This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE TO IS : 456-l 978

As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank

DesignAids

to IS : 4564978

For Reinforced Concrete

**BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
**

BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARC, NEW DLEHI 110 002

SP16:1980

FIRST PUBLISHED ELEVENTH

(Incorporatinp

SEPTEMBER MARCH

No.

1980 1999

REPRINT

Amendment

I)

0

BUREAU

OF INDIAN

STANDARDS

UDC 624.0 12.45.04 (026)

PRICE Rs. 500.00

I’KiNTED 1N INDIA AT VlB,\ PRESS PVT. LTD., 122 DSIDC SHEDS. OKHLA INDL!STRIAL ARtA. AND PI II3LISHED BY I<I!REAI OF INDIAN STANDARDS. NEW DELI11 II0002

PfIASE-I. NEW DELHI 110(!20

uction practices. Retired Engineer-in-Chief. A Special Committee for Implementation of Science and Technology Projects (SCIP) consisting of experts connected with different aspects (see page viii ) was set up in 1974 to advise the IS1 Directorate General in identification and for guiding the development of the work under the Chairmanship of Maj-Gen Harkirat Singh. Des& %?for Reinforced Concrete to IS : 456. This Group carried out in-depth studies in various areas of civil engineering and constr. the Department of Science and Technology set up an Expert Group on Housing and Construction Technology under the Chairmanship of Maj-Gen Harkirat Singh. In 1972. development and extension work in the sector of housing and construction technology. The need has been further emphasized in view of the publication of the National Building Code of India 1970 and its implementation. Army Headquarters and formerly Adviser ( Construction) Planning Commission. Planning Commission approved the following two projects which were assigned to the Indian Standards Institution: a) Development programme on Code implementation for building and civil engineering construction.Science and Technology plan for research. the Group was assigned the task of producing a . Government of India. Tall Buildings Design of Industrial Steel Structures Inspection of Different Items of Building Work Bulk Storage Structures in Steel Bulk Storage Structures in Concrete Liquid Retaining Structures .FOREWORD Users of various civil engineering codes have been feeling the need for explanatory handbooks and other compilations based on Indian Standards. During the preparation of the Fifth Five Year Plan in 1975. The Expert Group gave high priority to this item and on the recommendation of the Department of Science and Technology the. explanatory handbooks and design aids based on the National Building Code and various Indian Standards and other activities in the promotion of National Building Code. The Committee has so far identified subjects for several explanatory handbooks/compilations covering appropriate Indian Standards/Codes/Specifications which include the following: Functional Requirements of Buildings Functional Requirements of Industrial Buildings Summaries of Indian Standardsfor Building Materials Building Construction Practices Foundation of Buildings Explanatory Handbook on Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction (IS : 1893 . One of the items of this plan was the production of design handbooks.1978 Explanatory Handbook on Masonry Code Commentary on Concrete Code ( IS : 456 ) Concrete Mixes Concrete Reinforcement Form Work Timber Engineering Steel Code ( IS : 800 ) Loading Code Fire Safety Prefabrication . and b) Typification for industrial buildings.

Ed. 4 Notations as per IS : 456-1978 are maintained here as far as possible. and General Tables. the interpretation of the clause and worked out examples to illustrate the application of the clauses. The design aids cover the following: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Material Strength and Stress-Strain Relationships. it was felt that some design aids would be of help in designing as a supplement to the explanatory handbook. 4 Both charts and tables are given for flexural members. Cement and Concrete Association. Fintel ( Mark ). 1973. AC1 Publication SP-17(73) Design Handbook in accordance with the strength design methods of AC1 318-71. 8.Construction Safety Practices Commentaries on Finalized Building Bye-laws Concrete Industrial Structures One of the explanatory handbooks identified is on IS : 456-1978 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third revision). However. b) It is assumed that the user is well acquainted with the provisions of IS : 456-1978 before using these design aids. Development Length and Anchorage ( Limit State Design ). and c) Worked example illustrating the use of the design aids. Volume 1 ( Second Edition). This explanatory handbook which is under preparation would cover the basis/source of each clause. it refers to IS : 456-1978 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third revision ). The charts can be used conveniently for preliminary design and for final design where greater accuracy is needed. The format of these design aids is as follows: a) Assumptions regarding material strength. tables may be used. slabs and columns in general building structures. For the preparation of the design aids a detailed examination of the following handbooks was made : 4 CP ‘4 cl 4 : 110 : Part 2 : 1972 Code of practice for the structural use of concrete : Part 2 Design charts for singly reinforced beams. British Standards Institution. Ed. vi . UK. The objective of these design aids is to reduce design time in the use of certain clauses in the Code for the design of beams. Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Handbook. 1974. Working Stress Method. Compression Members ( Limit State Design ). Deflection Calculation. doubly reinforced beams and rectangular columns. Reynolds ( Charles E ) and Steadman ( James C ). Some important points to be noted in the use of the design aids are: 4 The design units are entirely in SI units as per the provisions of IS : 456-1978. Handbook on Concrete Engineering. b) Explanation of the basis of preparation of individual sets of design aids as related to the appropriate clauses in the Code. Shear and Torsion ( Limit State Design ). d) Wherever the word ‘Code’ is used in this book. American Concrete Institute. Published by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 1974. New York. Flexural Members ( Limit State Design). The charts and tables included in the design aids were selected after consultation with some users of the Code in India.

Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants (India) Limited. Ranchi. and Shri K. Officer on Special Duty. R. Structural Engineering Research Centre. New Delhi. R. j) In most of the charts and tables. Madras. the Chart or Table for the nearest value may be used and area of reinforcement thus obtained modified in proportion to the ratio of the strength of steels. The draft Handbook was circulated for review to Central Public Works Department. These design aids have been prepared on the basis of work done by Shri P. New Delhi. Nambiar. ISI. h) If the steel being used in the design has a strength which is slightly different from the one used in the Charts and Tables. Assistant Director. Cement Research Institute of India. colour identification is given on the right/left-hand corner along with other salient values to indicate the type of steel.f) Design of columns is based on uniform distribution of steel on two faces or on four faces. g) Charts and tables for flexural members do not take into consideration crack control and are meant for strength calculations cnly. Madras and the views received have been taken into consideration while finalizing the Design Aids. Madras. Shri B. IS1 was also associated with the work. Roorkee. M/s C. Central Building Research Institute. K. Detailing rules given in the Code should be followed for crack control. Narayanappa. in other charts/ tables salient values have been given. vii . Padmanabhan. Narayana Rao.

S. New Delhi Structural Engineering Research Centre. New Delhi Indian Standards Institution. . SARAN SHRI T. PROF DINESH MOHAN DR M. K. New Delhi Central Public Works Department. New Delhi 110048 MAJ-GEN HARKIRAT Members SEIR~ K. Roorkee Department of Science and Technology.SPECIAL COMMIlTEE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS (SCIP) Chairman SINGH W-51 Greater Kailash I. VISVESVARAYA SHRI D. C. MAUDOAL Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants (India) Limited.. . BANERJEE A.. Ran&i Central Building Research Institute. Madras Bureau of Public Enterprises. New Delhi Cement Research Institute of India. VEDAGIRI DR ‘H. AJITHA SIMHA DR S. New Delhi (Member Secrewv) Vlll . RAMAIAH SHRI T.

.....2 2.3.3 2. 175 .* 175 . .. . .3 1... . . ..2 4.. .. . . 3... .. .. .. . .. . .3 Construction of Interaction Diagram Compression Members Subject to Biaxial Bending 3. Axially Loaded Compression Members Combined Axial Load and Uniaxial BendIng Assumptions Stress Block Parameters when the Neutral iAxisLies Outside the Section 3. . 1. . 99 . .. ...* . xi . .. .. . .1 4.2. . . ... .. 2. .. . . ... 175 ix . . .. . .. .1 2. . ..CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES M THE EXPLANATORY -TEXT LIST OF CHARTS LIST OF TABLES SYMBOLS CONVERSK)N FACTORS 1. .3 Slender Compression Members 3. .. .. . . ..5 3. . . . . 101 . . ... . . .. . . 106 . 99 . . .4 . 175 4.. .. . ...1 1. . .4 SHEAR AND TORSION Design Shear Strength of Concrete Nominal Shear Stress Shear Reinforcement Torsion .2 2. .. Xiv ...2. . 175 . x . .. . 100 . .4 2.. .2 ... . . .3 4.. 104 . . ... .. . 4. .. . . . . . .. . .1 3. . .3.. xix 3 3 3 4 4 9 9 9 9 10 12 14 14 99 MATERIAL STRENGTH AND STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS Grades of Concrete Types and Grades of Reinforcement Stress-strain Relationship for Concrete Stress-strain Relationship for Steel FLEXURAL MEMBERS Assumptions Maximum Depth of Neutral Axis Rectangular Sections Under-Reinforced Sections Doubly Reinforced Sections T-Sections Control of Deflection COMPRESSION MEMBERS . 101 .1 3. . ..2 3. . . xvii . . ..2 1. ..2. . ..1 2. .4 2.. . .

..1. . ... . Multiplying Factors for Use with Charts 19 and 20 Stress Block Parameters When the Neutral Axis Lies Outside the .2 6...183 .... . .... X . . .. . . . . .1 7. Section Additional Eccentricity for Slender Compression Members . Maximum Shear Stress rc. .b. 1. . . . .. . . .. . . . ... Limiting Moment of Resistance Factor Mu.. . .. 10 10 10 13 13 101 106 175 I89 189 190 .. . ..2 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND ANCHORAGE . 189 189 189 189 190 190 191 191 213 213 213 Flexural Members Balanced Section Under-Reinforced Section Doubly Reinforced Section Compression Members Shear and Torsion Development Length and Anchorage DEFLECTION CALCULATION Effective Moment of Inertia Shrinkage and Creepl)eflections LIST OF TABLES IN THE EXPLANATORY Table A B C D E F G H I J K L M TEXT Salient Points on the Design Stress Strain Curve for Cold Worked Bars ... . Maximum Percentage of Tensile Reinforcement Pt.1.. . ...../bd’. . 7. .. . . .i for Singly Reinforced Balanced Section . . .. . . ./&. .. ... N/mm” for Balanced . . . . . Values of F for Different Grades of Steel . Rectangular Section Percentage of Tensile Reinforcement P1. .1. ...1 6.. ... 6... .... . Stress in Compression Reinforcement.ii.1 6.. .2 6.. ... . . .. Values of the Ratio A.. . . . . 6 9 Limiting Moment of Resistance and Reinforcement Index for Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections . . fX N/mma in Doubly Reinforced Beams with Cold Worked Bars .3 6. . . ..... . 5.. . .1 5.. . . . ..lim for Singly Reinforced Rectangular Sections . .... 183 183 Development Length of Bars Anchorage Value of Hooks and Bends WORKING STRESS DESIGN ... . . . . Reinforced Rectangular Sections .. . .3 6. . N/mm2 for Singly..4 7..Page 5. .2 6.max Moment of Resistance Factor M/bd’.*.

. ...20 N/mm*.. .20 N/mm’. . . fy = f ek 20 N/mm’. . . fr= ck 15 N/mm*.15 N/mm*. 17 18 19 21 22 23 25 26 27 29 30 31 33 34 35 37 38 39 fsk... fu= f etr 15 N/mm*.. .. .250 N/mm’ fr I 415 N/mm’ . fr - 415 N/mm* 500 N/mm* 500N/mm* 500N/mm* 250 N/u& 250 N/mm% 2% N/mm’ 415 N/mm* 415 N/mm’ 415 N/m’ 500 N/mm* 500 N/mm* hk . 43 44 45 . fi ctr 15 N/mm*. ..55 d= 5 d I 30 d-55 d== 5 d = 30 d-55 . . . ’ fv f& x 20 N/mm*... . fi ...LIST OF CHARTS chart No... fy = f f& . fy fd . fr I 250 N/mm*. 109 110 111 xi ..d P 5 d ..55 d= 5 d-30 d I 55 to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to 30 55 80 30 55 80 30 55 80 30 55 80 30 55 80 30 55 80 cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm PW . = fh . .. . . .*.. . .15 N/mm*. fi 250 250 250 415 415 N/mm’ N/mm* N/mms N/mm* N/mm* d5 d = 30 d ..20 N/mm*. . f. 41 42 CONTROL OF DEFLECTION 21 22 23 fr .. . .. . fy f& . . .“. .. . & = 500 N/mm* FLEXURE . . . .. . .. d-d’ . .250 N/mm’ ft ..15 N/mm*. ..fy= f& . fv f ck. .. fy= Lk . .. .Singly Reinforced Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 CL= 15 N/mm’.. . . . AXIAL COMPRESSION 24 25 26 h .. I.fdrI 20 N/mm*.. ..20 N/mm’. . ..50 to 80 cm . . f..20 to 50 cm d-d’ .....500N/mm’ .. fy= f = f Ed 15 N/mm*.Doubly Reinforced Section 19 20 fr I 250 N/mm’..20 N/mm*. . .....30 d = 55 d5 d-30 d..20 N/mm*.. = fck 15 N/mm*. FLEXURE .415 N/mm’ A-5OON/mm’ . .

. . .20 ..20 = 0. ... .. .. . .. . .10 0.. .Rectangular Section Reinforcement Distributed Equally on Four Sides 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 J.500 N/mm9 fv .500 fr = 500 fy . . . .15 020 0.15 = 020 . . . ..10 = 0..05 0.15 0..20 0.. . . . .15 = 0. .250 N/mm2 fy II 415 N/mm9 frP 415 N/mm9 fr I 415 N/mm9 fr . . .. . I) 250 N/mm* .. .. .15 0.. . .250 fv P 250 fy = 250 fr = 250 fyP 415 fr.20 0. . .10 0.. . . . 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 WlTH BENDlNG .. .508 fr .... . . .. ..Chart No...fx I 250 N/mm” fy= 250 N/mm9 fy . . ... COMPRESSION WITH BENDING . .Multiplying Factor k for .10 = 0....415 fr . ... .. ... . . . .. . . . . . Slender Compression Members . . . . .Circular Section d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’!D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D = 0.. . .. Page . . .20 0.... Values of Puz for Compression Members Biaxial Bending in Compression Members ..10 0. . 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 COMPRESSION WITH BENDING . . . Additional Moments xii . ...500 fu. . . .05 0. .. .500 N/mm9 N/mm2 N/mm’ N/mm’ N/mm9 N/mm9 N/mm’ N/mm9 N/mm9 N/mm” h-500 N/mm* fv-500 N/mm* d’/D d’/D d’/D d’lD d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’lD d’/D = = = = c = = P = = = 0.. .. . ..... . ..05 0. .05 = 0. ..415 N/mm9 fy = 500 N/mm3 f. .. . . ... . ..10 = 0. .. . .500 N/mm’ fu = 500 N/mm9 COMPRESSION 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 fx . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . ..20 .15 0. . . . . 1. .15 0... ..05 0. 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 . .. .15 I= 0.05 0... .05 0. . . = 250 fi = 250 h I 250 fv LI 250 fr = 415 fu = 415 fr PD415 fy . . ..20 = 0.415 fy = 415 fy . . . . i .. .05 = 0. .500 N/mm% N/mms N/mm9 N/mm9 N/mm9 N/mm9 N/mm9 N/mm9 N/mm9 N/mm4 N/mm9 N/mm3 d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D d’/D = = = = = P = = = 0. . . .. . .15 0.10 0. .. ..... . .. . ..415 fi . . .Rectangular Section Reinforcement Distributed Equally on Two Sides 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 f.. .05 = 0.10 0....10 0. . .. . . .. . ..

. . . .. .No. . .15 020 . .15 d’/D . .500N/mm* A-5OON/IUlll’ 0. . .Frame Restrained .. . . . . fr . .250 N/mm’ fr ..05 . 0. .415 N/mm’ /r I 415 N/mma d’/D d’/D d’/D = d’/D P 0..10 al/D . . .020 d’/D .415 N/mm’ /r . Effective Length of Columns . . ..... . .130 N/mm* .. . . .190 N/mm* .. ....Reinforcement Distributed Equally on Four Sides 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 a4 85 86 87 88 89 90 ‘Pl 92 f.. . . . . . .415 N/mm’ & = 415 N/mm* h . ... .... . . . ... 161 162 163 164 165 166 l6i l68 169 170 193 194 215 216 217 218 219 Axial Compiession (Working Stress Design) 0.. .0.15 d’/D d’/D = d’/D = d’/D d*/D= 090 0. Moment of Inertia of T-Beams . .05 and 010 0.0..250 N/mm’ fr . .. .O-20 . . . .Rectangular Section . . .. . . .. ..10 0. ... .05 and 010 d’/D .250 N/mm’ fr .@OS d’/D a 0. .10 d’/D P 0.... .. . .. .05 d’/D = 010 d’/D ..Against Sway .Frame Without Restraiht to Sway xul . .05 .. .. . . .415 N/mm’ II-=5OON/llltII’ h-5OON/IIUU’ d’/D = @l5 and 020 d’/D -0. . . .. Axial Compression (Working Stress Design) am . .. h-SOON/mm’ &-so0 N/lIlOI’ 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 TENSION WITH BENDING .Rectangular Section Reinfomment Distributed Equally on Two Sides 66 Page 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 h ......250 N/mm* /r ..0. .. . Percentage.. . ClUWt TENSION WITH BENDING . Effective Length of Columns ..... .. . ... Area and Spacing of Bars in Slabs .15 d’/D ...415 N/mm’ fr = 415 N/mm’ h-5OON/mm’ Jt-5OON/lIllII’ fr . . . . .15 and 020 0. Effective Moment of Inertia for Calculating Deflection .

15 N/mm’ /r.250 f clr-mN/=’ &I 250 fck -2ON/mm* h . . . .. .. ... . .. . . . .25.. ..0 cm 13.15N/llIHl’ fy.0 cm 11..........15 N/mm* fr . .5 cm 20.11. .. . 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 xiv fd . .15 N/mm* fi .250 N/mm* fck.250 N/mm* Thickness .15 N/mm’ fy. . N/mm* fd = 30 N/mm’ FLEXURE - Moment of Resistance of Slabs.. .I 13.15 N/mm* fy I 415 fd .15 N/mm’.22..0 cm 120 . ... . . .. ..250 N/mm* fd .250 f ck . .0 cm 10. .... 47 48 49 50 15 N/mm’ f CL = 20 N/mm’ f CL 25.0 cm 225 cm 25. . . pI for Singly Reinforced Sections .415 N/mm* 2: f :: :rGI i.. .0 cm 17. .m Per Metre Width Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness = = = = 10..0 cm 14.. . ...0 cm 10. ..415 N/mm* 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 70 71 72 Thickness .5 cm fck 20 N/mm*fr ....0 cm 15.20 N/m+ h I 250 N/mm* Thickness .20 N/mm’ f.... . ...0 cm . ..15 N/mm* fv I 415 f ck 15 N/mm* f. . .0 cm 11.. . . ..250 N/mm’ fd .0 cm 120 cm 13..15N/mm’ fy E 415 fa.. .... .250 N/mm* f ck...0 cm 12.15 N/mm* fy . . . .15 N/mm* fy .20 N/mm’ fy . .250 N/mm* Thickness I 20.15 N/mm* fr I 250 N/mm* fdr-15 N/mm’ fy.15 N/m* fy = 415 f clr-m N/mm*$..250 N/mm* Thickness I fd ..5 cm 25.0 cm 15.250 N/mm* fdr. kN. . .0 fd ..15 N/mm* fy.0 cm 14..LIST OF TABLES Table No.0 cm 140 cm 15.415 fck 15 N/mm* fv.250 N/mm* fck ...0 cm 175 cm 20..415 = fdt.250 N/mm* f & ..250 N/mm* fck. FLEXURE 1 2 3 4 fft - Page Reinforcement Percentage.17. ..0 cm 22.250 f: z $ :\=I N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thcikness N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thickness N/mm* Thickness 2 .5 cm fck 20 N/mm’ f.0 cm. . .415 fsk. .. cm f& . ... 250 N/mm* Thickness . I a*- . fy w 250 N/mm* Id-15 N/mm’ f. .

* . . . . .u.. . ... .0 cm 14.10. . fy .. - f ck - 20 N/mm2 20 N/mm2 20 N/mm2 h h I h - - f... . . .. ..0 N/mm’ uca ... Shear . .# /a. .. ..415 N/mm2 fr fr &fr P fy I fr. N/mm’ for Singly Reinforced Sections 2 70 71 a* .llm2 .5-O N/mm* u.500N/mm’ Slender Compression Members . . .. ... ....30 N/mm2 fdr 15 N/mm2 20 N/mm2 fck \= f ck 25 N/mm2 fck 30 N/mm2 250 N/mm2 250 N/mm2 250 N/mm2 250 N/mm2 415 N/mm’ fy I 415 N/mm2 fr . .0 cm 15.bc ..0 N/mm* . fck 20 N/mm2 fy - - 2: 1: i/z: i fck 20 N/mm2 fy - 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 415 N/mm2 Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness - 100 cm 110 cm 12. . 184 184 La5 186 WORKING STRESS METHOD . . .7.0 cm 13.15 N/mm2 f. .. . . . .... .. ..Values of P.Design Shear Strength of Concrete. .. . . fr . 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 fti 1... . 195 :: 198 xv . . ..500N/mm* Anchorage Value of Hooks and Bends . ... ... .. .0 cm . 93 94 95 171 178 179 179 64 65 66 67 Plain Bars Deformed bars. .Vertical Stirrups Shear . 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 FLEXURE .. .415 N/mm2 fu .Bent-up Bars DEVELOPMENT LENGTH . .. .. .. .. .500N/mm2 fr-5OON/r. . . . .. Mo.....*.15N/mm2 fck. fuP 415 N/mm* Deformed bars.. . ..FLEXURE . ..0 cm 175 cm 200 cm 225 cm 25. . .250 N/mm’ fy.. .. . .&... . ....... .. 2. . . . .k 30N/mm2 fek. rc... . .+ 20 N/mm2 f. . . ... ... .. . .Limiting Moment of Resistance Factor.. . .. .Moment of Resistance Factor. M/bd’.. ..5 N/mm’ ucbc. .. . . .. . ... . . . . . . . for Singly Reinforced T-beams N/mm* 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 fv. . . ..Table NO..415 N/mm= fy. .8. . ... . N/mm* Shear . 73 73 74 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 FLEXURE . ...Reinforcement Percentages for Doubly Reinforced Sections 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 f& ..500N/mm2 fY I: 500 N/mm2 .

..( ust140 N/mm8 140 N/mm’ 140 N/mm’ 140 ... ...I 221 222 223 224 DEPTH OF NEUTRAL &US .. . . .... .5 N}mn’ a&C.... .DEVELOPMENT LENGTH 83 84 85 86 Plain Bars Deformed Bars . . .5 v/mm’ oek . ... . . . ..190 N/mm’ Deformed Bars . . xvi .. .230 N/mm*. . . WORKING STRJZSSMETHOD-SHEAR 80 81 82 Permiklble Shear Stress in Concrete rc. ..10. . WORKING STRESS DESIGN .0 N/mm* uckacbsoti aa w I an I au u... .0 N/m& aa . .u.... .0 N/mm* oca . . .. . ..Values of b@/l2 000 . ..... . . . . . . .275 N/mm*... .10.....Table No. ...15 020 1. . . au P a.Values of n/d by Elastic Theory 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 d’/d d’/d d’/d d’jd I = 005 0. . ... . . .. . .. . . .8.. . . . . ... . .. .. .. 225 226 227 228 229 230 a31 232 l Areas of Given Numbers of Bars in cm* Areas of Bars at Given Spacings Fixed End Moments for Prismatic Beams Detlection Formulae for Prismatic Beams .. uc . . . . .... . .. . . .0 N/mm* ati I 5.190 N/mm’ Moment of Inertia .. . . . ... .0 N/mm1 79 N/mms 8.. . .uat. ....N/J& 230 N/mm’ 230 N/inn+ 230 N/mm’ 230 N/mm’ . N/mm* Vertical Stirrups Bent-up Bars ...Rchforccmcnt Percentages for Doubly Reinforced S&ions 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 5.10 0.. WORKING STRESS METHOD .. ..FLEXURE .. . .7. e . MOMENT OF INERTIA OF CRACKED SECTION-Values of Ir/ 87 88 89 90 &Id d’ld d’jd d’ld 095 090 015 020 . . ..

Cracking moment = Design moment for limit state Design (factored moment) Limiting moment of resistance of a singly reinforced rectangular beam e Design moment about xx-axis a Design moment about &-axis = Maximum uniaxial moment capacity of the section with axial load. EC ES ha C. D Di d d’. MUY M”l.Y fck I Gross area of section = Area of steel in a column or in a singly reinforced beam or slab .Area of compression steel = Area of stirrups DC Area of additional tensile reinforcement = Deflection due to creep = Deflection due to shrinkage = Breadth of beam or shorter dimensions of a rectangular column = Effective width of flange in a T-beam = Breadth of web in a T-beam = Centre-to-centre distance between corner bars in the direction of width I Overall depth of beam or slab or diameter of column or large1 dimension in a rectangular column or dimension of a rectangular column in the direction of bending LI Thickness of flange in a T-beam . bending about yy-axis = Maximum moment under service loads .Compressive stress in steel corresponding to a strain of 0402 = Stress in the reinforcement nearest to the tension face of a member subjected to combined axial load and bending = Cytrteristic yield strength of P Design yield strength of steel = Effective moment of inertia P Moment of inertia of the gross section about centroidal axis.SYMBOLS AC = Area of concrete 4 A* AC A I” A so act 6 b br bw b. bending about xx-axis = Effective length of a column. neglecting reinforcement = Moment of inertia of cracked section = Flexural stiffness of beam := Fkxural stiffness of column = Constant or coefficient or factor = Development length of bar = Length of column or span of beam = Effective length of a column. . bending about xx-axis xvii M u3h-n Mu.Effective depth of a beam or slab = distance of centroid of compression reinforcement from the extreme compression fibre of the concrete section G Centre to centre distance between comer bars in the direction of depth = Modulus of elasticity of concrete = Modulus of elasticity of steel P Eccentricity with respect to major axis (xx-axis) = Eccentricity with respect to minor axis (yy-axis) = Minimum eccentricity = Compressive stress in concrete at the level of centroid of compression reinforcement = Charircteristic compressive strength of concrete E Flexural tensik strength (modulus of rupture) of concrete = Stress in steel .d’ d.

/bd let Percentage of tension reinforcePC ment.: neutral axis at service x &I Xl &I Xu.t. . 100 A.mox Yc Yl z a Yr Ym t ecbc 6X 01 es 011 = Shorter dimension of the stirrup = Depth of neutral axis at the limit state of collapse = Maximum depth of neutral axis in limit state design = Distance from centroidal axis of gross section. ‘I”00A.Equivalent bending moment Mel MU..Mn. bending about yy-axis .Diameter of bar XVlll . 7Y 7bd k in shear Shear stress in concrete ‘5w .Maximum shear stress in concrete with shear reinforcement 8 9 i Creep coefficient .Equivalent shear stress Q.Axial load corresponding to the pb condition of maximum compressive strain of 0903 5 in concrete and OQO2 in the outermost layer of tension steel in a compression member = Design axial load for limit state P” design (factored load) P Percentage of reinforcement P compression . neglecting reinforcement. to extreme fibre in tension = Longer dimension of stirrup = Lever arm P Angle .Spacing of stirrups ST .Shear force V I Strength of shear reinforcement VS (working stress design) V&l = Sbear force due to factored loads of shear reinforcement = Stren VW imit state design) 8h = Dept.Additional percentage of tensile Ptr reinforcement ’ doubly reinforced beams..Partial safety factor for material strength = Creep strain in concrete .OO Ast/bd ..Maximum uniaxial moment capacity of the section with axial load.. -l.Partial safety factor for load ./bd .Torsional moment due to T” factored loads .Additional moment. .mu . MU .tim in doubly reinforced beams Mu.Permissible stress in concrete in bending compression = Permjssible stress in concrete in direct compression = Stress in steel bar 3: Permissible stress in steel in compression = Permissible stress in steel in tension I Permissible stress reinforcement P Nominal shear stress P Design bond stress - es.timrr= Limiting moment of resistance of a T-beam m = Modular ratio P = Axial load .Percentage of PC reinforcement.

807 9.807 kilogram per mm’ kilogram per cm2 o-102 0 10.20 9.102 0 9.807 O-0981 xix .807 9.CONVERSION into FACTORS Mu&ply by Conversely Multiply by To Convert I (1) Loads and Forces Newton Kilonewton Moments and Torques Newton metre Kilonewton metre Stresses Newton per mm* Newton per mm’ -~ (2) (3) (4) kilogram Tonne o-102 0 0.807 kilogram metre Tonne metre o-102 0 o-102 0 9.

.

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

Grades . IS : 432 (Part I)-1966*> IS : 1139-1966t I 1 bars up to Medium tensile steel (hotrolled deformed bars) 34. tables for design of flexural members are given for Grades M 15. M 25 and M 30.1. the characteristic strength being defined as the strength below which not more than 5 percent of the test results are expected to fall.1 GRADES OF CONCRETE 1. of 15 cm cubes at 28 days. 1. given for these two grades ordy. The types of steel permitted for use as reinforcement bars in 4. SI units will be adopted in their next revisions. medium tensile steel and high yield strength steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement (revised). therefore. *Specification for mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard-drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement: Part I Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars (second revision). However. Charts for flexural members and tables for slabs are. fti.2 The charts for compression members are applicable to all grades of concrete.5 kgf/mm* for bars over 20 mm’dia up to 40 mm iiia 33 kgf/mm” for bars over 40 mm dia 42. The number in the grade designation refers to the characteristic compressive strength. M 30. 1. M 35 and M 40.5 kgf/mm2 for all sizes High yield strength steel (hotrolled deformed bars) High yield strength steel deformed (cold-twisted bars) Hard-drawn steel wire fabric IS : 1139-1966t IS : 1786-1979$ 7 4 15 N/mm2 for all bar sizes 500 N/mm* for all bar sizes 49 kgf/mm* IS : 1566-19674 and IS : 432 (Part II)-19661 Nom-S1 units have been used in IS: 1786-19793. $Specificatiod for cold-worked steel high strength &formed bars for concrete reinforcement (second WlSiO#).ti IS and M 20 are used for flexural members.or bars up to Type oj Steel Mild steel (plain bars) Mild steel (hot-rolled deformed bars) Medium bars) tensile steel (plain Indian Standard IS : 432 (Part I)-1966* 1 IS : 1139-1966t r I- 24 kgf/mm* for bars over 20 mm dia 36 lkfe.6 of the Code and their characteristic strengths (specified minimum yield stress or O-2 percent proof stress) are as follows: Yield Stress or O-2 Percent Proof Stress 26 z$fm.1.2 TYPES AND GRADES REINFORCEMENT BARS OF The following six grades of concrete can be used for reinforced concrete work as specified in Table 2 of the Code (IS : 4% 1978*): M 15. M 25.rni.1 Generally. tSpecification for hot rolled mild steel. hard-drawn steel and wire for MATERIAL STRENGTHS AND STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 3 . MATERIAL STRENGTHS AND STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS I. in other Indian Standards.i2’ . (#rsr revisfon ). &+eciiication for hard-drawn steel wire fabric for concrete reinforcement ijSpecification for mild steel and medium tensile steel bars concrete reinforcement: Part II Hard drawn steel wire (second revision).1. M 20. expressed in N/mmZ . M 20. *Code d practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third revision ).

2 STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR MILD STEEL 1. the stress-strain curve is defined as given below: hu#aslic~srrain Stress Nil O*SOfy OQOOl 0. An acceptable stress-strain curve (see Fig. 1) given in Fig.2.2 of the Code). 1.85 fr 0.6. For cold-worked bars. 415 N/mm2 and 500 N/mm2. DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE The modulus of elasticity of steel. This value is applicable to all types of reinforcing steels.2. The stressstrain curves for these two grades of coldworked bars have been plotted in Fig. For two grades of cold-worked bars with 0. E. . 20 of the Code will form the basis for the design aids in this publication.. I/ I / . With a value of l-5 for the partial safety factor ym for material strength (35.4 STRESS-STRAIN FOR STEEL RELATIONSHIP be adopted. the maximum compressive stress in concrete for design purpose is 0. 1.4. the stress is proportional to strain up to yield point and thereafter the strain increases at constant stress (see Fig. I).tp for steel in tension and compression is assumed to be the same.2(c) of the Code].2. most of the charts and tables have been prepared for three grades of steel having characteristic strength& equal to 250 N/mm*. According to this. The stress-strain relations1. subject to the condition that it results in the prediction of strength in substantial agreement with test results [37.2 percent proof stress values of 415 N/mms and 500 N/mm2 respectively. For mild steel. Thereafter.2.3 STRESS-STRAIN FOR CONCRETE RELATIONSHIP The Code permits the use of any appropriate curve for the relationship between the compressive stress and strain distribution in concrete.5. The design yield stress (or 0. With a value of l-15 for ym (3.446 fck (see Fig. is taken as 200 000 N/mm2 (4.2 percent proof stress) of steel is equal to fr/ym.8 fY. 1 DESIGN STRKSS-STRAINCURVE FOR CONCRETE 1. 0~0010 0. the stress is proportional to strain up to a stress of 0.002 STRAIN 0’001 FIG. 2).2 Five values of fY (includinglthe value for hard-drawn steel wire fabric) have been included in the tables for singly reinforced sections.Taking the above values into consideration.0% 3 0*9ofy o*ooo 7 0*9sf.975 fy 0.1 of the Code). the stress-strain relationship given in Fig.1 If the steel being used in a design has a strength which is slightly diflerent from the above values. 200000 N/mm’ ? STRAIN -- FIG. the chart or table for the nearest value may be used and the area ofreinforcement thus obtained be modi$ed in proportion to the ratio of the strengths.4. 22 of the Code will 4 ..2 of the Code). the design yield stress fv becomes 0#87 f.002 0 l-O& The stress-strain curve for design purposes is obtained by substituting fYe for fY in the above. The compressive strength of concrete in the structure is assumed to be O-67fd. 3.I a. the values of total strains and design stresses corresponding to the points defined above are given in Table A (see page 6).

001 o-002 STRAIN FIG.1 500 so0 450 m2 ‘1.0 soo/ ‘iv’ ‘mnl 400 UC/l1-n 350 T < 2.003 o-004 0*005 STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR COLD-WORKED STEELE MATERIAL SrRENGTHS AND STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 5 . 3 0. 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0.

85 fyd 0.975 fyd l’ofyd 090144 0031 63 0~00192 0032 4 I 0.-k Strain (4) fy= 500 N/mm8 b Stress (5) N/mm* 347.9 434.90&l 0’95 fyd 0.80 fyd 0.8 (1) 0.6 391. 6 .8 360.003 80 woo174 0.0 423.3 413.4 ) CURVE GOR STRESS LEVEL f.1.003 12 MO4 17 NOTE -.8 351.8 342.Linear interpolation may be done for intermediate values.8 369. 0 415 N/mm’ f-* Strain (‘1 Stress (3) N/mm* 288.002 76 0._-.7 324.002 26 0.9 > .TABLE A SALIENT POINTS ON THE DESlGN STRESS-STRAIN COLD-WORKED BARS ( Chse 1.001 95 0. 306.002 77 0.

.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

. design stresses DIFFERENT GRADES OF STEEL (Cfuu.. FLEXURAL MEMBERS 2.2 of the Code): 2.is obtained directlyfrom the strain diagram by considering similar triangles.2 MAXIMUM DEPTH OF NEUTRAL AXIS Assumptions (b) and (f’)govern the maximum depth of neutral axis in flexural members._ d (0. The basic assumptions in the design of flexur&lmembers for the limit state of collapse are fcivenbelow (see 37.005 5 f 0. TABLE B VALUES OF F FOR d) The tensile strength of concrete is ignored. The compressive stress block for concrete is represented by the design stress-strain curve as in Fig.479 500 O-456 Fig.S O= f-. 87 STRESS DIAGRAM .2 ASSUMPTJONS . T& strain distribution across a member corresponding to those limiting conditions is shown in Fig. W Ihe maximum strain in concrete at the outermost compression fibre is 0903 5.87 f. 1. 4. This means that the strain at any point on the cross section is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral RXiS. for concrete is taken as indicated in Fig. the tensile reinforcementhas to undergo a certain degree of inelastic deformation before the concrete fails in compression.2) the stress-strain relationship N/mms 250 0531 415 0. e).003 5 x0.3 RECTANGULAR SECTIONS This assumption is intended to ensure ductile fail&e. 4 SINOLY REINFQRCSDSECTION FLEXURAL MRMM3R.. 2 and 3. f) The strain in the tension reinforcement is to be not less than 7 2.re 2. The maximum depth of neutral axis x.. for three grades of d The design stress-strain relationship reinforcing steel are given in Table B. . Tbt in reinforcement are derived from the strains using given -in f. 4) that the centroid of compressive force in a rectangular section lies 0*0035 t X u. seen from this stress block (see Fig. that is./&) The values of * 4 Plane sections normal to the axis of the member remain plane after bending.m*a f !zzx + 0*002 E* STRAIN OIAGRAM FIQ. It is.2. 0. 1.

0. Nhm’ r 250 415 .mPx from Table B. that ‘is.~. In these tables.24 2.. Hence the upper limit for the moment of resistance of a singly reinforced rectangular section is given by the following equation: M u.416 x..0. DESIGN AIDS FOR WNFORCED CONCRETE 10 .mu) Substituting for xu.lhl - Lk bd’ Plrllrn fy / ck 21.Z. The corresponding percentages of reinforcements are given in Table E.3) fdr.lim corresponding to the limiting moment of resistance is obtained by equating the forces of tension and compression. five values of fy and four grades of concrete up to M 30. two grades of concrete.133 Under-reinforced section means a singly reitiorced section with reinforcement percentage not exceeding the appropriate value given in Table E. The moment values in the charts are in units of kN. N/mm* 15 4 /y.76 220 2% . Tables 1 to 4 cover a wider range. The tensile reinforcement percentage. x(d .0.416 xu) The values of the limiting moment of resistance factor Mu/bd2 for different grades of concrete and steel are given in Table D.00 Is: 3.149 415 W138 500 0. be more than 0. pt.) (d . the depth of neutral axis xu will be smaller than x”.47 3: 30 2. the values of percentage of reinforcement pt have been tabulated against Mu/bd2.73 4..97 19. For such sections.~&FOR~N~ RECTANGULAR (Clause 2. fy.3.from Table B and transposing fdr bd2. The depth of neutral axis is obtained by equating the forces of tension and compression. Charts are given for three grades of steel and.3) /CL.0. Mu = pG (@87f.&yE$sECTANGULAR (Clause 2. N/mm’ FOR SINGLY REINFC).).43 u)o “0% b 1.45 414 2.33 3.99 N/mm’ 15 rK-----2.m per metr$ width.1 Under-Reinforced Section Substituting for xu. TABLE C LIMITING MOMENT OF RESISTANCE AND REINFORCEMENT INDEX FOR SINGLY REl.lim fYj& as given in Table C.416 ~u. These values are given in Table C.3) j& N/mm* -250 0..at a distance or U-416 xu (wnlcn nas oecn rounded off to 0. TABLE D LIMITING MOMENT OF RESISTANCE FAVOR Mu.66 3.lim = O-36& bxu. namely M 15 and M 20..36 fdrb xu M*.87 fr) .w 2. the distance between the centroid of compressive force and centroid of tensile force is equal to (d .98 3.3.0. therefore.32 1. we get the values of tie limiting moment of resistance factors for singly reinforced rectangular beams and slabs.42 xu in the code) from the extreme compression fibre. & l.005 &$]bda N/-Y 500 2.Z Charts 1 to 28 have been prepared by assigning different values to Mu/b and plotting d versus pt. and the total force of compression is 0.. The strain in steel at the limit state of collapse will.82 18. YE 2. the design stress in E. ‘G (0. we get the values of Pt.87 The moment of resistance of the section is equal to the prdduct of the tensile force and the lever arm.lim FOR SINGLY REINFStRmTNSRE!aANGW (c%u.4165 bd2 ) ( )( Substituting foi $ we get =O*87fy _ _ x C 1- 1. These are the maximum permissible percentages for singly reinforced sections. TABLE E MAXIMUM PERCENTAGE OF TENSILE REINFORCEMENT pt. that is.im/bd’. The lever arm.36 fck bxu. which are most commonly used for flexural members.g l.87 fy + 0902 and. steel will be 0937fy.

are included. Effectivedepth I 60 .2.m per metre width.m is less *than The sectton 1stherefore to be destgned as u’~mm’singly reinforced (unde&einforced) rectangular section.07 x lOa x z x (A)’ ’ _’ = 13. MFXHOD OF RFNRRJNG TO FLBXURB CHART I 1965 kN.2. 2.5.6 bd 0. a) For fy= 415 N/mm’ From Table D. Mu/b-g = 567kN. the maximum bar diameter does not exceed one-eighth the thickness of the slab. 0.25kN. FLExuRALmMBERs 11 .m *The term ‘factoredmoment’means the moment Actual bending moment of 960 kN.07 N/mm: 100 Example 2 Slab Determine the main reinforcement required for a slab with the following data: Factored moment 9.6 kN.9 =8cm = 2.= -jijiy 100 of the Code. that is.07 N/mm* For referring to Chart.1(d) Mu of the Code]. with Percentage of steel pt ./b . we need the value of moment per metre width.594 of Example 1 Singly Reinforced Beam .5.m is less due to characteristic loads multiplied by the appropriate value of p&rtialsafety factor yf.2.m *Factored moment *Assuming 25 mm dia bars with 25 mm clear cover.6~30~5625 __O1 . Tables are given for concrete grades M 15 and M 20. than the limiting bending moment.1.lim.594 x 30 x 56.415 N/mmz).25 x IO’ left hand comer indicate the region where I 1. Ten different thicknesses ranging from 10 cm to 25 cm.1 of the Code.2.m and d = 5625 cm.567 kN. Clear cover for reinforcement has been taken as 15 mm or the bar For referring to Tables.5 .5 -2. 0. GTOFU3XURECHART fVfM’HOD RBFQIRIN OF Assume 10 mm dia bars with 15 mm cover. we need the value diameter.*.m E%etre 10 cm M 15 a) 4 15 N/mm2 b) 250 N/mm* Depth of slab Concrete mix Characteristic strength of reinforcement h&l-HODOF REPERRING TABLES TO FOR SLABS v$g$ :. Retbrring to C/r& 6.07 x 101kN/m* . pt = 0.m $%ua] moment.2.-3m6. Mu. the zeros at w the top right hand comer indicate the region where the reinforcement percentage would 170 x IO’ M” exceed pt. whichever is greater [see 25.5625 cm From Table D.* Determine the main tension reinforcement required for a rectangular beam section with the following data: 3ox6Ocm Sixe of beam M 15 Concrete mix 415 N/mm’ Characteristic strength of reinforcement 170kN.6 M two grades of steel. are given in Tables 5 to 44.2 . 170 kN. of.25 x 56. Jn these tables. Percentage of reinforcement. A. directly we get the following reinforcement for a moment of resistance of 9.lOOAs= 0. J%lirn .2 The moment of resistance of slabs.2.4. for fr P 415 N/mm’ and fcrc 15 N/mm* MWliUJM’ p 2.2.m per metre width: 8 mm dia at 13 cm spacing or 10 mm dia at 20 cm spacing Reinforcement given in the tables is based on a cover of 15 mm or bar diameter whichever is greater.* These tables take into account 25..3..* As.79 N/mm’ the reinforcement is less than the minimum according to 25. and the zeros at the lower bd’ . d .60 kN. corresponding to with bars of different diameters and spacings h&.omo2.25 _ . &am x (1000)’ e.10 .07 x 1O’W I 2-07 x 10’ x fa x 30 Referring to Table 15 (for fy . From Table 1.tidb# :.

pt = 0.m is less than the limiting bending moment. b) Forf.m Actual bending moment of 9. 5. Mu&bd” M u&m = The lever arm for the additional moment of resistance is equal to the distance between centroids of tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement. It will be noticed that we need the values of frc and J& before we can calculate Al.XU. pt 6 0. From Table %. that is (d-d’) where d’ is the distance from the extreme compression fibre to the centroid of compression reinforcement. . = 250 N/mm* From Table D.475 Referring to Chart 90.Doubly reinforced sections are generally adopted when the dimensions of the beam have been predetermined from other considerations and the design moment exceeds the moment of resistance of a singly reinforced section. =&Us-fQC)(d-J’) where A1t2 is the area of additional tensile reinforcement.lim of a singly reinforced .336 kN. The additional moment of resistance needed is obtained by providing compression reinforcement and additional tensile reinforcement. taken as equal to x. Referring to Chart 2.. = O-475 x 100 x &J = 3. The total tensile reinforcement Ast is given by. Alternately. 5 OlAGRkM DOUBLY REINKIRCED SECI-ION DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRIXE 12 . 2. The approach. Given the values of Mu which is greater than M”.) (d . Since the additional tensile force is balanced by the additional compressive force.78 Referring to Churf PO. The moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced section is thus the sum of the limiting moment of resistance Mu.6 kN. per- A.-. Therefore. therefore.fee)= At. can be calculated. Ast = Pblim = 2. Mu.24 N/mm2 2. we get the same reinforcement as before.Asts (0*87f. and fee is the compressive stress in concrete at the level of the centroid of compression reinforcement. I= is the stress in compression reinforcement. Mu. provide 8 mm dia at 13 cm spacing or 10 mm dia at 20 cm spacing. (0*87&j Any two of the above three equations may be used for finding Alt. provide 10 mm dia at 13 cm spacing. AK is the area of compression reinforcement.UWZ > ( d’ STRAIN FIG. the value of Mu. reinforcement centage.) also. strain at the level of the compression reinforcement will be equal to O-003 5 1. reinforcement percentage.24 x 10’ x 1 x(h) ‘---’ = 14...8 cm* per metre width. As shown in Fig. The depth of neutral axis is. = Mu .2 Doubly Reinforced Sections . given here is meant for design of sections and not for analysing a given section..c . A.Referring to Chart 4.3. (l.section and the additional moment of resistance Mu.a.lim. considering the moment of resistance due to the additional tensile reinforcement and the compression reinforcement we get the following: Mu.Muslim m bd$ Asc. and A.

05 cm2 REINFORCEMENTFROM CHARTS -&(0*87f..m percentage of tensile pt2 Chart is given only for fy = 250 N/mm2.25 i o. These charts have been prepared for fs = 217.04 0.5 kN.(320 .75) . = 7. but it can be used for all grades of concrete with little error.418 At .*.3.117.)( where ptz is the additional reinforcement.07 56.18.m Actual moment of 320 kN.52. Example 3 pc for four values of been tabulated against to 56.85 cm2.15 1.20 329 370 2.lim -2.10 353 412 d’ld O-15 342 395 . %(0*87fy) + (d-d’) I.3.2 will be as given in Table F. When the reinforcement is coldworked bars.linJbd”=2. the design stress in compression reinforcement fw for different values of d’/d up to 0.3 2) The values of pt and d’jd up to 0. TABLE G MULTIPLYING USE WITH CHARTS FACTORS FOR 19 AND 20 Assuming 25 mm dia bars with 25 mm clear cover. Art2 (for fY = 250 N/mm2) = 10.07 5625 > 0.65 0. can be obtained by multiplying the value read from the chart by the factors given in Table G.2.3. The multiplying factors for A=.For values of d’/d up to 0.5 cm Mu2 .5 kN.> Pt = 1.m is greater than Mu.2 Astz has been plotted against (d -d’) for different values of MU.1. Pt = phlim + (d-d’) = (56.63 0.07 x IO2kN/m” -2.2.*.2.68 0. Reinforcement from Tables Mu $$ = O-562 320 5)2 x 103~~~~~ N/mm2 ‘Clause 2. are based on a value of fee corresponding to concrete grade M20. Values of Aat? for other grades of steel and also the values of A. and for mild steel reinforcement fz would be equal to the design yield stress of 0.07 x 103bd2 . The section is to be designed as a doubly reinforced section.60 0. FOR d’jd c-- A at* 1.25 . .54 0. in Charts 19 and 20.lim Mu.5 + 1.07 N/mm2 = 2.3. for fy = 415 N/mm2 and fck = 15 N/mm2 Mu. pc = 0.50 0.25 30 x 10”x loo x Tsx -100- = 196. Referring to Table 49 corresponding = 0.10 1.7 cm2 13 PC =P”[-L-] FLEXURAL MEMBERS . for mild steel reinforcement with yield stress of 250 N/mm*.52 Next higher value of d’/d = 0.05 1.04 0.5 . therefore use Chart 20 and modification factors according to Table G. given in this Table.2 1.225 = 56*25 cm From Table D. N/mm* IN DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS WITH COLDWORKED BARS (Clause 2.m f Y9 N/mm’ 415 500 -A 0. 0.lim .37 and $ . TABLE F STRESS IN COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT ftc.1 will be used for referring to Tables.5 N/mm2 and it is directly applicable.lim ___bd” + MU/bd2 = 3.2.04 0.5) = 123.0s 355 424 0.2 The expression for the moment of resistance of a doubly reinforced section may also be written in the following manner: Mu = Mu bj2 = Mu.2 have MU/bd2 in Tables 45 for three grades of of concrete. fee equal to is 0446 fck.196.87 fY.63 0.56 0. A. d = fj0 . to 2.60 d’/d c 2.25 56.2.1) N&P 250 415 500 f FACTOR FOR FACTOR FOR A. Tables are given steel and four grades Doubly Reinforced Beam Determine the main reinforcements required for a rectangular beam section with the following data: Size of beam Concrete mix Characteristic strength of reinforcement Factored moment 30 x 6Ocm M 15 415 N/mm2 320 kN. Mu.00 0. Referring to Chart 20.04 0.

2.87 f.7 x 0.15+ 642 = 18.lirn.2 of the code is the same as above.. A*: distribution in the flanp would not be uniform.7 x 0. The equation given in E-2.llltniiveb 30.5 CONTROL OF DEFLECTION whereMll.Eorted Cantilever 20 “4 0.5. within permissible limits if the ratio of span to effective depth of the member does not exceed the values obtained in accordance with 22..# for different values of h/b* and &/d have been worked out and given in Tables 57 to 59 for three grades of steel.36 fd bwxu..nm ..1 of the Code is an approximation which makes allowance for the variation of stress in the flange.4 T-SECTIONS The moment of resistance a T-beam can of be considered as the sum of the moment of resistance of the concrete in the web of width b. I& . 6) and the centroid of the compressive force in the flange can be taken at Df/2 from the extreme compression fibre.10.2.60 r! 6-42 cm* .flanges of width br. STRAIN DIAGRAM ho. Ast.u. 2. E. When the flange thick-. -_b -* 047 f” 0. When the thickness of flange is small.72 ...~.web f 0446 f& Mr-WY+ f ) Dividing both sides by&k bw P.. Therefore. the following expression is obtained for the limiting moment of resistance of T-beams with small values of Dfjd. that is. pt.*..2 d. x(br-bw)h( d-$) x(& l)$(l+$) xu.oo .072 5625 x 30 .. With this m&&ation.&.0. ness is greater than about 0.lim.= + 0.65 !$ where but ..usia Jl¶odibrion factors given in Table G Y for B = 415 N/nuns.2 of the CO& yf being equal to (0.T~ck b.. The expression Bven in E-22.& I 10. and the contribution due to .x (d-O.2 The deffection of beams and slabs would generally be.f < $ Using the above expression.57cm’ These values of At and AE are comparable to the values obtained from the table.63 = 674cm’ Referring to ruble E.. This expression is obtained by substitutin# JYfor &in the equation of E-2. the ~2: of the moment of resistance Mu. The following basic values of span to effective depth are given: En\!. 6 T-SECTION DBSIGN AIDS FOR REINPORCED CDNCRETE STRESS DIAORAM 14 .n -0.002 0.x E 12.1215cm’ . the stress in the flange will be uniform or nearly uniform (see Fig.1 of the Code. the above expression is not corre4ztbecause the stress 2. Mudin~~T9 Mu. The maximum moment of resistance is obtained when the depth of neutral axis is x. with the numericals rounded off to two decimals.m&+ 065 or) but not greater than Dr.15 X. less than about 0.2 d.416 x0.

span to effective depth ratio is plotted on the vertical axis and the tensile reinforcement percentage is dotted on the horizontal axis. the value of Pt.5. subject to the followmg modi. . the sPorter span should be considered for the purpose of calculating the span to effective depth ratio (see Note 1 below 23.5. the Code recommends that the values of span to effective depth ratios may be determined as for rectanEoeons. the values should be further multiplied by the factor (lo/span in me&es). conned.3.Further modifying factors are given in order to account for the effects of grade and percentage of tension reinforcement and percentage of compression reinforcement. the value of pc corresponding to a value of pt is obtained. . Therefore.II. Nom --The above method for flanged beams alay sometimes give anomalous mwlts. the values read from the charts are to be modified in proportion to the basic values of span to effective depth ratio. 2.pt.2 of the Code). thus obtained can generally be used for all values of d’/d in the normal range. The percentage of compression reinforcement is proportional to the additional tensile reinforcement @t .bcz&zm percentage should the area brd while referrmg b) The value of span to effective depth ratio obtained as explained earlier should be reduced by multiplying by the following factors: Factor b&v >:::3 For intermediate values.. The tn. the value of span to effective depth ratio thus obtained (percen of rciaforcemcnt being based on the area l&) Y ould always be oa the safe side. However. s 2. b) When the tensile reinforcement ex. the values of span to effective depth ratio obtained from the Charts should be multiplied by 0. not exceed permissible limits.2. FLBXURAL MEMBERS 25. the value of (pt . without significant error in the value of maximum span to effective depth ratio.lim and pc will depend on the grade of concrete also.. 4 of the Code.2. 2. linear interpolation may be done. 3) The value obtained above is plotted on the same Chart in which the base curve was drawn earlier. For simply supported or continuous spans larger than 10 m.ceeds ~I. In the chart. Thus. the section will be doubly reinforced. When drop panels conforming to 30.10 but the chart. A separate chart is drawn for each grade of steel.2 of the Code).lim) is calculated and then the percentage of compression reinforcement p= required is calculated.6 In the case of flat slabs the longer span should be considered (30. (For this purpose d’/d has been assumed as 0. If the fhges arc ignored and the beam is considered as a rectangular section.2 In normal designs where the reinforcement provided is equal to that required from strength considerations.2 of the Code are not provided.2.9.) as explained in 2.5 m 15 .l~G$ing factors for this purpose are as .5. spans & In the case of cantilevers which are longer than 10 m the Code recommends that the deflections should be calculated in order to ensure that they do. 2.54 For flanged beams.lim. For continuous spans or cantilevers. 4 The reinforcement be.3 The values read from these Charts are directly applicable for simply supported members of rectangular cross section for spans up to 10 m. as a simply supported beam over a span of 7.) 2) The value of span to effective depth ratio of the base curve is multiplied by the modifying factor for compression reinforcement from Fig. Such charts have been prepared as explained below : 4 The basic span to effective depth ratio for simply supported members is multiplied by the modifying factor for tension reinforcement (Fig. the basic values of span to effective depth can be multiplied by the appropriate values of the modifying factors and given in a form suitable for direct reference. the values of span to effective depth ratio according to base curve is modified as follows for each grade of concrete: 1) For values of pt greater than the appropriate value of pt. 3 of the Code) and plotted as the base curve in the chart.PM. Example 4 Control of Deflection Check whether the depth of the member in the following cases is adequate for controlling deflection : a) Beam of Example 1.5 In the case of tw way slabs supported on all four sides.. Hence the span to effective depth ratio for doubly reinforced section is plotted against the tensile reinforcement percentage pt without specifically indicating the value of pc on the Chart.

2.35.b) Beam of Example 3. is 22. Span b) Actual ratio of Etfective depth ‘(d&J = 7. over a span of 4. values read from the Chart are to be multiplied by 0.3 (-1 d :. Max Span = 23. Hence the depth provided is adequate for controlling deflection. :.5 m respectively.33 tension reinforcement of deflection.3. (ii) F0r.j. Max Max value of %!a? = 21. pt = 0.. Span = 31.* The section is satisfactory for control .35 cantilever J = 31.6 of =-=2. Max “7 for continuous slab Referring to Char1 22. c) Actual ratio of Span Effective depth Actual a> = (56. 2.0 m Slab . :. ratio of Span Eflective depth = 13.3 x 1. value of Max corresponding to Pt = 0. Max %% d Percentage of tensile pr = 1.5 31.3 F 30. Hence the section provided is adequate for controlling deflection.117 Referring to Churl 22.11 reinforcement.475 Referring to Chart 22. = 250 N/mm2 pt = 0. as a continuous slab spanning in two directions the shorter and longer spans being. 16 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE . as a cantilever beam Cl .25 0.6 x 1. Therefore the section may be slightly modified or actual deflection calculations may be made to ascertain whether it is within permissible limits..0x0*35=7. For continuous slab.oo) Percentage required.69 Actual ratio of span to effective depth is less than the allowable value.6 (-> d For continuous slabs the factor obtained from the Chart should be multiplied by 1.6.0 ( Cl 1 For cantilevers. The moment given in Example 2 corresponds to shorter spa’n.5.68 Actual ratio of span to effective depth is slightly greater than the allowable. the shorter of the two is to be considered) (i) Forfv = 415 N/mm2 pt = 0.5 m and 3.08 (for slabs spanning in two directions. ( Span T > Actual ratio of span to effective depth is less than the allowable value.of Example 2.78 Referring to Chart 21.3 = 40. = 23. Max value of 1 I/d for ) =21.

.

.

.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

.

.

.

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

.

.

.

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

.

.

.

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

.

.

.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

.

.

.

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

.

.

.

.

.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

REINFORCED SECTIONS pc FOR SINGLY 240 250 415 480 500 : 7ck 25 O-398 i.558 O-566 0’574 O-582 O-590 O-448 0.262 o-267 O-273 O-279 O-285 O-291 O-297 O-303 O-309 O-315 0.771 O-784 O-430 O-436 O-443 8::: o-463 O-469 O-476 0483 0.685 O-693 O-703 0.539 0..: 0.378 0.321 0.712 i’ .259 1.423 fY N/mm= b 250 0.523 O-535 0.074 OQ86 o&E O-125 0.159 0.244 O-250 O-257 0’263 O-270 0.151 0.546 0554 0. 0489 O-500 O-512 0.303 EJ O-323 O-329 Ei O-350 O-357 O-364 0.327 0. 8’::.759 0.211 O-216 o-222 O-227 0993 l-007 1*021 1935 l-049 0.410 O-421 0. FLeXURAL MEMBERS .765 O-778 x:z 0. 8’:.491 O-502 0.546 0.22 ::z l-28 1.290 E O-368 O-394 O-405 O-415 O-426 O-437 0448 O-458 0469 0.181 l-197 l-212 1228 1.20 1.524 8:::.164 O-178 0’191 Q-205 0.513 0.539 0442 X:t:Y O-465 0..2% 0.525 O-532 0.TABLE 1 FLEXURE - REINFORCEMENT PERCENTAGE.561 0.525 O-532 0. O-503 O-510 O-518 O-526 8:Z 0’550 0.518 0.141 O-166 .558 O-570 1.395 x:z indicate inadmissible reinforcement percentage (see Table E). 8’E Q240 415 Oa5 @lOO .627 O-639 O-650 O-662 I:G O-698 O-710 O-722 O-734 o-747 0.433 IZ 8::.34 I:: O-581 0393 @605 .480 0.558 0370 0.175 i-E Oh O-237 0.592 O-604 O-615 0.490 O-497 o”:?i 0.641 0. O-144 0.243 1.455 O-461 0468 O-475 0482 0489 0.496 0’503 o-510 O-517 0. 0.10 l-12 l-14 l-16 l-18 1.385 0.752 0.275 0.371 0.333 O-339 O-345 l-136 l-151 l-166 1.276 0283 O-289 0.581 0.569 O-576 O-584 O-592 E 040 O-45 O-50 O-276 O-302 O-329 O-356 O-383 0. 0.392 O-399 480 0.653 O-665 O-678 O-690 8E O-727 O-740 0.30 l-32 1.472 O-382 O-389 0.138 0.816 NOTE-Blanks O-265 0.

:‘z l-423 l-438 l-452 1467 1~482 l-497 :::. :‘E l-833 1. 1..253 :‘26: 1% LOZ l-323 E .538 O-566 OO’E * O-650 O-678 O-707 0.597 @624 O-651 O-679 0.298 0312 l-338 l-352 1966 1380 1’394 o-697 0. f’:.073 lm6 l-119 :::z l-159 l-172 l-185 1*199 ..N/m' 20 “0% O-188 O-213 O-237 O-073 Efl 0.662 O-201 ::E 0. :‘E l-239 X:E O-521 o-537 0.661 pj .782 .:g l-70 l-75 l-80 I-85 E 200 3g E 210 . x’% O-615 0.655 0.736 O-765 0.517 O-543 0.621 0.570 0. O-690 .764 1481 1’495 :::1’: l-540 . :‘:z .500 O-515 o-531 0.240 250 415 480 f -- TABLE 2 FLEXURE -REINFORCEMENT PERCENTAGE.704 o-711 o-719 O-726 O-734 O-741 O-748 0. O-297 O-311 0’325 0.795 O-825 8$.55 .735 0’763 ::a:.339 O-354 .707 0. O-916 0947 * %! 1’041 1.zO.553 0.628 O-635 xzz 0.756 0. 220 0.255 l-05 1. f’:: . 0. O-131 O-143 XE O-181 1. .: .:gj 0. REINFORCED ‘SECTIONS pt FOR SINGLY ck f& .632 l-647 l-663 _g.542 l-558 ::z l-604 l-203 l-216 :z 1.256 O-627 O-633 I:: 0. :‘% l-760 Num -Blanks lndk$teinadmissible reinforcement pcmntagc (see Table J% 48 DESIGNAIDS FOR REINFORCED CGNCRRI’E .242 0. EL! 0397 O-193 Ffg O-245 0.111 0’123 izi! FEJ .537 0’543 O-550 O-556 O-562 1. l-711 .10 1’15 .258 8:.:. :‘z E E l-50 1.

236 O-260 !% 0.15 $12”: 0.:22:.179 2196 L --Y 250 1.880 0.REINFORCEMENT PERCENTAGE.018 1.115 2.587 O-602 0.617 O-632 0. YZ 1..164 0188 O-211 0.935 0942 .666 0.62 ::z 3.104 2.415 1448 1482 1.949 0979 l-009 l-038 1.74 % 290 2-95 3.219 .320 O-333 0.130 0.333 0.369 O-385 O-401 w417 0. 250 0.140 0.222 l-254 13283 l-317 l-350 l-382 O-911 O-940 0968 .947 l-962 l-978 1993 2QO9 2.146 O-171 O-195 :z O-271 O-296 0?321 O-347 O-373 0.663 3.131 2.: 0.70 3-72 3.725 O-743 0.162 500 O-679 :z: O-727 O-744 8% O-794 O-811 0.898 O-916 0.762 0781 o-799 0.304 2.270 2. 2.163 2.255 0.05 3.997 1.515 l-549 l-584 1. REINFORCED SECTIONs pt FOR SINGLY /ck = 25 N/mms 240 250 4'1 5 480 500 7ck 25 fY Mlw2.186 2.:z O-956 o-977 0.N/mm2 7’ 1.856 O-883 .306 0.333 O-358 415 0.307 O-322 0.746 o-773 8::: 0.499 0.671 0.005 1. - m3xuRAL MEMBERS 49 .173 l-204 l-234 l-265 : :% 8% O-580 0.693 0.15 ::z l-30 l-35 :z 1.832 l-869 l-884 l-899 l-914 l-929 l-944 415 O-818 0.099 2.055 : :% l-143 1.30 0.639 X:% @719 0.00 3.10 3.50 0. z-. :::z 1.025 Z:% 2.509 6535 O-561 0.80 O-85 8C lfl0 l-05 1.749 O-777 0.60 3.515 O-532 O-549 O-566 O-583 O-601 O-618 O-635 O-653 0.186 O-201 O-216 0231 X% 0.425 0.179 0191 O-204 0.170 2.95 2-00 2-05 210 2.451 O-477 O-504 O-530 8% O-611 O-638 0.104 ::::.084 O-099 0.35 g 0. O-070 :%z O-106 O-118 0.10 1.845 O-863 0.287 2.338 0353 0.TABLE 3 FLEXURE .689 O-707 0.120 z::: 2.456 0.039 l-061 l-082 1.721 0.147 2.470 0.280 0.293 0.80 l-83 1.358 l-390 l-422 l-455 1487 l-520 :::z l-621 l-655 ::% l-760 l-796 1.428 O-442 0.837 ::::z O-896 ::.072 2-088 2.171 0.399 t-I.68 3.648 0.142 O-154 0167 0.267 0.433 O-449 O-466 O-482 0.834 l-871 1909 1.113 Of27 O-142 O-156 0.216 0229 O-242 0.653 l-689 l-724 l-760 1.203 2.90 1.797 1.618 1.15 :::: 33% :::t 3-38 N/mms fu.068 :z l-160 l-191 1.347 8% O-388 0403 x:::: 8:% O-415 O-489 fj:$ 480 500.484 O-498 o-513 O-527 0542 O-557 O-572 0.611 O-627 O-643 ZR O-691 NOTE Blanks indicate inadmissible reinforcement percentage (see Table E).596 0.828 0.346 O-359 0373 O-387 x%Y 0.276 O-291 0. :‘zc l-989 2.

164 1.848 0.197 1.829 0.184 NOTE Blanksindicate inadmissible reinforcement pyceniage(see TableE).796 0.952 1.028 1. 0.60 3.932 0961 0.65 3.30 3.071 1.712 0739 0.303 0316 xz 0.525 2566 A. x’z ~~i?i 0.374 ::zi 1467 1.355 0.986 2021 2056 2091 0.347 1. so DESIGN AIDS FOR REmFORCJiD CONCREIB .218 1.844 0.055 1.018 1946 1.414 415 0.178 2215 2253 2291 2329 2367 f:iz 2485 2. N/mm2 r240 255 fZ 270 275 c8”: tz 3.624 1.659 1.319 ::zi 1.046 KS 1.108 -7 500 .530 1.765 0.656 1.369 i::z 2386 2.876 0380 0405 0.918 1.851 I. N/mm2 * 250 1.896 0.475 0488 0502 3.950 0977 1.825 1.749 is.530 1.156 l-176 1.709 0’735 0.368 @381 0.884 1.862 0.290 0.163 1.989 1.75 3.075 1.794 0.391 1.691 1.964 0.408 1.115 1.791 1.797 0813 0.859 1.846 0.15 33:g 3.118 .525 0552 0.095 1.812 0.947 0.005 0.265 Ct.070 0.830 0.893 zi 1998 2z 2105 2.082 0.142 2.260 1289 @631 x::: 0.80 3.260 1.725 1.733 0.562 1.762 0.10 3.70 3. 8’::.093 0.978 zz3 1. :x 1.922 0.252 0.720 1. 1. :‘:z 1.036 1. pi FOR SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS fd = 30 N/mm2 250 0.192 1’173 ::i!f 1.434 oo:z 0.394 x:z 0.053 1.240 250 415 480 500 fck 30 'Y TABLE 4 FLEXURE - REINFORCEMENT PERCENTAGE.479 0.594 1.818 1.099 1.303 1.702 0.750 0.752 1.781 0.981 0.866 480 @687 0.718 0.438 ~~~ 1.860 0.454 0.135 1. @211 0235 0.117 MUW.325 1.1.105 0.55 3.626 1.868 0.879 0.734 0.: oi49 x:zi 0.592 1.785 1.424 2463 1.828 0.277 0.812 0.429 0.239 1.140 500 0.758 1.913 0.281 1.50 3.895 0.578 .05 3.00 0976 zf: 1.766 8’.075 .999 KG.788 xz:: 0.35 :z 3.089 1.561 1.85 it:z 4.498 1.687 1.930 0.00 1.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank

As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank

3. COMPRESSION MEMBERS

3.1 A$MU\;,OADED COMPRESSION lower sectioqs would eliminate tho need for any calculation. This is particularly useful as an aid for deciding the sizes of columns at the preliminary design stage of multisforeyed buildings. Example 5 Axially Loaded Column

All compression members arc to be designed for a minimum eccentricity of load in two oribcioal directions. Clause 24.4 of the Code specifiks the following minimum eccentricity, eminfor the design of columns: 1 i-D 3o subject to a minimum of emin=ggg

I

2 cm. where 1 is the unsupported length of the column (see 24.1.3 of the Code for definition of unsupported length), and D is the lateral dimension of the column in the direction under consideration. After determining the eccentricity, the section should be designed for combined axial load and bending (see 3.2). However, as a simplification, when the value of the mininium eccentricity calculated as above is less than or equal to 0*05D, 38.3 of the Code permits the design of short axially loaded compression members by the following equation: P,=@4f,k where PU is the axial load (ultimate), A, is the area of concrete, and Asc is the afea of reinforcement. The above equation can be written as

P” = 0.4 f&

PA,

Determine the cross section and the reinforcement required for an axially loaded columc with the following data: Factored load Concrete grade Characteristic strength of reinforcement Unyoyior;d length of 3000kN M20 415 N/mm’ 3.0 m

The cross-sectional dimensions required will depend on the percentage of reinforcement. Assuming 1.0 percent reinforcement and referring to Chart 25, Required cross-sectional area of column, A, - 2 700 cm* Provide a section of 60 x 45 cm. Area of reinforcement, A, - 1.0 x m~$,j2 1: 27 cm8 We have to check whether the minimum eccentricity to be considered is within 0.05 times the lateral dimensions of the column. In the direction of longer dimension, D --I

&in 500 +30

AC-i-0.67fY Ar

A, -

+$)

t- 0.67fy loo

where As is the gross area of cross section, and p is the percentage of reinforcement. Dividing both sides by A,,

3*0x 102 60 + jg P 0.6 j-2.0 - 2.6 cm 500 or, e&D = 26160 = O-043 = In the direction of the shorter dimension, 3.0 x 102 45 emrn = + = 0.6 + 1.5 500 30 = 2.1 cm or, e,i,/b = 2*1/45 = @047 The minimum eccentricity ratio is less than @05 in both directions. Hence the design of the section by the simplified method of 38.3 of the Code is valid. 3.2 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD UNIAXIAL BENDING AND

PU =

@4&( 1 -

j&) +“‘67fy

$j

Charts 24 to 26 can be used for designing short columns in accordance with the above equations. In the lower section of these charts, P./A, has been plotted against reinforcement percentage p for different grades of concrete. If the cross section of the column is known, PU/Al can be calculated and the reinforcement percentage read from the chart. In the upper section of the charts, PU/As is plotted against PUfor various values of AS. The combined use of the upper and

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

As already mentioned in 3.1, all compression members should be designed for 99

minimum

eccentricity of load. It should always be ensuredthat the scotionis designed for a moment which is not lessthan that due to the prescribedtinimum eccentricity. 3.2.1 Amanptio&Assumptiom (a), (c), (d) and (e) for flexural members (see 2.1) are also applicable to members subjcoted to combined axial load and bending. ‘The assumption (b) that the maximum strain in concrete at the outermost eom ression fibre is 04N35 is also applicable wi en the neutralaxis k within the seotionand in the limitingcase when the neutralaxis lies along one edge of the section; in the latter oasc the strain varies from 0@035 at the highly

compressed edge to zero at the opposik ed~. For purely axial compression, the strain is assumed to be uniformly equal 00002 acxossthe seotion[see 38.l(a) of the Code]. The strairidistributionlines for these ~’ oases intersecteaeh other at a depth of ~ffom the highly compressed edge. This

point is assumedto act as a fulcrum for the strain distribution line when the neutral axis lies outsidethe motion (see Fig. 7). This leads to the assumption that the strain at the highly compresseded~ is 00035 minus 0?5 times the strain at the least compressed edge [see 38.Z(b) of the Cole],

“-i t-

‘*

I

b

I

q q q

0

q

:

q

---1-”

1

* i

q q q q

c

! * t

I

0

:

q q

00

I

J:

I

HIWilmY C6MPRE S SE II EOOE

**CENTRO13AL AXIS +’+ ikh ROW OF REINFORCEMENT STRAIN
**

0035

DIAGRAMS

Neutral axis wlthln the scctlon

-30/7 -1 -— -----

Neutral axis outside the sect ion

FIG.

7 Cmramm Am-

LOAD AND UNIAXIAL BENDING

No

DESIGNAIDSIK)R REINFORCED CONCR81E

For diierent values of k. indi- neutral axis lies outside the section.0446fdr D [l-&&J] The centroid of the stress block will be found by taking moments about the highly compressed edge.When the Area of stress block . BTRESS OIAORAW FIG.2 Stress Block Parameters Wh&n the Neutral Ax& Lies O&side the Section . 33.2. where p is the reinforcement percentage. Considering the geometric properties of a parabola.2. 101 Construction InteractionDiagram of Design charts for combined axial compression COMPRESSlONMEMBERS . 8 STRBSS BLOCK Am h¶ WHEN THE NEUTRAL oUT?3IDE THE SECTION kD and let g be the ditference Let x0between the strxs at the highly compressed edgo and the stress at the least compressed edge. 8.3 -o+Mf& ( & 1 1 and bending are given in the form of interaction diagmms in which curyes for PJbDfd versus MdbD* fb are plotted for different values of p/f&. the shape of the stress block will be as. ( 4 . For constructionof interactiond@cams it b merally adaquata consider to values of k up to about 1. Moment about the highly compressed edge pO1446fckD D i (1 -$ gD STRAIN DIAORAM i t The position of the centroid is obtained by dividing the moment by the area.-D > 0446fd for a distance of Ly from the highly = 04461&D +gD .0446f. the area of stress block and the position of its centroid are given in Table H.D-5 g cated in Fig. TABLE H STRESS BLOCKPARAhUTTERS WHENTHE NETmmtA&mA?N OUTSIDE LIES (Clause 3. Nom-Values of stress block parameters have been tabulated valuesof k upto4’00 infomfor for tion only.3.2) O-446 1. The stress is uniformly compressed edge because the strain is more than 0402 and thereafter the stress diagram is parabolic.2.

However. Thus we get the following r.1 (.2).Ai .2. 3.= 0446f. where kDepth of neutral axis D DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE 102 . sides of the (O-5-Cd Dividing both fck bD”. the points for plotting the Charts are obtained by assuming different positions of neutral axis.002.number of rows of reinforcement. where the fr is the compressive stress in steel corresponding to a strain of 0. measured from the highly compressed edge.446 fek) The above expression can be written as n Taking moment of the forces about centroid of the section.3. c. positive towards the highly compressed edge and negative towards the least compressed edge.rbd + ‘g (A 0.xpressions: =@36k+ c i-1 &j&&d Cl .stress in concrete at the level of the ith row of reinforcement. a constant value corresponding to concrete grade M20 has been used in the present work so that the error is negligibly small over .i is the area of reinbx forcement in the ith row.2. the strain distribution across the section and the stress block parameters are determined as explained earlier.1 b) When the neutral axis lies within the section In this case.he range of concrete mixes normally used.3. An accurate consideration of this term will necessitate the preparation of separate Charts for each grade of concrete. the points plotted on the y-axis of the charts are obtained as follows: P.2 For the case of purely axial compression.3. n fci n stress in the ith row of reinform ment.coefficient for the area of stress Pi fii - block to be taken from Table H (see 3. .Yi where C. This term is usually neglected for convenience. which is not considered worthwhile. and . a9 a better approximation. The second term within parenthesis represents the deduction for the concrete replaced by the reinforcement bars. compression being positive and tension being negative. Thereafter the resultant axial force and the moment about the centroid of the section are calculated as follows: a) When the neutral axis lies outside the section li i-1 where + xg i.2 When bending moments are also acting in addition to axial load. the stress block parameters are simpler and they can be directly incorporated into the expressions which are otherwise same as for the earlier case. and Yi is the distance from the centroid of the section to the ith row of reinforcement. equation by n +X*(&i -&i)(s) i.2. Ad where A.D is the distance of the centroid of the concrete stress block. For each position of neutral axis. The stresses in the reinforcement are also calculated from the known strains.fci).

except that the stress block parameters given earlier are not applicable.3.2.25 x 45 x 45/100 = 45. p = 0.5 mm z 5.= 0.3. The Charts for circular section (Charts 51 to 62) have been prepared for a section with 8 bars.09 . It should be noted that these charts are meant for strength calculations COMPRESSION MEMBERS Determine the reinforcement to be provided in a circular column with the following data: Diameter of column 50 cm Grade of concrete M20 Characteristic strength 250 N/mm2 for of reinforcement bars up to 20 mm+ 240 N/mm2 for bars over 20mm# 103 . I.2. For the case of purely axial tension.494 500 45 x _ 200 x 106 25x45~45~45~103 _ a) Reinforcement on two sides. For circular sections the procedure is same as above.5 x 45 x 45/100 = 50.5 OP52.63 cm” Charts are extensions of the Charts for compression with bending.10 x 25 = 2. Pu g (O-87fy) (@87fy) Example Bending 7 Circular Column with Uniaxial hk Charts 66 to 75 are given for rectangular sections with reinforcement on two sides and Charts 76 to 85 are for reinforcement on four sides. they do not take into account crack control which may be important for tension members. but they can generally be used for sections with any number of bars but not less than 6.5 As = 2.25 As = p bD/lOO = 2. p&k = 0. 0 indicates that the neutral axis lies along the outermost row of reinforcement. all the bars in the section will be in compression. For points lying above this line on the Chart. d = 40 + 12. It should be noted that all these stress values are at the failure condition corresponding to the limit state of collapse and not at working Ioads. The line for fs. For points below this line. with the following data: Size of column 45 x 45cm Concrete mix M 25 Characteristic strength of 415 N/mm% reinforcement Factored load 2500kN (characteristic load multiplied by yr) Factored moment 200 kN. square column subjected to uniaxial bending.2.3 Chartsfor compression with bending Charts for rectangular sections have been given for reinforcement on two sides (Charts 27 to 38) and for reinforcement on four sides (Charts 39 to 50). The dotted lines in these charts indicate the stress in the bars nearest to the tension face of the member. Charts have been given for three grades of steel and four values of d’/D for each case mentioned above.56 cm2 Reinforcement on four sides from Chart 45. The Charts for the latter case have been prepared for a section with 20 bars equally distributed on all sides.25 cm d’/D = 5.4 These Charts for tension with bending - only.3. The line for fSt = fYd indicates that the outermost tension reinforcement reaches the design yield strength. but they can be used without significant.1. Referring to Chart 33. Assuming 25 mm bars with 40 mm cover.m Arraugement of reinforcement: (a) On two sides (b) On four sides (Assume moment due to minimum eccentricity to be less than the actual moment).09 x 25 .088 b) Percentage of reinforcement. as in the case of 3. 3. the outermost tension reinforcement undergoes inelastic deformation while successive inner rows may reach a stress of fyd. Points for plotting these Charts are obtained by assuming low values of k in the expressions given earlier.0.10 p p.15 will be used f& = 25 x 2 45 x x 103 lo2 = 0. Example Bending 6 Square Column with Uniaxial Determine the reinforcement to be provided in a.25145 . 3. error for any other number of bars (greater than 8) provided the bars are distributed equally on the four sides. 0. hence the section is divided into strips and summation is done for determining the forces and moments due to the stresses in concrete. p/fck = 0.12 Charts for d’/D = 0.An approximation is made for the value Offci for M20.2.

x where. M.16 x 2501240 = 35. AS = 34.25150 = 0.09 x 0. Therefore. the Code permits the design of such members by the following equation : According to 38.74 pnD2/400 1. linear interpolation may be done. Assuming 25 mm bars with 40 mm cover. = 30.105 Charts for d’/D = 0. for fy = 250 N/mm2. is the gross area of the section and Ac is the area of the core measured to the outside diameter of the helix. and ozn is an exponent whose value depends on Pu/Puz (see table below) where P uz = 0. a.4. Ati = O-503 cm2 sh ( 0.0. + 0*75fy As: PUIPUZ ‘an From Chart 52. In order to satisfy the coda1 requirement.87 x 20 = 1. Chart 63 can be used for evaluating Puz.09 Art&k > O*OO91 For 8 mm dia bar. For different values of Pu/Puz. d’ = 40 x 12. p.8) AI/AC IP 5O’/43*6’ = 1.(43*6%) Q.05 times the strength of a similar member with lateral ties. given load and moment should be divided by 1.$_k = 0.315 x 201250 Volume of helical reinforcement Volume of core Aarc --_------= .. lhere M.97 cm 3. are the moments about x and y axes respectively due to design loads.05 20 Core_diie. .25 cm d’/D .0 2. Assuming 8 mm dia bars for the helix.Factored load 16OOkN Factored moment 125 kN.5 = 52..0091 ‘__ < 4.078 x 20 = 1. MUYl are the maximum uniaxial moment capacities with an axial load P.09 A.3 COMPRESSION MEMBERS JECT TO BIAXIAL BENDING SUB- Referring to Chart 52.56 As = 1. equation (!$)“’ + (z)=” = 1. M “Xl. (a) Column with hoop reinforcement 1600 x 103 50 x 50 x ioa .45 fck A.m Lateral reinforcement : (a) Hoop reinforcement (b) Helical reinforcement (Assume moment due to minimum eccentricity to be less than the actual moment). 0. Hence. A. the appropriate value of azn has been taken and curves for the. 104 For intermediate values.58 cm2 (b) Column with Helical Reinforcement Exact design of members subject to axial load and biaxial bending is extremely laborious. 0. 0.1 of the Code the ratio of the volume of helical reinforcement to the volume of the core shall not be less than 0. DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE . the $rength of a compression member with hehcal re-inforcement is 1.& ..1) fck Ify where A.0. the. Ash is the area of the bar forming the helix and sh is the pitch of the helix.503 ’ 0.5.63 cm2 For fy = 240 N/mm%. for fy I 250 N/mm1 p/fck = = A: = = o-87 0.4 of the Code.63 x 2501240 = 31.2 )0*8 1.05 before referring to the chart. bending about x and y axes respectively.10 will be used. Therefore.J.56 x x x 50 x 50/44X = 30. = 50-2 (4-O ..(42*8) .36 (A.1)falJlr I egg.91 cm2 go.078 p = 0.5 mm m 5.74 x nx50x50/400=34*16cm2 Forf..315 0.0 have been plotted in Chart 64..0 According to 38./Ac . I 240 N/mm2.36 (A.o’32 125 x 10 20 x 50 x 50 x 50 x 103 .

131 Referring to Char. MUX is 0. . .0.09 x 15 x 40 x 60’ x loylo~ 10a/lO’ ..085 x 40 x 60’ x 10*/10* .130..6.0.10.3 x 40 x 108/10S kN 2 472 kN COMPRESSION. EPcm 415 N/mm’ 1600kN 120 kN 90 kN of ns. the permissible v&a MBa qrmsponding to the above v&see qual to 0.. MEMBERS 60X MUX.617 is only sli&ly higher than the value read from the Chart.095 f$ Mw z 0. Hence the section is O.1*2/l 5 .0.2 P&k . . Referring to Chart 45.9. with Biaxial DeWmine the reinforcement to be provided in a short column subjected to biaxial bending. This can be made up by slight increase in reinforcement.. .53 x 100 6o x40 .: Referring to Chart 63 corresponding to p = 1.0.& Chart for d’/D = 0.0. the section may be rechecked as follows: p/f& l-27115= 0. PUZ Al = 10. MuYl .194. 63. MUX.25 6.083 :. The actual value of 0.0. 1600 x 10s p&k bD = 15 x 40 x 60 x 10”.1.0444 Referring to Chart 44.4 kN. &li .m Uniaxial moment capacity of the section about yv_axis: 5.083 x 15 x 60 x40*x 10a/lO’ I 119.2.25 d’JD = 400.09 l :.4 x 60 x 40 x lO’/lO~ Chart for d’/D . M&k bD’ . Referring to Churn 64.087 5 1-2x40x60 _2&8. P. .0. with the following data: size of column Concrete mix Characteristic strength of reinforcement Factored load.58. A6 - Moments due to minimum eccentricity are less than the values given above.52kN. As a iirst trial assume the reinforcement percentage.0. M. and z’ - 10.ExampIe Be?tdi?lg 8 Rectangular colrmu.15 will be used.53 c& Reinforcement percentage provided. Corresponding to the above values of PU Muy the permissible value of MuY.4 N/mm2 Puz . 100 12 bars of 18 mm will give A. p _ 30..08 Uniaxial moment capacity of the section about xx-axis: d’/D 5.m Calculation of P.27 With this percentage.fu= 415 and fck= 15. Referring to Chart 45 f+ M WI z W&354 x&52 60 x 40’ x M&k bD= = 0.1 will be used.2 496 kN Referring to Chart 64.084 7 Referring to Chart 44. Factored moment acting parallel to the larger dimension. Mu.w Factored moment acting parallel to the shorter dimension. Reinforcement is distributed equally on four sides. 105 .K. p= 1.

1 of the Code) : where P. an additional moment Mu given by the following equation (modified as indicated later) should be taken into account in the design (see 38. The value of Pb will depend on arrangement of reinforcement and the cover ratio d’/D.0 m 70m 1500kN 40 kN.moment in the d!““.5 kN. it should always be taken advantage of. ly Unsupported length Factored load Factored. which may be obtained from Chart 63. different values of slenderness ratio. should be considered. The values of the coefficients required for evaluating Pb for various cases are given in Table 60. Table 1 gives the values b or 3 for Example 9 Slender Column (with biaxial bending) Determine the reinforcement a column which is restrained with the following data: Size of column Concrete grade Characteristic strength of reinforcement Effective length for bending parallel to larger dimension./Pu.7. it is considered to be a slender compression member (see 24. = 0. Though this modification is optional according to the Code.4 SLENDER COMPRESSION MEMBERS of In accordance with 38. being the effective lengths with respect to the major axis and minor axis respectively.. When a compression member is slender with respect to the major axis. in addition to the grades of concrete and steel. if the column is slender about the minor axis an additional moment M. Z. and Pb is the axial load corresponding to the condition of maximum compressive strain of 0.1 of the Code. and pb/&z.2.. In and i. The expression for k can be written as follows : Similarly. Effective length for bending parallel to shorter dimension.75 fy A..1. eu Chart 65 can be used for finding the ratio of k after calculating the ratios P.m at top and 22.m at bottom DESIGN AIDS FOR RRINFORCED CONCRKI-E . TABLE I ADDITIONAL ECCENTRICITY FOR SLENDER COMPRESSION MEMBERS (Chuxe 3.7. since the value of k could be substantially less than unity.2 of the Code). M ay 2000 = Pub &” b (1 The expressions for the additional moments can be written in the form of eccentricities of load. When the slenderness ratio D or # a compression member exceeds 12.4) 40 x 30 cm M 30 415 N/mm1 6-O m 5.45 &k Ac + 0.3. as follows: Mu where P. The values given in Table 60 are based on the same assumptions as for members with axial load and uniaxial bending. the additional moments may be reduced by the multiplying factor k given below: &?.f larger required for against sway.003 5 in concrete and tensile strain of O%Ml2in outermost layer of tension steel.

0 (with reinforcement equally on all the four sides).0 kN.m > 10.0 + 37.4 x 22.20 will be used. &-=40x 30= 1200cm2 &+$-7g + 40 3o= 2*73cm = 2.203 X o 3 The section is to be betiding.3 kN. Reinforcement will be distributed equally on four sides.196 + 0. and e.0 kN.0 kN.8kN.0.3 = 73.13 Muy - Both e.25 d’/D (about yy-axis) = 3. but multiplication factors can be evaluated only if the reinforcement is known.0 kN.m at top ~tdJOcN. For For Lz The additional moments calculated earlier. e.5) = 15-OkN.m = 63.m The additional moments due to slenderness effects should be added to the initial moments after modifying the initial moments as follows (see Note 1 under 38. + k2 &rbD 0.0 kN.6 x 30 . will now be multiplied by the above values of k.8 x O-625 = 42.592 . For first trial.184 -+ O-028x 3 30 The column is bent in double curvature. = 1 500 x0*14x &=63*0 kN.1 of the Code.m KY= (0.m The above actual moments should be compared with those calculated from minimum eccentricity consideration (see 24.7.4 kN.y oG5 Puz .m May = Pue. = 0.7. 5.113 lay = 167.5 N/mm2 .0.ym17r .m :.37.m iu Uy= 36.2 of the Code) : M.Pu p “7.5 x 1200 x 102/10s =2 700 kN Calculation of Pb : Assuming 25 mm dia bars with 40 mm cover d’/D (about xx-axis) cs g = 0.m > 15. ex = - The above moments will have to be reduced in accordance with 38.0 > 12 cy= I b 5.1. Moments due to minimum eccentricity: Mux = 1 500 x ‘g = 41.4 cm From Chart 63. 6-o x 100 Lx ‘-D P 40 = 15.3 kN.0 x 100 = 16-7 > 12 30 is slender about x40x30x30 x 10*/1os .b.17 Chart or Table for d’/d = 0.m P 15. From Table 60.m checked for biaxial Chart or Table for d’/d P O-15 will be used.0 + 42.0 x 0. I ‘. :: = 67.4 kN.*. are greater than 20 cm. eJD = 0. - pby - 2700-1500 2 700 .xn Pb (about yy-axis) i 0. Pb (about xx-axis) = (k.672 = o-592 Therefore the column both the axes. Pu = 22.4 of the Code) and greater value is to be taken as the initial moment for adding the additional moments. Pul& bD = x 30 x 30 x 40 x 102/103 = -779 kN COMPRESSION MEMBERS 1500 x 10s 30x 30 x40 x 102 = 0.pby - 672 kN p -. k.Factored moment in the direction of shorter dimension 30 kN. I = k = . assumep p: 3. Total moments for which the column is to be designed are: MUX 41./b = O-140 b Additional moments: M 1x = Puex = 1 500 x0-1 13 x & -67. From Table I. Puz/As = 22.417 107 .4 = 83.m 1500x2’4 100 = 36.=(O*6 x 40 .4 x 20) = 10..-.

0 percent is therefore satisfactory.56 PulPu. v cka 2 = 0.0 cm2 108 .8 L= 36.0 x 30 x 40/100 M”.m 83./M...3 Ic -103.8 kN. corresponding to the above values of M.1500 = 0.56 2700 Referring to Chciit 64. 103/106 = 103.096 :..104 x 30 x 30 x 40 x 40 x 103/10’ = 149.56./M.g M - MUY UYl 73. and PuIPuz is 0.i = 0.4 ic e 0. M”. The assumed reinforcement of 3.10 Plfck - .7 kN.. the maximum allowable value of M. M”Yl =0*096 x 30 x 40 x 30’~ 30 x :. - 149. = .58 which is slightly higher than’ the actual value of 0..m Refep.7 = 0.71 = MUX1 0... A s = pbD/lOO - 3. to ihart 46 (d’/D P O-20).

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

500 f ck 'Y Chart 63 VALUES OF Puz for COMPRESSION MEMBERS 15 20 25 30 ti i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i IWi 148 .250 415 ._ DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .

0 COMPRFSSIONMEMBERS .9 1.8 0.4 0.Chart64 BIAXIALBENDINGIN COMPRESSION MEMBERS 0 0.1 O-2 O-3 0.5 %/L O-6 O-7 0.

Chart 65 SLENDER COMPRESSION MEMBERS Multiplying Factor k for Additional Moments P k+ ur-pu PUZ -Pe a 04 04 O-3 0*2 o-1 0 150 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRl3-b .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

138 9 V@mof4 fr N. &ID r 005 0219 0172 WlO om7 @MO 015 01% 0149 OQQ 0184 0.10 &lS 020 \ COMPRESSION MEMBERS 171 .TABLE 60 lktMgdW_: SLENDER COMPRESSION MEMBERS-VALUES OF A Valora of k.‘mrn~ #ID r O-05 0.

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

4. = l-07 N/mm* From Table J for M15. *The design shear strength of concrete is given in Table 13 of the Code.“. The multiplying factor works out to 1. Vu 180 kN Assuming 25 mm dia bars with 25 mm cover.2. The shear stress rv should not in any case exceed the values of T~.vd Shear stress.8..5 3-l 40 Example 10 Shear Determine the shear reinforcement (vertical stirrups) required for a beam section with the following data: ‘30 x 60 cm Ream size acrn Depth of beam M 15 Concrete grade 250 N/mma Characteristic strength of stirrup reinforcement Tensile reinforcement 0.5 = 56. but not less than 1.2 NOMINAL SHEAR STRESS Values of V. the section is to be redesigned.20 to 3. bent up at 45” and 60” to the axis of the member are given in Table 63 for two grades of steel.. and sv is the spacing (pitch) of the stirrups. some of the Charts and Tables for shear and flexure can be used.mu M20 M25 M30 M35 M40 2% 3-l 3. is the shear force.4.coscc) where cc is the angle between the inclined stirrups and the axis of the member. given in Table J. The method of design for torsion is based on the calculation of an equivalent shear force and an equivalent bending moment.25 x 102/103=92*8 kN 175 GRADE Q.3 SHEAR REINFORCEMENT The design shear strength of vertical stirrups is given by the following equation: v “I _ - @87f. d = 60 -T .10 are given in Table 61 for different grades of concrete. for two grades of steel. 7c.41 and 1.00 at intervals of 0.8 fck/6*89pl.Q bd. the value of Vup/d for vertical stirrups should be multiplied by (since i.$o.” is the total cross sectional area of the vertical legs of the stirrups. The value of ‘F~corresponding to pl varying from 0.A. 7” =i g sv where A.55 N/mm* Shear capacity of concrete section = Q bd = 0*55 x 30 x 56. shear reinforcement should be provided for carrying a shear equal to Vu..8 percentage Factored shear force. The shear strength expressed as Vu/d are given in Table 62 for different diameters and spacings of stirrups. When rv exceeds 7c. for different sizes of bars.) TABLE J CONMAXIMUM Ml5 25 SHEAR STRESS w.~. mu.f DESIGN SHEAR CONCRETE STRENGTH OF For a series of inclined stirrups.4 TORSION Separate Charts or Tables are not given for torsion.5 N/mm2 T” is less than 7c.mu From Table 61. SHEAR AND TORSION 4. SHEAR AND TORSION . ~~20. for P1=0. After determining these..25 cm -30 ~8p. For a bent up bar. VuI= 0*87fY ASvsince where g =0. N/mm’ 4. The method of design for torsion is illustrated in Example 11.max= 2. The values given in the Code are based on the following equation: The nominal shear stress 7” is calculated by the following equation: 7” = - VU bd where V.37 for 45” and 60” angles respectively. (If T”> T~.0. 4. and Pt = 100 A&&.~~..

T.4x 10” = 30 x (56.25 cm Provide one bar of 12 mm dia on each side. As Mt is less than MU..5.55 kN/cm d 5625 Referring to Table 62. for an assumed value of pt = 0.. Vc = V-I. %e = Fd = 3.5.46 N/mm* c T”=. Spacing of bar = 53..1*6(f .-..1 of the Code.1.99 N/mm* From Table J.C Mt and transverse reinforccdesigned Longitudinal 40.4. for steelf.4 kN.2 kN V”.412 = 267 cm 0.7 Area required for each bar= .56 cm*) on the flexural tensile face.4.92.2 = 1. x 56. * b.4 = 194.-FLEXURAL TENSION FACE 6C1 cm d. 335 x 101 V.Shear to be carried by stirrups.05 PI = 0.87. provide only two bars of 12 mm dia on the compression face.~ 2.== -~bd V. 56.we need not consider Me. according to 40. = O-708 x 30 x 5625/100 = 1 l-95 cm* Example I I Torsion Provide 4 bars of 20 mm dia (A*= 12.5 N/mm” = ~~~is less than sc.1. d = 60 .8 = 87. From Table 61.m 11S kN. corresponding to Mujbdz ..2 of the Code): moment..3 of the Code).. As the depth of the beam is more than 45 cm..5 . Therefore.= 2.Jbd2 194.3 of the Code) : Area of two legs of the stirrup should satisfy the following: 595-t 45 1*6x m = 95-l-240 = 335 kN W---30 cm- Equivalent shear stress. for M 15. = 180 . -EL-. side face reinforcement of 0.= M.7 and 25.05 x 30 x 26. = 23 cm Y&6cm 1 I 7 k .2.2.708 A.oo = 040 Determine the reinforcements required for a rectangular beam section with the following data : Size of the beam Concrete grade Characteristic strength of steel Factored shear force Factored torsional moment Factored bending moment 30 Y 6Ocm M 15 415 N/mm2 95 kN 45 kN.292 x 103 = 2. Providing one bar at the middle of each side. one bar being at each corner.25 >rlo2 = 1. Referring to Table I.4.. Hence longitudinal ments are to be reinforcement (see Equivalent bending Me. hence the section does not require revision. ‘F~.‘G Equivalent shear. VU.05 N/mma - 1 * 176 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCREFE .m cm* Assuming 25 mm dia bars with 25 mm cover. -250 N!mme.5.05 percent on each side is to be provided (see 25. Provide 8 mm diameter two legged vertical stirrups at 14 cm spacing.m M. 953-4 cm -m = 115-J-79. = 0. Transverse reinforcement (see 40..

5.5 cm 10 mm + two legged stirru at 12.56)/4 .5 + l-O)-(2*5+0%)-53.2.0.0)=23cm 45 x 10’ Aav(0*87&J S” -23 x 53.415 N/mm’). SHEAR AND TORSION 177 .30 .20. the spacing of stirrupa shall not exceed xl. (x. Provide 10 mm + two legged stirrups at 12.Assuming diameter of stirrups as 10 mm da = 60 .(2.99 .5 .r60-2(25-05)=56cm (xl f y&/4 .5 cm spacing will satisfy all the cod$ requirements. for tensile reinforcement percentage of @71. the value of o is O-53 N/mm’ .7(u) of the Code.2 95 x IO? = 437.4 x 10-366.6 N/mm P 438 kN/cm Area of all the legs of the stirrup should satisfy the condition that A& should not From Table 61.5 cm spacing.2(2.4 cm b1=30-2(25+1. xl . C yJ4 and 300 mm.(I. where x1 and 1 arc the short and long dimensions of tL stirrup. According to 25.O-5)= 26 cm y. Referring T&e 62 (forfr .53) 30 x 10 II 438 N/mm -438 kN/cm Nom-It is only a coincidence that the values of Aav (@87/rllSv cdcuhted by the hvo cqlmtions 8rc the srmc.4 x lOa +25 x 53.4-l-71.(26 i.

82 @82 0.55 059 062 0.88 X:E 0.67 068 0.34 0.71 x::: 0.92 0.50 1*60 1.80 0.65 0.99 l*oO 1.58 0.91 092 0.53 056 0.92 30 0.98 097 0.62 0.01 032 0.71 071 0.93 094 0.43 0.94 0.55 0.71 072 0.87 0.81 0.80 % 1.40 046 0.33 0.71 0.40 045 0.81 0.74 076 0.68 0.62 0.82 082 0.79 0.83 0.10 1.82 - N/mm* --.69 0.38 0.82 0.77 0.82 0.30 f% E E 3.71 0.83 085 0.79 0.94 0.80 0.86 0.83 0.54 0.54 0.96 0.57 8:Z ~~~ 0.49 0.61 8:.50 0. pt 20 0.71 0.00 210 220 2. TC)N/mm2 .59 0.95 097 0.84 0.66 0.72 0.96 35 0. 069 0.70 0.78 0.I: 0.89 0.71 0.57 iE 066 0.51 0.30 1’40 1.64 0.72 0.82 0.70 :z 2.70 072 073 0.95 0.73 0.85 086 088 090 0.98 0.79 0.68 0.00 178 DESIGN AIDS FGR RHNFGRCBD CGNCmB .78 0.80 0.71 0.92 091 0. 25 0.81 0.70 0.86 0.57 O%O 0.91 0.68 0.71 0.77 0.88 0.20 1.39 0.80 0.69 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.83 084 086 087 088 .75 076 077 0.71 0.53 0.71 0.82 0.41 046 0.81 0.75 0.71 0.33 0.f ck 15 20 25 30 35 40 TABLE 61 SHEAR I IS DESIGN SHEAR STRENGTH fck.99 40 034 0.74 076 0. OF CONCRETE.46 0.33 0.55 0.39 8:Z 0.93 0.74 076 0.45 0.63 065 0.93 0.

276 1.856 1. for singal bar.05 64.875 0.69 15654 a=60° 21.571 1.87 5918 7160 9246 115.458 1. 6 8 4373 3644 3.49 94.025 2792 2593 2420 2269 2135 10 11.106 2847 2628 ::z 2135 2010 1.32 25986 a=60° > 2456 35.210 1. em 5 .201 1.630 3.671 5. mm :.798 1.259 f :% 4537 4.a is the angle between the bent-up bar and the axis of the member.708 1.836 :z 1.418 1.215 1.156 4726 4363 4051 3.342 9452 8. = 250 N/mm2 DIAMEIZR.562 1. __ 125.701 1.98 151.70 123.102 7089 6302 5.815 l-452 1.299 3. kN BAR Dm.458 ::E 1.620 1.260 7424 6806 L% 5445 5.87 20.21 97.36 %E 98.817 0681 0’583 0. mm -7 SPmNO. :8:8 1.97 51. mm /x = 415 N/mm* DIAMETER.367 1.822 1682 1.05 _.759 12 ’ 6 4083 3403 t:.151 1. :B” 20 /i .854 0.988 1.93 37. kN/cm. :.86 .33 SO.416 3.*z 251.033 3. STIRRUP J.30 1479 47.510 0.32 15720 205.361 1.:. a = 45’ 1739 1208 30.781 3.729 0625 0.230 4472 4100 3.104 4804 t:.486 10 6833 6E 4271 3.'v 250 415 TABLE 62 SHEAR -VERTICAL STIRRUPS Values of VW/d for two legged stirrups.976 0..037 0907 0.124 2733 2429 2186 1.784 Et 3.73 fy = 415 N/mm2 I Q i= 45” 28.32 5846 75.92 3914 48.545 3.454 .075 2894 2733 2589 2460 I.250 N/mm* I .49 191.151 2985 2. 8HEAR AND TOIlsION 179 .547 0.23 118.020 0.336 3.807 TABLE 63 SHEAR- BENT-UP BARS Values of Vu.898 1.093 0.139 0.134 1.075 1.796 3.: 4083 1537 l-367 -1.47 318-27 NOTE.:: 2269 2042 8 7.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

and 7bd is the design bond stress given in 25.2 ANCHORAGE AND BENDS VALUE OF HOOKS In the case of bars in tension. a. The anchorage values of standard hooks and bends for different bar diameters are given in Table 67. is the stress in the bar.2. The tables contain the development length values for bars in tension as well as compression. 5. a standard hook has an anchorage value equivalent to a straight length of 16# and a 90” bend has an anchorage value of 84.3(c) of the Code] and for determining the length of lap splices (see 25. Values of this development length for different grades of steel and concrete are given in Tables 64 to 66.1. The value of the development kngth corresponding to a stress of 0937 fY in the reinforcement. DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND ANCHORAGE 5.2 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF BARS The development length Ld.3. is given by Ld = ~+ es 4 Tbd where 4 is the diameter of the bar.5.2 of the Code).5.2.1 of the Code.2. DEVIXWMENT LRNGTH AND ANCHORAGE 183 . is required for determining the maximum permissible bar diameter for positive moment reinforcement [see 25.

4 in the bars.8 124-l 141.3 31.1 361 48.2 :z:x NOTE -The M20 % 453 544 81.6 391 37.4 974 125.1 542 %“z 75.3 135.0 974 f:::: M25 18. Tabulated values are in ccatimatns.4 144.0 61.0 %Z - M30 18.. Ml5 261 348 43.4 133.8 126.3 120.8 z:: 435 65.9 870 104.2 290 348 zt 58.2 2:: 108.6 47-o 564 75.2 37.6 58. BAR DIAMETER.1 38.7 1128 128. C- TENSIONBARS GRADE OF CONCRETE A- COMPRESSION BARS GRADE OF CONCRETE -- Ml5 33’8 45.76 108. _ TABLE 65 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR FULLY STRESSED DEFORMED BARS fy PI 415 N/mm* Tabulated values are in cantimetrcs.5 326 544 65.1 Nora-The M20 28.0 725 766 870 111.2 z*: 112. f-A----.3 696 91.1 241 30.'v 250 415 f ck TABLE 64 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR FULLY STRESSED PLAIN BARS 15 20 25 30 DIAMETER.8 1392 121.5 835 107. = 240 K/mm’ for bars over 20 mm diameter.8 1305 146.3 .4 162.1 564 677 1% 112.0 1580 180.6 45.6 725 z.2 846 940 103.3 120. 806 1E 1161 lengths given above are for a stress of 087fy 184 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .9 87.3 development 100.3 97.6 -M301 174 23.0 105. Jj = 250 N/mm* for bars up to 20 mm diameter.5 203.2 1193 lW4 1342 M30 21.2 81.8 290 363 435 653 58.1 z:: I Ml5 271 361 45.3 SC 827 1:A:: 169.8 108.8 1566 M25 23.0 114.5 M25 242 322 M30 22.4 development lengths given above ara for a stress of @87/y in the bar. TENSIONBARS COMPRESSION BARS GRADE OF CONCRETE BAR mm x 10 12 :: z 25 .3 M20 21.3 5&O 766 725 87.1 542 72.4 117.6 1169 150.0 940 105.6 699 621 820 777 93.7 51.5 522 78.2 696 % 10&2 497 559 65.4 94.9 145.6 621 746 95.8 322 38.8 46.3 135. 36 GRADE OF CONCRETE Ml5 43.5 M20 M25 193 25.

.

4 10 160 8-O 12 192 9. BAR DIAMETER. mm Anchorage Value of hook Anchorage Value of 90” bend 6 9.8 4 cb mir _L_- -I--- STANDARD HOOK STANDARD 90’ BEND STANDARD HOOK AND BEND Type of Steel Mild steel Cold worked steel NOTE 1 -Table No.6 12. given above.0 22 35.4 20 320 16.2 17.6 4.2 25.8 14. is applicable to all grades of reinforcqment and binds shall conform to the details 186 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .TABLE 67 ANCHORAGE VALUE OF HOOKS AND BENDS Tabulated values are in centimetres.8 18 28.6 25 40.rli 2 Hooks Min Valye of k 2 4 bars.8 8 128 6.0 20-O 28 448 22.6 36 57-6 28.4 32 51.6 16 25.

.

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

93.. TABLE L PERCENTAGEOF TENSILE REINFORCEMENTP.a a t .99 l-16 7-o 8.3 of the Code.0 (Clause 6.1 Balanced Section (see Fig. for all values of acb we have m acbc = 93. of Mbal/bd2 for different values of U&c and asI are given in Table K.21 147 1.58 O-81 0. 275 O-23 0. The value of the modular ratio. a.39 O-46 FIG.30 0.33 b. m is given by 93. It is independent of a.21 1.5 10-o M/bd2 Values of the moment of resistance factor have been tabulated against pt in 189 WORKING STRm DESIGN .11 1.31 0..32 0.33 as( f. Moment of resistance of an under-reinforced ‘%I. bkdz 2 pt bd = loo m (d .a.33 The value of k for balanced section depends only on qt.63 . 9) 6.N/mm*FOR BALANCED RECTANGULARSECTION of neutral axis of a singly reinforced section. FOR SINGLY REINFORCEDBALANCEDSECTION .50 100 J F (100)” FACTOR TABLEK MOMENTOF RESISTANCE This is the general expression for the depth M/b@..2 Under Reinforced Section Stress in steel = ast =maLbc(+-1) The position of the neutral axis is found by equating the moments of the equivalent areas.65 0.k) k2 = k2 + p$(l by hfbal = yach k( 1 - f ).bc and a.m2 + ptm -. The value of pt.43 esl N/mm* L 230 0.bc 50 k.73 0.0 8.The values k = !$- !!!=o. 9 BALANCED SECTION (WORKING STRESS DESIGN) 6.1.. Moment of resistance of a balanced section is given k= bd2 7 (1 .6..w for different values of a.bal for balanced section is determined by equating the compressive force and tensile force. WORKING STRESS DESIGN 6.1.87 1.Ptm + .91 1.h kdb _ PI.33 280 m E-E3 acbc acbc Therefore.“_.71 l-00 1.~I bd as1 _ 2 100 hbal = Design of flexural members by working stress method is based on the well known assumptions given in 43. l-k T-1 7.t are given in Table L.k) ..5 10.44 053 0.kd) = bd2 ‘$ 1 -= k 93.1) $&ma Gil 5.1 FLEXURAL MEMBERS Reinforcement percentage Pt.1. The positive root of this equation is given by p2. 7 -.0 0.bc.0 0. N/mm* =cbc section is given by N/mm’ c +‘140 230 275 5.

5m .1 of the Code. USI 1 TABLE M VALUESOF THE RATIO A&.I$ 5.1) uck d’ld “cbc %t N/mm’ N/mm’ m-- 0.68 1.65 2.1) (l-d’/kd) Values of this ratio have been tabulated for different values of d’/d and ucbcin Table M.5 m .71 2.5 m .60 3.15 1.68 3. 10 DOUBLY R~r~~onci?n SECTION (WORKING Smm. = Qcbc (1.12 2. These charts have been made in accordance with 45.)a& To& tensile reinforcement A.38 % l-44 l-66 I.1) ucbc -ldc where and Atu = pl.l is given by Ast = AM.0 1.s D~SGN) Tables 68 to 71.)bd’ 140 I . .07 2.:y i 10.19 1.55 .0 x(1 -$)(I-. M’ = PCbd(1.1.l)U&( olt l-2) 6.pt. (Clause6.54 ..2 COMPRESSION MEMBERS or (pt . The Tables cover four grades of concrete and five values of uu. 6.Astt FIG.5 m .Doubly reinforced sections are adopted when the bending moment exceeds the moment of resistance of a balanced section. Charts are given for two vrdues of 0%.15 5. DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .5 m times the stress in the surrounding concrete..61 2.bd =pc (1*5m-l)ucbc 190 (l-ii) Charts 86 and 87 are given for determining the permissible axial load on a pedestal or short column reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties.70 1.23 Equating the additional tensile force and dditional compressive force.3 Doubly Reinforced Section .20 l-22 1. :*:I: Xi k$! (1. M=b&i-M’ The additional moment M’ is resisted by providing compression reinforcement and 0 additional tensile reinforcement.:g 214 2.Q = The compression reinforcement can be expressed as a ratio of the additional tensile reinforcement area Altp. Taking moment about the centroid of tensile reinforcement.20 2.bPI &f 100 A.72 0. The stress in the compression reinforcement is taken as I. The table includes two values of ust. The values of pt and pc for fear values of d’/d have been tabulated against’ M/bd’ in Tables 72 to 79.x (1 -. -f.3) I +& (1.1. Tables are given for four grades of concrete and two grades of steel.63 5.11 213 2.

6. The difference is only in the values of bond stresses.3 SHEAR AND TORSION The method of design for shear and torsion by working stress method are similar to the limit state method.4 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND ANCHORAGE The method of calculating development length is the same as given under limit state design. no design aids are given for designing such members-.3 of the Code. WORKlNC3 STRESS DESlCiN 191 . of deformed bars are given in Tables 83 to 85. members subject to combined axial load and bending designed by methods based bn elastic theory should be further checked for their strength under ultimate load conditions. The values of Permissible shear stress in concrete are given in Table 80. Development lenaths for plain bars and two grade. Hence. Therefore it would be advisable to design such members directly by the limit state method.According to 46.by elastic theory. Anchorage value of standard hoolcs and bends as given in Table 67 are applicable to working stress method also. Tables 81 and 82 are given for design of shear reinforcement. 6.

this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .As in the Original Standard.

.

.

728 O-77 z.55 0.629 OTi40 O-650 O-661 0:672 O-683 O-693 L- .747 O-758 0. 50 O-362 O-383 .695 O-711 0. O-853 O-864 . O+O 190 230 O-258 O-321 O-341 275 pt 0.618 0. Es 0444 0.417 0.205 0.583 0.216 O-228 .735 O-747 O-758 O-770 O-781 O-793 O-804 X:iE 0’839 O-850 O-862 190 230 275 O-265 O-282 O-299 O-316 O-333 .704 O-715 0. O-383 0400 0. N/mm* FOR 130 140 190 230 275 est. 8’0.542 O-553 O-564 O-574 0.47 0.895 . 8’::: O-262 ::z o-297 O-308 O-319 O-331 O-342 O-353 0’364 O-376 O-387 O-398 :z 0431 o-443 ez O-476 O-487 O-498 0.50 O-51 @52 O-53 O-54 0.724 0. N/mma 130 0.62 0.768 O-779 X:E O-811 O-821 . SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS iU/bda.647 O-663 O-679 0.48 O-49 0.585 0.: 0.630 O-642 O-654 O-665 0x77 O-689 O-700 O-712 0.63 x:s O-66 0.%t WORKING I STRESS METHOD TABLE 68 FLEXURE - MOMENT OF RESISTANCE FACTOR.631 0. :ii.146 O-158 O-170 O-181 O-193 0.5% O-607 0.56 f 130 140 0. x’::.595 O-607 O-619 0. O-248 0.433 O-450 0.467 O-483 Oao @516 @533 x:2: Ei .726 O-736 0.

x! O-748 O-760 :z O-795 0807 O-951 O-967 O-983 SE O-523 O-557 . M/hP. t’E O-913 O-925 @701 O-713 .116 l-127 ::::I 1.815 .158 l-169 l-180 l-110 l-122 l-133 l-145 l-156 1.83 8:: O-86 O-87 O-88 O-89 O-90 130 O-869 @880 0. :z :z 0706 O-717 O-728 0.16 1. N/mm* 130 O-242 O-266 O-289 .80 O-81 O-82 0.__. :::: O-358 O-381 :zi O-449 . O-539 O-551 O-562 O-573 O-584 O-581 O-593 @605 O-617 0. SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS N/mm* FOR .739 O-750 O-761 K& .78 O-79 0. 8Z iFg .511 @552 O-593 O-633 O-674 z:: O-795 O-835 x::. X’E Om8 O-859 O-878 . X’Ei :z O-821 0837 O-854 O-96 O-97 O-98 099 1.00 140 190 230 0. x’z!i O-657 O-690 O-723 0. O-804 0.029 l-041 l-064 .739 .: O-757 O-806 275- pt O-76 O-77 0.428 0.%t 130 140 190 230 275 %bc 1 WORKING STRESS METHOD 1 TABLE 69 FLEXURE - MOMENT OF RESISTANCE FACTOR.891 8ZZ 140 O-936 0948 O-960 0.470 0. 70 us:. l-052 l-075 l-087 l-099 l-031 l*!Ml l-052 :iE l-084 ::z: 1.202 1% DElION AIDS FOR RRINKRkCRD CDNCRR’I’B .971 O-983 o-994 190 230 27i F% 1.629 O-641 O-653 :zE OS89 O-651 .179 l*l!bl 1.

215 1.20 1. :% :zE 140 0.19 1.139 ::E 1.00 ’ 130 1.615 O-664 O-714 O-763 O-812 O-861 E pt 0.812 O-834 0.522 1.122 l-134 1.236 1.37 1.096 x: 1.977 0.679 O-720 0.597 O-638 0.23 E 1.85 8:: O-88 O-89 090 0.14 1.203 ::z 1.332 ::E: 1.042 l-082 1.491 1a501 I.98 O-99 1.374 :::.12 1.192 1.987 0998 ltM9 l-020 l-031 l-042 E: .21 1.246 140 1.96 0. :‘% 1468 275O-515 O-565 0. 85 WORKING STRESS DESIGN 197 .438 1448 1.: O-314 O-337 O-30 O-32 0. hf/bd¶.31 :::z .238 1.36 1. N/mm* FOR SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS 130 140 190 230 275 %bc ’ a.182 1. l-074 l-085 1.52 O-54 056 O-58 O-589 O-612 O-634 x:::3 0.746 O-768 O+Ml 0.15 1.18 1.533 l-411 l-423 1.701 0.128 1.761 O-801 Ow2 ::tiz O-962 l-002 1.480 1. i-29 1.22 1.17 1.13 1.227 1.30 1.417 1.434 . :*:: 1.145 l-157 l-169 O-875 O-898 0.1 WORKING STRESS METHOD ( TABLE 70 FLEXURE-MOMENT OF RESISTANCE FACTOR.878 0900 XE O-955 O-966 0.922 0946 0.78 O-80 O-82 O-83 O-84 0.427 1.364 1.: 1406 1.180 1.856 0.203 1.97 0.731 l-025 l-057 l-090 ::i:: l-187 l-219 190 x::.70 O-72 O-74 O-76 0.969 0993 . N/mm’ pt ’ 130 O-244 8::.11 1.723 0.171 1.34 O-36 O-38 0.288 O-313 Ei O-388 O-413 tee @488 O-512 x:::: O-586 0.250 190 230 275 .: O-425 O-459 O-493 O-527 O-561 O-595 O-628 O-662 230 O-431 O-473 @514 O-556 0.310 l-321 1.361 O-394 O-407 O-430 O-453 O-476 O-498 O-521 O-544 O-567 O-50 0.16 1.193 1.512 1.26 ::f.262 0.459 1469 1.610 O-634 O-659 0%83 0.707 0.

675 1.569 140 %i 1.257 l-279 1. :z 1.494 E .53 1.475 O-517 X:E OTi42 O-683 O-724 ALE 0.56 . l-563 1.10 1.387 1. 1.47 l-48 1.12 1.847 .43 l-44 1. 100 Pl I. l-689 1’701 t ::i: 190 230 27.54 135 1.586 l-597 :z 1.470 1.049 .365 1.51 1.16 1. x’% O-969 1*009 1.408 l-430 l-451 l-473 l-483 l-494 l-505 l-515 1.632 1.643 l-655 t%i .18 ’ 130 1.45 1.N/mm* 230 O-433 0.14 I.0N/mm’ USI.547 l-558 1.%t 130 140 190 230 275 %bc I TABLE 71 FLEXURE - MOMENT OF RESISTANCE FACTOR.250 l-289 1’30 1’31 l-32 l-33 1’34 l-35 :::4 1. SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS M/bd2.759 1.:g .59 l-60 l-632 1. DESIGNAIDS FOR RBINFORCED CON- .301 1.424 1’447 1. l-717 l-727 1.653 l-664 1.:g l-210 1.46 1.49 1. N/mm2 FOR WC = 10.38 l-39 .50 1.643 1.770 l-780 l-791 .738 l-749 1.52 1.401 1.526 l-537 1.322 l-344 1.685 EE .

.

90 1.505 1.380 2.45 150 1.949 2.526 l-571 l-616 1.326 I.157 2.836 1.653 0.667 1.299 2339 2378 3% 2497 2-537 2..264 0.830 0901 0.351 0.325 2.291 l-328 ::z 1441 1.573 1.024 3.043 2.797 I.231 2.888 2.752 1.155 ::ti: 1.619 1.892 t:.006 1.513 2.345 1.70 ::ii l-85 1.50 255 E 2-70 2’75 280 285 290 295 ::z 3.922 4.983 l-028 l-073 1.876 O-932 O-988 l-043 1.378 1.10 3.812 2883 2.3 ::i:: 1.545 l%OO 1.15 ::z :::: 340 d’Jd is 0.REINFORCEMENT PERCENTAGES REINFORCED SECTIONS FOR DOUBLY 7.545 1.253 1.188 1228 l-267 ::z:: 0.543 2585 2.982 3.333 2375 2-417 2.953 3.104 2.426 1.452 3.621 O-666 0.15 r- pt 1a05 l-028 KG l-140 1.546 3-540 3.264 O-319 O-375 0.396 1.838 ::z O-531 0.241 1.264 3.661 1a707 1.167 1.327 2.390 l-435 l-480 1.358 3.981 Et 2101 2140 2180 3% 2.747 1.095 1.445 0539 0.978 ’ 200 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .178 1.795 2.829 1.35 240 245 2.137 2.102 2. 1.863 2908 2-952 PC0.0 N/mm2 6dc = qt = 140 N/mm2 MJbd a N/mm2 1.787 1.213 2.283 l-325 1.494 2531 2569 f:fg Ef 0.926 1.670 2741 2.22 1.459 2501 2.419 2.033 2.607 2701 2.197 l-291 1.761 1.435 1.934 ::Ez 2.255 I.119 1.855 1.547 O-618 0.390 1.828 3.05 2.335 :% 0.792 1.479 l-516 3 PO .576 0.20 -A-------\ pt lTM6 l-031 l-073 1*:15 l-157 PC p.211 1.431 O-486 :::ii 0.624 Kz I.155 2193 2231 2268 2306 2343 2381 2.95 2.821 l-892 l-963 2.099 1.727 0.970 2.524 l-568 l-613 1.30 2.913 l-955 l-997 2.689 O-760 0.627 2.255 l-301 1.081 2123 2165 2-207 2.00 2.385 1.15 z 2.616 2.456 2.05 I d’/d pi O-10 d’ld = 0.577 2.743 l-783 1.972 1a43 1.199 1.175 2.656 1.436 I.599 2.104 2.25 :::i 140 1.043 2080 2-118 2.551 2-595 .076 3.535 l-577 1.269 2324 2.493 1.658 1.039 2.774 2818 2.193 2.712 O-757 @802 O-847 1.164 l-209 1::.246 2.821 0.367 1409 1.765 O-821 0.249 2.842 f:E 1.216 1.661 l-703 l-745 1.754 2796 2.734 3.702 1. oaK O-033 O-078 O-124 O-169 pt PO- d’/d = 0.170 3.656 2696 2-735 : ::.915 1009 l-103 1.466 1.zt 2005 2.879 1.316 2387 2.711 2.1 WORKING STRESS METHOD 1 TABLE 73 FLEXURE .110 X:E O-123 O-193 0.433 1.823 l-862 1902 l-942 1.238 2283 ‘2.10 2.467 l-538 l-609 1.149 2.451 1.zg 2.479 1.419 2.016 4.881 1.033 l-077 l-122 1.015 2.060 2.712 :34: 1.291 2.013 oa69 O-163 O-257 0.489 1.750 1.669 2.709 0.113 1.386 1.871 1.479 1.633 0.372 ::t :: 2506 2.458 2-529 2.585 1.184 1. l-345 1.322 1.680 1.55 l-60 l-65 1.

.

.

.

.

.

.

25 iz :3$ O-39 O-41 O-42 O-44 O-45 0.47 O-48 O-49 851 O-52 0.VERTICAL.53 O-54 0.55 @56 o-57 x::: O-59 O-59 M35 O-21 O-25 LE O-34 XG 040 O-42 O-43 O-45 E O-49 o-50 O-51 0.267 l-056 0905 :z :: 2081 1a734 f’ii! 1:156 WOltKlNO STRBSS DSlCiN 207 .54 0.49 8:: O-52 O-53 O-54 0.667 l-583 1. N/mm* M30 o-21 O-25 E 033 O-36 O-38 0. kN/cm Gv 3: MN/mm* Dmmnm.55 O-56 @57 O-58 0.863 I -759 1. col : 7 x 16 13 l-979 1.1 WORKING !3T@ESS METHOD 1 TABLE 80 SHEAR - PERMISSIBLE SHEAR STRESS IN CONCRETE.43 E gz 0.59 O-60 8:: :::i TABLE 81 SHEAR . mm UN .53 O-54 O-55 O-56 O-57 iE: O-59 la40 O-21 0.52 0. mm STIRRUP sPAuNo. sc.39 o-41 0.230N/mma I)l-. STIRRUPS Valuesof 9 for hvo leggedstirrups.

7 38-P 622 70.7 135-4 195. TENSION BARS Gnrse OF CONCRETE D&R. Ml5 35-o z: 70-O 105.3 1560 138.0 35.8 :27p .81.2 .0 93-3 1167 llP2 151.2 520 63.0 56-O 71.6 208 26-o 31.:3 E M2S 17. z 25 28 :: .3 91-o 1170 104-o 208 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRBIg .1 46. kN %V = 140 N/mm* up to 20 mm diameter = 130 N/mm’ over 20 mm diameter .3 M20 263 35.6 21. 993 867 108.= 140 N/mm* for bars up to 20 mm diameter = 130 N/mm* for bars over 20 mm diameter 0IE = 130 N/mm’ for all diameter Tabulated values are in centimetres.8 7P4 1Z 1300 115. for single bar. 93.10 13. 0=4S0 a=60° 9. mm 6 8 f8 :.3 121.3 31.09 61.0 173.5 70-O 91-o 81.3 520 78-o 6P3.6 83.0 77. z:: 93.0 28-O 42.09 iii*%3 3270 41.0 63.82 7Pa3 100-14 130-80 16554 E.7 MU) lP-5 E3 3PO .3 130-O T 23.52 b r- %v=230 a=450 1277 N/mm’ 778 1120 lP90 25-19 31.6 57-a za 1E tikXlPRE%SlON BARS GRAIX OF CONCRETEi 3 M30 15.6 46.a is the an6 6P32 PO-54 11460 between the bent up bar and the axis of the member.2 41.1 WORKING SfRESS METHOD 1 TABLE 82 SHEAR Valuewf BENT UP BARS V.71 2438 3086 38.57 NOTE.6 146.3 23-l z:. 46.0 :s:: 78-a 70.0 875 w-4 113-a 101. TABLE 83 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR PLAIN BARS us.39 51.3 117-o 104-o ‘M1S z:(: 43.

1 36.0 108.9 153.3 143.7 180.2 45.1 % f TENSIONBARS _.6 \ M30 16.0 82.: 131-o 147.1 91.4 1027 1129 128.2 16 18 .2 136-9 150.5 108.1 241 30.4 96.=19ON/mm BAR DLAMEI-ER.54*3 724 81.7 . %t = 230 N/mm* SC = 190 N/mm’ BAR DIAMETER.7 98.6 122.6 329 41.7 144.1 90.7 54.2 109*1 120.6 65.9 xi----41.7 144.6 84.7 27-l 326 43.___ GRADE OF CONCRETE M20 36.3 COMPREWON BARS GRADE OF CONCRETE M30 24.3 54-3 EC: 75.7 54.4 81.1 49.9 COMPRESSION BARS GRADE OF CONCRETE M20 20.9 40.3 61.1 127.1 24-l 302 36.8 146.8 491 61.4 z*: 113.1 32-6 43.1 126. mm : 10 12 16 18 TENSIONBARS GRADE OF CONCRETE PA_ M25 M20 30.1 126.4 221.8 162.6 171’1 191.8 1629 TABLE 85 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR DEFORMED BARS Tabulated values are in centimetres.8 41.2 48-3 z:: 66.3 100.6 548 73.9 78.4 98.6 88.8 164.6 1221 M25 18.2 36.1 67-9 74.0 108.6 M3d 16.1 33.0 2464 ’ TiiY 27.8 > 27. Qll = 275 N/mm* 0.2 48.4 27.7 z: 67.3 65._-__h_ Ml5 mm 49-l :::.4 48-9 54-3 597 67-9 L!&! 97. .9 97.5 87.4 E: 113.6 152.8 68-5 82-l 109.9 40.6 82-l 92.2 M20 20.4 84.WORKING STRESS METHOD I TABLE 84 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR DEFORMED BARS Tabulated values are in centimetres.1 39. 135.5 108.0 86.5 45.4 73.0 171.0 M25 327 43.1 33.2 108.4 1027 115*0 131.9 76.4 96.3 21.5 49.8 136.3 163.2 ::I.7 219.7 261.3 98. 98.4 174.3 58.8 95.4 84.___.4 114.8 27-4 36.6 1964 M30 29.7 73.2 45.3 184.1 54.2 54-3 72.1 M25 18.3 75.5 123.1 36.0 164.3 61.0 1228 z: 176.1 51.9 82.9 2946 WORKXNQ STRBSS DESIGN 209 .3 21-7 27.4 147.9 74-6 848 95.4 27.5 196.4 E 597 67.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

.

As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .

also b = b.x/3.Z of the Code. EC = 5700 q/fck N/mm* I 5 700 d/13= 22-l x 10’ N/mm* A?& P 200 kN/mm* = 2 x 10s N/mm% > 1 r and Zen< Zm Chorr 89 can be used for finding the value of F I in accordance with the above equation. 1-2 +_ ( ) but.4 x 10’ mm’ 12 Deflections due to shrinkage and creep can The values of x and z are those obtained by elastic theory. For flanged sections where the flange is in compression.3. a weighted average value of Z~lr should be used. chart takes into account the condition 4 I > 1. but. is the breadth of the web. The value of z for flanged beams will depend on the tlange dimensions. with further data as given below: Span of cantilever 4.mm . is the depth of neutral axis.x/3 for rectangular sections. For continuous beams. Whrn Ir to be compared with Z* and the lower of the two values should be used for calculating the deflection. With this assumption. fcllll be calculated in accordance with clauses B-3 is the cracking moment.71 N/mm’ P Yt -D/2=~=3OOmm 2.71 x 5.1 of the Code. From 5. Hence z = d . Flexural tensile strength.2. is the lever arm.488 x 10’ N.2-s.4 x 10’ . 7. This is illustrated in Yt Example 12. fcr 0.2 SHRINKAGE AND CREEP DEFLECTIONS Ir < Za < b is the moment of inertia of the cracked section .2 of the Code. as given in B-2. b where fa is the modulus of rupture of concrete. but in order to simplify the calculations it is conservatively assumed the value of z for ganged beam is also d . b will be equal to the flange width br. Mr M z d x b. After finding the value of Zd it has A method of calculating the deflections is given in Appendix E of the Code. Zmis the moment of inertia of the gross section neglecting the reinforcement and yt is the distance from the centroidal axis of the gross section to the extreme fibre in tension . This method requires the use of an effective moment of inertia I& given by the following equation Z* I&r 1. for rectangular sections. DEFLECTION CALCULATION 7.m Sixty percent of the above moment is due to rmanent loads.O-067 a’/d II 005 will be used in referring to Tables.0 m Re\didimoment at service 210 kN. is the maximum moment under service loads. Example 12 Check for deflection Calculate the deflection of a cantilever beam of the section designed in Example 3. the expression e&ctive moment of inertia may be written as follows : From clause 5. and is the breadth of the compression face. is the effective depth.74 z = N/mm9 fcr O-7 t/E = 2. F DEFLECTION CALCULATION 213 .2. the loading being distri% uted uniformly on the span.1 EFFECTIVE INERTIA MOMENT OF The.7. equal to and B-4 of the Code. BP ZE =-i-T= 300 x @O)* _ 5.

.6 X 21 X 10’) (4 000)2 8.4 X 10’ mm4 .5.5 X IO3 X 5.nj.720 X 300 X (562. pc (m .38 X 10e7 X (4 000)2 ‘&!I?!!? 250 = 16 mm.88 X 10’ Mr/ M = 21.’.117-0.418=0.. < 5. (p.cmr./(bd’/ 12) = I. shrinkage and creep = 1 1. M = 210 = 21. = 1. 8 is taken as 1.12 = 3..0 (0...720 .418(23.12 mm = .1 of the Code.418 p.62 mm. According to 22.mm 4.Ml2 = 4 E&r ..17 . =0.66)X 10” d I.05)/ (1..418 pi--p<= 1.. = 0. I.418 = 0.p.5 for cantilevers (see clause B-3 p. = 1.418) fii-iT ==0.497 I.1 X 10’ X 3.l)/(p. Shrinkagecurvature q\Ir..117.117 X 23.86 + 1.= Initial plus creep deflection due to permanent loads obtained using the Above modulus of elasticity 1 --.1 x IO3 1 + 1.. = 0.66 X lo9 mm” I.6 X 21 X 10’) (4 000)’ =i-x. .. Permlsslble deflection = = 0. a‘r(pc.232 Referring to Chart 89.0 X 10’ N.(m .. I.( 1) Deflection due to shrinkage of the Code): IILo= k+ Vv.338 Moment at service load..117. (pcrm) a. = 0. is taken as 0. Elastic deflection cll 2 1.333 PJ?? = 1.000 3 as given in 5. Total deflection (long term) due to initial load. m) = (0.0.2(a) of the Code the final deflection should not exceed span/2SO.6 from 5.497 X 300 (562.86 mm = f .o X 10’ x (4000)? z -__--4 x 22.r.0 .1 of the Code.5 X 2.72Xy& Pt = 0.(3) .204 X IO9 mm’ For a cantilever with uniformly load.1 X lo3 x 3.98 mm In the absence of data.6 = 8./ I. .. EC. Deflection due to creep. < Lrr d I$q 6. .m m = z = 8.4 X IO9 = 10.86 = 17... Ierr = I. I‘ ki = 0. = 1. the age at loading is assumed to be 28 days and the value of creep coefficient.117 X 9.204 X 10” = I I..2.l17. the value of the ultimate shrinkage strain &.a..m) pL = 0. .53 . = In the absence of data.204 X IO9 = 7. = l.5 X 10’ N/mm2 E. alcc (.* Ierr = 5.98 . .476 ’ = $X 1.72 x (1. I.05) = 0.= k4 g aI (pwn\ = Short term deflection due to permanent load obtained using EC 1 (0.5)‘/ 12 = 3. = E.I)/@. = 3.0 x lo’= o.rr.86 . 1 +e 22.I)/ (1.p. 2x IO5 = 23..4.05 = 10.117 x 9. L)=6OOmm .90 + 3.5 X lo3 p..53) = 0.7.11 Referring to Table 87. = 1./(bd’/ 12) = 0.. 2 kN... 214 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .5)3/ 12 = 6.204 X IO9 mm4 Referring to Table 91.g t.90 mm .(2) The calculated deflection is only slightly greater than the permissible value and hence the section may not be revised. .000 3 = 2 38 x 1o-7 600 a. = 1. ~4=0.From Example 3.r.358 Referring distributed to Table 87.2.418 X 8.53 = J = 0. p.476 X 0.m) 10.4 x IO9 .1.699< .22. a.

0 10 RATIO bf/bw DEFLECTION CALCULATION 215 .i w t ii L 1.

Chart 89 EFFECTIVE MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR CALCULATING DEFLECTION f i- b-0 3i 1.8 l-9 2~0"""""""'~""""""~ 216 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .-__ _.1 %++-II“8 I l-4 l-5 1.______.7 1.-c_$ I I I IY I I I I I I I I I hi-I i I I I I Al I I I I .1 L_.6 1.0 1.

Chart 90 PERCENTAGE. AREA AND SPACING ‘OF BARS IN SLABS 29 24 23 22 21 20 19 10 9 0 1 2 J b s 9 1 D 9 10 11 12 13 14 19 AREA OF REINFORCEMENT cm’ PER METER WIOTH +USf ECfCCtlVL OCfTM OR OVERALL WHICHEVER IS USLO POR CALCUlATING p DBFLECTION CALCULATION 217 .

of 218 DESk3N AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRHI .K.9 l*O ii E Pa Kb z r 8 BXand Paare the valuesof 19 the top and bottom of the column when.8 0. + tKb ’ stiffacoses column and &m mpiwfy.Chart 91 EFFECTIVE LEhlGlH OF COLUMNSFrame Restrained Against Sway FUED 0 0. pat done for the members framin8 into r joint.6 P 0*7 0. KC and arc the fkxural sKc the summation being r.

chrrt 92 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF COLUMNS Frame Wiiut Restraint to Sway 0*9 04 0.8 0. KC and swnmation being Kb are the llex~rd dfhessu and beamrespeCtivclY.7 0.3 04 03 0*6 0.6 P1 FIXED 0 o\ 0. where done for tbo mombem framing into a joint.2 0.are the values of b at the top and bottom of the column. tbe of &Umn hand @.1 0.9 1-O x ii wp P2 b’~Kc~sKb. DFMACMON CALCULATION 219 .

0 205.3 45. 585-4 650-4 ES . ::g 6-5 1:: :::: 18.0 4147 E: 590-5 658.::‘: 325.6 1125 %5 .6 410-l 459-3 5122 569-l 630.8 41.3 it: :z3 138-2 :f:.8 1786-2 2083.6 114. 731.:.3 i.3 90.5 450. 194-4 228.2 17.0 5721 7146 878.8 219-5 243-9 270-O 343.7 813-O 1E :%-ii 2133:3 %T .3 122. 3333’3 58.7 :::I: 405-6 460-8 5208 i%.6 51.6 4267 511. cm 10 VALUES OF M/12 000 b.5 220 24-6 27-4 30-5 33.7 8AO.0 :z .2 360.3 E8 324-5 368.6 53-3 61.6 33.0 186.3 27-o 31.8 2400 277.2 l-7 $.1 58.9 322.TABLE 86 MOMENT OF INERTIAd.3 g 146 17-l 1rt 14-3 17-O 20-O 23. tz:: 1706-7 2047-l ii% .0 109.6 136-l 160.2 2126-3 K:: 220 DEMON AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .7 216-l 248.‘2 11.5 101.5 393.3 428. cm 15 1.0 364.5 77’8 91-5 106-7 123.3 19.0 45. 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 4-2 5.9 25.2 146-3 1626 180-O %:X 351.5 101.6 3125 351.7 E 922 lW2 117-2 131.5 40. 46 ::: 5-8 ..2 131.9 147-4 175.5 %X 1666-7 326 36-6 41-o 45-7 50-8 z:: 81.8 5400 686.0 801.4 2500.7 527-3 640.3 z:t 71-l 11.0 49.4 21.8 95.5 283.0 546 65. 196.9 i::!! 91.6 857.7 1250.3 68. .2 1143 ::::: 177-5 202-8 23@4 260-4 2929 ~%I: 406.7 439-o 487.8 607-s 7145 833.6 731.6 266.O 10298 1286-2 15820 192@0 65-l 73-2 82-O 91.7 g:‘: 10-2 12-l 143 10-O :::4 15.3 38-6 iii:: 57-6 .0 ::::7’ 703.5 .1 35.6 65.3 1023.:.6 416-7 iii:.0 767.9 98.5 10547 1280-O z:: 2143.3 z 19-4 m9 52-l :!:f 73-2 81.8 3194 365.4 14-l 17-l z 28.9 1066-7 1279-4 1518.3 fK4 78.5 1420 1622 :843 208-3 234.7 911’3 1071. 3572’4 4166-7 67-5 81. 213.0 fzz 1493’3 1791.1 853.9 97.

880 O-911 0942 0.121 l-179 . :-zz l-351 l-123 l-156 l-188 1.:g l-575 l-630 l-685 l-739 ::z 1902 O-490 O-525 0.: O-226 O-264 0.310 O-348 O-386 O-424 0460 0.278 l-340 1400 1461 l-521 l-581 ::z l-758 l-817 l-876 1.4% 0332 O-567 o”:zz O-670 O-704 O-738 0.850 0. O-723 O-755 O-787 O-818 0.966 0998 l-030 l-061 1.8 O-100 Ki 0229 0269 1.6 O-298 :::z 0398 O-430 iz .155 l-217 I. 8’:. 0-O O-3 O-100 11::.093 l-124 1.934 1993 DEFLECTION CALCULATION 221 .839 O-860 O-881 :zi 1. O-601 O-628 @653 O-678 O-703 O-472 FiTi O-596 O-625 O-654 O-682 O-710 0.738 0765 O-792 O-818 O-844 O-870 0.1. 0..771 0. x’:.220 l-250 ..TABLE 87 MOMENT OF INERTIA OF CRACKED SECTION VALUES OF &/(R”) .934 0.804 O-837 x:ii.559 zi .

193 ::E! l-296 l-329 :::: 1.413 O-448 0.551 lTjO1 1.386 1441 f I.898 :E 0962 EZ l-082 1*120 1.483 o-517 0.606 l-247 1.370 0403 O-436 0468 O-499 O-530 O-560 O-589 O-618 ::zE O-701 O-727 04 &lOO 0. Ez I:E 8E l-022 :z: 0.291 :::z I. O-815 O-841 0867 O-6 0.274 I.419 1461 ::E l-583 l-623 l-298 1.0 @l E O-185 O-224 O-262 O-3 O-100 O-144 O-185 O-225 O-263 O-300 0.335 0.347 ::z l-489 l-535 1582 .260 1301 ::z: 0.018 1:E l-123 l-156 I*188 f:E 12$ 1.652 :E 1*801 :Zf 222 DESIGN AIDS FOR RRINFORCED CONCRETE .330 1. t-E l-718 l-344 1.144 0.0 E! O-366 O-398 O-430 0.727 X:E O-795 O-818 O-839 O-860 0881 Ez o-942 0.103 1.609 1.302 0338 O-373 zz O-8 O-100 O-144 Q186 ::z O-303 O-340 O-376 O-411 O-445 O-479 O-512 8:::: 0.743 O-774 O-632 z: O-720 0.TABLE 88 MOMENT OF INERTIA OF CRACKED SECTION VALUES OF h.(z) 0.622 o-651 0680 O-708 0735 8:::.583 O-616 O-648 ::tE! 0.100 O-144 O-186 O-226 0264 0.292 0.185 0225 O-263 O-300 @336 O-371 0405 O-438 0.:z o-71 1 F$$ 0.425 l-455 0999 l-045 :d~ l-176 1.470 O-502 8:::: O-593 0.749 O-792 z:: .218 I.993 l-021 lft49 l-077 l-131 l-185 l-239 1.337 :::9”: O-854 O-876 0.805 O-836 O-866 f:E 0956 O-986 l-015 fZ 1.3% ::g I.980 1.298 O-333 O-367 Et! O-463 O-493 0523 O-551 O-580 O-607 O-634 .160 l-217 1.157 1.550 0.

185 O-224 0.463 @494 O-523 O-552 O-581 O-608 O-635 0.893 0914 O-935 0956 0997 l-036 1.274 1.661 O-691 O-721 O-750 O-779 P808 O-836 ::8896: 0.312 1.3 @JO0 O-143 0.527 O-557 O-586 O-614 O-643 0.1 0.320 1.283 I.949 0.086 l-130 1.925 0.247 I.678 O-706 O-733 0.573 o-6 O-100 @I43 0.761 O-788 0814 O-841 0.216 l-268 I.596 O-626 O-655 O-685 O-713 O-742 O-770 0.781 O-804 O-827 0.308 I.867 O-893 O-918 0943 O-969 0.354 1.573 ‘I:x:3 I.891 O-915 O-938 O-960 0.92 I O-948 O-976 l-003 1 a30 l-057 1~111 1.471 o-503 O-534 O-565 0.550 O-578 O-605 O-632 O-658 O-683 o-708 O-733 0.299 l-339 1.173 I.143 O-185 x:z O-298 EZ O-398 0.054 I.216 I.757 0.185 O-224 O-262 O-298 0334 O-368 0401 O-433 O-465 O-495 O-525 O-555 O-583 0.983 1.262 O-298 O-333 0.473 I.795 0.319 1.601 O-628 O-653 O-678 o-703 O-727 0750 0773 0.220 l-250 1.262 x:E O-369 0403 0.075 J-112 1.611 0639 8:E O-719 0.721 1 a770 DEFLMXION CALCULATION 223 .436 0468 Ei O-561 O-591 0.299 O-334 O-368 O-402 0.776 O-802 0827 O-852 O-876 0901 0.185 OQ24 0.141 l-191 l-240 J-0 O*lOO 0.434 zz! 0.712 1.350 1.100 O-143 0.318 J-350 l-381 I-411 1441 O-2 O-100 O-143 O-185 O-224 O-262 O-298 O-333 O-367 z! 0.280 1.391 0.697 0724 O-750 0.337 l-364 1.371 I -422 I.148 1.818 0. 8‘::: O-263 0473 O-505 O-537 O-569 O-600 O-631 0.970 I-012 I .164 1.379 1.430 x:z 0519 0547 O-575 0.419 : ::z: l-535 1.620 O-649 0.184 l-219 I *252 J-286 1.112 J-154 J-194 1234 I.993 :::t l-115 l-162 1 a208 O-8 O-100 0.300 FL::: O-405 O-438 0.387 J-424 J-461 1.972 E 1.849 0871 0.123 l-156 I.798 O-826 O-853 O-880 X:K 0.960 0.670 0.367 O-399 0.714 O-739 O-764 O-788 O-812 @836 O-859 O-882 .027 l-070 1.TABLE 89 MOMENT OF INERTIA OF CRACKED SECTION VALUES OF It/ t s ) r o-0 O-100 0.422 1455 1488 0.839 O-860 O-881 0902 O-922 O-942 O-980 l-018 l-054 1 a89 1.143 0.532 O-4 o-100 0.094 I.476 zzi l-605 1 a7 I:627 l-574 1E I.43 1 O-462 X:iE 0.987 l-013 J-039 l-090 I.4% 1.523 I.185 O-224 0262 0.z 0.745 @770 O-795 0820 O-844 O-868 0.188 1.172 l-210 1.662 O-688 0.143 .257 I.134 I.388 I.143 xi!: O-263 0.

103 :z l-241 l-287 l-331 .863 O-887 0910 z:: 0. xi 1.345 l-383 1.753 O-779 O-806 O-832 O-857 0. :% l-324 O-978 l-022 la65 .425 ::zz l-545 l-584 yg O-554 O-583 0.782 EE O-607 0. :-iii l-276 1. :*:z 1463 l-506 :::.523 0.451 1.TABLE 90 MOMENT OF INERTIA OF CRACKED SECTION VALUES OF Jr/ $ ( ) d'/d-O-20 Am--l)/(m) 0-l O-2 0.298 O-333 O-367 ..552 @580 0o:g O-663 O-689 O-715 O-741 0. O-399 O-430 O-298 O-333 !E! O-298 O-333 EZ O-431 O-462 O-492 :::: O-579 a298 O-333 @367 X% 8% 0.677 l-334 1368 ::zi 1464 224 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .308 l-339 .420 :1E 1. l-633 @617 ic O-731 .883 Ei @958 O-983 l-007 1955 1.119 l-168 1:216 Et 1358 1a5 1.766 O-791 O-815 O-839 0. :%i l-429 o-961 :izz l-082 l-120 0969 l-012 :z!z l-135 l-174 l-212 ..497 l-542 l-587 l-632 1.634 iT% 0.874 O-898 O-922 ii% O-993 1so39 l-085 l-129 l-173 l-217 l-259 1:E l-384 1.189 :zz 1.528 ST% 1.3 O-4 O-6 O-8 19’ .712 @614 O-643 O-671 O-699 O-726 0. %i Ei O-368 O-401 O-434 :%! 0528 O-558 @588 O-603 zz O-681 O-706 O-730 0754 Ei Of23 O-605 O-632 O-658 Ei O-734 O-758 0.307 1. x’::: O-812 0839 O-865 Ei 1931 :%i 1141 l-176 .

289 O-294 O-300 O-305 ::::: ::E 0328 0332 0.425 O-432 O-439 xO-459 0465 0.197 O-213 0227 E!i O-263 O-274 0225 O-238 O-249 z: EJ 0.352 O-358 MO2 Oar7 O-413 O-418 0.369 0374 O-380 0.282 0.276 .341 0.319 O-326 O-333 O-339 O-345 0.178 0.345 O-350 O-214 x:z O-245 O-253 0.304 O-310 O-316 O-321 C+326 :::t 0.414 O-417 O-507 O-513 0519 O-525 O-531 O-491 0497 0503 8E Ez 0488 O-493 0.276 0.218 tz! O-251 O-260 O-268 0.330 O-338 0345 0.336 0.ij 0.130 O-155 O-176 O-194 O-209 O-223 0235 i!Lg 0.498 DEFLECTlON CALCULAflON 225 .TABLE 91 DEPTH OF NEUTRAL AXES BY ELASTIC THEORY VALUES OF x/d d’/d=@OS O-132 O-159 O-181 EY O-131 O-158 O-180 O-198 O-215 o-131 O-157 0.287 @297 Ei O-323 O-336 8E O-358 O-365 0.423 O-393 O-398 O-403 z! O-418 O-427 E O-451 O-385 O-390 O-394 O-399 O-404 :iti 0.351 EZ O-367 O-372 0.305 O-312 @325 E O-345 @351 @358 O-363 0.276 O-284 O-292 Ez O-314 0:321 O-327 O-333 O-339 O-128 O-153 O-173 @190 0205 0.269 0.471 O-399 :zi O-421 0428 EZ O-378 O-382 @386 O-383 @388 0392 O-396 0400 ::g O-411 0.261 0.

369 0.387 0.419 0.278 0.349 0.357 0.360 O-365 0.225 0.194 0209 XE 0245 0.426 0.314 x:::: “0:::: 0.493 Ei 8% 0.2 0.414 0.196 0211 0.265 0275 0285 ii .363 0.334 0.335 0331 0.359 0.352 0.382 0.TABLE 92 DEPTH OF NEUTRAL AXIS BY ELASTIC THEORY VALUES OF x/d 01 0.204 0263 0.:z 0.475 0.265 0.435 0442 0449 0456 E.389 0354 0.155 P175 0.6 0.339 %: 0.178 0.360 0.394 x:z 0.255 0.273 0.157 0.219 0.270 x:18’: 0289 X:E 0.354 8% 0.206 0.410 0.300 0.371 0.331 0. 0.377 0.341 0347 0.156 ml76 0.370 0.131 0. 0.251 0.354 0.214 0228 0242 0254 0.313 @318 0.279 0288 812Z 0.353 0.192 0.359 0.179 0.411 0.174 0.318 0.305 0310 0.327 0.130 0.411 00::.311 0.395 0403 X% 0.325 0.431 226 DESIGN AIDS FOR REINFORCBD CONCRBTB .357 0.310 0316 0322 “0:::: 0.270 0.337 0.268 0.154 0.361 0365 8% 0377 0.131 0.. 0.132 @158 @MO 0.8 0.319 0.199 0.4 0.260 1.190 0.367 0.338 0.343 0.345 0.428 0.6 0.392 0.364 0.260 0.238 0249 0.343 0.130 0.453 fii$ 0481 0487 0.348 0.375 0.423 0.373 8% 0.397 .130 0.416 0.282 0289 0296 0303 0.295 0.421 0.215 0230 odz 0.158 0.349 0.198 0.437 0445 0.231 0241 0.323 8% ::::: 0.380 O-387 @394 0400 0406 0.

247 0.257 0266 1-d 0. 8’:: O-215 0.329 O-333 O-338 O-342 O-345 0.411 O-416 O-420 0.478 X:E 0493 0.279 O-289 O-299 @308 0.494 x:z 0.383 O-387 0.435 O-441 O-447 ::t:: O-463 0468 ::t:‘7 0.408 O-414 0419 0.362 O-368 O-374 0.349 O-353 0.278 0.489 0.158 O-179 O-196 O-211 0224 0. @484 0.389 O-393 0.132 @159 @180 O-198 O-214 O-228 OatI 0.353 O-358 0.132 O-159 O-180 O-198 O-214 0229 O-242 0.377 O-382 O-387 ZE O-401 0405 O-408 0. O-un 0405 O-410 0.332 fF339 O-345 0.158 :::.320 O-324 0.459 O-466 8:::.384 0.379 0.178 O-195 O-209 O-222 0.398 0402 O-407 O-415 O-422 O-430 O-437 O-444 O-450 0.132 O-159 O-181 0.378 0.429 0.257 O-268 0.473 0.1 0.332 O-340 O-347 0.429 0.252 0.438 O-445 O-452 0.481 0.453 0.3 0.419 O-422 0.390 O-395 :‘iz O-409 0.305 O-313 O-321 O-329 O-336 0. O-274 O-282 O-290 @297 0.6 o-133 0.425 0.344 o-351 O-358 0.TABLE 93 DEPTH OF NEUTRAL AXIS BY ELASTIC THEORY VALUES OF x/d ’ o-0 0.362 O-366 O-369 O-373 O-376 O-383 “0::.349 x::::: 0.294 x:z O-315 O-322 O-328 x:::: O-344 0.427 0431 O-435 0438 O-442 DEFLECTION CALCULATION 227 .133 0.376 O-380 0.244 0.285 0294 @302 O-310 0.316 O-324 0.415 O-419 O-423 0.364 O-368 O-372 0. 0422 0.392 O-396 OaO 8::.244 O-254 0.457 O-460 .367 O-373 O-379 O-385 O-390 0.364 O-369 0.262 0.350 O-354 O-358 0.133 O-lS8 0.425 z-z 0:258 O-270 O-281 O-292 0301 O-311 ii::: O-336 0.287 0.318 O-325 0.413 O-422 O-430 0.365 0372 O-378 O-384 O-390 O-396 0402 O-407 O-413 O-418 O-423 O-428 O-437 Et 0.263 O-273 0.354 O-360 0.199 O-216 O-2 O-132 O-159 .336 O-341 O-346 0.384 O-388 O-395 O-401 0.512 O-517 O-287 O-296 0.356 “o::zi O-366 O-372 0.8 0.343 O-349 O-356 0.303 0309 O-315 O-321 O-326 O-332 0.Y 0.374 O-379 0384 0.351 8:::: O-369 0.456 O-462 O-468 0.412 O-415 0.270 O-278 O-285 8:ZE O-304 8Z 0.234 0.236 0.438 iEi 0462 O-469 O-476 O-482 O-489 0495 O-501 O-506 0.430 O-435 O-440 ::I$ 0.254 O-265 O-275 o-4 0.374 0.212 0.396 O-401 0406 0.282 O-291 O-299 o-307 o-315 0322 O-329 O-335 O-341 o-347 0.463 O-231 0..

363 O-368 :%I 0.393 O-399 0405 0410 O-416 0.340 1.454 0.286 0.0 20.459 O-464 0469 X% O-484 0488 8% 0.231 0.0 1. 3-o 3.314 0.307 0.351 0356 0361 0.323 O-331 0.379 k% 0391 O-395 0402 %z O-422 O-428 a433 0.0 13.319 O-328 0.358 o-364 O-370 0.300 0.333 0339 0.481 0..329 O-334 0.341 O-348 0.338 O-345 O-352 0.5 9:.326 0.:.389 0.483 O-488 tz.276 0.8 0.433 O-441 O-448 O-455 0462 0.292 0.2 0.135 O-161 0.336 O-344 O-351 O-358 0365 O-231 8:.411 0.427 O-434 0441 0448 O-454 0461 :z: @478 0.351 0.469 O-475 0.421 O-426 x:1:‘: 0.5 .6 0136 0162 O-183 0.295 ii:::: 0319 0.340 0. 0305 0.: 0303 0.133 O-160 O-182 0.232 0246 0.339 O-343 0.1 O-132 O-159 O-181 0.466 O-470 0.357 0.348 0352 0.345 0.133 0.313 0.266 0.428 0434 0441 0447 O-453 0.375 0.262 O-272 0280 8:.416 O-425 0.251 O-261 0.360 0364 ::z: O-374 0377 0384 0.423 o-428 0.397 O-402 O-406 O-410 O-419 0.283 0.281 0. 0.293 ~:~ 0.200 O-217 0.345 0.391 11-o 11’5 :I:.413 f-b.244 0.315 0.. 13.287 0*29.3 0.182 ::z 0229 O-241 0.356 0.267 O-277 0.0 5.ii O-383 8% 0397 0401 0405 0.323 0329 0.160 O-181 0.334 0.200 0215 0228 0.397 0402 0407 0.421 0.161 0.0 0. 5.321 O-328 O-334 0.453 @458 @462 0.200 O-216 0.242 O-254 O-264 0.301 @311 0.397 O-402 0407 O-412 O-417 8% 0..439 O-448 O-456 0388 0.240 0.6 O-135 0.395 0400 O-405 8:Z O-418 O-422 0426 O-429 @433 x:1:9” 228 DESlGN AIDS FOR REINFORCEDCONCRET’E .437 0446 t%: 0471 0.252 0.5 :I’: 3:: 8-O .0 18-o 19.5 140 14-5 15.376 O-382 0387 O-392 0.0 21-O 3:*8 24-o 25-O 8% O-413 O-418 0.291 0.270 O-278 0.0.318 0.20 PC@+-lMptm) ptm 1.439 O-443 O-447 O-450 0.TABLE 94 DEPTH OF NEUTRAL AXIS BY ELASTIC THEORY VALUES OF x/d d'jd=0.335 O-342 O-348 O-355 0.4 0134 O-160 O-182 8:% O-230 O-243 @255 0.269 O-280 0290 O-300 O-309 x:::: O-333 0.258 O-270 0.310 0317 0.256 0.216 O-231 x:z O-268 O-279 x:4:: O-307 0. 0.379 O-382 O-386 0.286 0.313 O-321 O-328 0.366 O-370 0375 0..355 0362 O-368 O-374 0.200 0.386 0.0 15-5 16-o 17.439 :zi 0.479 O-486 @493 O-500 0.380 0.182 8% 0230 0.274 .392 0.324 0.

69 z% 47.12 50% 53.19 38.42 .80 160.29 6434 7238 80.85 15.96 122.20 40.21 18 z 763 12.:.07 l&O8 18.55 : g:..78 36.35 .07 71.g ix 88.12 32.52 104.78 7.81 45.31 14 3.42 88. IO.08 35.61 4941 :.17 40.17 11.81 20.g .80 zz 34.26 1.46 96.09 i9*i2 20.42 10.39 1693 18.39 203. 25 491 l:% 2454 1963 29.13 28.25 56.83 16.86 f .89 20 3.77 1231 13.17 49.05 8.83 116.05 1413 1492 15.55 23.57 67.14 132.62 38. 44.45 ii::.04 12% 14.41 61.5 I 101. 193.34 50.89 61.15 32 8 01 1608 24.13 339 452 5.16 1231 18.10 211 24.63 -.67 1 IO.14 30.63 9. 128.20 92.70 z% 68.57 1470 15...09 24.81 g*.85 36 .08 5399 5890 63.03 10.07 I -54 461 769 6.80 .g DEFLECTION CALCULATlON 229 .68 162.04 10.15 923 10..70 2924 30.32 142.89 80.26 45.68 136.35 2290 2544 2799 30.53 40.55 37. 1% 15.71 43.76 152.40 56.99 123.57 8.18 2035 30. __ 2617 27.02 2o1 6. mm OPBAW NUMBER -6 10 ::i.47 20.73 73. 28 6.50 152.80 48.20 1900 22.65 10.91 9.78 16 4.10 49.01 41.04 86.17 40.96 18.21 48.72 144..36 98.26 55.09 20.78 111..01 21.72 10.21 38.62 1:::: 5.26 17.25 81.53 33.43 91 a 101.71 50.21 1099 11.70 1256 l&85 2199 25.78 1244 13.17 15.94 43. 235 :z: 12 2.47 2463 30.12 26.48 22.35 21.TABLE 95 AREAS OF GIVEN NUMBERS OF BARS IN Cm) BAR DIANKIER.15 3217 3i*iS 36.54 5969 6283 22 3.13 iK 34.65 6.14 i% 15.

74 071 8 10.27 28 123’15 102%8 87.57 1.20 14.38 7-18 6.23 20. 29.34 23.57 3’41 3.21 19-57 18.28 4.81 4.58 5.06 10-60 20 6283 52.82 8.36 4.10 16.89 4241 36.88 11-18 10-56 ‘!?z .65 471 % 3.27 25.36 21.85 E 230 DESICSN AIDS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE .10 16 40-21 33.21 3830 36-56 34.70 S-08 % f:E 5.83 14 30-79 25.51 239 2-28 218 2-09 2.71 13.56 26.98 2.91 5.38 8.51 f 22.96 76-9 68’42 61.44 13.TABLE 96 AREAS OF BARS AT GIVEN SPACINGS Values in cm2 per Meter Width BAR DIAMEIER.91 4-62 4.35 31.78 0.05 8-55 8.:Ff 2.26 10 15.13 3.86 57.15 25.16 20.03 4.53 4.65 5.42 a.03 63.26 9-62 9.52 4224 38.12 20-01 19.24 8.07 1.62 50-27 47.20 15.35 419 4.74 8.36 54.92 5-70 5. mm 1 6 5.14 2.39 32 16085 :4qs 10053 89-36 80-42 73.45 16..63 18.17 22.36 15.62 245 2.39 5-14 4-92 4’71 4.68 29.73 7.41 1.01 34.86 1.84 24.42 28. E * ::-sz 1283 11.09 11-22 9.34 20.83 0.18 24.01 1.31 10’28 9.14 2.17 IO-58 10.47 1436 1340 1257 11-83 11.98 51-31 47-37 43.54 4:: 5.52 4.10 7.79 28.04 7-73 7.57 1208 11.58 5.32 2799 26.18 l-13 1.14 8.05 8.99 21.11 12.27 7.10 17.57 55.48 36.88 39.48 :z 1.88 l-77 l-66 1.68 1.35 l-28 1.14 6.81 25.37 22.36 54-54 49-09 44.63 18.30 47.52 19.53 16-93 16.63 f 21.17 81.11 6702 61.24 4.36 18 50. :: 15 16 17 18 19 2.13 23.48 17.70 7.53 15.28 16-53 15.62 18.77 25.18 17.05 38.18 2.57 1.81 70.95 5.33 3.35 3.13 4.93 3-74 3.33 ::z! 6.34 21.44 20.05 3.76 35.11 cm .05 9-57 9.83 10-47 9-82 5.83 257 z7” 2.24 27.18 1696 15?w 14-97 1444 13.18 6-93 6-70 6-28 5.93 1.06 :z 28.45 23.96 12 22.84 11-00 10.62 1408 13.14 .09 12.45 53.85 16.28 1675 15.79 1.63 12.16 14-14 12-57 11.54 19.94 19.73 1.14 10 t:.88 0.72 12.66 2199 19-24 17.64 1 l-22 10.01 18.48 7.07 6.24 18. 25 98.65 2.28 13’66 13.87 27.92 12.51 g:.19 ZJ 3.80 271 2.29 5.66 24.12 61.57 4.88 18.45 7.50 5-31 5.23 1.57 11.70 6.3 1 44.02 1.28 5.58 13.73 8.96 2.73 26.39 12.31 21.96 4.16 5.22 2421 32-41 30-79 29.98 41.11 17.84 15.71 14.68 42.48 7.97 33.85 7.41 6.03 8.36 44.62 40-91 37.27 25.34 14.95 7.77 3-53 3.12 11.09 l-05 1 *Ol 0.67 11.31 2.85 22 76.54 23.49 1.97 30 32 34 36 :: O-94 0.76 22.34 20-11 18.13 21.27 3.33 40.76 27.79 2.56 31.27 3491 31.04 3-90 3.65 22.81 28.

12 1’ [’ 12 ad+ s2 (I-3b)l -7 121’ 2 I (31~e4+3s’) ‘.f+-3S) w I’ +12 w I2 -12 W 5Wl’ A -96 WI’ +20 w I2 -30 t-----‘----l IXSf’LECT’ION CALCULATION 231 .Table 97 FIXED END MOMENTS FOR PRISMATIC BEAMS LOAD TYPE M rr Mm Pab’ (’ Pdb 1’ I- PI % w.

.Table 98 DEFLECTION FORMULAE FOR PRISMATIC BEAMS &it I+‘/2 I P 48EI Pl’ P 1’ 192 L&! L ( 23PI’ 6= 5 PI’ 646 EI w 1 . .MI 16 2 EI Note:- W is total distributed load DESIGN AIDS FOR REINEORCED CONCRETE . P . rrrrcrrl --I 6E1 H!t P 1’ 3 L.’ .

- 周易正义
- Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994
- 陽宅十書
- 03 HSFG Info for Bolts
- 03 Metric Bolt Torque Values
- 03 Metric Bolt Torque Values
- 03 Metric Bolt Torque Values
- 03 Metric Bolt Torque Values
- Case Study Energy-Efficient House in Finland
- Case study ELUZ Building in Croissy-Beaubourg
- Case Study Bilbao Exhibition Centre, Spain
- Case Study Airforge Building, Pamiers, France
- Case Study 19 Storey Residential Building at Deansgate, Manchester, UK
- Access Steel Wind
- PCI Manual for Design of Hollowcore
- 03_FMA+1967+Part+I+modified+by+zamani
- OSHA 3150
- Industry Code of Practice for Safe Working in a Confined Space 2010 Department Jkkp Dp(s) 1273793-1
- 四書讀本節要
- 中國歷史綱目表.
- 徐志兴论画题画诗300首
- 咏兰诗选
- 咏花诗词一百首
- 金剛般若波羅蜜經(文字)
- 認識佛教

- SP24
- SP-34-1987 Handbook on Reinforcement and Detailing
- IS 13920
- IS 456-2000 Indian Standard code book for RCC design guidelines
- Is 808-1989 Steel Table
- Illustrated Design of Reeinforced concrete Buildings - Karve & Shah
- Slab Designer as per IS 456-2000
- Beam Design as per IS456 (Validation Requested)
- 7754382 Column Design as Per is 456
- Is 800:2007
- Design RCC 2 Storey Building
- Tata Steel - Designers Manual (India)
- SP6-Steel Hand Book
- Reinforced Concrete Design (Limit State) - By Varghese P.C.
- Is 2911-PART-1-Sec2-1979 Bored Cast in Situ Pile Foundations 1997
- IRC-6-2010
- Reinforcement Detailing
- Design of RCC Slab
- Reinforced Concrete Design-PILLAI & MENON-FULL
- RC Footing for Column Design as Per IS
- Construction and Design of Multi Storey Building by Abhimanyu Parida
- design of water tank
- IRC-21-2000
- Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design by Krishna Raju
- SP23
- Analysis and Design of a Multi-Storey Reinforced Concrete
- Guide for Detailing Reinforced Concrete
- Reinforced Concrete Structures- Volume 2 by Dr. b.c. Punmia- Ashok Kumar Jain- b.c. Punmia- Ashok Kr. Jain- Arun Kr. Jain
- reinforced concrete structures
- RCC Design by BC Punmia
- SP16-Design Aid for RC to IS456-1978

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd