Vehicle black box SNG-EC


In the present day everyone are running behind speed all want to come first. In such sceneries accident are increasing. Daily May new vehicles are being added On the road. This also increases the amount of accident. There won’t be a day on which there is no death due to road accident? Many are being enforced to reduce accidents but none of them have been able to stop them, but they are only able to decrease them to an extent. The highway safety association in Europe and America has been planning to implement some devices into vehicles which would safe guard the interest of the passengers. The motor giant general motors have initiated many research and developmental activities in this regard. The vehicles are fitted with airbags, anti-lock breaking system and many such things. But in order to do any research or development there is a need for the knowledge of the real cause of the accident. The accident may occur due to the mistake of others or the problems in the working of the vehicle such as break failure or fire accident. The presently available features which are incorporated into vehicles are GPS, tracking and mapping. The European Union and America are planning to incorporate certain data loggers into vehicles which would record the vehicle parameters. The IEEE has also introduced some standards in this regard. The

Vehicle black box SNG-EC

system proposed to be like a black box which logs implementation inside the vehicles and the performance of the vehicles. The proposal of the IEEE association is audio and video logging and engine parameters such as the temperature brake conditions, sharp turn, torque of the vehicle etc. this is analogous to a black box billion dollar aircraft industry is affordable such costly devices cannot be incorporated into a car as such systems will cost more than the car itself. Moreover there is no alert system. So we made an initiative to design a data logger as an emergency alert system. This initiative was made because of delayed medical help and relief. We also kept in mind as to decrease the cost so as to make it affordable to vehicle of all ranges. Our data logger logs the conversation and voice inside the cabin and also the location. The accident is sensed for the fire accidents and physical collision and when such an accident occurs an alert message is sent to pre-stored mobile number. Our system can be also further expanded by adding up many more sensors such as vibration sensors, gas sensors. This can also be incorporated with GPS mapping to find out the way. There is a video recording option but since it costly it can only be incorporated in to high end cars.


Vehicle black box SNG-EC




The values are continuously sent to the microcontroller for storage APR 9600 Sound record/playback IC. which is accounted as one of the most popular general purpose microcontrollers. This helps to understand 6 . acts as a control unit. The alert message includes the location where the accident occurred. This RISC controller. GPS MODULE GPS module is used to receive the GPS values from the satellite. Receiving GPS co-ordinates on reception of text message” where” from a GSM number. one minute prior to the accident.Vehicle black box SNG-EC BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION MICROCONTROLLER PIC16f873 is the brain of the entire system. requesting the location of the money carrier USER MOBILE User can get the alert message of accident. The functions of the controller may be briefed as follows Receiving the RF-id code from the authorized branch and crosschecking it with the database in its data memory Sending text message “travel started” through the GSM modem connected to its serial communication peripheral on receiving the correct code. Used to record the sounds inside the cabin.

The control lines and the data lines are connected to PORTB. once the ‘Black Box’ module is retrieved from the affected vehicle. GSM MODEM The GSM modem is used to send alert message to the centers. On an accident case.Vehicle black box SNG-EC the real cause of the accident right from the speech of the people inside LCD DISPLAY Displays the location of where the accident occurred. Control lines and data lines. The LCD display is used to display the saved GPS location. GPS and the GSM modules are connected across a relay since there is only one serial communication module for the controller and all the modules need to be connected to the same peripheral. This starts execution once the data retrieve button is pressed after the module is recovered from the accident affected vehicle. the GSM module sends the alert message after receiving the GPS location 7 . The 10K trim potentiometer connected to the Contrast pin of the LCD is used to adjust the contrast of the display. LCD MODULE This module has two main lines.

Vehicle black box SNG-EC CHAPTER -3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 8 .


1000µF capacitor acts as a filter circuit. an AC or DC voltage from the range 7V to 24V may be given as input. L7805 voltage regulator – used to give a regulated 5V output d. Bridge package – used for AC to DC conversion ( null effect when DC supply is used) c. 12-0-12/1A step down transformer b. The components used in the supply design are a.3 POWER SUPPLY 2 10 3 1N4007 1 + C13 2200mfd .Vehicle black box SNG-EC Power supply The target board is powered by a 5V power supply. +12V D6 1 2 + C11 2200mf U5 L7805/TO220 VCC VOUT 230V 1 T1 5 6 1N4007 D7 1 2 1N4007 D8 1 2 1N4007 D10 1 2 12-0-12v/1A GND 230V VIN 1 2 4 8 1 2 + C12 10mfd Fig. The power supply is designed such that.

PIN CONFIGURATION APR 9600 VOICE RECORD/PLAYBACK IC 11 . The PIC is programmed according to our needs using appropriate programming software and programmers. Receiving GPS co-ordinates on reception of text message ” track” from a GSM number. acts as a control unit. This RISC controller. It also coordinates the functioning of all the modules and takes the required steps when accident occurs. which is accounted as one of the most popular general purpose microcontrollers. requesting the location of the money carrier.Vehicle black box SNG-EC PIC 16F873A It is the brain of the entire system. The functions of the controller may be briefed as follows Receiving the RF-id code from the authorized branch and cross-checking it with the database in its data memory Sending text message “accident occurred” through the GSM modem connected to its serial communication peripheral on receiving the correct code. Fig4.

the maximum available. Fig 5.Vehicle black box SNG-EC The figure shows the device configured in random access mode. APPLICATIONAL DIAGRAM FOR APR 9600 MAX 232 12 . can be left unconnected with the exception of pin/M8_Option which should be pulled to VCC through a 100K resistor. Note that message trigger pins that are not used. in this mode. for modes with less than eight segments. The device is using eight message segments.

CTS and RTS signals. Fig. as power supply design does not need to be made more complicated just for driving the RS-232 in this case. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX. TX.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 13 . This makes it useful for implementing RS-232 in devices that otherwise do not need any voltages outside the 0 V to + 5 V range.5 V) from a single + 5 V supply via on-chip charge pumps and external capacitors.Vehicle black box SNG-EC The MAX232 also known as line driver is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The drivers provide RS232 voltage level outputs (approx. ± 7.

4 MHz Crystal oscillator Crystal oscillator is used to provide oscillation frequency to the PIC micro controller. GGM309U can track up to 20 satellite at a time. agriculture and so on.Vehicle black box SNG-EC GPS MODULE Latina’s GGM309U GPS Receiver provides various applications such as car navigating. surveying. Further more. mapping. In this particular project the usage can be with a GSM module or even a mobile handset. GSM MODULE The GSM Module is a simple internal circuit of a mobile which can insert a SIM in itself and send a message. security. It communicates with device (such as pocket PC or notebook) via compatible dual channel through RS-232 or TTL and satellite data by built in backup memory. Tosc = 0. marine navigating. For convenience we are using a mobile handset with a data cable. re-acquire satellite signals in 100ms and update position data every second.25Fosc Tosc = Time period required for one oscillation Fosc= frequency of crystal oscillator 14 .

the microcontroller does two process in parallel. which is a set of rules followed in representing the various GPS data parameters. the APR IC is changed to playback mode and plays the sound inside the cabin from one minute prior to the accident to understand the possible reason. This process is done continuously. 15 . Parallel to the process. filters out the data that are not of concern to the working and saves the data string that contains the latitude and longitude of the GPS modem location. The same method is successfully used in the cockpit of the aircraft to through more light into the possible reason the craft is in trouble from the pilots conversation with his co. the APR9600 IC that works in the record mode. On triggering the “Retrieve” button. The GPS data is received in NMEA protocol. The driver code in the µC. An emergency alert system also comes into life On retrieving the black box: the retrieve button in the module needs to be hit to push the module to data retrieve mode. When a gas leakage or an over temperature is detected. When an accident condition is detected: ie.Vehicle black box SNG-EC WORKING OF CIRCUIT The circuit in the normal working mode continuously collects the GPS data.. through the serial communication peripheral of the PIC µC. The APR is controlled by the µC port pins. records the sound inside the cabin. The controllers send control to the APR to stop recording. The GPS location reception is also stopped and the current location in saved.

Vehicle black box SNG-EC CHAPTER -4 16 .

An instruction is a word long. the one with the highest clock frequency has the highest throughput. Program memory is measured in BYTES. the throughput and the memory capacity are low. Depending on the kind of PIC. one byte is 8 bits. the maximum clock operating frequency is about 20 MHz and the memory capacity (to write the program) is about 1K to 4K words. However within the same architecture. 17 . The clock frequency determines the speed at which a program is read and an instruction is executed. Currently they are one of the most popular microcontrollers. The PIC microcontroller architecture is based on a modified Harvard RISC (Reduced Instruction set Computer) instruction set with dual-bus architecture. Over 120 million devices are sold each year. However. and is controlled by the software. 14-bit WORD is the program memory capacity. and can have the value of 1 or 0. The throughput cannot be judged with the clock frequency alone. The PIC is the small computer The PIC.Vehicle black box SNG-EC HARDWARE PIC MICROCONTROLLER 16F873A The PIC microcontroller family is manufactured by Microchip Technology Inc. like the CPU. The instruction word of the PIC16F87X is composed of 14 bits. It changes with the processor architecture. The bit is the smallest unit. providing fast and flexible design with an easy migration path from only 6 pins to 80 pins. and from 384 bytes to 128 kbytes of program memory. has calculation functions and memory. used in many commercial and industrial applications.

etc.). from automotive industries and controlling home appliances to industrial instruments. low consumption.Vehicle black box SNG-EC Applications PIC16F873A perfectly fits many uses. Low cost. coprocessor applications. receiver frequencies. easy handling and flexibility make PIC16F873A applicable even in areas where microcontrollers had not previously been considered (example: timer functions. motor speed. EEPROM memory makes it easier to apply microcontrollers to devices where permanent storage of various parameters is needed (codes for transmitters. electrical door locks and safety devices. ARCHITECTURE OF PIC16F873A Fig 10 ARCHITECTURE OF PIC16F873A 18 . It is also ideal for smart cards as well as for battery supplied devices because of its low consumption. etc. interface replacement in larger systems.). remote sensors.

 Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM)  Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory • Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) • Eight level deep hardware stack • Power-on Reset (POR) • Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation • Programmable code-protection • Power saving SLEEP mode • Selectable oscillator options • Low-power.0V to 5.20 MHz clock input DC . 4 MHz .5V • Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges • Low-power consumption: .< 2 mA typical @ 5V. high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology • Wide operating voltage range: 2.< 1 mA typical standby current 19 . 32 kHz .20 mA typical @ 3V.Vehicle black box SNG-EC FEATURES Core Features • High-performance RISC CPU • Only 35 single word instructions to learn • All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle • Operating speed: DC .200 ns instruction cycle  Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory.

when a peripheral is enabled. All write operations are read-modify-write operations. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin)..e. Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD.Vehicle black box SNG-EC I/O PORTS Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. A single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups.. whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. Reading the PORTA register reads the status of thepins. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.. that pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i. In general. 20 . PORTA and the TRISA Register PORTA is a 6-bit wide.e. bidirectional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).e. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). The corresponding data direction register is TRISB.e. bidirectional port. Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the In-Circuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM.. PORTB and the TRISB Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide. put the corresponding output driver in a High Impedance mode).

care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). To operate in Sleep.. or with SMBus levels.e.e. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an input (i. VSS. by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). The A/D module has four registers.Vehicle black box SNG-EC PORTC and the TRISC Register PORTC is an 8-bit wide. ANALOG-TO-DIGITALCONVERTER (A/D) MODULE The Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter module has five inputs for the 28-pin devices and eight for the 40/44-pindevices. These registers are: • A/D Result High Register (ADRESH) • A/D Result Low Register (ADRESL) • A/D Control Register 0 (ADCON0) • A/D Control Register 1 (ADCON1) 21 . the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels.The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able to operate while the device is in Sleep mode. Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i. The A/D module has high and low-voltage reference input that is software selectable to some combination of VDD. PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions. When the I2C module is enabled. the A/D clock must be derived from the A/D’s internal RC oscillator. RA2or RA3. put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).When enabling peripheral functions. PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC.The conversion of an analog input signal results in a corresponding 10-bit digital number.. bidirectional port.

This storage is accomplished through a combination of the Sample and Hold circuit and the Analog Write/Read circuit. toys. low pass filtered. A differential microphone amplifier. which often introduce distortion. These circuits are clocked by either the Internal Oscillator or an external clock source. The amplified microphone signal is fed into the device by connecting the Ana_Out pin to the Ana_In pin through an external DC blocking capacitor. is included on-chip for applications requiring its use. APLUS integrated achieves these high levels of storage capability by using its proprietary analog/multilevel storage technology implemented in an advanced Flash nonvolatile memory process.Vehicle black box SNG-EC APR 9600(AUDIO PLAYBACK/RECORD) General Description The APR9600 device offers true single-chip voice recording. including integrated AGC. and 22 . The device is ideal for use in portable voice recorders. the connection between Ana_In and Ana_Out is still required for playback. This technology enables the APR9600 device to reproduce voice signals in their natural form. The next block encountered by the input signal is the internal anti-aliasing filter. Recording can be fed directly into the Ana_In pin through a DC blocking capacitor. microphone amplifier. non-volatile storage. Sample rates are user-selectable. allowing designers to customize their design for unique quality and storage time needs. When playback is desired the previously stored recording is retrieved from memory. It eliminates the need for encoding and compression. and AGC circuits greatly simplify system design. and many other consumer and industrial applications. Functional Description The APR9600 block diagram is included in order to give understanding of the APR9600 internal architecture. where each memory cell can store 256 voltage levels. however. Integrated output amplifier. After antialiasing filtering is accomplished the signal is ready to be clocked into the memory array. The device supports both random and sequential access of multiple messages. and playback capability for 40 to 60 seconds.

pins. More detail on sampling control can be found in the Sample Rate and Voice Quality section. Message management is controlled through the message control block represented in the lower center of the block diagram. The signal can be heard by connecting a speaker to the SP+ and SP. More detail on message management and device control can be found in the Message Management section 23 .Vehicle black box SNG-EC amplified as shown on the right hand side of the diagram. More detail on actual device application can be found in the Sample Applications section. Chip-wide management is accomplished through the device control block shown in the upper right hand corner.

Vehicle black box SNG-EC ARCHITECTURE Fig 12 APR BLOCK DIAGRAM Features • Single-chip.No external ICs required 24 . high-quality voice recording & playback solution .

and be audible on playback. • Random access mode with 2.Normal Modes cannot be mixed. easy-touse operation .Sequential access of multiple variable-duration messages• User-friendly.Minimum external components • Non-volatile Flash memory technology . There are several available messaging modes depending upon desired operation. These fragments will disappear after a record operation in the newly selected mode.Vehicle black box SNG-EC . in the new mode.Programming & development systems not required . An important feature of the APR9600 message management capabilities is the ability to audibly prompt the user to changes in the device’s status through the use of “beeps” superimposed 25 . Operating modes do not affect voice quality.Level-activated recording & edge-activated playback switches Message Management General Description Playback and record operations are managed by on chip circuitry. This message modes determine message management style. 4. provides two options: . Table 1 defines the decoding necessary to choose the desired mode.Auto rewind .Random access of multiple fixed-duration messages . If modes are switched after an initial recording has been made some unpredictable message fragments from the previous mode may remain present. for information on factors affecting quality refer to the Sampling Rate & Voice Quality section. Therefore. or 8 fixed-duration messages • Tape mode. and external parts count. the designer must select the appropriate operating mode before beginning the design.No battery backup required • User-Selectable messaging options . message length. with multiple variable-duration messages. Switching of modes after the device has recorded an initial message is not recommended.

If a high to low edge occurs on the same message trigger pin during playback. This feature is enabled by asserting a logic high level on the BE pin. Recording in Random Access Mode On power up. playback of the current message stops immediately (indicated by one beep) and playback of the new message segment begins. /CE must be set low to enable the device and /RE must be set low to enable recording. MAX-232 26 . the device is ready to record or play back. playback of the current message stops immediately. Playback in Random Access Mode On power up. /CE must be set low to enable the device and /RE must be set high to disable recording & enable playback. the device is ready to record or playback. To playback. The message trigger pins are labeled /M1_Message . in any of the enabled message segments. To record. You initiate recording by applying a low level on the message trigger pin that represents the message segment you intend to use. If a different message trigger pin pulses during playback.Vehicle black box SNG-EC on the device’s output. You initiate playback by applying a high to low edge on the message trigger pin that representing the message segment you intend. in any of the enabled message segments./M8_Option on pins 1-9 (excluding pin 7) for message segments 1-8 respectively. Playback will continue until the end of the message is reached.

A. With low power consumption.4 power-saving mode allows the unit with ultra low power request. This positioning application meets strict needs such as car navigation. agriculture and so on. GPS GPS In This Project In this project GPS is used for locating and tracking the vehicle.$GPRMC. eg.62.487. security. The drivers provide RS-232 voltage level outputs (approx. This helps in detecting the location/position of the module. ± 7. Only clear view of sky and certain power supply are necessary to the unit. designed based on the most high sensitivity first GPS kernel architecture.3723. It communicates with other electronic utilities via compatible dual-channel through RS-232 or TTL and saves critical satellite data by built-in backup memory. G-Mouse is a total solution GPS receiver.N.0.3416. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX.161229. re-acquires satellite signal in 1 sec and updates position data recovery second. The GPS module calculates the geographical position of the module. as power supply design does not need to be made more complicated just for driving the RS232 in this case.120598. mapping. the GMouse tracks up to 8 satellites at a time. TX. surveying.12158. This makes it useful for implementing RS-232 in devices that otherwise do not need any voltages outside the 0 V to + 5 V range. CTS and RTS signals.5 V) from a single + 5 V supply via on-chip charge pumps and external capacitors.309.W.*10 27 .13.Vehicle black box SNG-EC The MAX232 also known as line driver is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits.2475.

Vehicle black box SNG-EC GSM GSM In This Project In this project GSM module is used to send the messages containing the accident information along with the latitude and longitude position of module at the time of accident. AT+CMGS=”+91. For that we use an ordinary GSM mobile hand set. AT+CMGF=1:-Command for shifting module in to text mode. After sending the AT the module will return an OK message to show the proper functioning of the module.. AT: -Sends to the module for detecting the proper working of the module... The GSM can be controlled by certain commands called AT commands. Through our software we control the GSM modem to generate and transmit the text messages on to another GSM modem in the program.. ATE0:-Command for turn off the echo... If OK received then we will send the command ATE0 to the module to turn off the echoing of the 28 ...”-Command for connecting to another module... Example for the AT command are...

Control lines and data lines. The 10K trim potentiometer connected to the Contrast pin of the LCD is used to adjust the contrast of the display. type the SMS data and give Ctrl+Z. Then the commandAT+CMGF=1 shifts the module to the text mode. This will send the SMS. The module now returns ”>”. once the ‘Black Box’ module is retrieved from the affected vehicle. LCD MODULE This module has two main lines. the GSM module sends the alert message after receiving the GPS location FEATURES • 5 x 7 DOTS WITH CURSOR • BUILT-IN CONTROLLER (KS0066 OR EQUIVALENT) • 5 V POWER SUPPLY • 1/16 DUTY CYCLE 4. On an accident case.2 V LED FORWARD VOLTAGE 29 . GPS and the GSM modules are connected across a relay since there is only one serial communication module for the controller and all the modules need to be connected to the same peripheral.Vehicle black box SNG-EC commands. The control lines and the data lines are connected to PORTB. The LCD display is used to display the saved GPS location. Then AT+CMGS=”+91********** If “>” is received from the GSM module.

Vehicle black box SNG-EC CHAPTER -5 PROGRAM 30 .

char shift_number=0. float bank1 tempt[11].15616. adc_dataH=0X00.01952. } else if(PIC_CHANNEL==1) { ADCON1=0B10000100. count1=0. static bit s...adc_dataH.03904. int bank1 number..h" #include"delay. } if(ADC_CHANNEL==0) { 31 .07808.24928. char bank1 count1. q=0... float bank1 temp_incelcius[1]. int decimal.2.h" char adc_dataL..Vehicle black box SNG-EC #include "adc.31232. int p.00488. if(PIC_CHANNEL==0) { ADCON1=0B10001110. char flag=1.00976.h" #include"pic.62 464. void adc(char PIC_CHANNEL.49856}. adc_dataL=0X00..1.char ADC_CHANNEL) { float voltage[11]={.

00. } for(p=0. } q++. 32 . } ADGO=1. // while(ADGO==1)//Check whether ADGO==1 continue.p<=10. do { if((adc_dataL&0x01)==s) { tempt[q+1]=tempt[q]+voltage[q]. } else if(ADC_CHANNEL==1) { ADCON0=0B01001001. } else if(ADC_CHANNEL==2) { ADCON0=0B01010001.Vehicle black box SNG-EC ADCON0=0B01000001. s=1. count1=q+1. adc_dataL=(adc_dataL>>1). adc_dataL=ADRESL. adc_dataH=ADRESH.p++) { tempt[p]=0. } else if(ADC_CHANNEL==3) { ADCON0=0B01011001.

decimal =(int)temp_incelcius[0].Vehicle black box SNG-EC }while(q<=7). } while(decimal!=0). } else if(adc_dataH==0x00) temp_incelcius[0]=tempt[count1]*100.} else { q=0. adc_dataH=(adc_dataH>>1).p++) { decimal2[p]=0X00. } if(decimal==0x00) {decimal2[0]=0x30. decimal =decimal/10. 33 . do { decimal2[q]=(decimal%10)+0x30. } q++. temp_incelcius[0]=tempt[count1]*100. count1=q+1.p<4. }while(q<=9). if(adc_dataH!=0x00) { do { if((adc_dataH&0x01)==s) { tempt[q+1]=tempt[q]+voltage[q]. for(p=0. q++.

} /* * * * * */ #include void DelayMs(unsigned char cnt) { #if do { DelayUs(996). unsigned char .h" 34 Delay functions See delay. #endif } #include"pic. } while(--cnt).h" #include"usart. #endif #if do { i = 4.Vehicle black box SNG-EC } return. } while(--cnt).h" #include"delay. do { DelayUs(250).h" XTAL_FREQ <= 2MHZ XTAL_FREQ > 2MHZ i.h for details Make sure this code is compiled with full optimization!!! "delay. } while(--i).

Vehicle black box SNG-EC #include"gps. while (usart_rx()!='M'). char mm. mm=usart_rx(). hr1=usart_rx(). char mon1. while (usart_rx()!='$').aa<5. while (usart_rx()!='C').bb. DelayMs(250). char hr1. min2=usart_rx(). char yer1. DelayMs(250). hr2=usart_rx(). min1=usart_rx().h" char day1. void gps() { char aa. RC0=1. for(aa=0. char hr2. char yer2.aa++) 35 . char mon2. mm=usart_rx(). while (usart_rx()!='R'). mm=usart_rx(). char day2. char min2. while (usart_rx()!='P'). while (usart_rx()!='G'). char min1.

} while (usart_rx()!='A').bb<12.h" #include"string. } #include"pic. RC0=0. } mm=usart_rx().aa++) { mm=usart_rx().aa<11. for(aa=0. BAUD_RATE=0x19. for(bb=0. day2=usart_rx().h" 36 .bb++) { longitude[bb]=usart_rx(). } for(aa=0. yer2=usart_rx().aa++) { latitude[aa]=usart_rx(). yer1=usart_rx().aa<=11. DelayMs(250). } day1=usart_rx().h" #include"gsmsend. mon2=usart_rx(). DelayMs(250).Vehicle black box SNG-EC { mm=usart_rx().h" #include"delay.h" #include"gsmreceive. mon1=usart_rx().h" #include"usart. mm=usart_rx().

usart_trx(0x0D).x. 37 .sp1. jump: while(usart_rx()!='C').Vehicle black box SNG-EC #include"gps. unsigned char bank1 recmob[14].h" void DELAY(). DelayMs(5). unsigned int i.k. goto label.qq. if(qq=='+') goto jump. usart_trx(0x0A). while(usart_rx()!='M'). while(usart_rx()!='G'). usart_string("AT+CMGR=1"). x=usart_rx().h" #include"lcd_4.val.sp2. unsigned char bank1 inbox[10]. while(usart_rx()!='R'). label: qq=usart_rx(). else if(qq=='O') goto exit. unsigned char l. char bank1 latitude[11]. char mess_recv() { int j=0. char bank1 longitude[12]. if(x=='"') break.'). while(1) { x=usart_rx(). while(usart_rx()!='.

} j=0. continue. if(x==0x0D) break. } x=usart_rx(). LCD_string(" cmdwrt(0xC0). DELAY(). j++. } break. while(1) { x=usart_rx(). LCD_string(" MSG RECEIVED "). } break.Vehicle black box SNG-EC else { recmob[j]=x. LCD_string("MSG="). else { inbox[j]=x. x=usart_rx().i++) { 38 "). cmdwrt(0xC0). while(usart_rx()!=0x0D).inbox[i]!='\0'. for(i=0. j++. . continue. cmdwrt(0xC0).

DelayMs(100). DelayMs(50). "). usart_string("Vehicle Tracked!!. DelayMs(5). for(i=0. } DELAY(). DelayMs(50).. LCD_string(" TRACKING.i<12..Vehicle black box SNG-EC datwrt(inbox[i]). usart_trx(0x0D). DelayMs(50).. gps(). } for(i=0. for(i=0. DelayMs(5). } usart_trx(0x0D). usart_string("AT+CMGS=\"").i++) { usart_trx(latitude[i]). 39 .i++) { usart_trx(recmob[i]). Location:-").i++) { usart_trx(longitude[i]). } usart_string("\""). usart_trx(0x0A)."track")==0) { cmdwrt(0xC0). usart_trx(0x0A).i<11. DelayMs(50). DelayMs(5). usart_trx(0x0D). if(strcmp(inbox.recmob[i]!='\0'.

DelayMs(5). DelayMs(50). LCD_string("wrong command!!"). for(i=0. usart_trx(0X0A). while(usart_rx()!='O').recmob[i]!='\0'. usart_string("AT+CMGD=1"). DelayMs(5). DELAY(). usart_trx(0x1A). usart_trx(0x0D). DelayMs(50). DelayMs(5). usart_trx(0x0D). usart_string("Wrong Command!!"). usart_trx(0X0D).i++) { usart_trx(recmob[i]). usart_trx(0x0A). } else { cmdwrt(0xC0). DelayMs(50). while(usart_rx()!='K'). usart_string("AT+CMGS=\""). DelayMs(50). 40 . usart_trx(0x0A). } usart_string("\""). DelayMs(5). usart_trx(0x0D).Vehicle black box SNG-EC usart_trx(0x1A).

h" #include"gsmsend. DELAY(). DelayMs(5). for(xxxx=0.Vehicle black box SNG-EC usart_trx(0x0D).i++) DelayMs(250).xxxx++) { DelayMs(250). DelayMs(5). } cmdwrt(0xC0).i<12. usart_trx(0x0A). while(usart_rx()!='O'). extern char bank1 longitude[12]. DelayMs(50). } void DELAY() { int xxxx. usart_trx(0X0D).h" #include"usart.xxxx<32. MSG SENT "). 41 . while(usart_rx()!='K'). usart_string("AT+CMGD=1"). LCD_string(" exit: for(i=0. usart_trx(0X0A).h" #include"delay. } } #include"pic.h" #include"gps.h" extern char bank1 latitude[11].

while(usart_rx()!='O'). usart_trx(0x0A). usart_trx(0x0D).ccc++) { DelayMs(250). while(usart_rx()!='K'). usart_string("AT"). usart_trx(0x0A). } 42 //GSM Initialisation . DelayMs(5). usart_string("AT"). usart_trx(0x0D). usart_trx(0x0D).ccc<=8. DelayMs(100). DelayMs(5). while(usart_rx()!='K').Vehicle black box SNG-EC void gsm_init() { int ccc. usart_trx(0x0A). DelayMs(100). while(usart_rx()!='K'). usart_trx(0x0A). DelayMs(5). for(ccc=0. while(usart_rx()!='O'). DelayMs(5). while(usart_rx()!='O'). DelayMs(100). usart_string("AT+CMGF=1"). usart_trx(0x0D). usart_string("AT").

DelayMs(5). usart_string("AT+CMGS=\"+919790673734\"").Vehicle black box SNG-EC return.i++) { usart_trx(longitude[i]). } usart_trx(0x0D). usart_trx(0x0D). 43 "). BAUD_RATE=0x19. .i++) { usart_trx(latitude[i]). DelayMs(5). TRANSMIT_ENABLE=SET. DelayMs(50). gps(). usart_trx(0x0A). usart_trx(0x0D). DelayMs(50). DelayMs(5). DelayMs(50). } void mess_send() { int i.i<12. usart_string("ACCIDENT!! OCCURED AT for(i=0.i<11. DelayMs(50). usart_trx(0x1A). } for(i=0.

} void cmdwrt(char a) { char c.Vehicle black box SNG-EC usart_trx(0x0A). DelayMs(250). cmdwrt(0x28). RB6=0. RB4=0. DelayUs(10). cmdwrt(0x0F). cmdwrt(0x06). a=(c&0x0F).h" void lcd_init() { TRISB=0x00. cmdwrt(0x28). a=(a&0xF0)>>4. c=a. RB6=0. 44 .h" #include"delay. } #include"pic.h" #include"lcd_4. return. PORTB=a. DelayUs(1). RB4=1. cmdwrt(0x01). cmdwrt(0x28). PORTB=a. RB5=0.

RB5=0. RB6=1. } void LCD_string(const char *DATA) { while(*DATA) { datwrt(*DATA). PORTB=b. RB4=1. DelayMs(15). b=(b&0xF0)>>4. c=b. DelayUs(1). RB4=1. DelayMs(15). RB4=1.Vehicle black box SNG-EC RB5=0. DelayUs(10). PORTB=b. RB6=1. DelayUs(10). DelayUs(10). 45 . } void datwrt(char b) { char c. RB4=0. RB4=0. b=(c&0x0F). RB4=0. RB5=0.

} #include"pic.h" #include"usart. usart_init().h" #include"gsmreceive.h" #include"delay. } #include"pic.h" #include"gsmsend. } DATA=0.h" #include"delay. mess_recv().h" #include"usart. char bank1 recmob[14]. int count=0.h" #include"string. while(1). lcd_init().h" void main() { char aa. return.Vehicle black box SNG-EC DATA++.h" #include"lcd_4.h" #include"gps.h" #include"lcd_4.h" char bank1 inbox[10]. void main() { usart_init(). while(1) 46 .

/*USART Initialisation*/ void usart_init() { TRANSMIT_PIN=CLEAR. RECEIVE_PIN=SET.h" char e. count++.Vehicle black box SNG-EC { aa=usart_rx(). if(count==15) { cmdwrt(0X01). } /* USART transmission function*/ void usart_trx( char xx) { TRANSMIT_REGISTER=xx. } } } #include"pic. count=0. datwrt(aa). BAUD_TYPE=SET.h" #include"delay. unsigned int i. RECEIVE_ENABLE=SET. TRANSMIT_ENABLE=SET.h" #include"usart. SERIAL_PORT=SET. 47 . while(TRANSMIT_FLAG==CLEAR). BAUD_RATE=0x19.

while(TRANSMIT_FLAG==CLEAR). } /*USART reception function*/ char usart_rx() { char yy. } while(RECEIVE_FLAG==CLEAR). if(OVER_RUN==1) { OVER_RUN=CLEAR. DelayUs(5). DelayMs(50). RECEIVE_ENABLE=CLEAR. return yy.Vehicle black box SNG-EC } void usart_string(const char *DATA) { while(*DATA) { TRANSMIT_REGISTER=*DATA. RECEIVE_ENABLE=SET.h" #include"delay. } return. DATA++.h" 48 . yy=RECEIVE_REGISTER. } #include"pic.

q.c.h" void flags(void).h" #include"lcd_4. char jj. char bank1 pp.i.Vehicle black box SNG-EC #include"usart.a<16. char nn. unsigned char bank1 inbox[10]. TRISC1=1. TRISC0=0. for(a=0.t. TRISC5=0. TRISC3=0. lcd_init(). cmdwrt(0x01). RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. void read(void). void check(). while(1). TRISC2=0.d. cmdwrt(0x80).a++) DelayMs(250). TRISC4=0.h" #include"gsmreceive. RC1=0. while(1) 49 BLACK BOX"). gsm_init(). RC0=0.h" #include"gsmsend. LCD_string(" usart_init(). . unsigned char bank1 recmob[14].b. void main() { char a.

cmdwrt(0x01). for(b=0.. RC3=0. RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. cmdwrt(0x80). } } //********************************* mess_recv().. 50 ..b++) { for(a=0.").a<3.a++) { DelayMs(250).b<9.a<3.Vehicle black box SNG-EC { mess_recv()."). cmdwrt(0x01). if(RC1==1) goto read. RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. LCD_string("RECORDING.b<9.a++) { DelayMs(250). if(RC1==1) goto read. DelayMs(10). for(b=0. cmdwrt(0x80).b++) { for(a=0. RC2=0. DelayMs(10). } } //******************************** mess_recv().. LCD_string("RECORDING.

if(RC1==1) goto read. if(RC1==1) goto read. cmdwrt(0x80). cmdwrt(0x80). RC5=0.b<9. LCD_string("RECORDING. DelayMs(10). for(b=0. for(b=0..a++) { DelayMs(250).b++) { for(a=0. DelayMs(10).a<3.Vehicle black box SNG-EC cmdwrt(0x01). } } //***************************** mess_recv().. } } //****************************** } read: 51 .b<9. LCD_string("RECORDING. RC4=0. RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1..a<3. RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1.")..b++) { for(a=0."). cmdwrt(0x01).a++) { DelayMs(250).

. for(b=0.a<3. LCD_string("ACCIDENT!!!. DelayMs(10). LCD_string("READING.b++) { for(a=0.a++) { DelayMs(250).. mess_send().a<3. } } RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. while(1) { pp=usart_rx(). cmdwrt(0x80).b<9. if(pp=='1') { RC2=0. check().b<9.. cmdwrt(0x80). DelayMs(10)."). RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. } else if(pp=='2') { RC3=0.Vehicle black box SNG-EC cmdwrt(0x01).a++) { DelayMs(250)."). cmdwrt(0x01). RC1=0. 52 . for(b=0.b++) { for(a=0.

b++) { for(a=0.b++) { for(a=0. } } }//main end 53 .a++) { DelayMs(250).b<9. for(b=0.Vehicle black box SNG-EC } } RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. DelayMs(10). DelayMs(10).a++) { DelayMs(250).b<9.a<3. } else if(pp=='3') { RC4=0. } } RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1.a<3. } } RC5=1. } else if(pp=='4') { RC5=0. for(b=0.

h" #include"string.h" void flags(void).b.flag2=0. unsigned char bank1 inbox[5].h" #include"gps.. char bank1 pp.c. 54 . int flag1=0.h" #include"delay. while(usart_rx()!='%'). LCD_string("ENTER PC MODE. TRISC2=0. void main() { char a. RC0=0. unsigned char bank1 longitude[12].q. RC1=0. cmdwrt(0xC0).t. unsigned char bank1 latitude[11].h" #include"usart.h" #include"gsmreceive. TRISC1=1. return. char nn. TRISC0=0.i. DelayMs(50). } #include"pic.d.h" #include"lcd_4.Vehicle black box SNG-EC void check() { BAUD_RATE=0x19.").h" #include"gsmsend. usart_trx('#'). unsigned char bank1 recmob[13].

LCD_string("RECORDING. } if(RC1==1) { GIE=0. if(flag1==1) { flag1=0. flags(). flag2=0. cmdwrt(0x80)."). GIE=1. usart_init().. cmdwrt(0x80).Vehicle black box SNG-EC TRISC3=0. RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. RCIE=1. TRISC4=0. break. while(1) { cmdwrt(0x01). flag1=0.a++) DelayMs(250). TRISC5=0. lcd_init(). 55 . cmdwrt(0x01). PEIE=1. LCD_string("B")..a<16. for(a=0. gsm_init().

RCIE=1.a++) { DelayMs(250). DelayMs(10). RCIE=0.b++) { 56 .Vehicle black box SNG-EC RCIE=0.b++) { for(a=0. GIE=1.a<3. GIE=1. mess_send(). } RC3=0. for(b=0. flags(). for(b=0.b<9. RCIE=1. } RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. } } RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. DelayMs(10). RC1=0. if(flag1==1) { flag1=0. mess_send(). } if(RC1==1) { GIE=0. RC1=0. break.b<9. RC2=0.

for(b=0. if(flag1==1) { flag1=0. } RC4=0. RCIE=1. RCIE=0. 57 .a++) { DelayMs(250). } if(RC1==1) { GIE=0.b<9. flags(). mess_send().b++) { for(a=0. break. RC1=0.a++) { DelayMs(250).a<3. if(flag1==1) { flag1=0.Vehicle black box SNG-EC for(a=0. } } RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. GIE=1. DelayMs(10).a<3. flags(). DelayMs(10). } } RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1.

break.Vehicle black box SNG-EC break. for(b=0. GIE=1. RCIE=0.b++) { for(a=0. } if(RC1==1) { GIE=0. DelayMs(10). RCIE=1. GIE=1.a++) { DelayMs(250). } RC5=0.b<9. } } RC2=RC3=RC4=RC5=1. mess_send(). if(flag1==1) { flag1=0. RCIE=0. } 58 . flags(). mess_send(). RC1=0.a<3. RC1=0. } if(RC1==1) { GIE=0. RCIE=1.

a<3. } } RC3=1.a++) { DelayMs(250)."). for(b=0.a<3.b++) { for(a=0. pp=usart_rx(). for(b=0.Vehicle black box SNG-EC } while(1) { cmdwrt(0x01). } } RC2=1...b<9. cmdwrt(0x80). GIE=0. LCD_string("READING. if(pp=='1') { RC2=0. } if(pp=='3') 59 . } if(pp=='2') { RC3=0.a++) { DelayMs(250).b<9.b++) { for(a=0.

LCD_string("BAD"). cmdwrt(0x80).b++) { for(a=0. for(b=0. } } static void interrupt usart(void) { if(RCIF==1) { cmdwrt(0x01).b<9.a<3.b++) { for(a=0.a<3.b<9. } flag1=0.a++) { DelayMs(250). } } RC5=1. } } RC4=1. 60 .a++) { DelayMs(250).Vehicle black box SNG-EC { RC4=0. for(b=0. } if(pp=='4') { RC5=0.

if(nn=='+') { cmdwrt(0x01). } } // // usart_trx('#'). cmdwrt(0x80). } } // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // // cmdwrt(0x01). LCD_string("BADesss"). 61 .t<9. flag2=1. cmdwrt(0x80).q<3.q++) { DelayMs(250).Vehicle black box SNG-EC for(t=0. LCD_string("INT"). RCIF=0. void flags() { int i. } } else //if(nn=='%') { nn=RECEIVE_REGISTER. mess_recv().t++) { for(q=0. flag1=1.

i<11. 62 . if(strcmp(inbox. usart_trx(0x0A). for(i=0.Vehicle black box SNG-EC if(flag2==1) { cmdwrt(0x01).. usart_trx(0x1A). } usart_trx(0x0D). } for(i=0.i++) { usart_trx(recmob[i]).i++) { usart_trx(longitude[i]). LCD_string("CHK"). LCD_string("TRACKING.i<=12. usart_string("AT+CMGS=\"").. cmdwrt(0x80). for(i=0."track")==0) { cmdwrt(0x01). DelayMs(250).i<12. gps(). usart_trx(0x0D). } usart_string("\""). GIE=0. RCIE=0. cmdwrt(0x80). RCIF=0."). GIE=1. usart_trx(0x0A). usart_trx(0x0D).i++) { usart_trx(latitude[i]).

h" #include"delay.l.h" #include"gsmreceive. cmdwrt(0x01).0). int tempr=0.h" #include"lcd_4. char q.Vehicle black box SNG-EC RCIE=1. LCD_string("wrong command!!"). 63 . } } #include"pic. } else { cmdwrt(0x01).b=0. cmdwrt(0x80).h" #include"gsmsend.h" extern char bank1 latitude[11]. adc(0. char bank1 decimal2[2]. } flag2=0.h" #include"usart.h" #include"adc. void events() { char a=0. extern char bank1 longitude[12]. cmdwrt(0x80).h" #include"gps.

} cmdwrt(0xC0). RC3=0.l++) { datwrt(longitude[l]). for(l=0. datwrt(decimal2[1]). for(l=0. RC2=RC3=RC5=1.l++) DelayMs(250). 64 . for(l=0. tempr=(a*10)+(b*1).l++) { datwrt(latitude[l]). RC2=RC3=RC5=1. cmdwrt(0x80). for(l=0. b=decimal2[0]-0x30. mess_send(). RC2=0. while(RA3==0).Vehicle black box SNG-EC LCD_string("TEMPERATURE="). cmdwrt(0x80). } while(1) { RC2=RC3=RC5=1.l<11. DelayMs(100). LCD_string("ACCIDENT OCCURED").l<12. if(tempr>50||RA1==1||RC1==1) { cmdwrt(0x01).l++) DelayMs(250). a=decimal2[1]-0x30.l<21. datwrt(decimal2[0]). DelayMs(100).l<21. datwrt(' '). cmdwrt(0x01).

l++) DelayMs(250). TRISA1=1. RC5=0. cmdwrt(0x80). } } } void main() { int l. LCD_string(" gsm_init(). RC1=0. RC2=RC3=RC5=1. RC2=RC3=RC5=1.l<16. TRISC0=0. cmdwrt(0x80). // gas sensor // alchahol sensor // apr retreving switch // accident trigger // relay lcd_init(). RC0=0. TRISC5=0. for(l=0. DelayMs(250). TRISA3=1.Vehicle black box SNG-EC DelayMs(100).l++) while(1) { events(). for(l=0. RA2=0. TRISC3=0. TRISC2=0. 65 BLACK BOX "). TRISA2=1. usart_init(). TRISC1=1. cmdwrt(0x01). LCD_string("GSM INITIALIZED"). RA3=0. .l<21. RA1=0.

l<21. } } 66 . RC2=RC3=RC5=1. DelayMs(100).l++) DelayMs(250). LCD_string("RECORDING PIN 1"). cmdwrt(0xC0).l<21. for(l=0. for(l=0. cmdwrt(0xC0).l++) DelayMs(250). RC3=0. DelayMs(100). RC2=RC3=RC5=1. mess_recv(). for(l=0. //********************************* events(). RC5=0. mess_recv(). cmdwrt(0xC0). DelayMs(100). LCD_string("RECORDING PIN 3"). LCD_string("RECORDING PIN 2"). RC2=0.l<21. RC2=RC3=RC5=1. //******************************** events().Vehicle black box SNG-EC mess_recv().l++) DelayMs(250).

Vehicle black box SNG-EC CHAPTER-6 67 .

Vehicle black box SNG-EC PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a piece of art. The performance of an electronic circuit depends on the layout and design of PCB. A PCB mechanically supports and connects components by conductive pathways. etched from copper sheets laminated on to 68 .

This is put in cold water and then the rough side is stuck on to the silk screen. 8. 6. The plastic sheet of the five-star sheet is removed leaving the pattern on the screen. The exposed five-star sheet is put in Hydrogen Peroxide solution. 7. A copper clad sheet is cut to the size and cleaned. It is then dried. This is then pressed and dried well. Swish the 69 .Vehicle black box SNG-EC insulated substrate. The solder side of the Mylar sheet is placed on the shiny side of the five. 4.Star sheet and is placed in a frame. Then it is exposed to sunlight with Mylar sheet facing the sunlight. This is placed under screen. PCB. The dried sheet is then etched using Ferric Chloride solution (32Baume) till all the unwanted Copper is etched away. The sheet is then touched with black ink. Drawing the layout of the PCB in a paper. Then it is put in hot water and shook till unexposed region becomes transparent. It is then transferred to a Mylar sheet. The track layout of the Electronic circuit should be made in such manner that the paths are in easy routes. PCB Fabrication involves the following steps: 1. As it resistant ink if spread on the screen so that a pattern of tracks and a pad is obtained on a copper clad sheet. 5. 3. are used to rotate electrical currents and signals through copper tracts which are firmly bonded to an insulating base. 2.

FRC4 PCB LAYOUT 70 .25mil . 9.0. Lift up the PCB and check whether all the unwanted Copper is removed. The unwanted resist ink is removed using Sodium Hydroxide solution Holes are then dried.86mil .86mil .Through .60mil . After that the etched sheet is dried.9mm (36mil) -Paper phenolic.60mil .37mils) .Oval . PCB PARAMETERS Copper thickness Track width Clearance Pad width Pad height Pad shape Pad hole size On board Hole size Base PCB Quality .Vehicle black box SNG-EC board to keep the each fluid moving.72mil (1mm=39. Hylam . Etching is done by immersing the marked Copper clad in Ferric Chloride solution.

Vehicle black box SNG-EC 71 .

Vehicle black box SNG-EC 72 .



Vehicle black box SNG-EC  The system is a very cost effective and scientific approach to security of vehicles. a recorded audio that contains the noises. the module alerts the accident to preset mobile numbers stored in it.  The module contains a data retrieve button. including the speech of the people inside the cabin.   When the accident occurs. The module provides information like. these technologies makes the system more reliable. DISADVANTAGES  Creating record setup for a long duration is very costly since the recording IC is costly.  The alert message includes the location in latitude and longitude. After the accident.  The GSM module will not function where network coverage is not there 75 .  Flaw less technologies like GSM and GPS which created revolution in communication is used. This brings forth strong evidence pointing to the cause of the accident. the module is recovered and the details like position of the vehicle on accident is displayed on the LCD display and the recorded voice is played back through the speaker on the same module. thus the location of the accident can be easily understood for quick rescue.

Vehicle black box SNG-EC CHAPTER -8 76 .

Black box is an advanced technology used for recording the data inside the aircraft cabin for accident detection and for further investigations.Vehicle black box SNG-EC CONCLUSIONS Accidents are common in these days as the number of vehicles is increased. but was able to reduce up to some extent. There are many flaws in today’s safety systems. Our aim is to implement the same in automobiles. Many new safety standards are being introduced. In case of any theft the vehicle can be tracked by our system. The black box circuit will continuously record the relevant data for stipulated time duration. This can be avoided using our project. Thus the accident spot can be found and relief can be brought to them on time. The accident spot is located using the GPS module and a emergency message is sent to pre-stored number. We are also trying to make a system which can be a safety standard in coming years. Days are not far when one can see vehicles equipped with this system surfing through the roads and of course with fewer accidents and easily available relief. Proper sensor devices are connected along with the system for detecting the accident. it could not be eliminated. When an accident occurs the recording gets stopped. Our system is a great help for research activities related to increase the safety standards. What ever traffic rules have been introduced. Research activities are going on to decrease it further. Many a times people die because of belated medical help. 77 .

Vehicle black box SNG-EC CHAPTER -9 78 .

studyelectronics .electroniccomponents .Vehicle black box SNG-EC REFERENCE • • • Electronics For You Magazine 79 • www.constructionofpojects .example • • www.

Vehicle black box SNG-EC CHAPTER -10 80 .

Vehicle black box SNG-EC APPENDIX 81 .

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Vehicle black box SNG-EC


Vehicle black box SNG-EC


Vehicle black box SNG-EC


Vehicle black box SNG-EC 86 .

Vehicle black box SNG-EC 87 .

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