Factors establishing the Industrial Revolution.

8/2/08 Inspired from reading “The Little Ice Age” which occurred from the late 1500s through the mid 1800s. The author’s comment that there was a diversity of factors that led to the industrial revolution which piqued my interest. All of this information came from Wikipedia, an article that I thought was superb. To find the article in English, search for “Industrial Revolution.” Here is the link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution Comments: 1. I am closely connected to Windsor, Vermont, which claims to be the birthplace of the precision machine tool industry. The American Precision Museum is located in the Robbins & Lawrence Amory in Windsor. I love tools and history, so this is a great organization to support, and a great museum to visit. 2. Windsor is not given its due recognition in Wiki, something I hope will be corrected. 3. Those interested in this topic should also visit the Springfield Amory in Springfield Mass, an awesome museum. Take the guided tour. 4. If anyone out there wants to give me a firearm produced in Windsor, I would be deeply grateful. Just kidding, sort of. 5. Really important. This list is just a set of notes for me that someone else might find useful or interesting. Main factors that allowed the industrial revolution to occur in Britain. These are not ranked nor placed in a consistent order. 1. One author postulates the beginnings were in the Middle Ages when the printing press introduced mass production. The clock introduced regimentation from the monastaries that emphasized control and order in daily life. 2. Feudalism ended. 3. The English Civil War brought about the end of absolute monarchy. There were three civil wars: 1642-51, 1648-49, 1649-51. This was followed by the “glorious revolution” in 1688 that gave privileges to Protestants outside of the Church of England. The repeal of the Test Act (requiring an oath to the Church) in 1673 & 1678 extended the rights to common people. 4. The Unitarians in particular established schools which emphasized math and science over the established classics in the major schools. This resulted from religious tolerance. 5. Less disease when borders were effectively closed (Plague) 6. Lower infant mortality increasing population. In part due to the introduction of the potato, and the Enclosure Movement (an agricultural revolution). 7. Increased population led to cottage industries, especially weaving.

Industrial Revolution, Page 1 of 6

8. Colonial expansion provided raw materials (wood from the US, for example), and diverse financial markets. 9. Colonial expansion led to the accumulation of capital, necessary for development of industry. The British effectively robbed capital from India, collected taxes from the Colonies, and more. 10. The Scientific Revolution was well under way. Britain had undergone the Renaissance, the Reformation and the Enlightenment. Science replaced superstition, fear and religion as explanations for natural events. 11. Britain had raw materials: coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone, and water power. 12. Britain had the Judeo-Christian tradition which emphasized the individual, and emphasized a work ethic, while China’s and India’s belief systems emphasized groups. India was divided into three competing regions each storing wealth and capital in their palaces (which were robbed during the Colonial era). 13. Britain was not rampaged during the Napolionic wars (1803-1815). Britain had the only mercantile fleet, and waged their wars overseas in the colonies and elsewhere. 14. Britain had a stable political structure. The Enclosure Policy reduced the peasant resistance which occurred in France. 15. Capitalism flourished in Britain under the protection of corporations. The concept of the corporation was formalized by the Dutch, with the Dutch East India Company being the first to issue stock (1602). The roots of the corporation concept extend far back. Incorporation is one of the most fundamental aspects of capitalism. 16. Corporations: delegated management, limited liability, investor ownership, separate legal personality, transferrable shares. 17. Britain established a series of canals to transport agricultural goods within its borders. When the railroad arrived, they built a system of tracks. 18. There was efficient transfer of knowledge – education – by study tours, societies, and publications. The overall progress of the Industrial Revolution. 1. It began with textiles – the spinning Jenny and the flying shuttle. These machines were made of wood. The area of Manchester, England, was called “cottonopolis.” 2. The discovery of steam power (James Watt) allowed mills to be formed without water power. 3. Coal was being used for heating. The steam engine was originally designed as a water pump for the mines. 4. Iron was mined efficiently. 5. The formula for concrete was rediscovered in 1756 by John Smeaton. 6. The development of metallurgy. 7. The development of machine tools and precision tooling required for interchangeable parts. . 8. The Three Basics were present: Coal (energy), Iron and other metals, and a population of Workers.

Industrial Revolution, Page 2 of 6

9. War produced the need for mass-produced firearms. The methods and materials used led to the bicycle, the automobile and the airplane. 10. The Second Industrial Revolution is said to have begun with the discovery of the mass production of steel (the Bessemer process), Chemical Revolution and the development of electricity. Additional Notes (all from Wikipedia) (I added these because I could not remember details about this stuff from my college days, long, long ago.) Renaissance “Rebirth” 1. Cultural revolution from the 1300s into the 1600s. 2. Began in Tuscany. The roots are the Social and civic peculiarities of Florence, it patronage from the Medici, and the migration of Greek scholars and texts following the fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. 3. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. 4. Sought out learning from the ancient texts which had fallen into obscurity. Sought to perfect their worldly knowledge. 5. Medieval Christianity stressed transcendental spirituality. 6. Plague influenced thinking in contradictory ways. It led to a “live for today” view as well as an increase in piety. Its effects were influenced by many factors. 7. Coincided with the rise of humanism and the Scientific Revolution. Reformation 1. Refers to the Protestant Reformation & the Counter Reformation, the English Refomation, the Radical Reformation (Anabaptist), and the Scottish & Swiss Reformations of the 1560s, and 1520s. 2. The Protestant Reformation begin in 1517 with Martin Luther who attempted to reform the Catholic Church. 3. On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed his “Ninety-Five Theses” to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church. 4. Opposed selling of Indulgences, selling church positions (simony), and systemic corruption. English Reformation 1. King Henry VIII produced the Act of Supremacy in 1534 making him absolute head of state, removing the Pope from his position. 2. Cromwell initiationed the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536. 3. More continues…. The Age of Enlightenment

Industrial Revolution, Page 3 of 6

1. Philosophical movment in the 1700s characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious and educational doctrine. 2. Reason was advocated as the primary source and basis of authority. 3. Developed in Germany, France, Britain, spread throughout Europe including Russia and Scandinavia. 4. Some state its beginning with the Glorius Revolution of 1688, and ended with the French Revolution of 1789 or the Napoleonic wars (1804-1815). The Scientific Revolution Comment: This is a main topic of interest to me, something I would like to explore in much more detail. This Wiki article just whet my appetite. I would like to explore the chemical revolution, about which I know little. Azimov’s biographical encyclopedia is most informative, a reference book. But it is difficult to see the trends from it. 1. Began in 1543 with Copernicus, sun-centric theory. In that same year Vesalius published his anatomy book. 2. Religion, superstition, and fear were replaced by science. 3. Theology became subordinante to science and reason 4. Human advancement became a possibility and a goal. 5. William harvey’s theory of blood circulation replaced that of Galen. 6. Mechanical Philosophy. The mechanical universe took hold, started by Descartes (1596-1650). 7. Chemical philosophy. Replaced Aristotelian theory of earth, water, air, fire with the atomistic or corpuscular theory. 8. Empiricism began. Theory is dependent on evidence, testable facts. Francis Bacon 1605-1620. 9. Mathematization. (add) Main Characters of the Scientific Revolution Copernicus 1543 Vesalius 1543 William Gilbert (magnetism) 1600 Tycho Brahe (astronomy), late 1500s. Francis Bacon (empiricism), (1620) Galileo (astronomy, gravity, motion) (1610) Kepler (astronomy), 1609 William Harvey, (circulation), 1650 Rene Descartes, mechanical universe, 1637 Leeuwenhoek (microscope), 1660

Industrial Revolution, Page 4 of 6

Thoughts concerning the current political mood. Link to this topic. Comment: these are personal ideas, and yes I am a Democrat, a conservative democarat who is a member of the NRA, opposed to liberal welfare spending and over (that is, stupid) regulation. I am more like the Replublicans that I knew in Vermont as a youth. I am also opposed to the theft of corporations’ retirement accounts (allowed by President Bush #1) for the profit of a few individuals, so that makes me a democrat. I am also an “environmentalist” in that I recognize the need to protect certain lands, and to provide for those not responsible for misfortune, like the retarded and insane. These are personal thoughts. I would appreciate any constructive comments, as well as anyone who would like to fill in the details. Books have been written on this, but I have not read them, and would appreciate knowing about them. The movement described below deserves our attention. However, I would appreciate readers avoid making comments that are just hurtful or blindly, thoughtlessly, negative, 1. About 35 years ago, the Republicans started to use religion to win votes. 2. Reagan’s advisor (fill in) started it all. ??. 3. Karl Rove noticed the Evangelical Christians tended to not vote. He felt he could swing them to vote Republican. 4. He developed large data bases and funneled literature to them. 5. He recognized that the best way to motivate the Evangelical Christians (ECs) was to make them angry. 6. He chose these issues: abortion, prayer in schools, and evolution. Eventually they added global warming, stem cell research, public display of the ten commandments, and gay marriage to the list of motivating topics. 7. For 35 years, a concerted effort was made to arouse the ECs, and to turn them into a voting block. 8. Abortion rights, prayer in schools, and display of the ten commandments may be social issues. These are subject to debate. 9. Global warming, stem cell research, and evolution are scientific issues which are subject to empirical study. 10. Clearly global warming is occurring, at least exacerbated by carbon dioxide emissions. Major oil and coal interests have everything to lose if alternative energy sources are found. 11. My view is that stems cells are just that, a few cells, with no more importance than any other cells. Certainly they do not have a “soul.” There is no evidence that stem cells have any special properties of life except uncommitted DNA. 12. Evolution is a fact, not a theory. The teaching of evolution in schools has been repeatedly been controlled. Forcing it to be compared to other “theories” is not reasonable. Why should it, and not all theories, be subject to political control?

Industrial Revolution, Page 5 of 6

13. The unintended consequence of this movement has been a rise in anti-science, instilling the idea that science cannot be trusted. This is a terribly dangerous idea. 14. I hope it was clear from the previous discussion of the industrial revolution that powerful social forces were in large part responsible for our advancements in quality of life. Should this anti-science agenda be promoted further, our status as leader of science will be threatened, as it already is. We have profited from the brain drain. 15. It is reasonable to fearful that an anti-intellectual, anti-scientific mood in the US could endanger our position as world leader of the scientific commuity 16. Concrete benefits: Profits from scientific discoveries should stay in the US. Billions. AIDS detection vaccine and the software for TV compression. Examples. 17. Angered that the good people of the EC movement were lied to, deceived, and used over a period of 30+ years. 18. A guy representative of the ECs in the white house wrote a book about how he was dismissed, ridiculed and sidelined by the Bush staff. The agenda was not acted upon. Rather, just a few “crumbs” were handed out to the ECs, a stance on gay marriage, stem cell research restrictions. 19. A constitutional amendment banning gay marriage would never pass. It was just lip service. 20. This election is really important. Science has to be placed on a pedestal in the White House. 21. Perhaps, above all, I am furious that the good people of the Evangelical Christian community were used and abused by powerful Republicans whose main intent was to increase the power and profits of the oil industry. I am friends with several ECs, know well many others, and know beyond doubt that they are among America’s Finest People. We differ on some religious beliefs, but not on the fundamental qualities of good social behavior. That they have been used, and continue to be used, infuriates and discourages me.

Industrial Revolution, Page 6 of 6

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful