hy that body to describe its orbit. It , as shown that

(12.45)

wh ire h = rovo and where (J and b represent the scrnimajor and selllilllillor axes of lhe orbit. It was [urther sho, II that these semiaxes are respectively equal to the arithmetic and geometlie means of the maximum and minimum values of the radius vector r.

The );L~t secliou of' the chapter [Sec. 12.13] presented Kl'Jller:~ lows Kepler's laws of I,/aneta!'y IJlOlifm and showed that these cmpiri .al 1m s, obtained

from urly ustrouomi '011 ohscrvntions, .onflrm wton's 1m s of'

motion as well as his law of rravitation.

A

Fig. PJ2.J23

750

Fig. P12.124

121h

Fig. P12.12S

12.122 A 3000-111 auromobile is heing driven down a .5° in ·Iine at a speed of .50 mi/h when the brakes are applied. can~;ng a total hraking force of 1200 Ih to be applied to the nutomoblle. Determine the distance traveled hy the automohi Ie before it comes to a stop.

'2. '23 6.kg block B rests as shown un a 10-kg bracket A. The coefficients of friction are IL. = 0.30 and ILL = 0.25 between block B and bracket A. and there is no friction in the pulley or between the bracket ami the horizontal surface. (a) Determine the maximum mas of blo ·k C if block B is not to slide on bracket A. (b) If the mass of block C is 10% larger than the answer found in a determine the accelerations of A, B, and C.

12.124 Block A weighs 20 lb, and blocks J3 and C weigh 10 Ib each. Knowing that the blocks are initially at rest ami that J3 mows through ft in 2 s, determine (a) the magnitnde of the force P, (iJ) the tension in the cord AD. Neglect the masse' of the pulleys and axle Friction,

12.125 A 12-111 block /3 rests as shown on the IIppcr surface of a 30-lb wcdgc A. Neglecting friction, determine immediately after the system is rei cased from rest (I) the acceleration of A, (h) the acceleration uf /3 relative to A.

'2. '26 The roller-coaster track shown is contained in a vertical plane. The portion of track between A and B is straight and horizontal, while the portions to the left of i\ and to the right of B have radii of curvature as indicated. A car is traveling at a speed of 72 km/h when the brakes are suddenly applied, cansing the wheels of the car to slide on the track (JLL = 0.25). Determine the initial decelerution of the car if the brakes are applied as the car (a) has almost reached )\, (b) is traveling lx-twecn )\ and B, (e) has jlL~t passed B.

p = 45 III

Fig, PJ2,I26

12.127 A small 200-g collar C can slide all a semicircular rod which is made to rotate about the vertical AB at the constant rate of 6 nulls. Determine the mini mUlTI required value of the coefficient of static friction between the collar and the rod if the collar is not to slide when (a) (J = 90°, (/7) (} = 75°, (e) (} = 45°. Indicate in each case the direction of the impending motion.

12.128 Pill B weighs 4 oz and is free to slide ill a horizontal plane alollg the rotating arm OC and along the circular slot DE of radius b. = 20 ill. leglectillg friction and asslllllillg that (} = 15 rad/s and (J = 250 rad/s2 for the position (J = 20°, determine for that position (a) the radial ,U1d transverse components of the resultant force exerted on pin B. (b) the forces P and Q exerted on pin B, respectively. b rod OC and the wall of slot DE.

Fig. P12.128

12.129 i\ particle of mass III is projected from point A with all initial velocity Yo perpendicular to OA and moves under a central loree F directed away from the center uf force O. Knowing that the particle follows a path defined by the equution r = rolcos 20. and using Eq. (12.27), eA1Jress the radial mid transverse cumponents of the velocity" of the particl as functions of the augle O.

Fig. P12.129

12.130 Shuw that the radius,. of the 1I100U'S orbit can be detenuincd [rom the radius l{ of the earth, the accelerution of gmvit . If. at the surface of Iht' earth. and Ihl' time T required for llal' moou 10 (;(lnlpll'll' 011(' full revolution about til(' eurth, .omputc . knowing that T - 27. days. giving tlu- uuswer in both 51 and .S. .ustomur units.

Fig. P12.127

Review Problems 751

C 200g

752 Kinelics of Porlicles: Newton's Second Low

*12.131 Disk A rotates in a horizontal plane about a vertical axis at the constant rate 8n = 12 rad/s, Slider B weighs .05 oz and moves in a frictionless slot cut in the disk. The slider is attach d to a spring of constant k, which is undeformed when r = O. Knowing that the slider is released with no radial velocity in the position r = 15 in., determine the position of the slider and the horizontal force exerted on it by the disk at t = 0.1 s for (a) k = 2.25 Ihlft, (b) k = 3.25 lb/It.

Fig. P12.131

12.132 It was observed that as th Voyager 1 spacecraft reached th point of its tr;~ectOl t closest to the plan t Saturn, it was at a distance of I 5 X 10~ kill from the center of th planet and had a velocity of 21.0 km/s. Knowing that Tethys, on of. atnrn's moons, describes a circular orbit of radius 295 X 10'1 km at a speed of 11.3.5 km/s, determine th ecc ntricity of the trajectory of Voyager 1 on its approach to Satn rn.

J2. J 33 At pngine burnout on a mission, a shuttle had reac:lwd point A at an altitude of 40 mi above the Surf:ICP of tlu- earth and had a honzoutul wlocity Yo. Klluwing that its first orbit W;L~ elliptic ami that the shuttle \\"OIS transferred to a cireulur orbit as it passed thmllgh poi lit B ut an altitude of 170 mi, determine (al till' time needed for the shuttle to travel from to B on its original elliptic orbit, (b) tile periodi . time of the slnutle Oil its filial circular orbit.

50m;

liOm,

Fig. P12.133

12.Cl Blo -k B of mass 10 kg is initiall at rest as shown on tilt' IIpper surface of a 20-kg wedge A whi 'h is supported hy a horizontal surfa 'e. i\ 2-kg blo .k C is connected to hlo -k B by a 'ord whi .h passes over a pulley of negligible mass. sing computational software and denoting by 11- the ~)em 'ient of friction at all 511rfil .es, lise this program to determine the accelerations for values of 11- ~ O. se 0.01 in .rernents for 11- until the wedge does not move and then lise 0.1 in .rernents until no motion 0' 'III' .

12.C2 i\ small, I-Ib hlo .k is at rest at the top of a 'ylindri .al SUlfa 'e. The hlo .k is given an initial velocity Vo to the right of ma nitude lOftis, whi ·h causes it to slide on the 'ylindri 'al surface. sing xnnpntationul software 'al .ulate and plot the values of (J at which the block leaves the surface for val lit'S of 11-4, the 'oem .ient of ldnt'tic fri 'lion hetween the block and tht' surface, frOIll 0 to 0.4.

12.C3 i\ block of mass m is attached to a splin r of constant k. The block is released from rest wh n the spring is in a horizoutal and undeformed position.

se computurional softwure to d t nnin , for various sel cted ulues of k/in ami I"u, (a) the lenh,th of the spling and th mazmtude and direction of th velocity of the block as th block passes dirt'Ctly under the point of suspension of the ~'Pling. (b) the value of kim when ro = I III for which that velocity is horizontal.

Fig. P12.C3

12.C4 sc computational solh are to determine the rmlges of values of 0 I()!' which the block E of 1'1'01>. 12., will not slide in the semicircular slot of tile nat plate. 'sullling a coefflcieut of static friction of 0.3.5. determine the mllgt's of values when the constant rate of' rotatinn of the plate is (a) 14 rud/s, (b) 2 rud/s,

12.C5 se computational software to detenuine tile lillie required h a spacecraft to travel between two points Oil its trajectory, givell tlt~, distance to t-itlu-r tile apogee or tile perigee of the trajectory alld the speed of'tlte spacecraft at tlrut point. se thls program to determine (II) the lillie required by "liar Orbiter 2 ill Prob. 12.115 to travel between poiuts B and on its impact trajectory. knowing that tlte speed of tile orbiter is 69.4 mls as it hegins its des 'ellt at /3, (b) the HIlIt' required" ' the space shuttle ill Proh. L2.117 to trawl between points A and B on its lallding trujectory, kIlO'~II' tit at tlte speed ofthe hurtle is 24,371 Itls as it begills its descent at A.

Fig. P12.Cl

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Fig. P12.C2

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