CURRICULUM OF PHARMACY

FOR PHARM-D & M.PHIL

(Revised 2004)

EDUCATION

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

1

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Qazi Riaz Ahmad Malik Ghulam Abbas Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mrs. Noshaba Awais Adviser (HRD) Director Curriculum Deputy Director Deputy Director Assistant Director Assistant Director

Composed by Mr. Zulfiqar Ali, HEC Islamabad

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CONTENTS
1. 2. Introduction Pharm-D Programme (Annual System) i) Scheme of Studies ii) Details of Courses Pharm-D Programme (Semester System) i) Scheme of Studies ii) Details of Courses Condense Courses for B-Pharmacy Courses for M.Phil i) M.Phil Pharmaceutics ii) M.Phil Pharmacognosy iii) M.Phil Pharmacology iv) M.Phil Pharmaceutical Chemistry Recommendations 7 13 16 74 74 77 147 148 149 157 163 168 176

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The Final draft prepared by the National Curriculum Revision Committee duly approved by Competent Authority is being circulated for implementation by the Universities. therefore.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. (PROF. where required. various Committees are constituted at the national level comprising senior teachers nominated by the Universities. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. 1976. Universities and other Institutions of higher education. new ideas and information are pouring in a constant stream. Lahore finalized the draft curriculum after due consideration of the comments and suggestions received from the Universities and Colleges where the subject under consideration is taught. The National Curriculum Revision Committee on Pharmacy in its meeting held in March 2004 at the HEC Regional Centre. are also included in these Committees. Certificates and Diplomas awarded by Degree Colleges. It is. Teachers from local degree colleges and experts from user organizations. the Federal Government vide Notification No. ALTAF ALI G. DR. The world has turned into a global village. For the purpose. By looking at the curriculum of a subject. dated December 4. SHAIKH) Adviser (HRD) July 2004 4 . imperative to update our curricula by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge.D773/76-JEA (Cur. In exercise of the powers conferred by Sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. appointed Higher Education Commission as the Competent Authority to look after the Curriculum Revision work beyond Class XII at Bachelor level and onwards to all Degrees. the Commission is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with the Universities.). curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. According to the decision of the special meeting of Vice-Chancellors’ Committee. one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of a nation.

VCC. COL. UNI. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY CRC INCORPORATION OF REC. BY V. OF CURRI./UNIV ST PREP.C. REVIEW Abbreviations Used: CRC. OF COL. Curriculum Revision Committee Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Preparation Recommendations IMPLE.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. EXP. OF V. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP STUDY COLLECTION OF REC APPRAISAL OF 1 DRAFT BY EXP. BACK TO STAGE-I ORIENTATION COURSES 5 . OF CRC. OF FINAL CURRI. REC. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS.C.C. COMMENTS PREP. OF DRAFT BY CRC APPROVAL OF CURRI.C. PREP. PRINTING OF CURRI.

Prof. Muzaffar Dean. Muhammad Usman Memon Director. Dr. Deptt. Malghani Dean Research Centre for Bio Technology & Informatics Balochistan University of Information Technology & Management Sciences Jinnah Town. Sabir Ali Dean.U. Jamshaid. Dr. S. Prof. Dr. Samungli Road Convener Member Member Member Member Member 6 . Institute of Pharmacy University of Sindh Jamshoro 6. Following were the members of Preliminary and final National Curriculum Revision Committee meetings:th 1. 2003. College of Pharmacy University of the Punjab Lahore 3. K. A. of Pharmacy. Department of Pharmacy Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam 5. Naeem A. Khuda Bux Mirbahar Chairman. Dr. M. & Ex Chairman. Faculty of Pharmacy Lahore College of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Prof. Lahore 2.INTRODUCTION A meeting of National Curriculum Revision Committee was held on 1820 March 2004 at HEC Regional Centre. P. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Baqai Medical University Karachi 4. Lahore to finalize the draft curriculum of Pharmacy prepared in Preliminary meeting in December 18-20. Dr. Principal. Dr. M.

Khalid Hussain Janbaz Chairman Deptt. University Multan 11. A. Amjad Ali Jawa Managing Director. Dr. Prof. Dr. of Pharmacy Gomal University D. Miana Director Ripha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences Al-Mizan-IMC. Ishrat Bukhari Chairperson Deptt.Quetta. Dr. Anwar Ejaz Baig Dean Faculty of Pharmacy University of Karachi Karachi 13. Mohammad Saeed Iqbal Dean.Z. Mr. Faculty of Pharmacy University of Sargodha Sargodha 10. Dr. Dr. Prof. of Pharmacy B. Tahir Mahmood Khawaja Department of Pharmacy Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member 7 . of Pharmacy University of Balochistan Quetta 12. Prof. Wilshire Laboratories 124/1 Industrial Estate Kot Lakhpat Lahore 8. 7. 274-Peshawar Road Rawalpindi 14. Gul Majid Khan Assistant Professor Deptt. Mrs. G. Khan 9.I. Mr.

Ismat Nasreen Head. Faisal Town Lahore 16. Dr. Deptt. Gandhara College of Pharmacy Gandhra University Peshawar 22. Haider Ali Chairman. Khokhar Managing Director (Nominee of Ministry of Health) Remington Pharmaceutical Industry Lahore 17. Mr. Nadeem Iqbal Consultant. Dr. Babar Mehmood Chairman Pharmaceutical Association & Pharma Care Laboratories Lahore 18. Prof. Abdul Qayum Principal. A. Ayaz Ali Khan President Pakistan Pharmacist Association 5-A. Mr. of Pharmacy Lahore College for Women University Lahore 19. Q. Mohammad Khurram Vice-Principal Gandhra College of Pharmacy Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member 8 . Dr. of Pharmacy University of Lahore 1-Kilometer Near Thokar Niaz Beg Lahore 20. Medi Pak 799-D. Deptt.Lahore College for Women University Lahore 15. Dr. Mr. Faisal Town Lahore 21. Mr.

Altaf Ali G. Deputy Director. Altaf Shaikh said that the 9 . Adviser (HRD). HEC Regional Centre. Zafar Iqbal Asstt. Dr. Muhammad Saleem Asstt. of Pharmacy University of Peshawar Peshawar 28. Dr. Khalid Saeed Bukhari Director. Bashir Ahmad. Pharmacy Services Children Hospital Lahore 26. Shaikh. Hafeez Khan Nominee Ex-Prof. Mr. Mr. of Pharmacy. Dr. Mr. Professor Deptt. M. of Pharmacy Islamia University Bahawalpur Member Member Member Member Member Member/ Secretary Meeting started with recitation from holy Quran by Mr. of Pharmacy Pharmacy Council of Pakistan Islamabad 24. Nazir-ud-Din Ahsan Secretary Pharmacy Council of Pakistan Islamabad 27. HEC. Professor Deptt. Dr. He briefly described the procedure of curriculum development and informed the Committee that for the first time in the history of Higher Education Commission the Curriculum Division revised curricula in 87 subjects during the last three years. HEC welcomed the participants on behalf of Chairman.Gandhra University Peshawar 23. University of Lahore 1-Kilometer Near Thokar Niaz Beg Lahore 25. Mehmood Ahmed Associate Professor Deptt. Lahore. Dr. Prof.

C. this exercise was carried out by Higher Education Commission and Pharmacy Council of Pakistan and four-year B-Pharmacy degree programme was converted into 5 years Pharm-D degree programme. B. Lahore. Keeping in view the local needs. this sector is also now reaching a level of saturation. Then the session was declared open for general discussion. especially if they aim to work globally. Following decisions were unanimously taken: 1. they have much more opportunities in hospital and community environment. 2004 at HEC. 2003 at HEC Lahore prepared the Pharm-D 5 years programme as 1st degree in Pharmacy. the Pharmacy profession is highly patient oriented. the participants of the Committee introduced themselves. 10 . whereas locally in Pakistan. 2. Finalization of curriculum of Pharm-D for both annual and semester system. Condensed/deficiency courses required for 4 years B-Pharm graduates to get 5 years Pharm-D degree. 75% opportunities are in industrial sector.Phil courses after B-Pharmacy/Pharm-D (both annual and semester systems). Therefore. M. Regional Centre. hospital and community. In the final meeting of National Curriculum Revision Committee was held on March 18-20. National Curriculum Revision Committee in its first meeting held on December 18-20. the 1 degree in Pharmacy will be of 5 years duration and nomenclature of the degree will be Pharm-D. Although in Pakistan. Since in the United States and Canada. we will have to prepare our graduates for the changing trends. This can only be made possible by reviewing our pharmacy syllabi and changing the same to meet the local and global needs and requirement. The academic and examination system in Pharm-D will be based on Annual or Semester System. the same is being following in Middle East market. which will result in diversion to other branches like marketing. international requirement and locally available men and material facilities.Pharmacy st course.main objective of curriculum is to give a minimum baseline of curriculum for the graduates of a certain subject so that uniformity and standardization of curriculum may be maintained. the existing 4-year B. Accordingly. The following points were discussed: A. After this.

8. 7. 9.Phil courses are suggested in the curricula. st 11 .Phil after Pharm-D/B-Pharmacy will be of 2 years duration.Phil in the subjects of Pharmacology. The higher degree programme. The 2 year (annual rd th system) and 3 & 4 semesters (Semester System) will be exclusively devoted for research thesis only. respectively.D. These M.Phil as prepared by the National Curriculum Revision Committee are at Annex-A & B. Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy. The Committee thoroughly discussed the curricula of M.Phil degree programme may lead to Ph. Pharmaceutics. Additional courses may also be added on the availability of expertise in the field.Phil degree will be based on Annual or Semester System. after Pharm-D was discussed and it was decided that the duration of M.Phil will be in 1 Year (in Annual System) and nd the first 2 semesters (in semester system). It was also discussed that the M.3. The course work in M. The academic and examination system in M. 4. 6. The conversion of approved curriculum of 5 years Pharm-D programme in annual system to semester system was discussed and approved by the NCRC which should be adopted as a guideline. The Pharm-D courses have been designed and prepared according to Annual and Semester System which will be considered as minimum standards. The Curriculum for Pharm-D and M. 5. degree (after Pharm-D programme) provided the course work is completed in one year or in first two semesters.

) (Practicals) Paper 6 Pharmaceutics-II (Pharmaceutical Preparations) Paper 7 Pharmacology & Therapeutics-I Paper 8 Pharmacognosy-I Paper 9 Pharmaceutical Microbiology Total Marks: 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 900 12 .PHARM-D FIVE-YEAR COURSE SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR ANNUAL SYSTEM First Professional (Theory) Paper 1 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Organic) Paper 2 Pharmaceutical Biochemistry Paper 3 Pharmaceutics-I (Physical Pharmacy) Paper 4 Physiology & Histology Paper 5 Anatomy Paper 6 Pharmaceutical Mathematics & Biostatistics (Practicals) Paper 7 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (organic) Paper 8 Pharmaceutical Biochemistry Paper 9 Pharmaceutics-I (Physical Pharmacy) Paper 10 Physiology & Histology 100 100 100 100 50 100 100 100 100 100 950 Total Marks: Second Professional (Theory) Paper 1 Pharmaceutics-II (Pharmacetical Preparations) Paper 2 Pharmacology and Therapeutics-I Paper 3 Pharmacognosy-I Paper 4 Pharmaceutical Microbiology Paper 5 Pakistan Studies and Islamiyat (Comp.

Third Professional (Theory) Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4 Pathology Pharmacology and Therapeutics-II Pharmacognosy-II Pharmaceutics-III (Dispensing and Community Pharmacy) Pharamceutical Chemistry-II (Instrumentation) 50 100 100 100 100 50 100 100 100 100 900 Paper 5 (Practicals) Paper 6 Pathology Paper 7 Pharmacology & Therapeutics-II Paper 8 Pharmacognosy-II Paper 9 Pharmaceutics-III (Dispensing and Community Pharmacy) Paper 10 Pharamceutical Chemistry-II (Instrumentation) Total Marks: Fourth Professional (Theory) Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4 Paper 5 (Practical) Paper 6 Paper 7 Paper 8 Paper 9 Pharmaceutics-IV (Hospital Pharmacy) Pharmaceutics-V (Clinical Pharmacy-I) Pharmaceutics-VI (Industrial Pharmacy) Pharmaceutics-VII (Biopharamceutics) Pharmaceutics-VIII (Pharmaceutical Quality Management) Pharmaceutics-V (Clinical Pharmacy-I) Pharmaceutics-VI (Industrial Pharmacy) Pharmaceutics-VII (Biopharamceutics) Pharmaceutics-VIII (Pharmaceutical Quality Management) Total Marks: 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 900 13 .

Final Professional (Theory) Paper 1 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Medicinal Chemistry) Pharmaceutics-IX (Clinical Pharmacy-II) Pharmaceutical Technology Forensic Pharmacy 100 Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing Computer and its Applications in Pharmacy Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4 Paper 5 Paper 6 (Practical) Paper 7 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Medicinal Chemistry) Paper 8 Pharmaceutics-IX (Clinical Pharmacy-II) Paper 9 Pharamceutical Technology Paper 10 Computer and its Applications in Pharmacy 100 100 100 100 50 100 100 100 50 900 Total Marks: 14 .

1. IDENTIFICATION TEST AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE FOLLOWING CLASSES AND THEIR ANALOGUES: 15 . NUCLEOPHILIC AND ELECTROPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION IN ALIPHATIC AND AROMATIC SYSTEMS. ORGANIC REACTIONS: Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. 5. BASIC CONCEPTS: Conjugation. STEREOCHEMISTRY: Stereoisomerism. PROPERTIES. Theory of resonance. Grignard's reaction. 6. 9. GENERAL METHODS OF PREPARATIONS. 7. Cannizzaro reaction. (Aldol condensation. Effect of structure on reactivity of compounds. mesomeric effect. inductive effect. Perkin reaction. Tautamerism of carbonyl compounds. SUBSTITUTION 4. structure and stability. Geometrical isomerism. Metal hydride reduction and Wolf Krishner reduction.DETAILS OF COURSES (ANNUAL SYSTEM) FIRST PROFESSIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (ORGANIC) WRITTEN Paper 1 100 Marks to their Note: The topics will be taught with special reference Pharmaceutical Applications. Hofmann and Beckmann rearrangements. CARBANIONS: Condensation reaction Favorskii rearrangement. Resolution of racemic mixture. Friedel Craft’s reaction. CARBONIUM ION REARRANGEMENTS: Pinacol-pinacolone. optical isomerism. 8. Molecules with more than one chiral centre. 2. Conformational analysis. Witting reaction). Wagner-Meerwein. Wolf. Diels Alder reaction. 3. ORIENTATION IN ELECTROPHILIC REACTIONS ON BENZENE RING. preparation and properties. FREE RADICALS: Introduction. hyperconjugation. hydrogen bonding. steric effect.

Organic Preparations: Benzoic acid.g. Acids. 1997. 5. Pyrimidine and Pyrazine. New York.. Sykes A P. Practical Organic Chemistry. Amines and Aniline. 8. 2. th 4. Basic Principles of organic Chemistry. Furan.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Quinoline and Isoquinoline.Sc. Benzhydrol and 2. 1990.PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS in which benzo-ring is fused with five and six membered ring containing one heteroatom. th 7. Tata McGraw-Hill.Alcohols. 1991. Organic Chemistry Vol I. st Longman. E L Eliel. L Finar. th 6. 1. Ethers. Rehman and M Younis. Furaiss Brian. Phenols. Organic Chemistry for B. Indole. Acetanilide. Ketones. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (ORGANIC) PRACTICAL Paper 7 100 Marks NOTE: . students. e. 11. New Delhi. New Delhi. Nitrophenol.Hill.PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS such as: Pyrrol. 5 Ed.4-Dinitrochlorobenzene. Pyridine. 3.. 3-nitrophthalic acid. 16 . ELBS. Identification of unknown simple organic 2. Tata McGraw. Roberts J D and Caserio M C. Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds. Raj K Bansel. 5 Ed. A guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. Organic Reaction Mechanism. Lahore. Aspirin. 1 Ed. Aldehydes. Recommended Books 1. Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. New Delhi. 2001.. 1992. esters. Thiophene. Lonsmen Co. UK. 6 Ed. Person Education Asia. London. 1992. 10. Iodoform. 1970. Peter Sykes. Ilmi Kitab Khana. Organic analysis: compounds.

Reactions of proteins and amino acids. th 14 Ed. Naser-ud-Din. Vitamins: Chemistry. Macromolecular nature of proteins. New Delhi.. Complex and derived lipids). Types (DNA. Optical activity. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of vitamins. Classification (Proteinous and nonproteinous hormones.) (a) Carbohydrates: Chemistry. Classification (Saponifiable and non-saponifiable lipids. Text Book of Organic Chemistry. Classification of proteins and amino acids. mRNA. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of hormones. Nucelotides. Purine and Pyrimidine bases. Introduction to Stereochemistry.Bhal B S. Simple. GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND BASIC BIOCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES Role of pharmaceutical Biochemistry in the health Profession. (c) (d) (e) (f) 17 . Classification etc. Nature of Biochemical reactions 2. amino acid derivatives. Reactions of Carbohydrates. 10. PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (WRITTEN) Paper 2 100 Marks 1. Proteins and Amino acids: Chemistry. Structures of nucleic acids. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of proteins and amino acids. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of nucleic acids. (b) Lipids: Chemistry of Fatty acids and Lipids. 1995. Ghafoor Stationery Mart. steroids). Reactions of Fatty acids and other Lipids. Organizational levels. BASIC CHEMISTRY OF BIOMOLECULES (Nature. Nucelosides. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates. tRNA. RNA.9. 1994. S Chand & Co. Classification. Nucleic acids: Chemistry. rRNA). Peshawar. Hormones: Chemistry. Essential fatty acids. Classification (Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins). Biological and pharmaceutical importance of lipids.

Niacin. Citric acid cycle. Cyanocobalamin — members of B-complex family — and Ascorbic acid). Metabolism of essential and non-essential amino acids. Pantothenic acid. Site of synthesis and target sites of hormones. Coenzymes and their role in the regulation of metabolic processes. Pentose Phosphate Pathway. Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Energetics of various metabolic processes. Folic acid. Proteins and Amino acids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of proteins and amino acids. Riboflavin.(g) Enzymes: Chemistry. Specificity. Secondary Messengers: Role of cAMP. Biosynthesis of fatty acids. neutral lipids and cholesterol. Calcium ions and phosphoinositol in the regulation of metabolic processes. Kinetics (Michaelis Menten Equation and some modifications). Oxidation of fatty acids through b-oxidation. Mode of action. Allosteric enzymes. Glycolysis. E and K) and Water-soluble (Thiamin. Glycogenolysis. Glycogenesis. D. Biotin. (b) (c) 18 . Inhibition. METABOLIC Catabolism) (a) Carbohydrates: Introduction to metabolism. Classification. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. (b) (c) (d) 4. Biosynthesis and catabolism of Haemins and porphyrin compounds. Mechanism of action of some important enzymes (Chymotrypsin. Physiological roles of various hormones. Bioenergetics: Principles of bioenergetics. Biological and pharmaceutical importance. Ribonuclease). Aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of Glucose. Factors affecting the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Lipids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of lipids. Gluconeogenesis. Activation. Receptor mediated regulation (Hormones): Mechanism of action of hormones. FATE OF BIOMOLECULES (Anabolism and 3. Pyridoxal phosphate. REGULATION OF METABOLIC PROCESSES (a) Role of Vitamins: Physiological role of Fat-soluble (A.

1991. 1994. Cholesterol and Creatinine. New York. Worth Publishers Co. 5 Ed. Clinical Chemistry. Biochemistry. 9. 1996. CBS Publisher. 1993.Lehninger. New York. 5 Ed. Amino acids. Amino acids. Delhi. Uric acid. M N Chaterjea. PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (PRACTICAL) Paper 8 100 Marks 1. New Jersey. Lipids and Sterols (Cholesterol) Bile salts and billirubin. Anabolic and Amphibolic processes in human metabolism. Illustrated Biochemistry. Transcription and Translation (Gene expression) Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. Daryl K. Billirubin. Lubert Stryer. The Carvan Book House. Granner. 4. 2002. Basic principles of Recombinant DNA technology. 19 . Lange Medical Publications. Lahore. 1 Ed. Roberk Murray. Balance of Catabolic. Harper’s Biochemistry. The C V Mosby Company. Peptides and Proteins using Biuret and Ninhydrin (Spectrophotometric) method. John Willey & Sons. The MacMillan Co. Acid-Base and Electrolyte Balance in Human body. Richard A Harvey. Recommended Books 1.West E S. Montogomary. Peter A Mayes. Text Book of Biochemistry. Merit Pub Fasilabad. Peptides and Proteins. Pharmaceutical applications. Blood analysis — Sugar. Cholesterol and Creatinine. Biochemistry. 11. W H Freeman and Company.. Todd R W and Van Bruggen T J. Victor W Rodwell Harper’s Biochemistry. Analysis of normal and abnormal components of Urine — Sugar. 10. Outlines of Biochemistry. st 7. New Delhi. 1996. Quantitative analysis of: Carbohydrates — Glucose (reducing sugar) and any other carbohydrate using Benedict and Anthrone method. Biochemistry. Appleton and Lange. Conn and Stumpf. New th York.Ahmed M Essentials of Medical Biochemistry. Medical Biochemistry. Print-Hall. 3. Albert L Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 6. Pamela C Champe. 12. 2. 5.(d) Gene Expression: Replication. 2003. M Rafiq. J Lippincot Company. 2000. 1999. Billirubin. th 8. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. Qualitative analysis of: Carbohydrates. Uric acid. 2.

Greek and Arab periods with special reference to contribution of Muslim scientists to pharmacy and allied sciences. Micelles. buffer’s equation. 2. Pharmaceutical education and research etc. their formulation and types. (b) 3. HISTORY AND LITERATURE OF PHARMACY: (a) A survey of the history of pharmacy through ancient. methods of preparation. Hydrolysis. pH indicators. Industrial Pharmacy. buffers. distribution of particles methods of determination of particle size and importance of particle size in Pharmacy. electrical) Dialysis and artificial kidney. An introduction of various official books. stability of colloids. kinetic. protection and sensitization phenomenon and application of colloids in Pharmacy. Isotonic solutions and their applications in pharmacy.PHARMACEUTICS-I (PHYSICAL PHARMACY) (WRITTEN) Paper 3 100 Marks 1. Forensic Pharmacy. PHARMACY ORIENTATION: Introduction and orientation to the Professional of Pharmacy in relation to Hospital Pharmacy. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: (a) Solutions: Introduction. types and protection of drugs against hydrolysis. colligative properties. factors affecting solubility. surfactants. pH. ideal and real solution. properties (optional. Micromeritics: Particle size and shapes. Retail Pharmacy. DISPERSIONS: (a) Colloids: Types. Solubilization: Solubility. concentration expressions. pka. 20 . types. their mathematical derivations and applications in pharmacy. (b) (c) (d) (e) 4. their properties and types. molecular weight determinations. Ionization. distribution co-efficient and its applications in pharmacy.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESSES: (a) (b) (c) Precipitation: Process of precipitation and its applications in Pharmacy. 8. 5. (b) Chemical Factors: Complex reduction. fractional. exiccation. centrifugation. acidbase catalysis. Properties. Graphic presentation of Rheological data. adsorption. Adsorption: Techniques and processes of adsorption in detail.(b) (c) (d) Emulsions: Types. Distillation. calcination. KINETIC PRINCIPLES AND STABILITY TESTING: THEORETIC CONSIDERATIONS: Degradation: (a) Physical Factors: Influence of pH. Suspending agents. decantation. ionic strength. hydrolysis chemical reactions. elutrition. Simple. evaporation. dessication. their classification and stability.V. 7. Oxidation- 21 . Methods of Preparation. deliquescence. sublimation. U. RHEOLOGY: (a) (b) (c) Definition and Fundamental concept. Emulsifying agents their classification and stability of emulsion. 6. RATE and ORDER OF REACTIONS. ignition. distillation. vacuum and (d) Miscellaneous Processes: Efflorescence. light. vaporization. lyophillization. theories of emulsification. Crystallization: Types of crystals. destructive distillation their applications in Pharmacy. fusion. levigation and trituration. temperature. steam distillation. Properties contributing to Rheological behaviour. Suspensions: Type. Mechanism and methods of crystallization and its applications in Pharmacy.

1975.. (1999). 4 Ed.PHARMACEUTICS-I (PHYSICAL PHARMACY) PRACTICAL Paper 9 100 Marks NOTE:. 5. New York. Pergamon Press. Academic Press. Rehology of dispress systems.Chapman and Hall Ltd. Preparation of Buffer solutions and isotonic solution. London. 5. 9. G W. Delhi. Dialysis. 1. 1996. Mill C C Casson. 22 th . 4.Martin A. Bustamante P and Chun. 8. London. steam distillation. Lee & Febiger. Determination of Emulsion systems. Martin AMN. Experiments to demonstrate some of physico-chemical processes like simple distillation. 2.g. Academic Press. 4 Ed. New York. e.N. 1990. Martin. 1985. New Delhi. 1972. Physical Pharmacy. London. 6. New Delhi. All India Traveler Book Seller. 1994. 11. Recommended Books 1. Cooper and Gunns Tutorial Pharmacy. 2. 1982.. Academic Press. crystallization. Determination of %age composition of solutions by specific gravity method.Attwood D and Flocence A T Surfactant Systems. Philadelphia. 1986. viscosity. 1983. Determination of particle size. London. Partition-coefficient. Rienger M and Scott-Blair. Banker G S and Chun AHC Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 3.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 1990. London. Rehology. Barry B W Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 3 Ed. 4. Sherman P Emulsion Science. B I Waverly PVT. 6. rd 10. surface tension. Academic Press.. Swarbrick J and Cammatra A Physical Pharmacy. Bentley’s Pharmaceutics. AHC. Physical & Chemical Principles of th Pharmaceutical Science. Martin P. 7. 3. CBS Publishers & Distributors.

23 . PHYSIOLOGY OF NERVE AND MUSCLE: Chemical change in Muscle on contraction. their composition.PHYSIOLOGY & HISTOLOGY (WRITTEN) Paper 4 100 Marks PHYSIOLOGY 1. Deglutation. Cardiac cycle. Heart sounds. Expired Air dand Alveolar Air. Action Potential. Triple response. and skin circulation. Functions and Genesis of the formed elements. Reflex regulation of movement and posture. Blood groups. Defecation. Digestive juicessaliva. Haemorhage. Circulatory changes in exercise. Movements of the stomach and intestines. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: Properties of the cardiac muscle. 8. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Mastication. Arterial pulse. 7. SKIN: Structure. Stroke volume and heart rate. Reaction of Blood. Cardiac output. Intrathoracic. Rh factors. composition and circulate of lymph. 2. Pneumonias. Bronchil Asthma. Venoas pulse. Formation of concentrated and diluted urine. Origin and conduction of the heart beat. Haemorrhage & Shock. ECG. Carriage of O2 and CO2 by the blood. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Mechanics of respiration. 5. eh. pencreatic juice. Jaundice. Functions of skin. BLOOD: Composition of blood (RBC. Functions of Spleen. Pulmonary. NERVOUS SYSTEM: Spinal reflexes. Blood pressure. vasomoter system. Hemophilia. Fate of Red Blood cells. Emphysema. Respiratory changes in exercise. Blood coagulation. Anaemiasclassification. URINARY SYSTEM: Urine formation-composition of urine-GFR Urea clearance. Regulation of breathing-(Nervous & Chemical control). Gastric juice. Coronary. Pulmonary ventilation. WBC and Platelets). capillary circulation. Bile and intestinal juices. Functions and mechanism of secreation. Composition of Inspired Air. Axon reflex. Nerve supply of the Heart. 4. ESR Blood volume. Cerbral cortex functions. 6. Functions of liver and gall bladder. Lungs volume and capacities. Voluntary movements. Intrapulmonary pressure. Temperature regulation by Skin. Functions of large intestine. 3.

PHYSIOLOGY& HISTOLOGY (PRACTICAL) Paper 10 100 Marks NOTE: . Tri-iodothyronin. Thalamus. Addison disease. Mineralocorticoids. 10. Cushing syndrome. Glucagon.Descending tracts of spinal cord. (e) Adrenal Glands: Glucocorticoids. Acromegaly. 9. structure and function. TSH. spermatogenesis. Composition of semen. Prolactin. Giantism. (d) Pancreatic Hormone: Insulin. Nor-adrenalin. Myxocdene. Female Sex Hormone: Structure and function. Experimental Physiology includes: 24 . ADH. Oxytocin. Adrenalin.) HISTOLOGY: (a) Underlying principles of histological techniques and staining specific tissues should be explained. Format and functions of thyriod hormones. SPECIAL SENSE: Elementary knowledge of structure and function of the special senses. (b) Staining of paraffin and frozen sections will be given to the students. etc. Cerbellum. (c) Para thyriod Hormone. Basal ganglia. Anabolic Steroids. (a) Pituitary Hormones: Growth Hormone. ACTH. PanHypopituitrism. Nature of different types of hormones and Mechanism of action of hormones. (b) Thyriod Gland: Thyroxin.g. Diabetes mellitis. Development of secondary characters in females. Oogenesis. e. Menstruation. (f) Sex Hormones: Male Sex Hormone. Autonomic Nervous system. CSF.ENDOCRINOLOGY: Definition of Hormone. Hyperthroidism. Male Development of secondary sex characteristics.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. (Ovarian cycle). (Dysmanorrhea. (c) Most of the teaching should be done on stained and mounted sections and every type of normal tissue will be covered.

2. Demonstration of the Preparation and staining of slides. Bleeding Time. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students. 2. 5. Histology includes: 1. Medical allied agency. 3. seventeenth edition. USA. Hewer’s TextBook of Histology. Histological examination of slides: Epithelium. 1995. Coagulation Time and Blood groups. Prentice Hgall International Inc. 2. Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology. 1992. near vision and Field of vision (Perimetry). 3. Intestine. 1996. 3 Ed. Ninth Ed. rd Beajamin/Cumming Publishing Inc. Spence A P and Mason E B. Bradbury S. W B Saunders Company. Kidney. Organ system — Lung. 2. Publisher Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Stomach. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Nerve Muscle Preparation in frog. Text Books of Medical Physiology. Litle Brown & Co Inc. Connective tissue and Muscle Tissue. Skin. Reference Book: Tissues of the body by Legros Clerks. 4. Determination of ESR. Snell R S. 5. Appendix. 25 .. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: Recording of Arterial Recording of Arterial Blood Pressure and Electro-cardiogram. 3. Effect of Temperature on muscle and Demonstration of spinal reflexes. Clifornia. RBC Count. Determination of Tidal volume and Demonstration of Artificial Respiration. Arthur C Guyton. Human Physiology. BLOOD: Determination of Haemoglobin (Hb). 1994.1. Review of Medical Physiology. Revised by Cyril A Keele and Eric Neil. Human Anatomy and Physiology. London. far vision. 4. ELBS. William F Ganong. Pulse. Gall bladder. RESPIRATION: Estimation of vital capacity and its relation to posture and standard vital capacity. M D. 6. Recommended Books Physiology 1. Chandi Charan Chatterjee. WBC Count. EYE: Visual activity. Histology 1. London. DLC (Differential Leucocyte Count). 1984.

Hammersen F. Connective Tissue: Structure. Nail. (Sweat. Glands of Skin. Smooth muscle. Hair — Structure. 7. Cytoplasm. Cartilage. STRUCTURE OF CELL: Cell Membrane. (b) Blood Vessels — Main blood vessels arising & entering the heart. ELEMENTARY SYSTEM: Name and structure of different parts of elementary system and their inter relationship. Location of Heart. Philadelphia. organ system. color atlas of microscopic anatomy. J B Lippincott Co. Blood Supply to Heart. Muscle: Structure of — Skeletal muscle. Lee & Febijer Co. Nucleus.3. 6. TISSUE OF BODY: Types of tissues with examples (a) (b) (c) Epithelial Tissue: General characters.Types of blood vessels with examples. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: Heart — Structure of Heart. classification. URINARY SYSTEM: Name and structure of organs of urinary system and their inter-relationship. Cardiac muscle. Sebaceous). types (Connective tissue proper. 1985. 50 Marks TERMINOLOGY. 4. 2. dermis). Histology. Bones structure and types of bones and joints). 3. Pennsylvania. Cormack H D. (a) 26 . 1993. 4. tissue. INTRODUCTION: ANATOMICAL Cell. Definition. 5. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: (a) (b) (c) (d) Skin — Structure (Epidermis. Essential Histology. Organcelles. ANATOMY (WRITTEN) Paper 5 1. function. Cell cycle.

Internal Structure. Name. Pons. structure and association of the organs. Autonomic Nervous System includes Sympathetic N. Brain Stem — MidBrain. Oxford University Press. B Grant. London. Sensory and Motor Pathway. 9. 3 volumes. Diencephalon. W B Saunders. 8. London. Gray’s Anatomy. 10. Oxford.8. Ltd. Brown and Company.NERVOUS SYSTEM: Introduction: Cells of Nervous System (Neuron). Ventricals.S. Little. Accessory cells of N. London. PHARMACEUTICAL MATHEMATICS AND BIOSTATISTICS (WRITTEN) Paper 6 Part A Pharmaceutical Mathematics 100 Marks (40 marks) 27 . Macmillan and Co. Philadelphia. Descriptive and Applied. 1996. J G Romanes. London. 1996. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: (a) (b) (c) Pituitary gland — structure and relation to hypothalemus. Clinically Oriented Human Anatomy. and Parasympathetic Nervous System). A textbook of Anatomy.S.F. Oxford University Press. Cunningham’s Textbook of Anatomy. Bailliere Tinal and Co. 2.S. 1996. 6. (b) Recommended Books 1. Adrenal gland — structure. W J Hamilton. Thyroid gland — structure. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Male ande Female reproductive systems. Snell R S. Medulla Oblongata. Cerebellum—Anatomy of Cerebellum. Romanes G J. Spinal Cord — Meninges (C. 4. R J Last. Keith L More and TVN Persaud. Longman’s Green and Co. Spinal Reflexes. Humphary Kalfom. Peripheral spinal Nerves.S. London. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy. (a) Brain — Meninges (Cerebrum — cerebral Lobes. J and A Churchill Ltd. and Organisation of N. London. Regional and Applied. 1996. 1996. Boston. 3. Anatomy. 5. 7. A Method of Anatomy. Thalamus Hypothelamus and Cranial Nerves). Clinical Anatomy.

Integrations of Algebric and Trignomatric functions by using different techniques. ALGEBRA: (a) Sets and Functions: Elementary concepts of sets. Equations reducible to Quadratic Form. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY: Coordinates of point in a plane. DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICS: Descriptive Statistics: What is Statistics? Importance of Statistics. Some applications of functions. Geometric and Harmonic Progressions. (c) Arithmetic. Arithmetic. Rules of Integrations. Solution of simultaneous Equations. 5. Simple Bar Charts. Derivation of circular function for simple cases. Part B BIOSTATISTICS (60 MARKS) 1. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: Concept of Derivations. Random Variables. Geometric and Harmonic Means. Pictograms. Concept of Functions.1. 4. Locus. INTEGRAL CALCULUS: Concept of Integration. Bivariate Data. (d) Permutations and Combinations (e) Binomial Theorem: Simple application. Partial Derivations. Graphical representation of a function. Distance between two points in a plane. Rules of Differentiation. 3. Circle and Ellips. Maxima & Minima points of Inflections. TRIGONOMETRY: Measurement of Angles in Radian and degrees. Diagrams. 28 . Multiple Bar Charts. Frequency Table. What is Biostatistics? Application of Statistics in Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Domain and Range of a Function. Definitions of circular functions. Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions. (b) Solution of Linear and Quadratic Equations. Equation of Parabola. 2. Higher Order Derivatives. Quantitative and Qualitative Variables. Histograms. Examples on the evaluation of Derivations. How samples are selected? 2 ORGANIZING and DISPLAYING DATA: Vriables. Univariate Data. Different types of Functions. Equations of straight line.

9. Fitting of Parabolic or High Degree Curve. CURVE FITTING: Fitting a Straight Line. Recommended Books Pharmaceutical Mathematics & Biostatistics 1. Jr. Statistical Methods in Biological and health Sciences. The Mode. NY. 6. Coefficient of Variation. 1983. Inrodution to Statistics. Two-way Classification. Simple Linear Regression Model. McGrew-Hill. PROBABILITY: Definitions. Francis Hall. Ilmi Kitab Khana. Test of Significance. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. “F” and Chi-Square Distributions. Prentice-Hall. “F” and Chi-Square Distributions: Test of Significance based on “t” . Ahmed B and Khan M. 1991. Multiple Compression Tests such as LSD. New Jersey 07632. Statistics for the life sceinces. Urdu Bazar. SIMPLE REGRESSION AND CORRELATION: Introduction. The Mean Deviatiobn. C H Edvards. Correlation co-efficient. Foundation for Analysis in Health Science. 5. Inc. Introduction to Statistical Theory. 2. TEST OF HYPOTHESIS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Statistical Hypothesis. 1982. NJ. 6. USA. Lahore. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: One-way Classification. Walpole R E. The Median.A. Nilton. 8. Probability Rules. 4. 1983. Daniel W W Bio-Statistics. Bio-Statistical analysis. Part-I and Part-II. Partitioning of Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom. 1993.S. 1996. J D. Multan. and David E Penney. 3. 7.. Samuels M.3. J S and Tsokos. Chaudhry S A and Kmal S. 5. Zar J H. 8. Test involving Binomial and Normal Distributions. Mathmactics for Pharmacists. SUNNARIZING DATA and VARIATION: The Mean. USA. The analysis of Variance Models. Confidence Intervals. U. Macmillam Pub Co. Dellen Pub Co SF. 29 . STUDENT “t”. Probability Distributions (Binomial & Normal Distributions). Arsalan Paper Mart. The Variance and Standard Deviation. A division of Sinon & Schustor Englewood Gliffs. 4. Level of Significance. 1995. 3rd Ed. 7.

Solvents used in Pharmaceutical Preparations. Lotions. 5. Ingredients. 30 . Industrial Calculations. Emulsions. HLB Values. Nasal decongestant solutions. Some calculations involving Hydrogen-ion concentration. 9. Liniments. Specific Gravity & Specific Volume. Pastes. Large scale extraction. and Importance. Conversions. Decongestant inhalers. Isotonic Solutions. Topical gels. Creams. Pharmaceutical Calculations: Some Fundamentals of Measurements and Calculations. inserts. Extraction Processes: Maceration: Purpose and process. dry mixtures for solution.SECOND PROFESSIONAL PHARMACEUTICS-II (PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS) WRITTEN Paper 1 100 Marks 1. The Common Systems. Syrups. Magma and Gels: Preparations. Calculation of Doses. OPHTHALMIC. ointment. oral rehydrate solutions. Oral Suspensions. NASAL AND OTIC PREPARATIONS: Ophthalmic solutions. Decoctions. contact lens solutions. anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Topical Powders. suspensions. 8. Liquid-Liquid extraction. oral colonic leverage solution. Topical Tinctures. Percentage Preparations. Percutaneous absorption. 6. Weights and Volumes of Liquids. 4. medicated and non-medicated elixirs. Plasters. Extracts. Reducing and Enlarging Formulas. Collodions. Galenical Preparations: Infusions. Transdermal systems in use. Syrup: components and preparation of Syrups. The Metric System. Oral Solutions. 3. Percolation: Purpose and Process. Aromatic Waters. Elixirs: Preparation of elixirs. Elixirs and Spirits: Solutions and their preparation. 2. Introduction: Dosage form. Topical solutions. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: Introduction of Ointments. Poultice. Tinctures. 7. Density. Examples. Fluid extracts. Ear preparations: Antiinfective.

Tannic acid glycerin. 1986. New Delhi. 2002. Pharmaceutics. 14. Suppositories bases. Prepartion of simple syrup.INTRODUCTION TO PARENTERALS: Official types of injections. Michel E Aulton. Poultice of Kaolin. Calamine lotion.g. characteristics and methods of preparation. capsule sizes. Solutions/Enemas. The Science of Dosage Form Design. 31 . London. solvents and vehicles for injections. INHALATIONS AND SPRAYS: Aerosol: Principle.AEROSOLS. Bentley’s Book of Pharmaceutics. 11. 2 Ed. filling.10. Iodine tincture. Effervescent granules. added substances. packaging. mixing of powders. 2.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. CBS Publishers & Distributors. PHARMACEUTICS-II (PREPARATIONS) PRACTICALS Paper 6 100 Marks NOTE:. Sulphur ointment.SUPPOSITORIES AND VAGINAL SUPPOSITORIES: Semi-solid Preparations. Boroglycerine glycerite. 12. container and valve assembly. Tablets. CAPSULES. effervescent. soft gelatin capsules. Cod Liver oil Emulsion. Preparation of Methyl salicylate ointment. their types.. Distilled Water for injections. 1998. nd 3. Spirit ammonia aromatic. Propellants. Pharmaceutics. Spirit of Ethyl Nitrite. e. packaging and storage. Throat paint (Mandle’s paint). granulated salts. Preparations of oral hygiene products. Hard gelatin capsules. uses and packaging of powders.A brief introduction to oral hygiene products. preparation. ELBS/Churchill Livingstone. testing. Orange syrup. 13. TABLET DOSAGE FORMS: Preparation of Powders. preparation and its application.POWDERS. granules. preparation of filled hard gelatin capsules. Liquid paraffin Emulsion. Ferrous sulphate syrup. labeling and storage. (A minimum of twenty practical will be conducted) Recommended Books 1. HawCourt Publisher.

Plasma Half Life (t½). edited by 8 (or recent edition) 1977. Excretion. Biotransformation and factors influencing the rate of biotransformation of drugs. J B Lippincott Co.4. Sympathetic antagonist drugs: Adrenergics Nerve Blockers. Neurotransmitters in ANS. Adrenoceptor antagonists (Alpha-adrenergic blockers and Betaadrenergic blockers). Distribution and factors influencing the rate of distribution of drugs. Edt). Mechanisms of drug action. DoseResponse Curve. Macmillan Publishing Co Inc. American Pharmacy. Specificity of drug action and Factors modifying the action & dosage of drugs. Pharmacology and its classification and Drugs and their sources. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY (a) (b) Intdroduction: History. Plasma concentration of drugs and various factors affecting it (Absorption and factors influencing the rate of absorption (GIT and other routes) of drugs. Sprowl’s (Dittert LW. Sympathetic agonist drugs: Catecholamines and Noncatecholamines. Volume of Distribution Pharmacodynamics: Drug receptors and theories. 1990. their synthesis.7 Ed. Advantages and disadvantages of Parentral Routes and Advantages and disadvantages of Topical Routes. channels of excretion and factors influencing the rate of excretion of drugs). 100 Marks th (c) (d) 2. E A Rawlins. Definition of (Bioabvailability & Bioequivalence. Area Under Curve. DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS) (a) (b) (c) (d) Organization of ANS its subdivisions and innervations. Berdley’s Textbook of Pharmaceutics. New York. 32 . th 5. Therapeutic Index. release and fate. PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS-I (WRITTEN) Paper 2 1. Pharmacokinetics: Drug solubility and passage of drugs across the body membranes. Routes of drugs administration: Advantages and disadvantages of Enteral Routes.

Neuromuscular blocking drugs 3. Expectorants and Mucolytic Agents). (f) (g) 4. DRUGS ACTING ON CARDIO-VESCULAR SYSTEM: (a) Angina pectorus and its drug treatment (b) Congestive heart failure & its treatment (c) Anti-arrhythmic drugs (d) Agents used in Hyperlipidemia (e) Coagulants and Anti-coagulants (f) Anti-hypertensives (g) Diuretics 7. Serotonin and Serotonin Antagonists and other Autocoids. Nedocromil. Gastrin Receptor Antagonist and Cytoprotective agents. Parasympathetic antagonists. Lubricant purgatives. DRUGS ACTING ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: (a) Drugs used for cough (Anti-tussives. Anti-emetics. DRUGS ACTING ON GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Emetic. Purgatives: Bulk forming purgatives. 5. Ergot alkaloids and uterine relaxants 33 . Cortecosteroids & other Antiinflammatory drugs and Muscarinic receptor antagonists) 6. DRUGS ACTING ON GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Oxytoxic drugs. Anti-diarrheal Agents. (b) Drug treatment of Bronchial Asthma (Bronchodilators.(e) (f) (g) (h) Parasympathetic (Cholinergic) agonists and Anticholinestrase inhibitors. AUTACOIDS AND THEIR ANTAGONISTS: Histamine and Anti-histamines. Antimuscarinic Agents. Cromoglycate. H2-Receptor Antagonists. Drugs affecting bile flow and Cholelithiasis. Proton Pump Inhibitors. Drug treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of bowel. Irritant purgatives and Saline Purgatives. Treatment of Peptic & Dudenal Ulcers: Antiacids. Drugs acting on Ganglia (Ganglian stimulants and Ganglion blockers).

PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS-I (PRACTICALS) Paper 7 100 Marks NOTE:. 3.g.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. To demonstrate the effects of stimulant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Acetyl choline. Preparation of standard solution. Normal saline solution. Ringer solution. e. To study the effects of Homatropine on Rabbit’s Eyes.g Cocaine) on Rabbit’s Eyes. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted) 34 . ANTI-ANAEMIC DRUGS: Note: 1. To demonstrate the effects of sympathomimetic (Adrenaline) & sympatholytic drugs (Propranolol) on Frog’s heart. While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group. To demonstrate the effects of an unknown drug on Frog’s heart.8. To study the effects of Local Anaesthetic drug (e. To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Rabbit’s Eyes. Tyrode solution. Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products. To differentiate the effects of an unknown drug on Rabbit’s intestine and identify the (unknown) drug. To demonstrate the effects of parasympathomimetic (Acetylcholine) and parasympatholytic (Atropine) drugs on Frog’s heart. To study the effects of Adrenaline on Rabbit’s Eyes. Kreb solution. To demonstate the effects of vasconstrictor drugs on Frog’s blood vessels. Routes of Administration of drugs. Newly introduced drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time. To identify the unknown drug & differentiate its effects on Rabbit’s Eyes. The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books. 4. To demonstrate the effects of depressant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Atropine). 2. Barium chloride).

Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Human Pharmacology. D R Laurance. 1991. Oxford University Press. London. 9. th 6.. W F.Prof Dr A Qayum. Mosby Year Book. Larkspur. Pulsatilla. Manuchair Edabi. THE STUDY OF THE CRUDE DRUGS BELONGING TO VARIOUS FAMILIES OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE Families Crude Drugs a. 1995. Storage. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. 6 Ed.Recommended Books 1. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. 4. Lipponcott.Bertram G K. Preparation of Crude Drugs for Commercial Market. Review of Medical physiology. Prentice Hall International Inc. Popular Prakashan. Bomby. 10. New York. Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics. 1995. Terminology Used in Pharmacognosy. J D Tripathy. James M Ritter and Lionel De Levis.. New York. Pharmacology.. Packing. Drying. Hydrastis. Deterioration and Adulteration of Crude Drugs. A Text book of Clinical Pharmacology. 4 Ed. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics.Qayum A. 2. McGrawHill Book Company. 12. 2004. New Jersey. ELBS. 13. Methods of Cultivation. Preservation. 5. Clinical Pharmacology. Ghandhara University. 1996. New th Delhi. Evaluation of Crude Drugs I E Organoleptic. Japees Brother. 11. 8. 2001. London. Little Brown & Company. 3. GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Historical Development and Scope of Pharmacognosy. 2000. McGraw-Hill Medical th Publishers. USA. Peshawar. Paramount Publishing th Business & Professional Group. Katzung B G. Microscopic. Physical. USA. Goodman Gillman. New York. Chemical and Biological. Classification of Crude Drugs with Special Emphasis to Chemical and Therapeutical System of Classification. 1993. Traditional system of Medicine/medicinal plants. 35 . 7. 2001. Evolution of Modern system of Medicine (History of Modern System of Medicine). R S Satorkar and S D Bhandarkar. 2. 1993. 1987.William F Ganong. Lippincot William & Willkin. 6 Ed. Essential of Medical Pharmacology. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Winguard and Brody. Ranunculanceae Aconitum.. Pharmacology. Boston. 8 Ed. PHARMACOGNOSY-I (WRITTEN) Paper 3 100 Marks 1.

h. 5. ingestant. c. Gibberellins Abscisic acid. Carum. (Phytoenzymes). injectant. Papain Bromelain and Malt Extract. Spearmint. Colchicum. Hycscyamus. ALLERGENS AND ALLERGENIC PREPARATION: Introduction. Conium. Solanaceae Belladonna. Cassia. GROWTH REGULATORS: General account with special reference to Auxins. Scrophulariaceae Digitalis. Ocimum. Thyme. Asafoetida.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. e. Papaveraaceae Papaver somniferum. Coriander. 7. skin test. POISONOUS PLANTS: General introduction of poisonous plants with special reference to Pakistan. Cytokinins and Ethylene. g. Recommended Books 36 . Verbascum (Mullien). Leguminosae Acacia. Mechanism of allergy.b. case history. 4. Labiatae Peppermint. Aloe. Sanguinaria. Canadensis. Zingiberaceae Ginger. Liliaceae Garlic. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted) A Study Tour will be an integral part of the syllabus and will be arranged at the end of the session for collection of medicinal plants from Norhtern Areas of the country. Tamarind. Enzymes obtained from Animal source. f. 6. Umbelliferae Fennel. Pancreatin and Pancrealipase.g. Senna. Methods of controlling pests with special reference to natural methods. Microscopic examination of powders and sections of plant drugs. d. Rennin pepsin. Curcuma. i. inhalant. treatment off allergy. e. infectant and infestant allergens. PESTICIDES: Introduction. Catharanthus. j. Apocynaceae Rauwolfia. Stramonium Capsicum. Salvia. ENZYMES: Enzymes obtained from plant source. contactant. PHARMACOGNOSY-I (PRACTICALS) Paper 8 100 Marks NOTE:. Introduction of the entire and broken parts of the plant drugs (Macro and organoleptic characters). Glycyrrhiza. 3.

L R Brady and J E Robbers. 3. 1985. New Delhi. pp74. University Grants Commission. Chemical Pharmacognosy. THE PROTOZOA. 1. Varro E Taylor. G E Trease and W C Evans. CBS Publishers & Distributors. water and soil (general introduction and normal inhibitants of air. 1985. The NORMAL FLORA: Microbiology of air. Wellis. Text Book of Pharmacognosy. Nomenclature and classification of Micro-organisms. th 5. Culture Media.1. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY: Historical Introduction. 5. Introduction to Pharmacognosy. cultivation. Bacterial cultures and staining Methods. INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY: Introduction to Sterilization/ Disinfection. 3.. 1988. 1948. Topics in Pharmacognosy. 7. 6 Ed. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed. K Usmanghani. Philadelphia. Growth curve.E. 2. 2002. and soil). and replication. University Grants Commission Monograph Series. Requirements and Nutrition factors affecting growth. Fermentation. Scope of Microbiology with special reference to Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2. 4. The Viruses: Introduction. Nutrition. Mohammad Ali. Pharmaceutical products produced by 37 . W B Saunders. water. Pharmacognosy. T. Youngkin H W. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (WRITTEN) Paper 4 Note: 100 Marks The topics will be taught with special reference to their Pharmaceutical Applications. Islamabad. K Usmanghani. 1986. THE FUNGI/YEAST/MOLDS. ORGANISMS: The Bacteria: General and cellular Morphology. Toronto. V E Tyler. 6. growth factors and growth characteristics. Text book of Pharmacognosy. Islamabad. The Blakiston Co th Toronto. Pharmacognosy. Classification of Bacteria. New Delhi. 9 Ed. 8. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 4. Philadelphia. 1986. Lea and Febiger. structure and function. Lee Febiger Philadelphia. 6. Classification (and detail of at least one species from every group).

Preparation of general and selective media and culturing of microorganisms. Control of Microbial contamination during manufacture. IMMUNOLOGY: Introduction. Tetracyclines. Capsule staining.fermentation process (Penicillins. th 38 . USA. water and soil. 5. London. W B Hugo & A D Russell. 2001 th 4. London. Sterilization of Glassware and pharmaceutical products by various methods. Current vaccine practices.g. Alcamo. Medical Microbiology and Immunology. FACTORY AND HOSPITAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE: Introduction. Lippincot. Total and viable counts of micro-organism. Antigen. Erythromycin. Churchill Livingstone. Collin and Lynes. e. Morphological and selective biochemical characterization of some specimen. Oxford. 3. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (PRACTICALS) Paper 9 100 Marks NOTE:. Rifamycin. Anti-bodies). Gentamycin. Vutterworth Heineman. Microbiological Methods. Pharmaceutical Microbiology.. Jawetiz. 6 Ed. Microbiological assays of: Anti-biotics and vitamins. Black Well th Science Ltd. Types of Vaccines. William & Willkin. 1995. Immunity. Giemasas staining. 1998. Microbiology by lipponcott. Flagella staining and Spore staining. tolerance. Types of Immunity: Specific and nonspecific (Cellular basis of Immune response. 5 edition. Hypersensitivity and allergy. 7. Introduction to Microbiology. Staining of Bacteria: Gram method. Mnaufacture of Sterile products. 1998. Vaccination: Introduction and aims. 2. Antigen — Anti-body reactions and their clinical and diagnostic applications. A Guide to Current Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. 2003. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Cepalosporins. Drug allergy mechanism. 6 Ed. 8. John Bartlett Publishers. autoimmunity. Griseofulvin). Microbiological analysis of air. Acid fast.

) WRITTEN Paper 5 100 Marks As per syllabi of B. PAKISTAN STUDIES AND ISLAMIYAT (Comp. nd 9. 7. Microbiology.Sc. 2 ed. approved by the respective University. 39 . 2001.. Pelczar. Klein Wm. John Willey & Sons. C Brown Publishers. 1996. Harley.6. McGraw-Hill Inc. 2000. Microbiology: Essentials and Application. McGraw-Hill nd Inc. Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology. M Mekallee. New York.A/B. Microbiology. 8. Prescott. Singleton and Sainsbury. 2 Ed. Classes.

Immunity. Examiantion of different body fluids in various Pathological Conditions Urine complete Examination. Leukemia or Blood Cancer (Malignant Carcinoma. RESPONSE OF BODY TO INJURY AND INFECTION: Acuate inflammation. Chronic inflammation. Transitional Cell Carcinoma. Hypoxia. PATHOLOGY (Laboratory) Paper 6 50 Marks Study of Pathological Slides of various Pathological Conditions Acute inflammation. Embolism. SPECIFIC: Ulcer (Peptic. Leomyoma. SCOPE OF PATHOLOGY & CONCEPT OF DISEASES. Thrombosis. fate. Tests for various Specimens of Clinical Importance 40 . Pleural Fluid Examination. Anaplasia. Chronic specific inflammation. Ascitic Fluid Examination. Doudenal). Calcification. Cerebrospinal Fluid Examination. Different types of Degeneration. Gangrene. Blood Urea. Blood Cholesterol etc. Diagnosis and treatment of Cancer in general. Rhadomyosarcoma. Infarction. Blood Sugar. Cell Carcinoma. Reticular Cell Sarcoma. Breast Carcinoma. Hyperplasia. Hypertrophy. Atrophy. Leomyosarcoma. Necrosis. Sarcoma & Lymphomas). Osteoclastoma. Chondroma. survival and prognosis with tumours. Hyper Sensitivity. Adenocarcinoma. Metaplasia. 4. Semen Examination. Neofibroma. Metaplasia. CVC. Adenoma.THIRD PROFESSIONAL PATHOLOGY (WRITTEN) Paper 1 50 Marks 1. Allergy. Sq. Infarction. DEFINITION AND TERMINOLOGY: Ischemia. Osteogenic Sarcoma. Fibrocarcinoma. Pericardial fluid examination. Hyperplasia. stool Examination. 2. Hodgkins disease. Aplasia. 3. Fibroma. Liposarcoma. Hypertension. Pigmentation. Blood Complete Examination. Chronic inflammation. Lymphosarcoma. Necrosis. Basal Cell Carcinoma. Papilloma.

Robin Reid. Tests for liver function. Robin Collander. 100 Marks th DRUGS ACTING ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (a) CNS – Depressants: Hypnotic & Sedatives and Analgesics (Narcotic Analgesics and opioid antagonists. Walter G B. London (1998). (b) CNS – Stimulants: Cerebral Stimulants. (b) Anti-microbials: Sulphonamides. Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAID] including Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and Drug treatment of Gout). New York.Techniques of Clinical Blood Examination for various disases. W B Saunders Co. Biopsies and cytologic techniques. Tests for endocrine abnormalities. Basic Pathology. Mechanism of action and its application. . Anti-fungals. London. Churchill Livingstone. Peter S Macfarlane. General Pathology. Anti-protozoals (Treatment of Malaria and Treatment of Amebiasis). Drug treatment of Epilepsy and Drug treatment of Parkinsonism and other movement disorders. Gastric Analysis. ANAESTHETICS (a) Anesthesia and its clinical importance. 3. Psychotomimetic or Hallucinogenics. 41 2. Anti-virals. London. Robbins Pathology. 6 edition. Spinal Cord Stimulants. Philadelphia. (b) General Anaesthesia. Walters and Israel.. 1962. 5. Analgesic. (1998). Churchill Livingstone. 3. W B Saunders Company. PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS-II (WRITTEN) Paper 2 1. 2 Ed. 1996. Renal function test. Psychotherapeutic Agents (Anxiolytics and Antipsychotics). 2. (c) General Anaesthetics (d) Local Anaesthetics (e) Spinal Anaesthesia and drug used (f) Techniques of Local Anaesthesia CHEMOTHERAPY (a) Classification of drugs. nd 4. Medullary stimulants. General Pathology. Recommended Books 1. Anti-depressants. Pathology Illustrated. Churchill Livingstone. Kumar Cotran Robins. (1992).

Salicylides. Strychnine. Drug treatment of Leprosy and Anti-biotics (Penicillins. The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books. Digitalis. Barbiturates. Tetracyclines. Narcotics. 2. Anti-neoplastic and Immunosuppressive drugs. Anti-hypertensive Drugs. (d) Chelating agents and their role in poisoning: Dimercaprol. Calcium disodium edentate. Drug used for therapy of Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemic agents. Chloramphenicol. air. Pencillamine and Defroxamine. 3. TOXICOLOGY (a) Pollution and its typers (water. Benzodiazepines and Organophosphorous compounds. Quinolones and Miscellaneous Anti-biotics).(c) (d) 4. 42 . Anthelmintics. Nicotine. While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group. HORMONES. ANTAGONISTS AND OTHER AGENTS AFFECTING ENDOCRINE FUNCTION (a) (b) (c) (d) Endocrine function and dysfunctions. (c) Poisoning (Sign & symptom and treatment): Ethanol. 4. Newly introduced drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time. Note: 1. Macrolides. food) (b) Poison and principle of treatment of poisoning. Paracetamol. Cephalosporins. Steroids and Anti-steroid drugs. Aminoglycosides. Corticosteroids Thyroid hormone and anti-thyroid drugs 5. Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products.

2. 43 . Lipponcott. 6 Ed. To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Human Eyes. London. Clinical Pharmacology. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. To study the anticoagulant effects of Heparin and oral anti-coagulants on Rabbits. R S Satorkar and S D Bhandarkar. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics.g. To study the convulsant effects of strychnine and picrotoxin in frogs and to determine the site of action. New th Delhi.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. D R Laurance. Bomby. 2000.PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS-II (PRACTICAL) Paper 7 100 Marks NOTE:. Katzung B G. 8. th 6. ELBS. Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. London. 1993. Goodman Gillman. To demonstrate the graded Dose-Response curve of Acetylcholine on Rabbit intestine. 3. To identify and observe the effects of unknown drugs on Human Eyes. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals should be conducted) Recommended Books 1. Human Pharmacology. To study the effect of Homatropine on Human Eyes. Pharmacology. New York. New York. To identify and differentiate the effects of unknown drug on human and the nerve plexus of frog. To study the effects of local anaesthetic drugs on human and the nerve plexus of frog. 1991. 1995. 4 Ed.. 7. Oxford University Press. 1993. e. J D Tripathy. McGraw-Hill Medical th Publishers. Gallamine. 4. To identify unknown concentration of Acetycholine from graded Dose-Response curves. USA. James M Ritter and Lionel De Levis. Popular Prakashan. New York. To identify the unknown (convulsant) drug and determine its site of action. Little Brown & Company. Japees Brother. To demonstrate the effects of Acetylcholine on the Rectus abdominus muscle of frog and competitive pharmacological antagonism by Neuromuscular blocking agent e. Essential of Medical Pharmacology. Pharmacology. Winguard and Brody. To study the effects of Adrenaline on Human Eyes. Boston. To identify the unknown anticoagulant drug using Rabbits.g. To identify the unknown drug by performing pharmacological competitive antagonism on Rectus abdominus muscle of Frog. 1996. Manuchair Edabi. Lippincot William & Willkin.. 2001. 2001. 5. 9. Mosby Year Book. A Text book of Clinical Pharmacology. 8 Ed. 1987. McGrawHill Book Company.

Rhubarb. chemistry and medicinal uses of: (a) Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis.Prof Dr A Qayum. Pectin. Peshawar. 6 Ed. Caramel. Sarsaparilla. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Aloe. (b) Anthroquinone glycosides: Cascara. (f) Lactone glycosides: Cantharide. Quassia. Review of Medical physiology. Inulin. GLYCOSIDES: Introduction. 13. Agar. Dextrine etc. (g) Aldehyde glycosides: Vanilla. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF PLANT CONSTITUTIONS: An introduction to chromatography and chromatographic techniques e.g. (e) Isothiocyanate glycosides: Black Mustard. Lactose. Liquid glucose. Starch. Honey.William F Ganong. Sodium Alginate. 44 . 1995. (c) Gums and Mucilages: Tragacenth. (c) Saponin glycosides: Glycyrrhiza. Fructose. Detailed study of Hammamelis. W F. 3. (d) Cyanophore glycosides: Wild cherry.10. Powdered cellulose. (h) Miscellaneous glycosides: Gentian. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. properties and chemical identity tests of Tannins and Tannin containing compounds. TANNINS: Introduction. (b) Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives: Purified cotton. Acacia. CARBOHYDRATES: Introduction of carbohydrate. 2.. Prentice Hall International Inc. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. 4. Cochineal and Senna. Ghandhara University. Xylose. Microcrystalline cellulose. classification. Strophanthus and white squill. 12. Catechu and Nut Galls. (a) Sucrose and Sucrose containing drugs: Sucrose. Adsorption Chromatography and Partition Chromatography. Methyl cellulose. New Jersey. PHARMACOGNOSY-II (WRITTEN) Paper 3 100 Marks 1. Dextrose.Qayum A. Sodium Carboxy-methyl cellulose. Dioscorea. Paramount Publishing th Business & Professional Group. USA. classification.Bertram G K. 11.

Opium. (d) Isoquinoline Alkaloids: Ipecacuanha. Benzoin. methods of obtaining volatile oils. catharanthus. (i) Purine Bases: Tea. Myristica. (f) Phenolic ether volatile oils: Fennel. Cannabis. lemon. Coriander and Cardamom. ergot. (a) Pyridine — Piperidine Alkaloids: Areca nut. Sesame oil and soybean oil. peanut oil. TUMOUR INHIBITORS FROM PLANT: Detailed study of various antitumour agents isolated from plants. Ipomoea. carnauba wax. 6. Myrrh. spearmint. Lobelia. coconut oil. Stramonium. olive oil. nux vomica. Coffee. Hyoscyamus. 8. Thyme. (d) Ketonic volatile oils: Camphor. sun flower oil. corn oil. Cassification. (b) Tropane Alkaloids: Belladonna. Detailed study of: (a) Fixed Oils: Castor oil. LIPIDS: Introduction. (e) Indole alkaloids: Rauwolfia. Ginger. (b) Fats and Related Compounds: Theobroma oil and Lanolin. Jalap. colchicum. Mustard oil. oleoresins. (h) Alkaloidal amines: Ephedra. (f) Imidazole alkaloids: Pilocarpus. Linseed oil. Peruvian balsam. (b) Alcoholic volatile oils: Peppermint. 9. chenopodium. (c) Waxes: Bees wax. (c) Aldehydic volatile oils: Bitter orange peel. Tobacco. properties and difference between glycoresins. (g) Steroidal alkaloids: Veratrum. (g) Oxide volatile oils: Eucalyptus. Anise. cotton seed oil. Properties. VOLATILE OILS (ESSENTIAL OILS): Introduction.5. Function of alkaloids in plants. (c) Quinoline Alkaloids: Cinchona. 45 . Tolu balsam. chemistry and classification of: (a) Hydrocarbon volatile oils: Cubeb and Terpentine oil. Colocynth. Anethum. Almond oil. Methods of extraction and identification tests. Capsicum. (i) Miscellaneous volatile oils: Allium. (d) Oleo-gum resins: Asafoetida. ALKALOIDS: Introduction. (h) Ester volatile oils: Rosemary. sweet orange peel. physostigma. caraway. (c) Oleoresins: Terpentine. cinnamon and bitter almond oil. Buchu (e) Phenolic volatile oils: Clove. RESINS AND RESIN COMBINATION: Introduction. spermaceti and Jojoba oil. (e) Balsams: Storax. 7. oleo-gum resins and balsams. (a) Resins: Rosin. significance. (b) Glycoresins: Podophyllum.

Calculations for compounding and Dispensing.. th Toronto. 1948. Fundamental operations in Compounding. Interpretation. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1. 3. V E Tyler. University Grants Commission. 1986. Text book of Pharmacognosy. th 5. The Blakiston Co.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. K Usmanghani. Islamabad. Pharmacognosy. 4. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Philadelphia. New Delhi. 7.g. Toronto. L R Brady and J E Robbers. pp74. Youngkin H W. Text Book of Pharmacognosy. K Usmanghani. Introduction to Pharmacognosy. Pharmacognosy. New Delhi.. 2002. Basic Principles of Compounding and Dispensing Including: Weights and Measures. Filling. Pricing) and Labelling of Dispensed Medication. University Grants Commission Monograph Series. Islamabad. Prescription-Handling (Parts of Prescription. Lea and Febiger. Lee Febiger Philadelphia. 6. 6 Ed. 1985.PHARMACOGNOSY-II (PRACTICALS) Paper 8 100 Marks NOTE:. 1986. Philadelphia. T E Wellis. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Pharmacognosy. 9 Ed. G E Trease and W C Evans. 8. e. Isolation and separation of active constituents of crude drugs by paper and thin layer chromatography. 1985. Containers and closures for Dispensed Products. Extraction of the active constituents of crude drugs and chemical tests for their identification. Mohammad Ali. Chemical Pharmacognosy. W B Saunders. Topics in Pharmacognosy. Varro E Taylor. 1988. 2. 9th Ed. 46 . PHARMACEUTICS-III (DISPENSING AND COMMUNITY PHARMACY) WRITTEN Paper 4 PART ‘A’ DISPENSING (40 Marks) 100 Marks (40+60) 1.

Suspensions. PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELLING. 3. MEDICAL COMPLICATION OF DRUG TAKING: General and Socioeconomic Aspects. ROLE OF PHARMACIST: As Public Health Educator in the Community for Drug Monitoring and Drug Information. PART ‘B’ COMMUNITY PHARMACY (60 Marks) 1. 6. CONTROL OF DRUG ABUSE AND MISUSE. Pharmaceutical Incompatibilities: Types of Incompatibilities. PHARMACEUTICS-III (DISPENSING AND COMMUNITY PHARMACY) PRACTICALS Paper 9 100 Marks NOTE:.2. Manifestations. 5. 4. PATIENT PHARMACIST COMMUNICATION. Correction and Prevention with reference to typical examples. 6. Pastes and gels. Extemporaneous Dispensing of: Solutions. 5. 3. 7. I. Creams.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the 47 . PATIENT ASSESSMENT 4. Preventive Health (EPI & CDC). Suppositories and pessaries.V. Emulsions. Admixtures. Ointments. Family Planning and Health Policy & National Drug Policy. Radio-Pharmacy — Techniques and Applications. DEFINITIONS AND BACKGROUND 2. Classical dosage Forms. 8. PUBLIC HEALTH AND COMMUNITY PHARMACY: Epidemeology & its Control. Powders and granules and Oral unit dosage form.

Dispensing of cold cream and vanishing creams. Mack Publishing Company.g. New Delhi. SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS (a) Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy (b) Molecular fluorescence spectroscopy (c) Flame Photometry (d) I. Roy Robertson. shaving cream. Powders: Dispensing of simple powders.facilities./Visible Spectroscopy 48 . filling and Labeling. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-II (INSTRUMENTATION) (WRITTEN) Paper 5 Note:100 Marks The topics will be taught with special reference Pharmaceutical Applications. 2. indiffusible substances and mixtures forming precipitate. Spectroscopy (e) Mass Spectroscopy (f) NMR Spectroscopy (g) U. 4. USA. compound powders and effervescent powders for external use. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1. 2001 5. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences. Cooper and Guns. CBS Publishers & Distributors. to their Theory. Martindale's Extra Pharmacopia. Practical introduction to prescription-handling. Cosmetics: Lipstick. 1986. Dispensing. 3.V. after shave lotion. Hussa’s Dispensing. e. Mixtures: Dispensing of simple mixtures containing soluble substances only. Incompatibility: Practical Importance of Incompatibilities Ointments And Creams: Dispensing of iodine and Methyl salicylate ointment.R. talcum powder. mixtures containing diffusible substances. Management of Drug Users in the Community: A practical Handbook. interpretation. Instrumentation and Pharmaceutical Applications of the following Spectroscopic Methods: 1.

2. CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS: Column Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography, Gas Liquid Chromatography, HPLC and GCMS. 3. ELECTRO CHEMICAL METHODS: Potentiometry, Polarography and Radiochemical Techniques. 4. DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-II (INSTRUMENTATION) (PRACTICAL) Paper 10 100 Marks

NOTE:- Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the requirements, e.g. Determination of the Purity and Composition of the unknown drugs by using at least each of the above techniques. Determination of the Purity and Composition of the unknown drugs by using at least each of the above techniques. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted)

Recommended Books
1. Lough W J, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Blacki Academic Press, New York, 1996. 2. William Kemp, Organic Spectroscopy, Ellsi Horwood, London, 1990. 3. M Aminuddin & Javed Iqbal, Theory and Practice of Chromatography, University Grants Commission, Islamabad-Pakistan (2000). 4. A H Beckett and J B Stennlake, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Part I and II, the Aulton Press, London. 5. A M Knevel and F E Digangi, Jenkins’s quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry, McGraw-Hill Book company, New York. 6. A Braithwaite and F J Smith, Chromatographic Methods, Chapman and Hall, London. 7. E Heftmann, Chromatography, Von Nostrond Reinheld Co, New York, 1975. 8. A Pryde and M J Gilbert, Applications of High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Chapman & Hall, London, 1979. 9. E Stahl, Thin Layer Chromatography, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969. 10.R Hamilton, Introduction to HPLC, P A Sewell, Chapman & Hall, London, 1982.

49

FOURTH PROFESSIONAL
PHARMACETICS-IV HOSPITAL PHARMACY (WRITTEN) Paper 1 100 Marks

1. INTRODUCTION (a) Role of Pharmacist in Hospital (b) Minimum standards for pharmacies in Institutions/Hospitals (c) Research in Hospital Pharmacy 2. HOSPITAL AND ITS ORGANIZATION (a) Classification of Hospitals (b) Organizational Pattern (c) Administration (d) Clinical Departments (e) Nursing, Dietectic, Pathology, Blood Bank, Radiology and other supportive services etc. (f) Role of Pharmacy in Hospital (g) Hospital Finances 3. PHARMACY, ITS ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL (a) Pharmacy specialist (b) Drug information Centre (c) Poison Control Centre and Antidote Bank (d) Pharmacy Education (e) Determining the need of Professional and other departmental staff (f) Professional services rendered 4. PHARMACY AND THERAPEUTIC COMMITTEE. 5. THE HOSPITAL FORMULARY (a) General Principles and guidelines to develop Formulary (b) Format (c) Preparation of the Formulary & Role of Pharmacist (d) Benefits and problems (e) Keeping up to date Formulary (f) Contraceptives 6. DISPENSING TO INPATIENTS (a) Methods of Dispensing & SOP’s (b) Unit dose dispensing (c) Other concepts of dispensing, Satellite Pharmacy etc. 7. DISPENSING TO AMBULATORY PATIENTS.
50

8. DISTRIBUTION OF CONTROL SUBSTANCES. 9. DISPENSING DURING OFF-HOURS. 10.SAFE USE OF MEDICATION IN THE HOSPITAL: (a) Medication error (b) Evaluation & Precautions of Medication Error (c) Role of Pharmacist in Controlling Medication Error 11.MANUFACTURING BULK AND STERILE. 12.THE PHARMACY — CENTRAL STERILE SUPPLY ROOM 13.ASEPTIC DISPENSING TPN, I/V Admixtures, Cytotoxic Dispensing, Semi-sterile Dispensing (Eye drops, Ear drops) and Hyperailimentation. 14.ROLE OF PHARMACISTS IN SMALL HOSPITALS, NURSING HOMES ETC. 15.PURCHASING, DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINES, MEDICAL & SURGICAL SUPPLIES: Purchasing, Stocking, Stock Control, Inventory Management, Drug Distribution, Relationship between purchasing, Distribution and Clinical Pharmacy Services. 16.NUCLEAR PHARMACY. 17.THE PHYSICAL PLANT AND ITS EQUIPMENT. 18.INVESTIGATIONAL USE OF DRUGS. 19.HEALTH ACCESSORIES. 20.SURGICAL SUPPLIES. 21.INSPECTION OF WARDS WITH REFERENCE TO DRUG STORAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. 22.MANAGEMENT OF ACCIDENT & EMERGENCY PHARMACY (A & E).

51

1986. Lee & Febiger. 52 . Dopamine. Chlorpheniramine. Pharmaceutical Press. Cimetidine. Aminoglycosides. Penicillins. Types of trials. Excessive pharmacological response. Vancomycin) CLINICAL TRIALS OF DRUG SUBSTANCES: Designing of clinical trials. 2. reporting & Management of ADR. PATIENT PROFILE: (a) Patient disease profile (b) Taking case History (c) Drug Profile of 25 Drugs (Adrenaline. 4. Fluroquinolone. Nifedipine. 3. Washington. Choice of patients. Hospital Pharmacy. Lahore-Pakistan (2000). EMERGENCY TREATMENT. Allergic drug reactions. Dobutamine. Aziz Book Depot. Atropine. Detection. Basic Components and Scope. 3.. Lactulose. Morphine/Pethedine. PHARMACEUTICS-V CLINICAL PHARMACY-I (WRITTEN) Paper 2 1. Types and level of drug interactions. Toxicity following drug withdrawal. Exclusion of patients and Monitoring a clinical trial. NSAIDS. 100 Marks th GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL PHARMACY: Terminologies. Macrolides. 2.23. Physiological factors affecting interaction. Cepahlosporins. Martin Stephen. 5. Prednisolone. Digoxin. Secondary pharmacological effects. Salbutamol. N I Bukhari. Frusemide. Antiepileptics. General toxicity. Hospital Pharmacy. 5 Ed. 2003. Hospital Pharmacy. London. William Hassan.COMMON KNOWLEDGE OF ABOUT 100 DRUGS REGISTERED BY MINISTRY OF HEALTH. DRUG INTERACTIONS: Mechanism. Anti TB Drugs. Benzodiazepines. Role of pharmacist in evaluating drug interactions & its management. GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN Recommended Books 1. Metoclopramide. 6. ORS. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS: Adverse Drug Reactions and Side Effects: Classification. Idiosyncrasy.

Oxford Text Book of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. Sue Horwood Publishing limited. 2003. a Practical Guide to Success. Roger Walker. USA. Joseph T Dipiro. 1997 11. A J Winfield. nd 2 Ed. 9. 9. UTILIZATION OF CLINICAL DRUG LITERATURE: Introduction. Pharmacy Practice. COMPUTERS IN CLINICAL PHARMACY. London. 7. Taylor & Francis.7.. Encyclopedia of Pharmacy. Inc. Herfindal Gourley. North Carolina. Sarrison. 3 Ed. 1990 12. PHARMACEUTICS-V CLINICAL PHARMACY-I (PRACTICAL) Paper 6 100 Marks Clerkship in the Clinical Setting.. Marcel Dekker Publishing 2002. 2. Pharmacist Talking with Patients. Clinical Research Coordinator Hand Book. USA. Recommended Books 1. nd 6. Drug interactions. Lee & Febiger. Drug literature selection. 1998. USA. Guard Paul. 5. 1998. Deborah Rosenbaun. London. William & Willkins.Mellainie J Rantucci. A project related to Clinical Pharmacy Practices will be completed by the students and will be evaluated by the external examiner. A Behavioral Approach to Pharmacy Practice. Clinical Studies Management. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. New York. 2003. 53 . West Sussex UK. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. Churchill Levingstone. Simon Cook. 2 Ed. 1989.Smith GDG and Aronson J K. Encyclopedia of Clinical Pharmacy. 10. 1992. DRUG INDUCED DISEASES. 3. Joseph T Dipiro. Drug literature evaluation and Drug literature communication. Pharmaceutical Practice. Philadelphia. Marcel Dekker Publishing.Hansten P and Horn J. 2000.. Oxford University Press. Black Well. Churchill rd Levingstone. 4. UK. Kavin Taylor. London. 8. 8.

MASS TRANSFER. slugging). Spray dryer. Consolidation. wet method. 5. Endrumer. problems involved in tabletting. Fluidized Bed systems. Heckel Plots. General Methods. 7. Mass volume relationship. Physics of Tabletting. Filter press. size analysis. Factors affecting size reduction. Energy Mills (Ball Mill. EVAPORATION: General principles of Evaporation.SUSPENSION S: Formulation of suspensions. COMPRESSION AND COMPACTION: The solid-air Interface. SAFETY METHODS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY: (a) Mechanical. Filter aids. DRYING: Theories of drying. Communition (size reduction). Liquid/Solid and solid/solid mixing. Angle of Repose. Compression (dry method. Classification of dryers. HEAT TRANSFER. Filter media. Filter selection and Equipment (Leaf filter. Capsulation (Hard and Soft gelatin capsules). chemical and fire hazards problems. Edge Rumer. 9. tabletting machines and other equipment required. Friability. and Fluid Energy Mill etc. 6.PHARMACEUTICS-VI (INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY) WRITTEN Paper 3 1. Pneumatic systems. tablet coating.). Evaporators and Evaporation under reduced pressure. 3. Mechanisms. Hammer Mill. Equipment used in preparation and test methods for pharmaceutical suspensions. Disintegrant. Freeze dying. CLARIFICATION AND FILTRATION: Theory. EMULSIONS: Mechanical Equipments. 4. Flow rates. 8. 2. Melta filters and Rotary filters). Specific formulation Considerations Emulsion stability. Colloid Mill. Drying of Solids. Reasons for size reduction. Density. Mixing Equipment used in Liquid/Liquid. Sieving. MIXING: Fundamentals. Granulation. and 100 Marks 10. 54 . Cutter Mill. (b) Inflammable gases and dusts.

STANDARDIZATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS: An understanding of quality assurance system adopted in pharmaceutical industry. Packaging Lines. Gels and Jellies.). Filling/Packaging (Plastic and glass containers). Determination of weight variation in tablets. suspending agents. Preparation of praenterals (Building. Tablets Tests like Disintegration. 13. Homogenization. Packaging of ointments. Manufacture of Tablets by Wet Granulation Method. Ampoule filling. buffers. anti-oxidants. Density of powder.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Plasters and Sachet packing. Capsule filling by semi automatic machines. Sprays.).PACKING & PACKAGING: Influence of Packaging materials. (Laminar flow etc. Friability. Inprocess Quality Control of Parenterals (Sterility. Complete Sterility (Aseptic area). solubilizer. stabilizers etc. by Slugging and by Direct Compression. Dissolution. PHARMACEUTICS-VI (INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY) (PRACTICAL) Paper 7 100 Marks NOTE:. Ophthalmic ointments. leakage. Manufacture of sustained action drugs. Stability. Equipment). air control.). Coating of Tablets (Sugar Coating. Size Reduction. 14. Packaging Equipment. 12. air locks. e. Implants. Sterilization. Sutures. Film coatingand Enteric Coating). sealing and sterilization clarity and leakage tests in injectables. Environmental monitoring methods.11. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted) 55 . Added substances (Preservatives. Clarification of liquids by various processes. Pastes. 15. Hardness and thickness tests. Particle size analysis. 16.STERILE PRODUCTS: Sterile area and its Classification. Packaging Area. clarity etc.STUDY TOUR: A visit to the pharmaceutical industries will be an integral part of the syllabi.SEMISOLIDS: Equipment used for Ointments.EQUIPMENTS USED FOR: Patches. Good Manufacturing Practices and Current Good Manufacturing Practices.g. pyrogens.

4. PHARMACEUTICS –VII (BIOPHARMACEUTICS) (WRITTEN) Paper 4 100 Marks 1 DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY: Biopharmaceutics. USA. 56 . Bombay. 3. Pharmacokinetics. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy. Verghese Publishing House. pH Partition Theory. 6. Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice. New Delhi. New Delhi. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1986. 2.A Study Tour will be an integral part of the syllabus and will be arranged at the end of the session for collection of medicinal plants from Norhtern Areas of the country. Generic Equivalence. GASTRO-INTESTINAL ABSORPTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Forces which help in transmembrane movements. BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES: Purpose. Lipid Solubility and Factors affecting Bioavailability. 3. Mack Publishing Company. and Determination of Bioavailability. Tutorial Pharmacy. Biotransformation and Therapeutic Equivalents. Bioavailability. 2001. Drug Disposition. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 5. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 1987. 4. Bioequivalence. MULTIPLE DOSAGE REGEMIN. FACTORS AFFECTING DISSOLUTION IN RESPECT OF BIOAVAILABILITY: Methods of in-vitro and in-vivo determination of rate of dissolution. INTRAVENOUS INFUSIONS. Relative and Absolute Bioavailability. John Sharp. 1986. 2. Therapeutics. Bentley’s Pharmaceutical Text Book. Recommended Books 1. Rational and Compliance. 5. Cooper and Gunn’s. Lackman.

First pass effect.PROTEIN BINDING: Determination of plasma protein binding and Clinical significance of drug-protein binding.7.BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE AND VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION: Concept and Methods of Determination. 11. 10. Salivary excretion.APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOAVAILABILITY IN CLINICAL SITUATIONS. Tubular Secretion and Tubular Reabsorption. Drug Biotransformation reactions.DRUG CLEARANCE: Mechanism. Percent of Drug Metabolized. Mammary excretion. 13. b) Renal Excretion of Drugs: Renal clearance. Two compartment open model. (Phase-I reactions and phase-II reactions). CONCEPT OF COMPARTMENT(S) MODELS: One compartment open model. 57 . 12.ELIMINATION OF DRUGS: a) Hepatic Elimination. 15. Skin excretion and Genital excretion. BIOPHARMACEUTICAL AND PHARMACOKINETIC ASPECTS IN DEVELOPING A DOSAGE FORM. Hepatic clearance of protein bound drugs and Biliary excretion of drugs. determination and relationship of clearance with half-life. c) Elimination of Drugs through other organs: Pulmonary excretion. Three compartment open model and Non-compartmental method of analysis. 8.APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOKIENTICS IN DISEASE STATES. 9. 14. Application of pharmacokinetics in clinical situations. INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOKINETICS: Determination through plasma drug level studies.

Champ & Hall.g. Black Well Scientific Publishing. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. P Macheras. London (1995). in human beings). New York. Optional dose determination. 6. 1982.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 4. Pharmacokinetics in drug discovery and Development. rabbits. Plasma level-time curve (Determination of Pharmacokinetic parameters). Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 5. Leon Shargel. Drug disposition and pharmacokinetics. Sarfraz Niazi. 2004. Oxford. Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. CRC Press LLC.Ronald D Schoenwald. Urinary sampling techniques. New York. 10. Determination of plasma protein binding. Avraham Yacobi. Invitro approaches for evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity. Marchel & Dakker Inc. Milo Gibaldi. 9. In humans. London. 2002. 1988. Recommended Books 1. 1989. Introduction to Drug Metabolism. Biopharmaceutics of orally administered drugs. Text Book of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 1995.PHARMACEUTICS –VII (BIOPHARMACEUTICS) (PRACTICAL) Paper 8 100 Marks NOTE:. Toxicokinetics and New Drug Development. Determination of relative and absolute bioavailability. 2. Applied Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics. London. 1986. Blood Sampling Techniques (In Laboratory Animals like dog. 1985. Malcoln Rouland. In Laboratory animals. Robert E Notari. Measurement of rate of Bioavailability. New York. Marchel & Dakker Inc. 58 . Ellis Horwood Limited.Albert P Li. 8. mice etc. Appleton-Century-Crofts. William & Willkins. USA. 1977. In-vitro dissolution studies. New York. Stephen H Curry. th Appleton & Lange. 3. 11. 4 Ed. Paramount Press. Renal excretion of drugs or drug disposition. Thomous N Tozer. 7. C Reppas and J B Dressman. Gibbson and Skett. CRC Press LLC USA.. 1999. e. New York.

Granules. 5. EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED ACTION PRODUCTS (TABLETS & CAPSULES): Stability of viability rate during storage and In-vitro & In-vivo evaluation of sustaining action. (b) Chemical tests: Content uniformity. 7. Thickness and Diameter. Weight per ml and Assay of active ingredients. 3. Tablets and Capsules. statistical quality control. physical. Friability. Assay of active ingredients. Uniformity of weight. Standard preparations and units of activity. dosage form control. QUALITY CONTROL OF SUPPOSITORIES: Disintegration test. 2. Bioassay of insulin injection. Bioassay of antibiotics. quality control program and methods adopted in a pharmaceutical industry. Pyrogen test for Parenteral and other sterile preparations and Assay for active ingredients. Clarity test. testing programme and methods. process control. BIOLOGICAL ASSAYS: Biological methods. 6. chemical and biological tests and specifications. QUALITY CONTROL OF SYRUPS AND ELIXIRS: Viscosity. QUALITY CONTROL OF SOLID DOSAGE FORMS: (a) Physical tests: Hardness. QUALITY CONTROL OF STERILE PRODUCTS (PARENTERALS): Leaker’s test. 59 . Assay of prepared digitalis and Assay of Vitamin D.PHARMACEUTICS-VIII (PHARMACEUTICAL QUALITY CONTROL) (WRITTEN) Paper 5 100 Marks 1. Disintegration. (b) General understanding of Total Quality Assurance and measures to adopt Quality Assurance. Weight Variation. SCOPE: (a) An understanding of the testing. 4. its determination and application in the Quality Control of Pharmaceuticals. Liquefaction time test and Breaking test. Assay of active ingredients and dissolution tests of Powders.

MISCELLANEOUS DETERMINATIONS AND TESTS: Determiantion of weight/ml. The Alton Press. Toxicity tests & Identification tests. Part-I and II. Determination of viscosity of syrups. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be performed) Recommended Books 1. 9. ALCOHOL DETERMIANTION: Alcoholometric methods. Evaluation of Ointments.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Determination of Moisture contents. Ash contents and Alkalinity of Glass. CONTROL PHARMACEUTICS-VIII (PHARMACEUTICAL QUALITY CONTROL) (PRACTICAL) Paper 9 100 Marks NOTE:.8.GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF APPENDICES ATTACHED TO B. McGraw-Hill Book Company. K A Connors. Assay of tablets and capsules. e. Jenkin’s Quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry. tinctures. Method for liquids containing less than 30% or more than 30% alcohol and special treatment before distillation. Extraction of drugs. New York. Determination of total solids. etc. Water/Moisture content. ALKALOIDAL DRUG ASSAY: Weighing for assay. AND USP. Determination of emulsion types. Maceration. 2.. Problem during distillation of alcohol. 11. Determination of Ash contents. Percolation. BPC. Sterility test. 60 . John-Wiley and Sons. syrups and elixirs.P. extracts. 10. Assay of Ointments and suppositories. Test for alkalinity of glass. Continuous extraction. Determination of alcohol contents in the Pharmaceutical preparations and Pyrogen test. Purification of Alkaloids and determination of alkaloids.STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF QUALITY CHARTS DURING MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. 12..g. New York. A H Beckett and J B Stennlake. Loss on Drying. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis. A M Knevel and F E Digangi. London. Assay of various spirits. gels. 3.

Aster Publishing Corporation. 1989. Analytical Chemistry. The pharmaceutical Quality Control Hand Book. LLC. Eugene. Cleaning Validation. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis. Lahore-Pakistan (1993).4. Drug Stability: Principles and rd Practices. 61 . Chromatographic Methods. Industry and Market. 1987. G D Christian.Braun R E. A Braithwaite and F J Smith. 5. McGraw-Hill Book Co. CRC Press. USA. 9. Aziz Publishers. New York.Bryant R. New York. NY. 3 edition (revised and expanded) Mercel Dekker. Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals. J T Carstersen and C T Rhodes. Karamt A Javaid. Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance in Class. 8. John Wiley and Sons. Sydney H Willig. 2000. A practical approach. London. 10. 7. 6. 2003. Marcel Dekker Publishing. Chapman and Hall. 11. Gil Bismuth and Shosh Neumann.

Tribromo ethanol). Lignocaine. Reserpine. Ergotamine. (d) Hormones: Steroidal Hormones (Testosterone. and K). Ephedrine. Glutethimide. Chloral hydrate. (c) Vitamins: Water Soluble Vitamins (B1. D. Fantanyl Citrate. CLASSIFICATION OF SYNTHETIC DRUGS: Drug Design and recent approaches to the synthesis of drugs (a brief concept of methods and reactions of synthesis of various drugs). 62 . and alcohols. Nicotinic acid. Chloroform. Progesterone. Citral. Theory. Halothane. Biotin. Carotenes. Ketamine. B6. Glucagon. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF THE FOLLOWING: (a) Alicyclic Compounds: Cyclopropane. Cocaine and Benzocaine). Morphine and related compounds (Codeine. Oxytocin and Vassopressin). General anaesthetics (Cyclopropane. Aldosteron and Cortisol). Quinolines derivatives. Barbiturates. Thebaine). Thioamylal Sodium. Pinene. Narylanthranilic acids. Proteinous Hormones (Insulin. Thiopental Sodium. E. Eucaine. GENERAL PROPERTIES. (e) Anti-neoplastic Agents: Tamoxifen. Mercapturine. 2. Paraldehyde. (f) Sedatives and Hypnotics: Benzodiazepines. Aryl and heteroaryl acetic acid derivatives. Estrogen. Terpenes. 3. Methotrexate and Vincristine. Menthol. Camphor. B2. Structure Activity Relationships (SAR) and Drug Metabolism). Salicylic acid analogues. Methohexital. CHEMISTRY BIOLOGICAL ACTION. INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY: Chemical constitution and biological activity: (Receptor. to their 1. Folic acid. Nitrous oxide. Pantothenic acid and Ascorbic acid) Fat Soluble Vitamins (A. Fluorouracil. (b) Alkaloids: Atropine. B12. (g) Anaesthetics: Local anaesthetics (Procaine. Pyrazolone and Pyrazolodiones.FINAL PROFESSIONAL PHARAMCEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY) (WRITTEN) Paper 1 Note: 100 Marks The topics will be taught with special reference Pharmaceutical Applications. (h) Analgesics and Antipyretics: Paracetamol.

(l) Anthelmintics: Phenols and related compounds. Thioguanine. 8-Aminoquinolines.g. P-nitrosophenol. Carboxylic. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF OFFICIAL INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Aluminium Hydroxide. Hydroxy. Tromantadine Hydrochloride and Ribavirin. Hydrazid. (o) Antiviral Drugs: Acyclovir. Rifampacin. Antimony Gluconate. sulphanilamide. Methyl salicylate. Mercurochrome and Thiomersal. Sulfamethoxazole. Nitrofuran derivatives. Cytarabine. 5-Hydroxy-1. Salicylic Acid. Ethacrynic acid and Triameterene. 3-nitrophthalic acid. Azobenzene. Sulfadiazine and Sulfafurazole. Mefloquine and Cinchoha alkaloids. Theophylline. Determination of Molecular weights of Organic Compounds. Sulphapyridine. Furosemide. Ferrous Sulfate and Silver Nitrate. Tetracyclines. Isonicotinic acid. Formaldehyde and its derivatives. Meralluride. Sodium Nitrite. Chloramphenicol. Ammonium Chloride. Thiabendazole. Acetazolamiode. Ferrous Fumarate. Aromatic acid and esters. Aspirin. ANTIBIOTICS: Penicillins. 3benzoxazol-2-one. e. Kanamycin and Erythromycin. Streptomycin. 5. Ethunamide. Amino and Nitro groups. Calcium Gluconate. (n) Antitubercular Drugs: Ethambutol. Pyrazinamide.(i) Antiseptics: Phenols and related compounds. (j) Sulphonamides: Prontosil. Dyes. Synthesis of Paracetamol. (m) Diuretics: Mercaptomerin. o63 . Piperazine derivatives. Estimation of functional groups. Benzoic Acid. Sodium Carbonate. Lithium Carbonate. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY) (PRACTICAL) Paper 7 100 Marks NOTE:. OCCURANCE. Biguanides. cycloserine. Halogens and Halogen compounds. Thiazides.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. PROPERTIES. 5-Flourouracil and Dacarbazine. Mebendazole and Pyrantal. sulphadimidine. Sprironolac-tone. Pyrimidine analogues. 9-Amino acridines. (p) Immunosuppressant Agents: Azathioprine and Cyclosporin. Magnesium Carbonate. (k) Antimalarials: 4-Aminoquinolines. Cephalosporins. 4.

1986. DRUG UTILZATION EVALUATION & DRUG UTILIZATION REVIEW (DUE/DUR): Development of protocol of use of few very low therapeutic index drug groups like Steroids. 5. Roche. Gentamycin. Jhon Willey & Sons. 7. Verghese Publising House. Medicinal Chemistry. Phenytoin. Soine and Wilson. Lee & Febiger. Problems of Irrational Drug Use. INTRODUCTION TO ESSENTIAL DRUGS: Criteria for selection. Philadelphia. DRUG ABUSE & MISUSE. 3. New York. 6. USA. Roche. Rational Dispensing. Verghese Publishing House. Alferd Burger. Bomby. Sampling to study drug use. 2001 2. 1983. Inorganic Preparations. Bombay. Usage and Advantages. Cabamazepine. PHARMACEUTICS-IX (CLINICAL PHARMACY-II) (WRITTEN) Paper 2 100 Marks 1. Learning about drug use problem. RATIONAL USE OF DRUGS: Rational Presribing. Block. Delhi. Soine and Wilson. PHARMACOECONOMIC STUDIES. Aspirin. USA. 6.Chloro-benzoic acid. Indicators of drug use. 4. Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1. 5. Benzyl Penicillin. 1995. 1996. Primidone. Tyagi. Assay of the Drugs like Sulpha drugs. Walparic Acid. Inorganic and Medicinal Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Inorganic and Medicinal Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Mack Publishing Company. Vancomycin and Cimetidine. PHARMACEUTICAL CARE. Anmol Publications. MANAGEMENT AND APPLICATION OF CARE PLAN: 64 . 3. Lithium. Block. Foye W O. Theophyline. Martin and Cook. 1990. 4. 2. Cyclosporins and Vancomycin. Paracetamol. Phenobarbitone. Remington Practice of Pharmaceutical Science. ITS SCOPE. Text Book of Synthetic Drugs. PRACTICAL PHARMACOKINETICS: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Digoxin.

Hepatitis. London. Meningitis. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. Methods of assessment. Drug Selection. Churchill rd Levingstone. Reasons for non-compliance. Pneumonia. introduction and importance. 10. Black Well. ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY 9. Role and Status of Poison Control Centre. etiology. 1992. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. 65 . Congestive cardiac failure. 3. PHARMACETICS-IX CLINICAL PHARMACY-II (PRACTICAL) Paper 8 100 Marks Clerkship in the Clinical Setting. Diarrhea. USA. their clinical features. Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis. 2000. Fungal diseases). Ulcer. Guard Paul. A Behavioral Approach to Pharmacy Practice. Rabies.CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY: (a) General information. 2003. Asthma. pathophysiology and treatment of causes: Common Cold. Role of pharmacist in treatment of poisoning and general management of poisoning & over dosage. Typhoid Fever. Roger Walker. Strategies for improving compliance and Designing of compliance trials.8. Tetanus. Diabetes mellitus. London. (b) Basic introduction of some clinical situations. Recommended Books 1. 3 Ed. Dermatology (Scabies. Herfindal Gourley. William & Willkins. Gout. AIDS. Anemia.SAVE INTRAVENOUS THERAPY & HAZARDS OF INTRAVENOUS THERAPY. A project related to Clinical Pharmacy Practices will be completed by the students and will be evaluated by the external examiner. Malaria. Conjunctivitis. Hypertension.. Tuberculosis. CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS: (a) General Strategy: Terminology of Disease. 12. Management and Treatment. 2.NON-COMPLIANCE: Definition. (b) Antidotes and their mechanism of action. Measles. 11. Extent of non-compliance.

USA. Approaches based upon dosage form modification. 8. b) Active & Passive Drug Delivery System. Clinical Research Coordinator Hand Book. London. 9. Biodegradable polymers. 66 . Oxford Text Book of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. Encyclopedia of Pharmacy. Ophthalmic Preparations. Churchill Levingstone. 4. Deborah Rosenbaun. Simon Cook. 1997. and Parenteral Preparations. Taylor & Francis. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT: Pharmaceutical Aerosols. 5. 2002. ADVANCED FORMULATION TECHNIQUES: Development of a formulation methodology and flow plan for the new product. UK. Sarrison. 1998. Method of particle coating and Instrumentation in granule manufacturing. 1989. Inc. 2. Multiple dosing. USA. 2 edition.Smith GDG and Aronson J K. 10. c) Other Novel GIT Systems. 3. Philadelphia. nd 2 Ed. Pharmacist Talking with Patients. Pharmaceutical Practice.Hansten P and Horn J.Mellainie J Rantucci. Implementation of designing. Drug interactions. PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY (WRITTEN) Paper 3 100 Marks 1. North Carolina. 11. MODIFIED DRUG RELEASE DOSAGE FORM: The concept of sustained release. NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: a) Introduction to the Drug Carrier: Liposome. Matrices tablets. Joseph T Dipiro. A J Winfield. 2003. a Practical Guide to Success. First order release approximation. 1990. New York. Lee & Febiger.. Kavin Taylor. Noisome and 5. Micro encapsulation. Pharmacy Practice. Control release technology. West Sussex.4. 1998. Oxford University Press. 12. Joseph T Dipiro. Marcel Dekker Publishing. Marcel Dekker Publishing. New technologies in drug delivery system. 7. Clinical Studies Management. Product evaluation and testing. Sue Horwood Publishing limited. UK. Need for Dosage Form and Preformulation Studies. nd 6. PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION AND DOSAGE FORM DESIGN: Product Formulation. Encyclopedia of Clinical Pharmacy.

ELBS/Churchill Livingstone. USA. 1994. Hellery. Marchell Dakker Inc. London. 8. Coating of particles and To prepare. 1987. Bioassay techniques for drug development. Marcel & Dakker Inc. 67 . 4. Ansel. 2001. New Delhi. 1990. Study of drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutical Dosage Form in Drug Delivery System. Immobilized Enzymes and their application in Medicine. M E Aulton. Pharmaceutics: Science of Dosage Forms Design. Granulation technology. nd New York. Particle size analysis using various methods. CBS Publishers & Distributers. General Principle and Methods of Microbial Assay. 2.g. PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: Biotechnological aspects in the product development. T V Ramabhadran. Pharmaceutical design and development. John A Bontempo. 1998. Taylor & Francis. 3. 7. Banker. In-vitro Quality Control of various dosage forms. London. Modern pharmaceutics. Lee & Febiger. 1997. 6. Ellis Horwood.Pramod K Gupta. New York. Biotechnological aspect of product development. Microbial assay. CRC Press. 1999. LLC. USA. Antibodies. 5. Recommended Books 1. Attaurahman and M I Chaudry. LLC. 1997. Marchell Dakker Inc. London. 1990.Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the requirements. 2001. Synthesis and Application of Monoclonal.6. 2 Ed. New York. CRC Press. examine and control specifications of packaging materials. New York. Controlled and Novel drug delivery. Principle. Joseph R Robinson Controlled drug delivery. Drug delivery and targeting. Anya M. Development of biopharmaceutical parenteral dosage forms. Fundamentals of Genetic Engineering and its Application in Medicine. 10. Various techniques to develop the formulation. Inject able drug development. e. Introduction to Gene therapy. 9. Stability studies of Pharmaceuticals. N K Jain. PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY (PRACTICAL) Paper 9 100 Marks NOTE:..

Control of Narcotics Substances Act 1997. 3. 7. 3 Ed. PHARMACEUTICAL MANAGEMENT & MARKETING (WRITTEN) Paper 5 100 Marks 68 . The Poisons Act 1919. USA. 3.11.H John Smith. STUDY OF DRUG LAWS: (a) The Drugs Act 1976 and rules framed there under.. 1969 WITH RULES. 1919. CRC Press.Peter Blaisdell. R Z Hussain.Lachman L. 2. 6. The Factory Law 1934. LLC. CRC Press. CONTROL OF NARCOTICS SUBSTANCES ACT 1997. THE POISONS ACT. 12. 1998. The Manual of Drug Laws in Pakistan. THE FACTORY LAW 1934. 1930. THE PHARMACY ACT. The Dangerous Drugs Act 1930. THE DANGEROUS DRUGS ACT. 7. SHOPS AND ESTABLISHMENT ORDINANCE. Recommended Books 1.Rong Liu. LLC. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy. (b) Provincial Drug Rules (Respective Drug Rules will be taught in the relevant province). Water Insoluble Drug Formulations. The Pharmacy Act 1967. 14. Lahore-Pakistan (2003). 2000. 1986. Irfan Law Book House. 6. 5. USA. 2000. 13. Twenty First Century Pharmaceutical Development. (c) Advertisement rules. CRC Press. LLC. 5. (d) Other related rules and Legal aspects. rd Philadelphia. Shop and Establishment Ordinance 1969. 1967. 4. FORENSIC PHARMACY (WRITTEN) Paper 4 100 Marks 1. USA. Introduction to the principals of drug design and action. Lee & Febiger. 2. 4.

3. Pharmacy Management for students and practitioners. C Patrick Tharp & Pedro J Lecca. (2002). 5. Louis. 4. Traditional Pharmacies and The Super Drug Store). Recommended Books 1. Prescription-oriented Pharmacies. The C V Mosby Company. COMPUTER AND ITS APPLICATION IN PHARMACY (WRITTEN) Paper 6 50 marks 69 . MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Marketing channels. Pricing. Faslabad-Pakistan. Sales promotion and Customer Services. Promotion and Advertising and Salesmanship. Critical control points and standards f) Motivation g) Innovation and creativity h) Communication 2. PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT: (a) Material Management. Forms of Operations control. London. Lea & Febiger. Types of Community Pharmacies (Pharmaceutical Centre. Requirements for adequate control. Consumer goods and purchases. MANAGEMENT: a) Nature and Principles of Management b) Types and Functions of Managers c) Planning: Purpose and types of Planning. (1979). Classes of Layout designs. M Ahmad & N I Bukhari. Principles and characteristics of Layout Design and Traffic Flow analysis. Pharmaceutical Management and Marketing. SALES MANAGEMENT: Personnel.1. Buying. Toronto. PHARMACY LAYOUT DESIGN: Objectives of Layout Design. 2. Purpose: Steps in the Control Process. Harry A Smith. 1986. Steps in Planning d) Organizing e) Management Control Systems. Receiving. 3. Tariq Academy. Philadelphia. Principles & Methods of Pharmacy Management. St.

The main methods of data input. Data Validation. Manual collection of data. E-mail and Newsgroups. Addresses. 70 . Creating a First Web site. The Data Processing Cycle. Languages: At least two prevailing languages will be taught. Components of a data communication system. New York. Bookmarks and Image Maps. Data Gathering and Data Analysis. Peter Norton. Searching the Internet. Good site design. 4. Favorites. System Analysis and Design: What is a System?. security and Customizing Explorer. Elias M System Analysis. 2. Email/Internet concepts. Managing your Web. Award Galgotia Publications. Data Communication: Applications of Data Communication. Web Page Development: Introduction to Front-page. Introducing Front-page “components”. Rate of data Transmission. Gateway. Output and Recording of data. New Delhi. Viruses and Anti-viruses Issues. Types of Computers. Designing a New System. Front-page. Documentation. COMPUTER AND ITS APPLICATION IN PHARMACY (PRACTICAL) Paper 10 50 marks 1. 3. The Collection and Computing of data. 2. Manipulating Tables within Front-page. Inside IBM PC. Fundamentals basic concept of computers: History of Data Processing. 1989. Computer Networks. Data Verification. Hyper linking. Devices used to collect data. Components of a Computer.1. Complete Statistical Package like SPSS. Recommended Books 1. Front-page and Frames. Links and Downloading. Types of Computer Operation. Basic Formatting Techniques. Steps in system life cycle. Internet and E-mail: Internet and Microsoft Internet Explorer 5. 1988. Data Processing: Data Processing. Computer System and Business Computer System. Publishing and publicizing. Development and Implementation of New System. Brady Computer Books. 3. Unit of Memory. 4. Batch Processing and Real-time Processing. 2. Types of data processing systems. Network Topology. Backing Storage Devices. Picture and Multimedia.

1987. Jump Practice Hall Press. 71 . Dennis N.3. New York. PC-DOS. Peter Norton. Retail/Community Pharmacy/ Hospital setting after the final year examination. 1985. New York. Brady Computer Books. 4. NOTE: The candidates are required to work for a minimum of 300 hours in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing unit. They must maintain a diary of work signed daily by the Manager. MS-DOS.

SCHEME OF COURSES FOR PHARM-D FOR SEMESTER SYSTEM
1st Professional Pharm-D
1st Semester Course Subject
No.

2 Cr. Hr. 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 21

nd

Course No.

Semester Subject Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II (Organic-II) [Th.] Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II (Organic-II) [Lab.] Pharmaceutical Biochemistry-II [Th.] Pharmaceutical Biochemistry-II [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-II (Physical Pharmacy-I1) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-II (Physical Pharmacy-I1) [Lab] Physiology & Histology -II [Th.] Physiology & Histology -II [Lab.] Biostatistics Total Cr.Hr.

301 303 305 307 309 311 313 315 317 319

Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Organic-I) [Th.] Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Organic-I) [Lab.] Pharmaceutical Biochemistry-I [Th.] Pharmaceutical Biochemistry-I [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-I (Physical Pharmacy-1) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-I (Physical Pharmacy-1) [Lab.] Physiology & Histology-I [Th.] Physiology & Histology-I [Lab.] Anotomy Pharmaceutical Mathematics Total Cr. Hr.

302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318

Cr. Hr. 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 4 20

2nd Professional Pharm-D
Ist Semester Course Subject No. 401 Pharmaceutics-III (Pharmaceutical Preparations-I) [Th.] 403 405 407 409 411 413 415 417 Pharmaceutical Microbiology-I [Lab.] Pakistan Studies Total Cr. Hr. Pharmaceutics-III (Pharmaceutical Preparations-I) [Lab.] Pharmacology & Therapeutics-I (General-I) [Th.] Pharmacology & Therapeutics-I (General-I) [Lab.] Pharmacognosy-I [Th.] Pharmacognosy-I [Lab.] Pharmaceutical Microbiology-I [Th.] Cr. Hr. 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 19 2 Semester Course Subject No. 402 Pharmaceutics-IV (Pharmaceutical Preparations-II) [Th.] 404 Pharmaceutics-IV (Pharmaceutical Preparations-II) [Lab.] 406 Pharmacology & Therapeutics-II (GeneralII) [Th.] 408 Pharmacology & Therapeutics-II (GeneralII) [Lab.] 410 Pharmacognosy-II [Th.] 412 Pharmacognosy-II [Lab.] 414 Pharmaceutical Microbiology-II [Th.] 416 Pharmaceutical Microbiology-II [Lab.] 418 Islamiyat Total Cr.Hr.
72
nd

Cr. Hr. 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 19

3rd Professional Pharm-D
1st Semester Course Subject No. 501 Pathology [Th.] 503 505 507 509 511 513 515 517 519 Pathology [Lab.] Pharmacology & Therapeutics-III (Systemic Pharmacology-I) [Th.] Pharmacology & Therapeutics-III (Systemic Pharmacology-I) [Lab.] Pharmacognosy-III [Th.] Pharmacognosy-III [Lab.] Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Instrumentation-I) [Th.] Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Instrumentation-I) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-V (Dispensing Pharmacy) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-V (Dispensing Pharmacy) [Lab.] Total Cr. Hr. Cr. Hr. 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 Semester Course Subject No. 502 Computer and its Applications in Pharmacy [Th.] 504 Computer and its Applications in Pharmacy [Lab.] 506 Pharmacology & Therapeutics-IV (Systemic Pharmacology-II) [Th.] 508 Pharmacology & Therapeutics-IV (Systemic Pharmacology-II) [Lab.] 510 Pharmacognosy-IV [Th.] 512 514 516 518 Pharmacognosy-IV [Lab.] Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IV (Instrumentation-II) [Th.] Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IV (Instrumentation-II) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-VI (Community Pharmacy) [Th] 1 3 1 4 20
nd

Cr. Hr. 3 1 3 1 3

19

Total Cr. Hr.

Fourth Professional Pharm-D
1st Semester Course Subject No. 601 Pharmaceutics-VII (Hospital Pharmacy-I) [Th.] 603 Pharmaceutics-VIII (Clinical Pharmacy-I) [Th.] 605 Pharmaceutics-VIII (Clinical Pharmacy-I) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-IX (Industrial 607 Pharmacy-I) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-IX (Industrial 609 Pharmacy-I) [Lab.] 611 Pharmaceutics-X (Biopharmaceutics-I) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-X (Bio613 pharmaceutics-I) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-XI 615 (Pharmaceutical Quality Management-I) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-XI 617 (Pharmaceutical Quality Management-I) [Lab.] Cr. Hr. 3 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 19 2nd Semester Course Subject No. 602 Pharmaceutics-VII (Hospital Pharmacy-II) [Th.] 604 Pharmaceutics-VIII (Clinical Pharmacy-II) [Th.] 606 Pharmaceutics-VIII (Clinical Pharmacy-II) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-IX (Industrial 608 Pharmacy-II) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-IX (Industrial 610 Pharmacy-II) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-X (Bio612 pharmaceutics-II) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-X (Bio614 pharmaceutics-II) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-XI (Pharmaceutical 616 Quality Management-II) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-XI (Pharmaceutical Quality Management-II) [Lab.] 618 Cr. Hr. 3 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1

19

Final (Fifth) Professional Pharm-D
73

1st Semester Course Subject Cr. Hr. No. 701 Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V 3 (Medicinal-I) [Th.] Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V 703 1 (Medicinal-I) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-XVII (Clinical 705 3 Pharmacy-III) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-XVII (Clinical 707 1 Pharmacy-III) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-XVIII 709 3 (Pharmaceutical Technology-I) [Th.] 1 Pharmaceutics-XVIII 711 (Pharmaceutical Technology-I 3 [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-XIX (Forensic 713 3 Pharmacy-I) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-XX(Pharmaceutical 715 Management & Marketing-I) [Th] Total Cr. Hr. 18

2nd Semester Course Subject
No.

702 704 706 708 710 712 714 716

Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V (Medicinal-II) [Th.] Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V (Medicinal-II) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-XVII (Clinical Pharmacy-IV) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-XVII (Clinical Pharmacy-IV) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-XVIII (Pharmaceutical Technology-II) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-XVIII (Pharmaceutical Technology-II) [Lab.] Pharmaceutics-XIX (Forensic Pharmacy-II) [Th.] Pharmaceutics-XX (Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing-II) [Th] Total Cr. Hr.

Cr. Hr. 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 3

18

NOTE: 1. 2. 3. 4. Two credit hours of mathematics will be equal to 40 marks. Four credit hours of Biostatistics will be equal to 60 marks. Two credit hours of dispensing will be equal to 40 marks while one credit hour of practical will be equal to 60 marks. In general, three credit hours of theory will be equal to 50 marks. One credit hour of practical will also be equal to 50 marks. Moreover, four credit hours will be equal to 100 marks. One credit hour of practical means that there will be one practical class in a week and one practical class will not be less than 3hours. 1 SEMESTER CR. HRs. 21 19 19 19 18 98
st

PHARM-D. CR. HRs. 1 Prof. nd 2 Prof. rd 3 Prof. th 4 Prof. Final Prof. Total: st

2

nd

SEMESTER TOTAL CR. HRs. 20 19 20 19 18 98 41 38 39 38 36 192

74

Wagner-Meerwein. mesomeric effect. ORIENTATION IN ELECTROPHILIC REACTIONS ON BENZENE RING.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR PHARM-D (SEMESTER SYSTEM) FIRST PROFESSIONAL FIRST SEMESTER 301 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (ORGANIC-I) [Theory] Cr. Favorskii rearrangement. steric effect. Effect of structure on reactivity of compounds. NUCLEOPHILIC AND ELECTROPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTION IN ALIPHATIC AND AROMATIC SYSTEMS. SUBSTITUTION 4. BASIC CONCEPTS: Conjugation. Grignard’s reaction. 2. Diels Alder reaction. Friedel Craft’s reaction. 303 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (ORGANIC-I) 75 . Perkin reaction. Cannizzaro reaction. Tautomerism of carbonyl compounds. Metal hydride reduction and Wolf Krishner reduction. 5. 6. hydrogen bonding. Hr. CARBONIUM ION REARRANGEMENTS & THEIR STABILITY: Pinacol-pinacolone. hyperconjugation. 3. CARBANIONS & THEIR STABILITY: Condensation reaction (Aldol condensation. Theory of resonance. Wolf. Witting reaction). ORGANIC REACTIONS: Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. inductive effect. 03 Note: The topics will be taught with special reference to their Pharmaceutical Applications. Wolf Kishner reduction. Hofmann and Beckmann rearrangements. 1.

5. Lahore. E L Eliel.g. 01 NOTE:. Reactions of Carbohydrates. Simple. Organic analysis: Identification of unknown simple organic compounds.. Rehman and M Younis. London. L Finar. Organic Chemistry for B. students. 305 PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY-I (Theory) Cr. Tata MacGrawHill. Hr. Nature of biochemical reactions. Sykes A P. 2.[Laboratory] Cr. 2. Tata MacGraw-Hill. New Delhi.) (a) Carbohydrates: Chemistry. Optical activity. Classification. 5 Ed. 5 Ed.. Complex and 76 . Classification (Saponifiable and non-saponifiable lipids. (b) Lipids: Chemistry of Fatty acids and Lipids. BASIC CHEMISTRY OF BIOMOLECULES (Nature. 1997. Peshwar. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates. New Delhi. 1992. Roberts J D and Caserio M C. Classification etc.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. th 14 Ed. Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds.. 03 1. 10.. 2001. Practical Organic Chemistry. Person Education Asia. Peter Sykes. 8. 1 Ed. New Delhi. 6 Ed. 1991. Ilmi Kitab Khana. Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. 1970. GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND BASIC BIOCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES Role of pharmaceutical biochemistry in the health profession.. Text Book of Organic Chemistry. th 4. st Longman. Recommended Books 1. 1994. 1992. 3. UK. Ghafoor Stationary Mart. 9. S Chand & Co. Hr. Lonsmen Co. e. Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry. New Delhi.Sc. Naser-ud-Din. ELBS. Raj K Bansel. Organic Chemistry Vol I. th 7. 1995. Introduction to Stereochemistry. Furaiss Brian. New York. A Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. th 6. Organic Reaction Mechanism. 1990.Bhal B S.

Hr. Amino acids. Lange Medical Publications. Classification. 6. 4. CBS Publisher. Kinetics (Michaelis Menten Equation and some modifications). Mode of action. Trna. (e) Vitamins: Chemistry.g. Mechanism of action of some important enzymes (Chymotrypsin. 01 NOTE:. amino acid derivatives. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of nucleic acids. Daryl K. Classification (Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins). Types (DNA.derived lipids). 2. Peptides and Proteins. Pamela C Champe. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of hormones. Victor W Rodwell Harper’s Biochemistry. Granner. Inhibition. Peter A Mayes. Purine and Pyrimidine bases. Clinical Chemistry. Biochemistry. Allosteric enzymes. steroids). 5 Ed. Qualitative analysis of: Carbohydrates. New Jersey. M Rafiq. Lipids and Sterols (Cholesterol) Bile salts and billirubin. Structures of nucleic acids. 1 Ed. Billirubin. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of vitamins. M N Chaterjea. Harper’s Biochemistry. NewYork. J Lippincot Company. Medical Biochemistry. th 8. 2002. Appleton and Lange. 1996. 1993. 1994. Lahore. Essential fatty acids. Richard A Harvey. New Delhi.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. st 7. Organizational levels. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of lipids. Blood analysis – Sugar. The Carvan Book House. Roberk Murray. Reactions of Fatty acids and other Lipids. (g) Enzymes: Chemistry. Reactions of proteins and amino acids. Print-Hall. Classification of proteins and amino acids. Montogomary. Ribonuclease). e. Albert L Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. The C V Mosby Company. Lubert Stryer. Specificity. Biological and pharmaceutical importance. (d) Nucleic acids: Chemistry. Biochemistry. Uric acid. Recommended Books 1. Rrna). 5. Cholesterol and Creatinine. 307 PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY-I (Laboratory) Cr. Classification (Proteinous and nonproteinous hormones. (c) Proteins and Amino acids: Chemistry. Factors affecting the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. 2003. RNA. Activation. 3. Mrna. Biological and pharmaceutical importance of proteins and amino acids. Nucelosides. 2000. Delhi. W H Freeman and Company. 77 . (f) Hormones: Chemistry. Macromolecular nature of proteins. Illustrated Biochemistry. Nucelotides.

vacuum distillation. 5 Ed. pH. levigation and trituration. Greek and Arab periods with special reference to contribution of Muslim scientists to pharmacy and allied sciences. HISTORY AND LITERATURE OF PHARMACY: (a) A survey of the history of pharmacy through ancient. surfactants. fractional. 1991 12.Lehninger. fusion. Outlines of Biochemistry. (b) Crystallization: Types of crystals. Worth Publishers Co. (c) Distillation: Simple. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: (a) Solutions: Introduction. buffer’s equation. evaporation. 1999. (b) An introduction of various official books. lyophillization. (b) Solubilization: Solubility. Industrial pharmacy. New York. Pharmaceutical education and research etc. colligative properties. Mechanism and methods of crystallization and its applications in Pharmacy.9. Retail pharmacy. calcination. types. 11. PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES: (a) Precipitation: Process of precipitation and its applications in Pharmacy. Text Book of Biochemistry. 2. 1996. Merit Pub. elutrition. decantation. destructive distillation and their applications in Pharmacy. 309 PHARMACEUTICS-I (PHYSICAL PHARMACY-I) (Theory) Cr. ignition. PHARMACY ORIENTATION: Introduction and orientation to the Professional of pharmacy in relation to Hospital Pharmacy. Forensic pharmacy. pka. exiccation. Todd R W and Van Bruggen T J. deliquescence. 10. factors affecting solubility. ideal and real solution.West E S. 4. buffers.. concentration expressions. centrifugation. pH indicators. Fasilabad. steam distillation. Conn and Stumpf. their formulation and types. Micelles. sublimation. distribution co-efficient and its applications in pharmacy. their properties and types. New th York. (c) Ionization. John Willey & Sons. dessication. isotonic solutions and their applications in pharmacy. 03 1. molecular weight determinations. The MacMillan Co. (d) Miscellaneous Processes: Efflorescence. Hr. 78 . Biochemistry. 3. adsorption. their mathematical derivations and applications in pharmacy. vaporization.Ahmed M Essentials of Medical Biochemistry.

Reaction of Blood. (e) Micromeritics: Particle size and shapes. London. Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1972.Martin A. Delhi. Surfactant Systems. 5. rd 10. Recommended Books 1. London. Rehology. steam distillation. Rienger M and Scott-Blair G W. London. 1986. Bustamante P and Chun. 1990. 8. London. Lee & Febiger. Bentley’s Pharmaceutics. Experiments to demonstrate some of the physicochemical processes like simple distillation. 1996. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Jaundice. 9. N. crystallization and dialysis. 1990.. Functions and Genesis of the formed elements. AHC. Academic Press. Blood groups. Sherman P. WBC and Platelets). Mill C C Casson.(d) Hydrolysis. ESR Blood volume. Martin. 1985. Rehology of dispress systems. Cooper and Gunns. 4 Ed. 7. New Delhi. Martin AMN. 6. Academic Press. e.Attwood D and Flocence A T. 1983. Pergamon Press. 01 NOTE:. 311 PHARMACEUTICS-I (PHYSICAL PHARMACY-I) (Laboratory) Cr. All India Traveler Book Seller. Swarbrick J and Cammatra A.. 4 Ed. th 79 . Determination of particle size. Physical & Chemical Principles of th Pharmaceutical Science. (1999). Barry B W Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. London. Hr. 313 PHYSIOLOGY & Histology-I (Theory) Cr. Martin P. New York. distribution of particles methods of determination of particle size and importance of particle size in Pharmacy. Preparation of buffer solutions and isotonic solutions. 1994. Physical Pharmacy. Emulsion Science. New York. Academic Press. BLOOD: Composition of blood (RBC. 3 Ed. 1982. Tutorial Pharmacy. 11. 1975. Rh factors. Physical Pharmacy. Fate of Red Blood cells. Hr. New Delhi. Philadelphia.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Academic Press. 2. Banker G S and Chun AHC Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 4. 03 Physiology 1. B I Waverly PVT. types and protection of drugs against hydrolysis.g. 3.

Arterial pulse. Cardiac cycle. Anaemias — classification. Digestive juicessaliva. Respiratory changes in exercise. 01 80 . 3. Cardiac output. expired air and alveolar air. 4. ECG. Cardio vascular System: Heart. Lungs volume and capacities. Formation of concentrated and diluted urine. Lung. their composition. emphysema and bronchial asthma. Larynx. shape. Hemophilia. Basic Tissues: Epthelium (classification. Deglutation. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Mechanics of respiration. Bile and intestinal juices. 4. pulmonary ventilation. vasomotor system. 3. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Mastication. 2. URINARY SYSTEM: Urine formation — composition of urine — GFR Urea clearance. pneumonias. Regulation of breathing (Nervous & Chemical control). CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: Properties of the cardiac muscle. carriage of O2 and CO2 by the blood. Blood coagulation.Functions of Spleen. Axon reflex. Introductin of cell: General structure of tissues in different systems of Body. Functions of large intestine. Gastric juice. Functions of liver and gall bladder. Defecation. and skin circulation. 315 PHYSIOLOGY & HISTOLOGY-I (Laboratory) Cr. Composition of Inspired air. Composition and circulate of lymph. Lymphatic. Histology 1. Venous pulse. 5. 5. Gastrointestinal tract: GIT including exocrine organs: Liver. Pancreatic juice. intrapulmonary pressure. Respiratory system: Respiratory system including Nasal cavity. Artery. Haemorrhage & Shock. distribution and function). Stroke volume and heart rate. (Classification. (Types. Coronary. Haemorrhage. Heart sounds. Blood pressure. pancreas and Gall Bladder. Movements of the stomach and intestines. Intrathoracic. Distribution and Function) Muscular Tissue. Origin and conduction of the heart beat. Pulmonary. capillary circulation. Supporting/connective tissue including bones and cartilage. distribution and function) Nervous Tissue (neuron and its types Neuroglia — classification and distribution). Vein. Triple response. Hr. 2. Nerve supply of the Heart. Functions and mechanism of secreation. Circulatory changes in exercise. Trachea.

Litle Brown & Co Inc USA. William F Ganong. epithelium. London. Demonstration of preparation and staining of slides. Human Anatomy and Physiology. Stomach. Review of Medical Physiology. 3. Hammersen F. 3. color Atlas Of Microscopic Anatomy. etc. Arthur C Guyton. 1985. Vein. 1993. 3 Ed. 2. 1996. 1995. Human Physiology. Pennsylvania. Snell R S. WBC Count. Chandi Charan Chatterjee. Prentice Hgall th international Inc. 17 Ed. ESR. W B th Saunders Company. connective tissues. Blood: Determination of Haemoglobin (Hb). 9 Ed. Histology. 5. 2. Text Books of Medical Physiology. 1984. Physiology 1. Reference Book: Tissues of the body by Legros Clerks. Determination of tidal volume. 1992. rd Beajamin/Cumming Publishing Inc Clifornia. Artery. Lymphatic. 4. Respiration: Estimation of vital capacity and its relation to posture and standard vital capacity. London. Organ system – Lung. Gall bladder. DLC (Differential Leucocyte Count).Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Histology 1. appendix. Coagulation Time and Determination of blood groups. Recording of Arterial Blood Pressure and Electro-cardiogram. Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology. CVS: Recording of Arterial Pulse. RBC Count. Revised by Cyril A Keele and Eric Neil.. muscle tissues. Medical allied agency. Publisher Oxford at the Clarendon Press.. Essential Histology. 6. 2.NOTE:. Cormack H D. Recommended Books Physiology 1. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students. M D. Histology 1. Bradbury S. 1994. Bleeding Time. Lee & Febijer Co. ELBS. J B Lippincott Co Philadelphia. 81 . 3. Heart. Spence A P and Mason E B. Intestine. 4. Demonstration of artificial respiration. Histological examination of slides. Hewer’s Text Book of Histology.

Pons. Oxford University Press. (b) Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System. Location of Heart. Cerebellum — Anatomy of Cerebellum. 2. 1996. G J. structure and association of the organs. 03 1. structure and relation to hypothalamus. Spinal Reflexes. Sensory and Motor Pathway. structure. Name. Accessory cells of NS Organisation of Nervous System: (a) Central Nervous System: Brain — Meninges (Cerebrum — cerebral Lobes. structure. (b) Thyroid gland. Spinal Cord — Meninges. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy. (c) Adrenal gland. Cardiovascular System: (a) Heart: Structure of Heart. Brain Stem — Mid-Brain. Medulla Oblongata. Recommended Books 1. 4. Urinary System: Name and structure of organs of urinarysystem and their inter-relationship. Hr. 3. Types of blood vessels with examples. Romanes. Introduction: Anatomical Terminology: Definition. Endocrine System: (a) Pituitary gland. 3 volumes. Humphary Kalfom. Respiratory System: Name and structures of different parts of respiratory system and their inter-relationship. Reproductive System: Male ande Female reproductive systems. (c) Blood Vessels: Main blood vessels arising & entering the heart. tissue. Peripheral Spinal Nerves). 6. Ventricals. 8. Elementary System: Name and structure of different parts of elementary system and their inter-relationship. Hypothelamus. 5. Cell. Cranial Nerves. organ system. London. 82 . Nervous System: Introduction: Cells of Nervous System (Neuron). CSF Internal Structure. 7. Blood Supply to Heart. Thalamus. Diencephalon. Oxford.317 ANATOMY (Theory) Cr.

Brown and Company. Clinically Oriented Human Anatomy. ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY: Coordinates on point in a plane. Philadelphia. Circle and Ellips. Macmillan and Co. J and A Churchill Ltd. 5. 6. Keith L More and TVN Persaud. Different types of Functions. 1996. (b) Solution of Linear and Quadratic Equations. Snell. Integrations of Algebric and Trignomatric functions by using different techniques. Higher Order Derivatives. 2. 1996. J G Romanes. Rules of Differentiation. 319 PHARMACEUTICAL MATHEMATICS (Theory) Cr. London. Longman’s Green and Co. ALGEBRA: (a) Sets and Functions: Elementary concepts of sets. London. 3. 4. 1996. TRIGONOMETRY: Measurement of Angles in Radian and degrees. A Method of Anatomy. W B Saunders. (d) Permutations and combinations.2. INTEGRAL CALCULUS: Concept of Integration. 8. London. Little. (e) Binomial Theorem: Simple application. A textbook of Anatomy. Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions. Gray’s Anatomy. R J Last. Ltd. Distance between two points in a plane. 02 1. Arithmetic. Locus. London. Cunningham’s Textbook of Anatomy. B Grant. London. Partial Derivations. Derivation of circular function for simple cases. Domain and Range of a Function. Solution of simultaneous Equations. 7. Some applications of Functions. 3. Equations of straight line. Equations reducible to Quadratic Form. R. Geometric and Harmonic Progressions. Equation of Parabola. 83 . 5. Clinical Anatomy. Definitions of circular functions. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: Concept of Derivations. Graphical representation of a function. Regional and Applied. Bailliere Tinal and Co.S. Hr. Maxima & Minima points of Inflections. Geometric and Harmonic Means. Oxford University Press. Examples on the evaluation of Derivations. (c) Arithmetic. 1996. Concept of Functions. Descriptive and Applied. Boston. Anatomy. W J Hamilton. 4. Rules of Integrations.

USA. Amines and Aniline. 1995. 2. Stereochemistry: Stereoisomerism. C H Edvards Jr and David E Penney. optical isomerism. 2. Resolution of racemic mixture. Indole. Aldehydes.Recommended Books 1. preparation and properties. structure and stability. Diazonium salts. Mathmactics for Pharmacists. Cr. Phenols. New Jersey 07632. Free radicals: Introduction. Inc. General methods of preparations. 4. Arsalan Paper Mart. Ethers. Ahmed B and Khan M. esters. Thiophene. Amides. Hr. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. Lactams. 84 . SECOND SEMESTER 302 Note: PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY (Organic-II) (Theory) The topics will be taught with special Pharmaceutical Applications. identification test and pharmaceutical applications of the following classes and their analogues: Alcohols. 03 reference to their 1. 5. 3. Preparation and properties of medicinally important heterocyclic compounds such as: Pyrrol. Quinoline and Isoquinoline. Molecules with more than one chiral center. Prentice-Hall. Pyridine. Pyrimidine and Pyrazine. Ketones. Imides. Furan. Multan. Lactones. properties. Acids. A division of Sinon & Schustor Englewood Gliffs. Geometrical isomerism. Conformational analysis. 1993. Preparation and properties of heterocyclic compounds in which benzoring is fused with five and six membered ring containing one heteroatom.

4-Dinitro-chlorobenzene. 306 PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY-II (Theory) Cr. Benzhydrol. Aspirin. Oxidation of fatty acids through β-oxidation. Ghafoor Stationery Mart. e. Introduction to Stereochemistry. 5 Ed. Peshawar. A guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. Citric acid cycle. 2. Tata McGraw-Hill. 6 Ed. London. th 4.. 3-nitrophthalic acid.. Sykes A P. New Delhi.Bhal B S. Hr. 1992. th 6. L Finar. Metabolic fate of Biomolecules (Anabolism and Catabolism) (a) Carbohydrates: Introduction to metabolism. 2. 1990. Raj K Bansel. 2001. 8. Acetanilide. New Delhi.Sc. Biosynthesis of fatty acids. th 7. 5. Recommended Books 1. Hr.g. 9. Gluconeogenesis. ELBS. Practical Organic Chemistry. Basic Principles of organic Chemistry.. 1997. Tata McGraw-Hill. Ilmi Kitab Khana. Glycogenesis. th 14 Ed. Organic Reaction Mechanism. 01 NOTE:. 5 Ed.. Nitrophenol. Glycogenolysis. Aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of Glucose. E L Eliel. 1970. Organic Chemistry for B. 85 . Lonsmen Co.304 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY (Organic-II) (Laboratory) Cr. Glycolysis.. Roberts J D and Caserio M C. 1995. Iodoform. Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds. S Chand & Co. (b) Lipids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of lipids. Organic Chemistry Vol I. UK. New York. Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. Peter Sykes. Rehman and M. 1992. students. 1991.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Younis. 1994. Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. 1 Ed. Naser-ud-Din. Energetics of various metabolic processes. st Longman. Person Education Asia. 03 1. Text Book of Organic Chemistry. Lahore. Organic Preparations like Benzoic acid. Pentose Phosphate Pathway. 10. New Delhi. New Delhi. neutral lipids and cholesterol. 3. Furaiss Brian.

Biosynthesis and catabolism of Haemins and porphyrin compounds. Peter A Mayes.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the requirements. M N Chaterjea. e. 308 PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY-II (Laboratory) Cr. Basic principles of Recombinant DNA technology. Cholesterol and Creatinine. Regulation of Metabolic Processes (a) Role of Vitamins: Physiological role of Fat-soluble (A. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Victor W Rodwell Harper’s Biochemistry. (d) Bioenergetics: Principles of bioenergetics. Cyanocobalamin – members of B-complex family – and Ascorbic acid). Transcription and Translation (Gene expression) Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. Recommended Books 1. Biotin Folic acid. Pharmaceutical applications. 01 NOTE:. D. Riboflavin. Metabolism of essential and non-essential amino acids. 2000. 86 . Pantothenic acid. 2. Roberk Murray. (b) Receptor mediated regulation (Hormones): Mechanism of action of hormones. Daryl K. Physiological roles of various hormones. Granner. Quantitative analysis of: Carbohydrates – Glucose (reducing sugar) and any other carbohydrate using Benedict and Anthrone method. Uric acid. Acid-Base and Electrolyte Balance in Human body. Bilirubin. 2003. Amino acids. Medical Biochemistry. E and K) and Water-soluble (Thiamin. Analysis of normal and abnormal components of Urine including Sugar. New Delhi. Coenzymes and their role in the regulation of metabolic processes.g. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. Lange Medical Publications. Calcium ions and phosphoinositol in the regulation of metabolic processes. (d) Gene Expression: Replication. Peptides and Proteins using Biuret and Ninhydrin (Spectrophotometric) method.(c) Proteins and Amino acids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of proteins and amino acids. 2. Anabolic and Amphibolic processes in human metabolism. Niacin. Hr. Balance of Catabolic. NewYork. Site of synthesis and target sites of hormones. Pyridoxal phosphate. (c) Secondary Messengers: Role of cAMP. Appleton and Lange.

5.3.Ahmed M Essentials of Medical Biochemistry. electrical) Dialysis and artificial kidney. The Caravan Book House. Harper’s Biochemistry. Print-Hall. Illustrated Biochemistry. Text Book of Biochemistry. 1991. The C V Mosby Company. 6. Suspending agents. RHEOLOGY: (a) Definition and Fundamental concept. Biochemistry. (d) Adsorption Techniques: Adsorption techniques and processes of adsorption in detail. Methods of Preparation. 4. 03 1. Properties. 10. Pamela C Champe. 1999. Conn and Stumpf. Biochemistry. (b) Properties contributing to rheological behaviour. st 7. 2002.West E S. Delhi. ionic strength. 310 PHARMACEUTICS-II (PHYSICAL PHARMACY-II) (Theory) Cr. th 8. protection and sensitization phenomenon and application of colloids in Pharmacy. 1996. 5 Ed. J Lippincot Company. Principles of Biochemistry. (c) Graphic presentation of rheological data. stability of colloids. Worth Publishers Co. methods of preparation. Todd R W and Van Bruggen T J. 87 . 4. Emulsifying agents.Lehninger. Lubert Stryer. Albert L Lehninger. W H Freeman and Company. Clinical Chemistry. M Rafiq. (b) Chemical Factors: Complex chemical reactions. Lahore.V. The MacMillan Co. 11. 12. (b) Emulsions: Types. DISPERSED SYSTEM: (a) Colloids: Types. New th York. CBS Publisher. their classification and stability. RATE and ORDER OF REACTIONS. 1 Ed. hydrolysis. KINETIC PRINCIPLES AND STABILITY TESTING: THEORETIC CONSIDERATIONS: Degradation: (a) Physical Factors: Influence of pH. Merit Pub Faisalabad. New York. temperature. light. Outlines of Biochemistry. Oxidation-reduction. their classification and stability of emulsion. 1996. kinetic. Biochemistry. Montogomary. 1994. 2. Hr. New Jersey. 3. John Willey & Sons. properties (optional. 1993. theories of emulsification. (c) Suspensions: Type. 9. Richard A Harvey. acidbase catalysis. U.. 5 Ed.

Cooper and Gunns Tutorial Pharmacy. Martin AMN. Martin. 1994. 1972. 8. AHC. 1975. 2. e. Academic Press. Casson N..312 PHARMACEUTICS-II (PHYSICAL PHARMACY-II) (Laboratory) Cr. Rehology. 6. Rehology of dispress systems. Barry B W. Academic Press. Academic Press. rd 10. Physical & Chemical Principles of th Pharmaceutical Science. NERVOUS SYSTEM: Spinal reflexes. 1983. Rienger M and Scott-Blair G W. Mill C C. 88 . 4. 1986. 3. 314 PHYSIOLOGY & HISTOLOGY-II (Theory) Cr. New York. Thalamus. P and Chun. Emulsion Science. 7. Philadelphia. 1996.. Descending tracts of spinal cord. Pergamon Press. 5. Determination of Partition-coefficient. New Delhi. viscosity.g. (1999). London. Cerbral cortex functions. New Delhi. B I Waverly PVT. London. surface tension. 2. PHYSIOLOGY OF NERVE AND MUSCLE: Chemical change in Muscle on contraction. Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. New York. 1982. Recommended Books 1. Action Potential. 3 Ed. Delhi. 01 NOTE:. All India Traveler Book Seller. CSF. 1990. Basal ganglia. Martin P. 4 Ed. 9. Bentley’s Pharmaceutics. 4 Ed. Cerbellum. CBS Publishers & Distributors. London. Reflex regulation of movement and posture. Banker G S and Chun AHC Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1990. London. Bustamante.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities.Martin A. Sherman P. Determination of Emulsion systems. 1985. Physical Pharmacy. Swarbrick J and Cammatra A Physical Pharmacy. Lee & Febiger.. Autonomic Nervous system. 11. Voluntary movements. Chapman and Hall Ltd. Hr. Academic Press. Surfactant Systems.Attwood D and Flocence A T. London. Determination of %age composition of solutions by specific gravity method. Hr. 03 th Physiology 1.

Nor-adrenalin. Hyperthroidism. SKIN: Structure. (Ovarian cycle). Format and functions of thyroid hormones. Anabolic Steroids. PanHypopituitrism. Reproductive system: Male reproductive organs. and Urinary bladder. 316 PHYSIOLOGY & HISTOLOGY-II (Laboratory) Cr.3. spermatogenesis. 2. Effect of Temperature on muscle. Acromegaly. far vision and near vision. Female reproductive organs. Demonstration of spinal reflexes. SPECIAL SENSE: Elementary knowledge of structure and function of the special senses. 2.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Histology 1. and female genital tract). Menstruation. Hr. Functions of skin. 4. Prolactin. Parathyroid gland. Eye: Visual activity. etc. sebaceous glands. 5. Cushing syndrome. palatine tonsil and thymus. Tri-iodothyronin. (e) Adrenal Glands: Mineralocorticoids. (b) Thyriod Gland: Thyroxin. (Dysmanorrhea. Thyroid gland. Skin: Types of skin. Male Development of secondary sex characteristics. ACTH. Female Development of secondary characters. Field of vision (Perimetry). Glucocorticoids. (f) Sex Hormones: Female Sex Hormone: Structure and function. (Ovary. 3. Composition of semen. Derivatives of skin including Nail. Excretory system including Kidney. (a) Pituitary hormones: Growth Hormone. 89 . (c) Para thyriod Hormone: (d) Pancreatic Hormone: Insulin. 01 NOTE:. sweat glands and Hair follicles. Adrenalin. Temperature regulation by Skin. 4. Endocrine system: Pituitary gland. Genital tract). Diabetes mellitis. 5. Myxodema. (Testes. TSH. Oxytocin. ADH.). Glucagon. Physiology 1. Oogenesis. CNS: Nerve Muscle Preparation in frog. Lymphoid Tissue: General structure of Lymphoid organs: Lymph node. Adrenal gland. Nature of different types of hormone. Endocrine part of pancreas. Mechanism of action of hormone. Giantism. Addison disease. ENDOCRINOLOGY: Definition of Hormone. Ureter. spleen.

Histology Demosntration of preparation and staining of slides. Histological examination of slides. Organ system – Skin, Spleen, Tonsil, thymus, Reproductive system, Endocrine system, etc.

Recommended Books
Physiology 1. Arthur C Guyton, M D, Text Books of Medical Physiology, W B th Saunders Company, 9 Ed., 1996. 2. William F Ganong, Review of Medical Physiology, Prentice Hall th International Inc, 17 Ed., 1995. 3. Chandi Charan Chatterjee, Human Physiology, Medical allied agency, 1994. 4. Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology. Revised by Cyril A Keele and Eric Neil. 5. Spence A P and Mason E B, Human Anatomy and Physiology, rd Beajamin/Cumming Publishing Inc, Clifornia, 3 Ed. 6. Snell R S, Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students, Little Brown & Co Inc, USA. 1992. Histology 1. Bradbury S, Hewer’s TextBook of Histology, ELBS, London, 1984. 2. Reference Book: Tissues of the body by Legros Clerks. Publisher Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London. 3. Cormack H D, Essential Histology, J B Lippincott Co. Philadelphia, 1993. 4. Hammersen F, Histology; colour atlas of microscopic anatomy, Lee & Febijer Co, Pennsylvania, 1985. 318 BIOSTATISTICS (Theory) Cr. Hr. 04

1. DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICS: Descriptive Statistics: What is Statistics? Importance of Statistics. What is Biostatistics? Application of Statistics in Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. How samples are selected? 2. ORGANIZING and DISPLAYING DATA: Vriables, Quantitative and Qualitative Variables, Univariate Data, Bivariate Data, Random Variables, Frequency Table, Diagrams, Pictograms, Simple Bar Charts, Multiple Bar Charts, Histograms.

90

3. SUNNARIZING DATA and VARIATION: The Mean, The Median, The Mode, The Mean Deviatiobn, The Variance and Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation. 4. CURVE FITTING: Fitting a Straight Line. Fitting of Parabolic or High Degree Curve. 5. PROBABILITY: Definitions, Probability Rules,Probability Distributions (Binomial & Normal Distributions). 6. SIMPLE REGRESSION AND COORELATION: Introduction. Simple Linear Regression Model. Correlation co-efficient. 7. TEST OF HYPOTHESIS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Statistical Hypothesis. Level of Significance. Test of Significance. Confidence Intervals, Test involving Binomial and Normal Distributions. 8. STUDENT “t”, “F” and Chi-Square Distributions: Test of Significance based on “t”, “F” and Square Distributions. 9. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: One-way Classification, Two-way Classification, Partitioning of Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom, Multiple Ccompression Tests such as LSD, The analysis of Variance Models.

Recommended Books
1. Daniel W W, Bio-Statistics, Foundation for Analysis in Health rd Science. 3 Ed., 1983. 2. Zar J H, Bio-Statistical analysis, Francis Hall, N J, USA. 3. Nilton J S, and Tsokos J D, Statistical Methods in Biological and Health Sciences, McGrew-Hill. 1983. 4. Chaudhry S A and Kamal S, Introduction to Statistical Theory, Part-I and Part-II, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, 1996. 5. Samuels M, Statistics for the life sciences, Dellen Pub Co, S F, USA, 1991. 6. Walpole R E, Introdution to Statistics, Macmillam Pub Co, N Y, 1982.

91

SECOND PROFESSIONAL
FIRST SEMESTER 401 PHARMACEUTICS-III (Pharmaceutical Preparations-I) (Theory) Cr. Hr. 03

1. Introduction: Dosage form. Ingredients 2. Pharmaceutical Calculations: Some Fundamentals of Measurements and Calculations. The Metric System. The Common Systems. Conversions. Calculation of Doses. Reducing and Enlarging Formulas. Density, Specific Gravity & Specific Volume. Weights and Volumes of Liquids. Percentage Preparations. Isotonic Solutions. HLB Values. Industrial Calculations. Some calculations involving Hydrogen-ion concentration. 3. Galenical Preparations: Infusions. Decoctions. Extracts. Fluid extracts. Tinctures. Aromatic Waters. 4. Extraction Processes: Maceration: Purpose and process. Percolation: Purpose and Process. Liquid-Liquid extraction. Large scale extraction. 5. Solvents used in Pharmaceutical Preparations. 6. Oral Solutions, Syrups, Elixirs and Spirits: Solutions and their preparation, dry mixtures for solution, oral rehydrate solutions, oral colonic leverage solution. Syrup: components and preparation of Syrups. Elixirs: Preparation of elixirs, medicated and non-medicated elixirs. 7. Oral Suspensions, Emulsions, Magma and Gels: Preparations, Examples, and Importance. 403 PHARMACEUTICS-III (Pharmaceutical Preparations-I) (Laboratory) Cr. Hr. 01

NOTE:- Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Prepartion of simple syrup, Orange syrup, Ferrous sulphate syrup, Cod Liver oil Emulsion, Liquid paraffin Emulsion, Throat paint (Mandle’s paint), Boroglycerine glycerite, Tannic acid glycerine, Spirit ammonia aromatic, Spirit of Ethyl nitrite. (A minimum of 10n practicals will be conducted)

92

Hr. the Science of Dosage Form Design. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY (a) Introduction: History. New York. (d) Pharmacodynamics: Drug receptors and theories. Berdley’s Textbook of Pharmaceutics. New Delhi. 1986. Therapeutic Index. 2. 93 . 1990. ELBS/Churchill Livingstone. 1998. release and fate. Michel E Aulton. Sprowl’s (Dittert L W. Volume of Distribution. Excretion. (c) Pharmacokinetics: Drug solubility and passage of drugs across the body membranes. th 5. Bentley’s Book of Pharmaceutics. (c) Sympathetic agonist drugs: Catecholamines and Non-catecholamines. J B Lippincott Co. 7 Ed. American Pharmacy. th 4.). Biotransformation and factors influencing the rate of biotransformation of drugs. (d) Sympathetic antagonist drugs: Adrenergics Nerve Blockers. 2002. DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS) (a) Organization of ANS its subdivisions and innervations. their synthesis. Distribution and factors influencing the rate of distribution of drugs.Recommended Books 1. E A Rawlins. Pharmaceutics. Pharmacology and its classification and Drugs and their sources (b) Routes of drugs administration: Advantages and disadvantages of Enteral Routes. Macmillan Publishing Co Inc. Specificity of drug action and Factors modifying the action & dosage of drugs. Plasma concentration of drugs and various factors affecting it (Absorption and factors influencing the rate of absorption (GIT and other routes) of drugs. Plasma Half Life (t½). Mechanisms of drug action. nd 3. Adrenoceptor antagonists (Alpha-adrenergic blockers and Betaadrenergic blockers). HawCourt Publisher. Definition of (Bioabvailability & Bioequivalence. Pharmaceutics. Advantages and disadvantages of Parentral Routes and Advantages and disadvantages of Topical Routes. (b) Neurotransmitters in ANS. 2.. Dose-Response Curve. channels of excretion and factors influencing the rate of excretion of drugs). 405 PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS-I (General-I) (Theory) Cr. London. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Eds. 2 Ed. Area Under Curve. edited by 8 (or recent edition) 1977. 03 1.

To demonstrate the effects 94 . (b) Anti-emetics.g. e. 2. Proton Pump Inhibitors. Tyrode solution. (g) Drugs acting on Ganglia (Ganglian stimulants and Ganglion blockers). Lubricant purgatives. Gastrin Receptor Antagonist and Cytoprotective agents. DRUGS ACTING ON GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: (a) Emetic.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Irritant purgatives and Saline Purgatives. (e) Treatment of Peptic & Dudenal Ulcers: Antiacids. (f) Drug treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of bowel. To demonstrate the effects of sympathomimetic (Adrenaline) & sympatholytic drugs (Propranolol) on Frog’s heart. Preparation of standard solution. 3. Antimuscarinic Agents. Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products. The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books. While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group.(e) Parasympathetic (Cholinergic) agonists and Anticholinestrase inhibitors. (f) Parasympathetic antagonists. Note: 1. Hr. 3. 407 PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS-I (General-I) (Laboratory) Cr. Kreb solution. H2-Receptor Antagonists. To demonstrate the effects of parasympathomimetic (Acetylcholine) and parasympatholytic (Atropine) drugs on Frog’s heart. Newly introducted drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time. 4. Ringer solution. Normal saline solution. (c) Purgatives: Bulk forming purgatives. 01 NOTE:. (g) Drugs affecting bile flow and Cholelithiasis. (h) Neuromuscular blocking drugs. (d) Anti-diarrheal Agents.

1993. 4 Ed.of an unknown drug on Frog’s heart. London. Preservation. Prentice Hall International Inc. Classification of Crude Drugs with Special Emphasis to Chemical and Therapeutical System of Classification. New York. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Drying. Ganong W F. 8 Ed. Lippincot William & Willkin. Packing. 12. New th Delhi. 10. 1987. Katzung B G. Mosby Year Book. 1995. London. Routes of Administration of drugs. Essential of Medical Pharmacology. 409 PHARMACOGNOSY-I (Theory) Cr. R S Satorkar and S D Bhandarkar. Evaluation of Crude Drugs I E. 1995. Chemical and Biological. A Text book of Clinical Pharmacology. James M Ritter and Lionel De Levis. USA. 1993. Methods of Cultivation. Review of Medical physiology. Microscopic. Oxford University Press. Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 2000. 1996. Pharmacology. Peshawar.Bertram G K. New York.Qayum A. Boston. Winguard and Brody. Clinical Pharmacology. 2001. 2. Deterioration and Adulteration of Crude Drugs.... Goodman Gillman. McGraw-Hill Medical th Publishers.William F. Human Pharmacology. Traditional system of Medicine/medicinal plants. Little Brown & Company. Popular Prakashan. Physical. Lipponcott. 03 1. Preparation of Crude Drugs for Commercial Market. Japees Brother. New Jersey. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Bomby. USA. McGrawHill Book Company. ELBS. 4. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Manuchair Edabi. New York. 1991. D R Laurance. Organoleptic. Storage. 5. 2001 8. J D Tripathy. GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Historical Development and Scope of Pharmacognosy. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. 7. Evolution of Modern system of Medicine (History of Modern System of Medicine). 6 Ed. Pharmacology. 2. 11. Paramount Publishing th Business & Professional Group. Terminology Used in Pharmacognosy. 6 Ed. Hr. (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1. THE STUDY OF THE CRUDE DRUGS BELONGING TO VARIOUS FAMILIES OF MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE 95 . th 6. Ghandhara University.. 3. 9.

1986. Larkspur. 7. Varro E Taylor. Spearmint. Pharmacognosy. Gibberellins Abscisic acid. G E Trease and W C Evans. (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1. Senna. th Toronto. Hycscyamus. Catharanthus. e. Cytokinins and Ethylene. K Usmanghani. Stramonium Capsicum. Lea and Febiger. Sanguinaria. Hydrastis. 4. i. Chemical Pharmacognosy. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Liliaceae Garlic. 8. Youngkin H W. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Glycyrrhiza. V E Tyler. Scrophulariaceae Digitalis. Philadelphia. Curcuma. The Blakiston Co. T E Wellis. Toronto. Zingiberaceae Ginger. Introduction to Pharmacognosy. Carum. c. Islamabad. Canadensis. Hr.g. Thyme. Pharmacognosy. Pulsatilla. L R Brady and J E Robbers. Pharmacognosy. 01 NOTE:. 03 96 th . 413 PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY-I (Theory) Cr. 1948. Solanaceae Belladonna. 2002. Conium. Salvia..Families a. f. Ocimum. g. New Delhi. Text book of Pharmacognosy. Hr. 1985. 1985. Asafoetida. Aloe. Introduction of the entire and broken parts of the plant drugs (Macro and organoleptic characters).Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Apocynaceae Rauwolfia. Crude Drugs Ranunculanceae Aconitum. Umbelliferae Fennel. GROWTH REGULATORS: General account with special reference to Auxins. Papaveraaceae Papaver Somniferum. 6. Philadelphia. University Grants Commission. 1988. 3. Text Book of Pharmacognosy. th 5. W B Saunders. New Delhi. h. d. 3. pp74. Leguminosae Acacia. Topics in Pharmacognosy. Coriander. Cassia. 1986. Verbascum (Mullien). Islamabad. Colchicum. b. 9 Ed. 6 Ed. Lee Febiger Philadelphia. Mohammad Ali. University Grants Commission Monograph Series.. 9 Ed. 411 PHARMACOGNOSY -I (Laboratory) Cr. j. e. 2. Labiatae Peppermint. Tamarind. K Usmanghani.

Culture Media. 413 PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY-I (Theory) Cr. Staining of Bacteria: Gram method. e. Scope of Microbiology with special reference to Pharmaceutical Sciences. Preparation of general and selective media and culturing of micro-organisms. reference to their 1. Requirements and Nutrition factors affecting growth. and soil). 3. and replication. Nutrition. structure and function. THE FUNGI/YEAST/MOLDS. Flagella staining and Spore staining. water and soil (General introduction and normal inhibitants of air. Giemasas staining. 2. Growth curve. Nomenclature and classification of Micro-organisms. Hr.Note:- The topics will be taught with special Pharmaceutical Applications. water. water and soil. Morphological and selective biochemical characteriz-ation of some specimen. Capsule staining. Acid fast.g. The Viruses: Introduction. Bacterial cultures and staining Methods. growth factors and growth characteristics.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 5. The NORMAL FLORA: Microbiology of air. 97 . ORGANISMS: The Bacteria: General and cellular Morphology. Total and viable counts of microorganism. cultivation. THE PROTOZOA. Classification (and detail of at least one species from every group). 4. 03 NOTE:. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY: Historical Introduction. Microbiological analysis of air. Classification of Bacteria.

TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: Introduction of Ointments. 2003. Microbiology. ointment. 03 th As per syllabi of B. 8. OPHTHALMIC.A/B.. Topical Tinctures. Medical Microbiology and Immunology. Poultice. Black Well th Science Ltd. Microbiology: Essentials and Application. W B Hugo & A D Russell. approved by the respective University. Nasal decongestant solutions. 6 Ed. Introduction to Microbiology. Microbiological Methods. John Willey & Sons. M Mekallee. SECOND SEMESTER 402 Pharmaceutics-IV (Pharmaceutical Preparations-II) (Theory) Cr. Oxford. suspensions. classes. Creams. Hr. McGraw-Hill Inc. 2. 1996. 417 PAKISTAN STUDIES (Theory) Cr. 2 Ed. Jawetiz.Sc. William & Willkin. 1995. Singleton and Sainsbury. NASAL AND OTIC PREPARATIONS: Ophthalmic solutions. contact lens solutions. Collin and Lynes. nd 9. Liniments. London. 03 1. Churchill Livingstone. 3. anti-inflammatory and analgesic. John Bartlett Publishers. Pelczar. Topical solutions. Vutterworth Heineman. Collodions. th 4.Recommended Books 1. Topical Powders. 3. Microbiology. packaging and storage. Lotions.. Alcamo. 1998. Percutaneous absorption. 1998. SUPPOSITORIES AND VAGINAL SUPPOSITORIES: Semi-solid Preparations. New York. USA. Klein Wm C Brown Publishers. Suppositories bases. McGraw-Hill nd Inc. London. 6 Ed. Harley. Microbiology by Lipponcott.. Decongestant inhalers. 2. inserts. Plasters. Ear preparations: Antiinfective. 5 Ed. Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular biology.. Transdermal systems in use. 2000. Prescott. 98 . 2 Ed. Topical gels. Pharmaceutical Microbiology. 2001. preparation. Solutions/Anemas. 7. 2001. Lippincot. Hr. 5. 6. Pastes.

Tablets.g. The Science of Dosage Form Design. preparation and its application. HawCourt Publisher. Preparations of oral hygiene products. capsule sizes. added substances. Sulpher ointment. AEROSOLS. Michel E Aulton. Effervescent granules. 404 Pharmaceutics-IV (Pharmaceutical Preparations-II) (Laboratory) Cr. 5. testing. labeling and storage. ELBS/Churchill Livingstone. 7. 2 Ed. Ed. container and valve assembly. 6. Macmillan Publishing Co Inc. J B Lippincott Co. A brief introduction to oral hygiene products. th 5. packaging. CAPSULES. th 4. their types. uses and packaging of powders. e. E A Rawlins. Hard gelatin capsules. Sprowl’s (Dittert L W. nd 3. (A minimum of 10n practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1. New Delhi. Hr. Prepartion of Methyl salicylate ointment. Iodine tincture.. Distilled Water for injections.). 1998. 1990. CBS Publishers & Distributors. effervescent. granulated salts. 7 Ed. INHALATIONS AND SPRAYS: Aerosol: Principle. 01 NOTE:. Propellants.4. preparation of filled hard gelatin capsules. 99 . Poultice of Kaolin. filling. Berdley’s Textbook of Pharmaceutics. soft gelatin capsules. solvents and vehicles for injections. 2002. granules. edited by 8 time (or recent edition) 1977.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. TABLET DOSAGE FORMS: Preparation of Powders. London. POWDERS. Calamine lotion. INTRODUCTION TO PARENTERALS: Official types of injections. American Pharmacy. Bentley’s Book of Pharmaceutics. New York. characteristics and methods of preparation. mixing of powders. 2. 1986.. Pharmaceutics. Pharmaceutics.

DRUGS ACTING ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: (a) Drugs used for cough (Antitussives. Note: 1. Cromoglycate.406 PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS-II (General-II) (Theory) Cr. While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group. AUTACOIDS AND THEIR ANTAGONISTS: Histamine and Antihistamines. 3. Newly introducted drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time. (f) Antihypertensives. 2. Nedocromil. 4. (b) Drug treatment of Bronchial Asthma (Bronchodilators. (c) Antiarrhythmic drugs. Serotonin and Serotonin Antagonists and Other Autocoids 2. The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books. 100 . 4. 03 1. (e) Coagulants and Anticoagulants. Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products. 5. (g) Diuretics. Expectorants and Mucolytic Agents). Cortecosteroids & other Anti-inflammatory drugs and Muscarinic receptor antagonists) 3. (d) Agents used in Hyperlipidemia. Hr. ANTI-ANAEMIC DRUGS. (b) Congestive heart failure & its treatment. DRUGS ACTING ON GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Oxytoxic drugs. Ergot alkaloids and uterine relaxants. DRUGS ACTING ON CARDIO-VESCULAR SYSTEM: (a) Angina pectorus and its drug treatment.

London. New York. Boston. 2001. R S Satorkar and S D Bhandarkar. To identify the unknown drug & differentiate its effects on Rabbit’s Eyes. To study the effects of Adrenaline on Rabbit’s Eyes. Katzung B G. Human Pharmacology. e. A Text book of Clinical Pharmacology. W F. McGrawHill Book Company. New Jersey. 1996.. 5.g. Oxford University Press. th 6. 1987. To differentiate the effects of an unknown drug on Rabbit’s intestine and identify the (unknown) drug. 01 NOTE:. 4. Prentice Hall International Inc. 7. D R Laurance. Essential of Medical Pharmacology. New th Delhi. To study the effects of Homatropine on Rabbit’s Eyes. Pharmacology. McGraw-Hill Medical th Publishers. (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1.William F Ganong. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. J D Tripathy. New York. To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Rabbit’s Eyes..408 PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS-II (General-II) (Laboratory) Cr. Manuchair Edabi. Lippincot William & Willkin. New York. ELBS. 1995. James M Ritter and Lionel De Levis. Clinical Pharmacology. 10.g.. Pharmacology. To demonstrate the effects of stimulant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Acetyl choline. Review of Medical physiology. Mosby Year Book. Goodman Gillman. London. 6 Ed. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 3. To demonstate the effects of vasconstrictor drugs on Frog’s blood vessels. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. Lipponcott. 4 Ed. 2001 9. 8 Ed. Barium chloride).Bertram G K. 2. Popular Prakashan.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities.Prof Dr A Qayum. 11. 1993.. USA. USA. 1991. Hr. 12. Paramount Publishing th Business & Professional Group. Little Brown & Company. 1993. Bomby. 6 Ed. Japees Brother. Cocaine) on Rabbit’s Eyes. 101 . 2000. 8. To demonstrate the effects of depressant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Atropine). Winguard and Brody. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. To study the effects of Local Anaesthetic drug (e. 1995.

CBS Publishers & Distributors. Enzymes obtained from Animal source. K Usmanghani. pp74. 3. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed. infectant and infestant allergens. 9 Ed. 1986. 6. e. The Blakiston Co. Methods of controlling pests with special reference to natural methods. Philadelphia. 1948. Pharmacognosy. Pharmacognosy. Philadelphia. 2. Papain Bromelain and Malt Extract. POISONOUS PLANTS: General introduction of poisonous plants with special reference to Pakistan. Varro E Taylor. ALLERGENS AND ALLERGENIC PREPARATION: Introduction. 8. 1986. New Delhi.g. University Grants Commission Monograph Series. 2002. 3. 1985. Rennin pepsin. Hr.. K Usmanghani. 6 Ed. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Microscopic examination of powders and sections of plant drugs. Chemical Pharmacognosy. ENZYMES: Enzymes obtained from plant source. 412 PHARMACOGNOSY-II (Laboratory) Cr. Topics in Pharmacognosy. Youngkin H W. Islamabad. W B Saunders. University Grants Commission. 1988. th Toronto. A Study Tour will be an integral part of the syllabus and will be arranged at the end of the session for collection of medicinal plants from various hilly areas of the country.. Toronto. ingestant. 1985. Mohammad Ali. 4. Pancreatin and Pancrealipase. Text Book of Pharmacognosy.410 PHARMACOGNOSY-II (Theory) Cr. (Phytoenzymes). 01 NOTE:. th 5. Recommended Books 1. 2. 03 1. Lee Febiger Philadelphia. Islamabad. case history. 4. contactant. treatment off allergy. skin test. Hr. 7. Mechanism of allergy. Text book of Pharmacognosy. T E Wellis. PESTICIDES: Introduction. V E Tyler. Lea and Febiger. 414 PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY-II 102 . Introduction to Pharmacognosy. injectant. L R Brady and J E Robbers. G E Trease and W C Evans.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. New Delhi. inhalant.

FACTORY AND HOSPITAL HYGIENE AND GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE: Introduction.. 6. John Bartlett Publishers. Control of Microbial contamination during manufacture. Microbiological assays of: Antibiotics and vitamins. 2. Microbiological Methods. e. 416 PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY-II (LABORATORY) Cr. Alcamo. Current vaccine practices. Black Well th Science Ltd. Hypersensitivity and allergy. 5 Ed. 1998. tolerance. 3. Drug allergy mechanism.(Theory) Note:- Cr. Hr. 1998. Erythromycin. Introduction to Microbiology.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 2 Ed. 4. Lippincot. Microbiology by lipponcott. Collin and Lynes. McGraw-Hill nd Inc. William & Willkin. A Guide to Current Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. London. Types of Imunity: Specific and nonspecific (Cellular basis of Immune response. 5.. Recommended Books 1. Pharmaceutical products produced by fermentation process (Penicillins. 103 th . Vutterworth Heineman. 6 Ed.g. 1995. Antigen. Types of Vaccines. Tetracyclines. INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY: Introduction to Sterilization/ Disinfection. autoimmunity. Sterilization of Glassware and pharmaceutical products by various methods. Antigen-Antibody reactions and their clinical and diagnostic applications. Immunity. Rifamycin. 2003. Griseofulvin) 3. Cepalosporins. Mnaufacture of Sterile products. USA. Microbiology: Essentials and Application. IMMUNOLOGY: Introduction. Vaccination: Introduction and aims. 03 to their The topics will be taught with special reference Pharmaceutical Applications. 6 Ed. Hr. Churchill Livingstone. 2001. Antibodies). 2. th 4. Oxford. London.. 01 NOTE:. Fermentation. M Mekallee. Jawetiz. Pharmaceutical Microbiology. Gentamycin. W B Hugo & A D Russell. Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

01 Study of Pathological Slides of various Pathological Conditions Acute inflammation. 418 ISLAMIYAT (Theory) Cr. Leomyosarcoma. Papilloma. 2001. 4. Prescott.7. 104 . John Willey & Sons. Allergy. Hr. Immunity. Leukemia or Blood Cancer (Malignant Carcinoma. Hypertension. Adenoma. 03 1. 8.A/B. Hodgkins disease. Microbiology. Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular biology. Microbiology. Harley. Sarcoma & Lymphomas). THIRD PROFESSIONAL FIRST SEMESTER 501 PATHOLOGY (Theory) Cr. Rhadomyosarcoma. Necrosis. Hr. Transitional Cell Carcinoma. Klein Wm C Brown Publishers. Atrophy. Hypoxia. 503 PATHOLOGY (Laboratory) Cr. survival and prognosis with tumors. Neofibroma. Hypertrophy. Metaplasia. 3.. Hyper Sensitivity. Chronic inflammation. Fibrocarcinoma. Diagnosis and treatment of Cancer in general. Doudenal).Sc. Anaplasia. Pigmentation. Liposarcoma. Different types of Degeneration. Basal Cell Carcinoma. CVC. Lymphosarcoma. Fibroma. Hr. 1996. Aplasia. Breast Carcinoma. New York. RESPONSE OF BODY TO INJURY AND INFECTION: Acuate inflammation. Chronic inflammation. Infarction. DEFINITION AND TERMINOLOGY: Ischemia. fate. nd 9. Thrombosis. Osteoclastoma. McGraw-Hill Inc. Osteogenic Sarcoma. Calcification. Leomyoma. 03 As per syllabi of B. Metaplasia. Infarction. Pelczar. SCOPE OF PATHOLOGY & CONCEPT OF DISEASES: 2. 2 Ed. Reticular Cell Sarcoma. Hyperplasia. 2000. Sq. Necrosis. Chronic specific inflammation. Cell Carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma. Hyperplasia. approved by the respective University. Singleton and Sainsbury. classes. Embolism. Gangrene. SPECIFIC: Ulcer (Peptic. Chondroma.

Mechanism of action and its application. stool Examination. London (1998). Cerebrospinal Fluid Examination. (f) Techniques of Local Anaesthesia. 2 Ed. ANAESTHETICS (a) Anaesthesia and its clinical importance. Robin Collander. General Pathology. Biopsies and cytologic techniques. Psychotherapeutic Agents (Anxiolytics and Antipsychotics). (c) General Anaesthetics. DRUGS ACTING ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (a) CNS – Depressants: Hypnotic & Sedatives and Analgesics (Narcotic Analgesics and opioid antagonists. Drug treatment of Epilepsy and Drug treatment of Parkinsonism and other movement disorders. Blood Complete Examination. London. 03 1. (b) General Anaesthesia. Churchill Livingstone. 105 th . Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAID] including Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and Drug treatment of Gout) (b) CNS – Stimulants: Cerebral Stimulants.. Blood Urea. Blood Sugar. Churchill Livingstone. General Pathology. 6 Ed. 505 PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS (Systemic Pharmacology) (Theory) Cr. Recommended Books 1. 1962. W B Saunders Company. 2. Tests for various Specimens of Clinical Importance Techniques of Clinical Blood Examination for various disases. Gastric Analysis. Ascitic Fluid Examination. Walter G B. Pathology Illustrated. Renal function test. Peter S Macfarlane. Psychotomimetic or Hallucinogenics. 1996.Examiantion of different body fluids in various Pathological Conditions Urine complete Examination. Hr. Tests for endocrine abnormalities. Spinal Cord Stimulants. New York. Robbins Pathology. Pericardial fluid examination. Philadelphia (1992). (e) Spinal Anaesthesia and drug used. (d) Local Anaesthetics. Tests for liver function test. 3. Kumar Cotran Robins. Walters and Israel. W B Saunders Co. Pleural Fluid Examination. Basic Pathology. Analgesic. Blood Choleterol etc. 2. nd 4. Semen Examination. Robin Reid.. 5. Medullary stimulants. Churchill Livingstone. London (1998). Antidepressants.

D R Laurance. 1993. Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products. 5. 2000.g. th 6. e. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. Popular Prakashan. To study the effect of Homatropine on Human Eyes. 4 Ed. New York. 2001. Goodman Gillman. Pharmacology. A Text book of Clinical Pharmacology. The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books. Newly introducted drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time. Lippincot William & Willkin. 01 NOTE:. To identify and observe the effects of unknown drugs on Human Eyes. USA. Boston. 2001. R S Satorkar and S D Bhandarkar. 7. B G. Mosby Year Book. Recommended Books 1. 507 PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS (Systemic Pharmacology) (Laboratory) Cr. 6 Ed. McGraw-Hill Medical th Publishers. New York. 3. 3. To identify the unknown (convulsant) drug and determine its site of action. 8 Ed. To study the convulsant effects of strychnine and picrotoxin in frogs and to determine the site of action. 4. McGrawHill Book Company. Oxford University Press.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities.. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 106 . To study the effects of Adrenaline on Human Eyes. Clinical Pharmacology. ELBS. Katzung. Essential of Medical Pharmacology. While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group. To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Human Eyes. James M Ritter and Lionel De Levis. 1987. 8. 1995. 2. 4. Japees Brother. Lipponcott. 1991. Bomby. 1996. Human Pharmacology. Winguard and Brody. Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. J D Tripathy. London.Note: 1. New York. Hr. 2.. New th Delhi. To study the effects of local anaesthetic drugs on human and the nerve plexus of frog.

LIPIDS: Introduction. Quassia.9. Prentice Hall International Inc. (d) Cyanophore glycosides: Wild cherry. CARBOHYDRATES: Introduction of carbohydrate. Powdered cellulose. Strophanthus and white squill. USA. Adsorption Chromatography and Partition Chromatography. 1995. Agar.. (b) Anthroquinone glycosides: Cascara. classification.. Caramel. W F. properties and chemical identity tests of Tannins and Tannin containing compounds. (c) Gums and Mucilages: Tragacenth. 509 PHARMACOGNOSY-III (Theory) Cr. Acacia. Sodium Alginate. (e) Isothiocyanate glycosides: Black Mustard.William F Ganong. Paramount Publishing th Business & Professional Group. 4. 2. Sarsaparilla. Manuchair Edabi. 10. Liquid glucose. Catechu and Nut Galls. (g) Aldehyde glycosides: Vanilla. 12. (f) Lactone glycosides: Cantharide. 6 Ed. chemistry and medicinal uses of: (a) Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF PLANT CONSTITUTIONS: An introduction to chromatography and chromatographic techniques e. 11. Pharmacology.Prof Dr A Qayum.Bertram G K. GLYCOSIDES: Introduction. Pectin. New Jersey. Honey. (b) Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives: Purified cotton. Aloe. Cochineal and Senna.g. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Rhubarb. Dextrine etc. Detailed study of: 107 . Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Hr. London. 1993. Sodium Carboxy-methyl cellulose. Inulin. Starch. 03 1. classification. (h) Miscellaneous glycosides: Gentian. Detailed study of Hammamelis. Methyl cellulose. Dioscorea. Dextrose. Xylose. TANNINS: Introduction. (c) Saponin glycosides: Glycyrrhiza. Microcrystalline cellulose. (a) Sucrose and Sucrose containing drugs: Sucrose. 5. Lactose. 3. Review of Medical physiology. Fructose. Little Brown & Company.

1988. G E Trease and W C Evans. Hr. Mohammad Ali. Topics in Pharmacognosy.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Youngkin H W. University Grants Commission Monograph Series. Lee Febiger Philadelphia. I. V E Tyler. 108 . New Delhi. Text Book of Pharmacognosy. Pharmacognosy. New Delhi. Introduction to Pharmacognosy. 513 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III (Instrumentation-I) (Theory) Cr. Linseed oil. th 5. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 2. cotton seed oil. Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy. 01 NOTE:. Chemical Pharmacognosy. Spectroscopy. 6. Islamabad. 9 Ed. Pharmacognosy. Toronto. 2002. th Toronto. Philadelphia. Mustard oil. Pharmacognosy. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 511 PHARMACOGNOSY-III (Laboratory) Cr..R. 4. 9 Ed. K Usmanghani. (b) Fats and Related Compounds: Theobroma oil and Lenolin. W B Saunders. Philadelphia. peanut oil. carnauba wax. University Grants Commission. 2. corn oil. Varro E Taylor. Text book of Pharmacognosy.. Extraction of the active constituents of crude drugs and chemical tests for their identification. Molecular fluorescence spectroscopy. Sesame oil and soybean oil. L R Brady and J E Robbers. 1986. 1986. 3. 8. Islamabad. 1948. Instrumentation and Pharmaceutical Applications of the following Spectroscopic Methods 1. Recommended Books 1. Flame Photometry. 3. (c) Waxes: Bees wax. 03 The topics will be taught with special Pharmaceutical Applications. 7. coconut oil. 6 Ed. Lea and Febiger. olive oil. Almond oil. K Usmanghani.(a) Fixed Oils: Castor oil. T E Wellis. 1985. 4. sun flower oil. 1985. The Blakiston Co. pp74. spermaceti and Jojoba oil.g. reference to their th Note:- Theory. Hr. e.

Applications of High Performance Liquid Chromatography. 5. Introduction to HPLC. Containers and closures for Dispensed Products. Pryde and M J Gilbert. Chapman and Hall. 01 NOTE:.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the requirements. Islamabad-Pakistan (2000). Chapman & Hall. London. 4. London. Theory and Practice of Chromatography. Von Nostrond Reinheld Co. Mass Spectroscopy. A H Beckett and J B Stennlake. 2.5. UV/Visible Spectroscopy. 8. New York. Jenkins’s quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 515 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III (Instrumentation-I) (Laboratory) Cr. M Aminuddin & Javed Iqbal. the Aulton Press. P A Sewell. 1979. Springer-Verlag. Recommended Books 1. Thin Layer Chromatography. E Heftmann. 1969. A M Knevel and F E Digangi. Fundamental operations in Compounding. 7. London. Chromatography. Part I and II. Prescription-Handling (Parts of Prescription. 1996. Braithwaite and F J Smith. 7. Hr.g. 2. Ellsi Horwood. 517 PHARMACEUTICS-V (Dispensing Pharmacy) (Theory) Cr. E Stahl. 1975. 6. McGraw-Hill Book Company. University Grants Commission. 1990. 9. Determination of the Purity and Composition of the unknown drugs by using at least each of the above techniques. High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Filling. 02 1. Calculations for compounding and Dispensing. Lough W J. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.R Hamilton. 1982. London. Berlin. 6.Organic Spectroscopy. e. Blacki Academic Press. Basic Principles of Compounding and Dispensing Including: Weights and Measures. Interpretation. William Kemp. Chromatographic Methods. Pricing) and Labelling of Dispensed Medication. London. Chapman & Hall. Hr. Extemporaneous Dispensing of: 109 . New York. 10. 3. New York. NMR Spectroscopy.

519 Solutions. 01 NOTE:. Ointments. Martindale's Extra Pharmacopoeia. e. 1986. after shave lotion. SECOND SEMESTER 110 . Suspensions. Mixtures: Dispensing of simple mixtures containing soluble substances only. Practical introduction to prescription-handling. Powders and granules and Oral unit dosage form. I. Cosmetics: Lipstic. 4. mixtures containing diffusable substances. 3. interpretation. indiffusable substances and mixtures forming precipitate. 4. 2. 2. 5. Emulsions. talcum powder. USA. filling and Labeling. Dispensing. Mack Publishing Company. Manifestations.3. Correction and Prevention with reference to typical examples. Hussa’s Dispensing. Incompatibility: Practical Importance of Incompatibilities. New Delhi. 3. 2001. 1. Suppositories and pessaries. Radio-Pharmacy-Techniques and Applications. 6. Hr. Admixtures.g. (Note: A minimum of 20 practicals will be conducted) Recommended Books 1. 5. shaving cream. Creams.V. 4. compound powders and effervescent powders for external use. PHARMACEUTICS-V (Dispensing Pharmacy) (Laboratory) Cr. Dispensing of cold cream and vanishing creams. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Pharmaceutical Incompatibilities: Types of Incompatibilities. Cooper and Guns. Powders: Dispensing of simple powders.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Classical dosage Forms. Ointments And Creams: Dispensing of iodine and Methyl salicylate ointment. Pastes and gels. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Batch Processing and Real-time Processing. Gateway. Searching the Internet. Types of Computer Operation. Good site design. Data Validation. System Analysis and Design What is a System? Steps in system life cycle. Components of a data communication system. E-mail and Newsgroups. Favorites. Complete Statistical Package like SPSS. 01 1. Development and Implementation of New System. Network Topology. Data Gathering and Data Analysis. 4. Web Page Development Introduction to Front-page. The main methods of data input. Links and Downloading. Types of data processing systems. Backing Storage Devices. New Delhi. Documentation. 3. Recommended Books 1. Hr. Designing a New System. Languages At least two prevailing languages will be taught. Fundamentals basic concept of computers History of Data Processing. Hyper linking. 111 . Devices used to collect data. E-mail/Internet concepts. Picture and Multimedia. 03 1. Addresses. Manipulating Tables within Front-page. Publishing and publicizing. Basic Formatting Techniques. Managing your Web. Award Galgotia Publications. Front-page and Frames. Output and Recording of data. The Data Processing Cycle. 3. Front-page. Introducing Front-page “components”. 1989. Internet and E-mail Internet and Microsoft Internet Explorer 5. 2. Types of Computers. Data Communication Applications of Data Communication. Unit of Memory. 504 COMPUTER AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY (Laboratory) Cr. Data Verification. security and Customizing Explorer. Hr. Viruses and Anti-viruses Issues. Computer Networks. The Collection and Computing of data.502 COMPUTER AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY (Theory) Cr. Rate of data Transmission. Elias M System Analysis. Creating a First Web site. Bookmarks and Image Maps. Components of a Computer. Computer System and Business Computer System. Manual collection of data. Data Processing Data Processing. 2. 4.

Aminoglycosides. (d) Chelating agents and their role in poisoning: Dimercaprol. 506 PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS-IV (Systemic Pharmacology-II (Theory) Cr. New York. Antiprotozoals (Treatment of Malaria and Treatment of Amebiasis). (b) Poison and principle of treatment of poisoning. Benzodiazepines and Organophosphorous compounds. While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group. (d) Thyroid hormone and anti-thyroid drugs. Drug treatment of Leprosy and Antibiotics (Penicillins. 3. Peter Norton. food). (c) Antihypertensive Drugs. Dennis N. Pencillamine and Defroxamine. Barbiturates. New York. Narcotics. Anti-neoplastic and Immunosuppressive drugs. 03 1. Note: 1. Digitalis. Brady Computer Books. CHEMOTHERAPY (a) Classification of drugs. Antivirals. Jump Practice Hall Press. Antifungals. 2. air. Newly introducted drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time. (b) Drug used for therapy of Diabetes Mellitus: Insulins and Oral Hypoglycemic agents.2. 1987. MS-DOS. Nicotine. Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products. Paracetamol. 4. Cephalosporins. (c) Poisoning (Sign & symptom and treatment): Ethanol. PC-DOS. (c) Corticosteroids. TOXICOLOGY (a) Pollution and its typers (water. Brady Computer Books. Hr. ANTAGONISTS AND OTHER AGENTS AFFECTING ENDOCRINE FUNCTION (a) Endocrine function and dysfunctions. Salicylides. 3. Chloramphenicol. 112 . Calcium disodium edentate. 3. New York. Tetracyclines. Macrolides. (d) Steroids and Antisteroid drugs. (b) Antimicrobials: Sulphonamides. Strychnine. 2. 1988. Peter Norton. HORMONES. Anthelmintics. Inside IBM PC. Quinolones and Miscellaneous Antibiotics). 1985.

Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. Japees Brother. B G. 1991. 5. Hr. 3. The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books.g. th 6. 9. To study the anti-coagulant effects of Heparin and oral anti-coagulants on Rabbits. 113 . Mosby Year Book. 2. J D Tripathy. 6. James M Ritter and Lionel De Levis.. R S Satorkar and S D Bhandarkar.g. Human Pharmacology. Lippincot William & Willkin. e. Boston. 2001. Gallamine. To demonstrate the graded Dose-Response curve of Acetylcholine on Rabbit intestine. 7. Pharmacological antagomism by Neuromuscular blocking agent e. D R Laurance... Popular Prakashan. 6 Ed.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 8 Ed. 7. 5. 4. 8.4. Essential of Medical Pharmacology. 1995. Winguard and Brody. 8. New York. Pharmacology. Abdominus muscle of Frog. 2. 4 Ed. New York. 1996. To identify the unknown drug by performing pharmacological competitive antagonism on Rectus. A Text book of Clinical Pharmacology. 3. 1. To identify unknown concentration of Acetycholine from graded DoseResponse curves. McGraw-Hill Medical th Publishers. 2001. Oxford University Press. USA. 1987. Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Katzung. Lipponcott. 2000. Goodman Gillman. Clinical Pharmacology. 4. 01 508 NOTE:. Bomby. New York. 1993. ELBS. To identify the unknown anti-coagulant drug using Rabbits. Recommended Books 1. PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS-IV (Systemic Pharmacology-II) (Laboratory) Cr. London. New th Delhi. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. McGrawHill Book Company. To identify and differentiate the effects of unknown drug on human and the nerve plexus of frog. To demonstrate the effects of Acetylcholine on the Rectus abdominus muscle of frog and competitive.

methods of obtaining volatile oils. significance.9. caraway. ALKALOIDS: Introduction. W F. (d) Ketonic volatile oils: Camphor. (b) Tropane Alkaloids: Belladonna. chemistry and classification of: (a) Hydrocarbon volatile oils: Cubeb and Terpentine oil. Methods of extraction and identification tests. 510 PHARMACOGNOSY-IV (Theory) Cr. Little Brown & Company. (c) Quinoline Alkaloids: Cinchona. Tolu balsam. Lobelia. Ipomoea. Buchu. catharanthus. properties and difference between glycoresins. Stramonium. colchicum. RESINS AND RESIN COMBINATION: Introduction. Pharmacology. 03 1. (e) Balsams: Storax. Thyme. Myrrh. 1995. (g) Oxide volatile oils: Eucalyptus. (b) Alcoholic volatile oils: Peppermint. (e) Indole alkaloids: Rauwolfia. Jalap. (a) Pyridine — Piperidine Alkaloids: Areca nut. VOLATILE OILS (ESSENTIAL OILS): Introduction. (c) Oleoresins: Terpentine. Cannabis. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Hyoscyamus. Coriander and Cardamom. London. Peshawar. Colocynth. USA. Anethum. (d) Oleo-gum resins: Asafoetida. 1993. (a) Resins: Rosin. (e) Phenolic volatile oils: Clove. (g) Steroidal alkaloids: Veratrum. chenopodium. lemon.William F Ganong. Review of Medical physiology. (f) Imidazole alkaloids: Pilocarpus. Paramount Publishing th Business & Professional Group. Properties. 3. Tobacco. oleoresins. Ghandhara University. 12. (i) Miscellaneous volatile oils: Allium. spearmint. 6 Ed. cinnamon and bitter almond oil. Hr. (h) Alkaloidal amines: Ephedra. Myristica. Benzoin. (d) Isoquinoline Alkaloids: Ipecacuanha. 10.. (h) Ester volatile oils: Rosemary. Peruvian balsam. Anise. Cassification. 2. Opium. Ginger. Prentice Hall International Inc. (b) Glycoresins: Podophyllum. Manuchair Edabi. Capsicum. physostigma. nux vomica. 114 . Function of alkaloids in plants.Qayum A Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology.Bertram G K. oleo-gum resins and balsams. (f) Phenolic ether volatile oils: Fennel. New Jersey. (c) Aldehydic volatile oils: Bitter orange peel. sweet orange peel. 11. ergot.

Gas Liquid Chromatography. Hr. Recommended Books 1. 512 PHARMACOGNOSY-IV (Laboratory) Cr. G E Trease and W C Evans.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 1986. 1985. 1988. th Toronto. 9 Ed.. 3. Isolation and separation of active constituents of crude drugs by paper and thin layer chromatography. Pharmacognosy. L R Brady and J E Robbers. CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS: Column Chromatography. Philadelphia. W B Saunders. Islamabad. HPLC and GCMS. 03 The topics will be taught Pharmaceutical Applications. 4. Islamabad. Pharmacognosy.(i) Purine Bases: Tea. Coffee. 7.. 115 . 1986. 1948. New Delhi. Lea and Febiger. Topics in Pharmacognosy. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 2002. Mohammad Ali.g. New Delhi. K Usmanghani. pp74. University Grants Commission. 2. Text Book of Pharmacognosy. Hr. Text book of Pharmacognosy. 1985. with special reference to their th Note:- 1. Introduction to Pharmacognosy. 01 NOTE:. TUMOUR INHIBITORS FROM PLANT: Detailed study of various antitumour agents isolated from plants. Thin Layer Chromatography. V E Tyler. ELECTRO CHEMICAL METHODS: Potentiometry. 4. Pharmacognosy. The Blakiston Co. Philadelphia. th 5. Toronto. 6 Ed. Chemical Pharmacognosy. Lee Febiger Philadelphia. Polarography and Radiochemical Techniques. e. 514 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-IV (Instrumentation) (Theory) Cr. 9 Ed. Varro E Taylor. 8. University Grants Commission Monograph Series. K Usmanghani. T E Wellis. Youngkin H W. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 6. 2.

London.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the requirements. Thin Layer Chromatography. A Pryde and M J Gilbert. DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY. A Braithwaite and F J Smith. E Stahl. Jenkins’s quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Lough W J. 1982. New York.g. e. University Grants Commission. 7. Chapman & Hall. Applications of High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Blacki Academic Press. Introduction to HPLC. 1990. Berlin. Chapman and Hall. 5. Ellsi Horwood. London. London. 116 . Determination of the Purity and Composition of the unknown drugs by using at least each of the above techniques. 516 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-IV (Instrumentation) (Laboratory) Cr. P A Sewell. 4. 1996 2. Theory and Practice of Chromatography. Recommended Books 1. Chapman & Hall. 1979. 3. 1975. 01 NOTE:. E Heftmann. Chromatographic Methods. A M Knevel and F E Digangi. Part I and II. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1969. William Kemp. London. 9.Organic Spectroscopy. Von Nostrond Reinheld Co. New York. M Aminuddin & Javed Iqbal. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Chromatography. New York. London. A H Beckett and J B Stennlake. 6. Islamabad-Pakistan (2000).R Hamilton.3. Hr. the aulton Press. 8. 10. High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Springer-Verlag.

Roy Robertson. MEDICAL COMPLICATION OF DRUG TAKING: General and Socioeconomic Aspects. Family Planning and Health Policy & National Drug Policy. Preventive Health (EPI & CDC). CONTROL OF DRUG ABUSE AND MISUSE. 8. Hr. 7. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences. Management of Drug Users in the Community: A Practical Handbook. 117 . 3. PATIENT ASSESSMENT. DEFINITIONS AND BACKGROUND. USA. PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNCELLING. 04 1. 2. 2001. 3. 4. PATIENT PHARMACIST COMMUNICATION. ROLE OF PHARMACIST: As Public Health Educator in the Community for Drug Monitoring and Drug Information. Mack Publishing Company. 6. Recommended Books 1.518 PHARMACEUTICS-IV (Community Pharmacy) (Theory) Cr. PUBLIC HEALTH AND COMMUNITY PHARMACY: Epidemeology & its Control. Martindale's Extra Pharmacopoeia. 2. 5.

(c) Administration. 5. (c) Poison Control Centre and Antidote Bank. (e) Determining the need of Professional and other departmental staff. PHARMACY. 2. (b) Format. Blood Bank. DISPENSING TO INPATIENTS (a) Methods of Dispensing & SOP’s. (b) Minimum standards for pharmacies in Institutions/Hospitals. 6. (c) Preparation of the Formulary & Role of Pharmacist. (d) Benefits and problems. (f) Contraceptives. Pathology. (e) Nursing. (f) Professional services rendered. (b) Organizational Pattern. (b) Unit dose dispensing. 118 . Dietectic. HOSPITAL AND ITS ORGANIZATION (a) Classification of Hospitals. Hr. Radiology and other supportive services etc. THE HOSPITAL FORMULARY (a) General Principles and guidelines to develop Formulary. (e) Keeping up-to-date Formulary. INTRODUCTION (a) Role of Pharmacist in Hospital. 4. ITS ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL (a) Pharmacy specialist. PHARMACY AND THERAPEUTIC COMMITTEE.FOURTH PROFESSIONAL FIRST SEMESTER 601 PHARMACEUTICS-VII (Hospital Pharmacy-I) (Theory) Cr. (d) Pharmacy Education. 03 1. (c) Research in Hospital Pharmacy. 3. (d) Clinical Departments. (g) Hospital Finances. (f) Role of Pharmacy in Hospital. (b) Drug information Centre.

Digoxin. London. 10. Anti TB Drugs. Prednisolone. 03 1.. Cimetidine. Fluroquinolone. NSAIDS.(c) Other concepts of dispensing. N I Bukhari. 8. DISPENSING TO AMBULATORY PATIENTS. Martin Stephen. GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL PHARMACY: Terminologies. Dobutamine. 2000. Choice of patients. PHARMACEUTICS-VIII (Clinical Pharmacy-I) 119 . Aminoglycosides. Exclusion of patients and Monitoring a clinical trial. Lahore-Pakistan. Nifedipine. PATIENT PROFILE: (a) Patient disease profile. Aziz Book Depot.SAFE USE OF MEDICATION IN THE HOSPITAL (a) Medication error. Cepahlosporins. Vancomycin) 3. Salbutamol. 5 Ed. William Hassan. (c) Role of Pharmacist in Controlling Medication Error. Morphine/Pethedine. CLINICAL TRIALS OF DRUG SUBSTANCES. 1986. Chlorpheniramine. Recommended Books 1. ORS. Metoclopramide. Satellite Pharmacy etc. Washington. Hospital Pharmacy. Hospital Pharmacy. Pharmaceutical Press. 2003. Penicillins. Benzodiazepines. 9. DISTRIBUTION OF CONTROL SUBSTANCES. DISPENSING DURING OFF-HOURS. Hospital Pharmacy. (b) Taking case History. Atropine. 3. Designing of clinical trials. Hr. 603 PHARMACEUTICS-VIII (Clinical Pharmacy-I) (Theory) th Cr. 2. Frusemide. Lee & Febiger. Dopamine. Types of trials. 2. EMERGENCY TREATMENT. Macrolides. 7. Basic Components and Scope. (c) Drug Profile of 25 Drugs (Adrenaline. Antiepileptics. 605 4. (b) Evaluation & Precautions of Medication Error. Lactulose.

Pharmacist Talking with Patients. Fluidized Bed systems. Black Well. 3. North Carolina. a Practical Guide to Success. Hr. 5. Mixing Equipment used in Liquid/Liquid. 607 PHARMACEUTICS-IX (Industrial Pharmacy-I) (Theory) Cr. William & Willkins. Sarrison. 2003 9. A J Winfield. London. MIXING: Fundamentals. 01 Clerkship in the Clinical setting.Mellainie J Rantucci. Classification of dryers.Smith GDG and Aronson J K. Spray dryer. Recommended Books 1. USA.. Sue Horwood Publishing limited. Pneumatic systems. UK. 1989. Clinical Research Coordinator Hand Book.. Hr. Kavin Taylor. Oxford Text Book of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. USA. Philadelphia. Churchill rd Levingstone. Joseph T Dipiro.(Laboratory) Cr. Marcel Dekker Publishing 2002. nd 2 Ed. DRYING: Theories of drying. 4. 3.Hansten P and Horn J. 2000. West Sussex. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics.1997 11. New York. Drug interactions. 03 1. 4. Clinical Studies Management. Churchill Levingstone. Encyclopedia of Clinical Pharmacy. Taylor & Francis. 2. 1990. Factors affecting size reduction. A project related to Clinical Pharmacy Practices will be completed by the students and will be evaluated by the external examiner. 1998. Encyclopedia of Pharmacy. Marcel Dekker Publishing. nd 6. 7. 8. Mechanisms. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. Oxford Universotu Press. 10. Pharmacy Practice. Reasons for size reduction. UK. Communition (size reduction). T. 3 Ed. 2003. A Behavioral Approach to Pharmacy Practice.. 12. Inc. Drying of Solids. London. Guard Paul. London. 2 Ed. 2. Simon Cook. Lee & Febiger. Herfindal Gourley. HEAT TRANSFER. MASS TRANSFER. 1998. Joseph. 120 . Freeze dying. 1992. Pharmaceutical Practice. Liquid/Solid and solid/solid mixing. Deborah Rosenbaun. Roger Walker. General Methods. Dipiro. USA.

Lackman. Filter media. Density. Evaporators and Evaporation under reduced pressure. 2. Physics of Tabletting. Recommended Books 1. by Slugging and by Direct Compression. Friability. problems involved in tabletting. New Delhi. Rational and Compliance. 01 NOTE:. John Sharp. 2001. Size Reduction. Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice. Filter press. Disintegrant. Angle of Repose. e. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy. Capsulation (Hard and Soft gelatin capsules). CLARIFICATION AND FILTERATION: Theory. 7. Homogenization. CBS Publishers & Distributors. chemical and fire hazards problems. 5.size analysis. 4. Film coatingand Enteric Coating). 609 PHARMACEUTICS-IX (Industrial Pharmacy-I) (Laboratory) Cr. 121 . Flow rates.g. tabletting machines and other equipment required. 3. Energy Mills (Ball Mill. Edge Rumer. Mack Publishing Company. Mass volume relationship. Compression (dry method. 1986. 5. CBS Publishers & Distributors. (b) Inflammable gases and dusts. Heckel Plots. 1986. and Fluid Energy Mill etc. SAFETY METHODS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY: (a) Mechanical. Coating of Tablets (Sugar Coating. Cooper and Gunn’s.).Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 6. Melta filters and Rotary filters). Bombay. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences. Hr. slugging). Tutorial Pharmacy. wet method. Manufacture of Tablets by Wet Granulation Method. Hammer Mill. Endrumer. New Delhi. Colloid Mill. Consolidation. Granulation. Bentley’s Pharmaceutical Text Book. Clarification of liquids by various processes. Sieving. Verghese Publishing House. USA. 1987. Filter selection and Equipment (Leaf filter. 8. COMPRESSION AND COMPACTION: The solid-air Interface. EVAPORATION: General principles of Evaporation. tablet coating. Filter aids. Cutter Mill.

3. 4. MULTIPLE DOSAGE REGEMIN. Hr. Relative and Absolute Bioavailability.g. th Appleton & Lange. 613 PHARMACEUTICS-X (Biopharmaceutics) (Laboratory) OF Cr. In-vitro dissolution studies. GASTRO-INTESTINAL ABSORPTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 7. 5. Therapeutics. Drug Disposition. Determination of relative and absolute bioavailability. BIOPHARMACEUTICAL AND PHARMACOKINETIC ASPECTS IN DEVELOPING A DOSAGE FORM.611 PHARMACEUTICS-X (Biopharmaceutics-I) (Theory) Cr. Recommended Books 1. Biotransformation and Therapeutic Equivalents. rabbits. BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES: Purpose. Pharmacokinetics. Blood Sampling Techniques: In Laboratory Animals like dog. pH Partition Theory. Leon Shargel. Optional dose determination. Applied Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics. 01 NOTE:. 1999. INTRAVENOUS INFUSIONS. 4 Ed. 2. Measurement of rateof Bioavailability. Hr. Bioequivalence. 122 . New York. FACTORS AFFECTING DISSOLUTION IN RESPECT BIOAVAILABILITY: Methods of in-vitro and in-vivo determination of rate of dissolution. 6. Generic Equivalence. e. 03 1 DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY: Biopharmaceutics. In human beings. Forces which help in transmembrane movements. Bioavailability.. Lipid Solubility and Factors affecting Bioavailability. mice etc.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. and Determination of Bioavailability.

Black Well Scientific Publishing. Stephen H Curry. Introduction to Drug Metabolism.2. 1982. New York. 1986. Clinical Pharmacokinetics.Albert P Li. P Macheras. Weight per ml and Assay of active ingredients. LLC. chemical and biological tests and specifications. 1995. Paramount Press. Disintegration. its determiantion and application in the Quality Control of Pharmaceuticals. New York. London. dosage form control. 1985. Granules. CRC Press. Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. (b) General understanding of Total Quality Assurance and measures to adopt Quality Assurance. testing program and methods. Ellis Horwood Limited. 1988. London. 11. 1989. quality control programme and methods adopted in a pharmaceutical industry. 5. Oxford. Weight Variation. Invitro approaches for evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity. C Reppas and J B Dressman. Sarfraz Niazi. statitical quality control. 1977. 123 . QUALITY CONTROL OF SOLID DOSAGE FORMS: (a) Physical tests: Hardness. 3. New York. New York. Hr. Milo Gibaldi. 9. Thickness and Diameter. process control. USA. physical. Pharmacokinetics in drug discovery and Development. Marchel & Dakker Inc. 2. Drug disposition and pharmacokinetics. Biopharmaceutics of orally administered drugs. USA. Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 615 PHARMACEUTICS-XI (Pharmaceutical Quality Management-I) (Theory) Cr. 3. Robert E Notari. 7. 2004. William & Willkins. Marchel & Dakker Inc. Gibbson and Skett. Appleton-Century-Crofts. Malcoln Rouland. Assay of active ingredients and dissolution tests of Powders. Friability. 4. QUALITY CONTROL OF SYRUPS AND ELIXIRS: Viscosity. 8. Toxicokinetics and New Drug Development. 03 1. Tablets and Capsules. (b) Chemical tests: Content uniformity. SCOPE (a) An understanding of the testing. 2002. CRC Press LLC. Avraham Yacobi. 10. Text Book of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Champ & Hall. London (1995). Thomous N Tozer.Ronald D Schoenwald. 6.

McGraw-Hill Book Company. Uniformity of weight. 8. John Wiley and Sons. Chapman and Hall. A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis.4. Karamt A Javaid. Assay of Ointments and suppositories. CRC Press. A H Beckett and J B Stennlake. 3. extracts. 617 PHARMACEUTICS-XI (Pharmaceutical Quality Management-I) (Laboratory) Cr. Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals. Part-I and II. London. Lahore-Pakistan (1993). Aziz Publishers. London. Jenkin’s Quantitative Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Pyrogen test for parenterals and other sterile preparations and Assay for active ingredients. M Knevel and F E Digangi.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. LLC. Assay of various spirits. 5. Assay of tablets and capsules. (revised and expanded). Gil Bismuth and Shosh Neumann. tinctures. New York. Determiantion of alcohol contents in the Pharmaceutical preparations and Pyrogen test. 4. The Alton Press. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Test for alkalinity of glass. Analytical Chemistry. Industry and Market. 9. New York. QUALITY CONTROL OF STERILE PRODUCTS (PARENTERALS) Leaker’s test. Drug Stability: Principles and rd Practices. Liqefaction time test and Breaking test. Cleaning Validation. Sydney H Willig. Recommended Books 1. Assay of active ingredients. Mercel Dekker. EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED ACTION PRODUCTS (TABLETS & CAPSULES): Stability of viability rate during storage and In-vitro & In-vivo evaluation of sustaining action. 3 Ed. G D Christian. Marcel Dekker Publishing. QUALITY CONTROL OF SUPPOSITORIES Disintegration test. 2. USA. 5. Chromatographic Methods. e. Braithwaite and F J Smith. Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance in Class.g. J T Carstersen and C T Rhodes. 7. New York. 2000. 124 . John — Wiley and Sons. 2003. 01 NOTE:. syrups and elixirs. Hr. Clarity test. 6. 6. A practical approach. K A Connors. New York.

2.SURGICAL SUPPLIES. HEALTH ACCESSORIES. Semi-sterile Dispensing (Eye drops. 7.10. 6. 11. DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINES. THE PHARMACY-CENTRAL STERILE SUPPLY ROOM. NY. 4. 1987. 11.Braun R E. NUCLEAR PHARMACY. The pharmaceutical Quality Control Hand Book. Stock Control. 3. PURCHASING. 9. SECOND SEMESTER 602 PHARMACEUTICS-VII (Hospital Pharmacy-II) (Theory) 1. Drug Distribution. MANUFACTURING BULK AND STERILE. Relationship between purchasing. ASEPTIC DISPENSING TPN. INVESTIGATIONAL USE OF DRUGS. McGraw-Hill Book Co.Bryant R. Inventory Management.INSPECTION OF WARDS WITH REFERENCE TO DRUG STORAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis. Cr. Stocking. Cytotoxic Dispensing. Distribution and Clinical Pharmacy Services. ROLE OF PHARMACISTS IN SMALL HOSPITALS. Ear drops) and Hyperailimentation. 03 125 .MANAGEMENT OF ACCIDENT & EMERGENCY PHARMACY (A & E). 12. 1989. NURSING HOMES ETC: 5. Hr. THE PHYSICAL PLANT AND ITS EQUIPMENT 8. Aster Publishing Corporation. MEDICAL & SURGICAL SUPPLIES: Purchasing. 10. Eugene. I/V Admixtures.

5 Ed. Washington. Lee & Febiger. 604 PHARMACEUTICS-VIII (Clinical Pharmacy-II) (Theory) th Cr. William Hassan. 126 . Hospital Pharmacy. Hr. Lahore-Pakistan (2000). UTILIZATION OF CLINICAL DRUG LITERATURE: Introduction. N I Bukhari. Aziz Book Depot. DRUG INDUCED DISEASES. London. Role of pharmacist in evaluating drug interactions & its management. Types and level of drug interactions. 4. Toxicity following drug withdrawal. 2. Recommended Books 1. reporting & Management of ADR. COMPUTERS IN CLINICAL PHARMACY: 5. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS: Adverse Drug Reactions and Side Effects: Classification. GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN. 03 1. 1986. Idiosyncrasy.COMMON KNOWLEDGE OF ABOUT 100 DRUGS REGISTERED BY MINISTRY OF HEALTH. Pharmaceutical Press. 2. Allergic drug reactions. 3. General toxicity. DRUG INTERACTIONS: Mechanism. Detection. Drug literature selection.13. Excessive pharmacological response. 2003. Drug literature evaluation and Drug literature communication. Secondary pharmacological effects. 3. Hospital Pharmacy.. Physiological factors affecting interaction. Martin Stephen. Hospital Pharmacy.

Marcel Dekker Publishing. Pharmaceutical Practice.Mellainie J Rantucci. 1998. Kavin Taylor. USA. A Behavioral Approach to Pharmacy Practice. nd 6. London. SEMISOLIDS: 127 . Oxford Text Book of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. Encyclopaedia of Pharmacy. Philadelphia. 608 PHARMACEUTICS-IX (Industrial Pharmacy-II) (Theory) Cr. Marcel Dekker Publishing. Drug interactions. Clinical Research Coordinator Hand Book. North Carolina. 2003 9. A project related to Clinical Pharmacy Practices will be completed by the students and will be evaluated by the external examiner. Churchill Levingstone. 1997. 2 edition. 7. Joseph. 3. London. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. Recommended Books 1. Pharmacist Talking with Patients. a Practical Guide to Success. USA. 01 Clerkship in the Clinical setting. USA. 1989. Deborah Rosenbaun. 1998. SUSPENSIONS: Formulation of suspensions. 11. Pharmacy Practice. Black Well. Equipment used in preparation and test methods for pharmaceutical suspensions. UK. 8. Lee & Febiger. 5. Churchill rd Levingstone. 4. 03 and 1. 2. Sarrison. 1990. Clinical Studies Management. Dipiro. Oxford University Press. Taylor & Francis. Herfindal Gourley. A J Winfield.. Guard Paul. UK. nd 2 Ed. 2000. EMULSIONS: Mechanical Equipments. Hr. Joseph T. Sue Horwood Publishing limited. London. T Dipiro. 1992.Smith GDG and Aronson J K. Specific formulation Considerations Emulsion stability. William & Willkins. Simon Cook. 3 Ed. West Sussex. Roger Walker. Encyclopaedia of Clinical Pharmacy. 12.. 2003 2. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. New York. Inc. 3. 2002 10.Hansten P and Horn J. Hr.606 PHARMACEUTICS-VIII (Clinical Pharmacy-II) (Laboratory) Cr.

Dissolution. Tablets Tests like Disintegration. Packaging Lines. Friability. Sutures. Stability. Pastes. e. Good Manufacturing Practices and Current Good Manufacturing Practices. Determination of weight variation in tablets. 610 PHARMACEUTICS-IX (Industrial Pharmacy-II) (Laboratory) Cr. Recommended Books 128 . suspending agents. solubilizer. Added substances (Preservatives. PACKING & PACKAGING: Influence of Packaging materials. 6. air locks. STUDY TOUR: A visit to the pharmaceutical industries will be an integral part of the syllabi. leakage. 4. pyrogens. Particle size analysis. buffers. Implants. Sprays. 8. Ophthalmic ointments. Equipment). stabilizers etc. Packaging of ointments. 01 NOTE:. Hardness and thickness tests. sealing and sterilization clarity and leakage tests in injectables. clarity etc. Inprocess Quality Control of Parenterals (Sterility. Sterilization. 7. 5. 3.). Filling/Packaging (Plastic and glass containers). 2.). air control. Gels and Jellies.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Environmental monitoring methods. STANDARDIZATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS: An understanding of quality assurance system adopted in pharmaceutical industry. Complete Sterility (Aseptic area). (Laminar flow etc. Capsule filling by semi automatic machines. Plasters and Sachet packing. Manufacture of sustained action drugs.). Packaging Equipment. Ampoule filling. Hr.g. Packaging Area. Density of powder. Preparation of praenterals (Building. 1. antioxidants. EQUIPMENTS USED FOR: Patches.Equipment used for Ointments. STERILE PRODUCTS: Sterile area and its Classification.

1. 129 . 5. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy. CBS Publishers & Distributors. Salivary excretion. DRUG CLEARANCE: Mechanism. ELIMINATION OF DRUGS: a) Hepatic Elimination. INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOKINETICS: Determination through plasma drug level studies. Tubular Secretion and Tubular Reabsorption. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 3. Application of pharmacokinetics in clinical situations. 3. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences. Rational and Compliance. Three compartment open model and Non-compartmental method of analysis. c) Elimination of Drugs through other organs: Pulmonary excretion. 1986. Bentley’s Pharmaceutical Text Book. Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice. John Sharp. New Delhi. 2. Mammary excretion. USA. Two compartment open model. 5. Skin excretion and Genital excretion. determination and relationship of clearance with half-life. 612 PHARMACEUTICS-X (Biopharmaceutics-II) (Theory) Cr. Bombay. First pass effect. Percent of Drug Metabolized. 1986. Hr. 4. New Delhi. 1987. Mack Publishing Company. Cooper and Gunn’s. (Phase-I reactions and phase-II reactions). Verghese Publishing House. 4. BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE AND VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION: Concept and Methods of Determination. CONCEPT OF COMPARTMENT (S) MODELS: One compartment open model. 2001. PROTEIN BINDING: Determination of plasma protein binding and Clinical significance of drug-protein binding. Drug Biotransformation reactions. b) Renal Excretion of Drugs: Renal clearance. Hepatic clearance of protein bound drugs and Biliary excretion of drugs. 6. 03 1. 2. Lackman. Tutorial Pharmacy.

Determination of plasma protein binding. In humans. P Macheras. Malcoln Rouland. William & Willkins. 614 PHARMACEUTICS-X (Biopharmaceutics-II) (Laboratory) Cr. USA. New York. 1988. 8. 4. Recommended Books 1. 4. 3. 2002.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Marchel & Dakker Inc. 1989. 2. Plasma level-time curve: Determination of Pharmacokinetic parameters. 1999. C Reppas and J B Dressman. 9.7. Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. New York. 5. 7. LLC.. 1995. Stephen H Curry. Toxicokinetics and New Drug Development. Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 1. Avraham Yacobi. Appleton-Century-Crofts. London (1995). Applied Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics. Urinary sampling techniques. 130 . 2. Text Book of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Oxford.Ronald D Schoenwald. 1982. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOKIENTICS IN DISEASE STATES. th Appleton & Lange. 1986. Milo Gibaldi. 3. LLC. APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOAVAILABILITY IN CLINICAL SITUATIONS.g. Ellis Horwood Limited. Drug disposition and pharmacokinetics. 8. 11. Pharmacokinetics in drug discovery and Development. Gibbson and Skett. USA. Leon Shargel. 2004. Paramount Press. 6. Champ & Hall. CRC Press. New York. 10. Robert E Notari. In Laboratory animals. Thomous N Tozer. Renal excretion of drugs or drug disposition. e.Albert P Li. Invitro approaches for evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity. London. London. New York. 1977. Biopharmaceutics of orally administered drugs. 01 NOTE:. Black Well Scientific Publishing. Sarfraz Niazi. Hr. 1985. CRC Press. Marchel & Dakker Inc. 4 Ed. New York. Introduction to Drug Metabolism.

Determination of emulsion types. Bioassay of antibiotics.. Loss on Drying. BIOLOGICAL ASSAYS: Biological methods. 6.g. Maceration. 03 1.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. 3. Assay of prepared digitalis and Assay of Vitamin D. Sterility test. Determiantion of Ash contents. Hr. 5. 4. AND USP. Hr. Determination of viscosity of syrups. Extraction of drugs. Determination of Moisture contents. Percolation. Method for liquids containing less than 30% or more than 30% alcohol and special treatment before distillation. Bioassay of insulin injection. Continuous extraction.P. MISCELLANEOUS DETERMINATIONS AND TESTS: Determiantion of weight/ml. ALCOHOL DETERMIANTION: Alcoholometric methods. 2. Toxicity tests & Identification tests. Standard praprations and units of activity. ALKALOIDAL DRUG ASSAY: Weighing for assay. Problem during distillation of alcohol.. 131 . Puriifcation of Alkaloids and determination of alkaloids.616 PHARMACEUTICS-XVI (Pharmaceutical Quality Managements-II)(Theory) Cr. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF APPENDICES ATTACHED TO B. 01 NOTE:. e. BPC. Determination of total solids. gels. Ash contents and Alkalinity of Glass. Evaluation of Ointments. 618 PHARMACEUTICS-XVI (Pharmaceutical Quality Managements-II) (Laboratory) CONTROL Cr. STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF QUALITY CHARTS DURING MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. Water/Moisture content. etc.

2000. Gil Bismuth and Shosh Neumann. Lahore-Pakistan (1993). 9. 11. J T Carstersen and C T Rhodes. New York. 1987. The pharmaceutical Quality Control Hand Book. John Wiley and Sons. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis. 6. New York. Eugene. LLC. Part-I and II. London. G D Christian. Aster Publishing Corporation. 132 . Cleaning Validation. 2. 2003. CRC Press.Recommended Books 1. Aziz Publishers. Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance in Class. Industry and Market. Chromatographic Methods. K A Connors. 7. Analytical Chemistry. A H Beckett and J B Stennlake. A practical approach. 10. A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis. USA. Chapman and Hall. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A Braithwaite and F J Smith. London. 3 Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals. 8. New York. NY. A M Knevel and F E Digangi.Bryant R. Drug Stability: Principles and rd Practices. 1989. The Alton Press.Braun R E. New York. Sydney H Willig. Karamt A Javaid. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Marcel Dekker Publishing. 3. 5. John — Wiley and Sons. 4. Jenkin’s Quantitative Pharmaceutical chemistry. (revised and expanded) Mercel Dekker.

Fantanyl Citrate. General anaesthetics (Cyclopropane. INTRODUCTION TO MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY: Chemical constitution and biological activity: (Receptor. Thebaine). Terpenes. Menthol. 03 Note:- reference to their 1. Carotenes. Structure Activity Relationships (SAR) and Drug Metabolism). Pyrazolone and Pyrazolodiones. e) Anti-neoplastic Agents: Tamoxifen. CLASSIFICATION OF SYNTHETIC DRUGS: Drug Design and recent appraoches to the synthesis of drugs (a brief concept of methods and reactions of synthesis of various drugs). c) Vitamins: Water Soluble Vitamins (B1. Narylanthranilic acids. Cocaine and Benzocaine). h) Analgesics and Antipyretics: Paracetamol. Nicotinic acid. Glutethimide. g) Anaesthetics: Local anaesthetics (Procaine. Aryl and heteroaryl acetic acid derivatives. Tribromo ethanol). Ephedrine. Theory. Methotrexate and Vincristine. B2. the structure & isolation from natural source). Mercapturine. Fluorouracil. Glucagon. Lignocaine. B6. GENERAL PROPERTIES. Camphor. D. Citral. Nitrous oxide. Pinene. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF THE FOLLOWING: a) Alicyclic Compounds: Cyclopropane. CHEMISTRY (General methods of determination. Salicylic acid analogues. Progesterone. 2. Cr. Hr. Morphine and related compounds (Codeine. Thioamylal Sodium. Biotin. B12. Chloral hydrate. and K). E. Ergotamine. Proteinous Hormones (Insulin. f) Sedatives and Hypnotics: Benzodiazepines. Quinolines derivatives. Methohexital. and alcohols. Estrogen. Pantothenic acid and Ascorbic acid) Fat Soluble Vitamins (A. Chloroform. Aldosteron and Cortisol). Reserpine. Paraldehyde. Folic acid. b) Alkaloids: Atropine. Oxytocin and Vassopressin). 133 . 3. Barbiturates.FINAL PROFESSIONAL (FIFTH) PHARM-D FIRST SEMESTER 701 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-V (Medicinal Chemistry-I) (Theory) The topics will be taught with special Pharmaceutical Applications. Thiopental Sodium. Halothane. d) Hormones: Steroidal Hormones (Testosterone. BIOLOGICAL ACTION. Ketamine. Eucaine.

Mack Publishing Company. DRUG ABUSE & MISUSE. Verghese Publising House. DRUG UTILZATION EVALUATION & DRUG UTILIZATION REVIEW (DUE/DUR): Development of protocol of use of few very low therapeutic index drug groups like Steroids. o-Chloro-benzoic acid. Aspirin. Problems of Irrational Drug Use. 5-Hydroxy-1. Hydroxy. Inorganic and Medicinal Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Remington Practice of Pharmaceutical Science. Martin and Cook. Bombay. Indicators of drug use. Azobenzene. Alferd Burger. 1990. RATIONAL USE OF DRUGS: Rational Presribing. Soine and Wilson. Methyl salicylate. Salicylic Acid. INTRODUCTION TO ESSENTIAL DRUGS: Criteria for selection. 2. 3. Foye W O. Bomby. Block. 4. 2. Roche. 1983. 1995. Medicinal Chemistry. Anmol Publications. 705 PHARMACEUTICS-XVII (Clinical Pharmacy-III) (Theory) Cr. Text Book of Synthetic Drugs. Block. Carboxylic. Recommended Books 1. Sampling to study drug use. 4. e. 6. Synthesis of Paracetamol. Usage and Advantages. Rational Dispensing. 134 . Tyagi. 03 1. New York.g. 3. Learning about drug use problem. Amino and Nitro groups. 1996. Estimation of functional groups. Hr. Verghese Publishing House. 1. 01 NOTE:. Soine and Wilson. P-nitrosophenol.3-benzoxazol-2-one. Lee & Febiger. Jhon Willey & Sons. Delhi.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. Determination of Molecular weights of Organic Compounds. Roche.703 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-V (Medicinal Chemistry-I) (Laboratory) Cr. 2001 2. Hr. 5. 3-nitrophthalic acid. Vancomycin and Cimetidine. Inorganic and Medicinal Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 1986. Philadelphia. Benzoic Acid. USA. USA.

. Hr. Clinical Studies Management. A Behavioral Approach to Pharmacy Practice. UK. Encyclopedia of Pharmacy.5. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. Churchill rd Levingstone. 7. Sue Horwood Publishing limited. Pharmacist Talking with Patients. Joseph T Dipiro. A project related to Clinical Pharmacy Practices will be completed by the students and will be evaluated by the external examiner. 01 Clerkship in the Clinical setting. Black Well. 707 PHARMACEUTICS-XVII (Clinical Pharmacy-III) (Laboratory) Cr. Cabamazepine. 2. Pharmaceutical Practice. Phenytoin. USA. 2 Ed. Taylor & Francis. Churchill Levingstone. 1997. UK. Joseph T Dipiro. 3 Ed. Lithium. Recommended Books 1. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. Hr. Simon Cook. Marcel Dekker Publishing. Philadelphia. Deborah Rosenbaun.. Walparic Acid. Clinical Research Coordinator Hand Book. Oxford Text Book of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 1989. New York. USA. 6. Pharmacy Practice. 709 PHARMACEUTICS-XVIII (Pharmaceutical Technology-I) (Theory) Cr.. USA. Cyclosporins and Vancomycin. Guard Paul. 1990.Hansten P and Horn J. Primidone. 1998. Theophyline. 9.Smith GDG and Aronson J K. 2003. 1992. William & Willkins. Phenobarbitone. 2003. PRACTICAL PHARMACOKINETICS: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Digoxin. Lee & Febiger. Kavin Taylor. London. Encyclopedia of Clinical Pharmacy. 5. 11. a Practical Guide to Success. nd 6. 2000. nd 2 Ed. 4. 3. A J Winfield. 2002. North Carolina. Drug interactions. London. Herfindal Gourley.Mellainie J Rantucci. Roger Walker. Oxford University Press. 10. 12. PHARMACOECONOMIC STUDIES. Sarrison. 03 135 . Marcel Dekker Publishing. London. 1998. Inc. 8. West Sussex. Gentamycin.

4. M E Aulton. nd New York. 4. London. 7. John A Bontempo.g. Various techniques to develop the formulation. c) Other Novel GIT Systems. CBS Publishers & Distributers. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT: Pharmaceutical Ophthalmic Preparations.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the requirements. 01 NOTE:. Controlled and Novel drug delivery. London.1. b) Active & Passive Drug Delivery System. Drug delivery and targeting. 3. Pharmaceutics: Science of Dosage Forms Design. 2. Joseph R Robinson Controlled drug delivery. New Dehi. New technologies in drug delivery system. and Parenteral Preparations. Pharmaceutical design and development. 1997. Recommended Books 1. Modern pharmaceutics. 1990. London. Ellis Horwood. N K Jain. Lee & Febiger. ADVANCED FORMULATION TECHNIQUES: Development of a formualtion methodology and flow plan for the new product. Need for Dosage Form and Preformulation Studies. 2. Anya M Hellery. Banker. Development of biopharmaceutical parenteral dosage forms. Taylor & Francis. 6. 5. Granulation technology. Pharmaceutical Dosage Form in Drug Delivery System. 1994. 711 PHARMACEUTICS-XVIII (Pharmaceutical Technology-I) (Laboratory) Cr. 136 . 1990. e. Marchell Dakker Inc. New York. PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION AND DOSAGE FORM DESIGN: Product Formulation. Hr. New York. 1987. Marchell Dakker Inc. 2 Ed. 2001. ELBS/Churchill Livingstone. Niosomes and Biodegradable polymers. 8.. Ansel. In-vitro Quality Control of various dosage forms. 1998. NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: a) Introduction to the Drug Carrier: Liposomes. Biotechnological aspect of product development. 3. Aerosoles. T V Ramabhadran. New York. 1997. Marcel & Dakker Inc. Study of drug delivery systems.

LLC. 2000. Inject able drug development. USA. Recommended Books 1. (b) Provincial Drug Rules (Respective Drug Rules will be taught in the relevant province).9. CRC Press. Lee & Febiger. CRC Press. 2. 713 PHARMACEUTICS-XX (Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing-I) (Theory) Cr. Irfan Law Book House. Introduction to the principals of drug design and action.Peter Blaisdell. CRC Press. e) Management Control Systems 137 . 1999.H John Smith. (c) Advertisement rules. 03 STUDY OF DRUG LAWS: (a) The Drugs Act 1976 and rules framed thereunder. Steps in Planning. 3 Ed. 10. USA. Hr. 1967. The Poisons Act. Control of Narcotics Substances Act 1997. 4. MANAGEMENT: a) Nature and Principles of Management. d) Organizing.Pramod K Gupta. The Dangerous Drugs Act 1930. 5. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy. USA. 1919. 713 PHARMACEUTICS-XIX (Forensic Pharmacy-I) (Theory) Cr. (d) Other related rules and Legal aspects.. 6. b) Types and Functions of Managers. 12. Attaurahman and M I Chaudry. R Z Hussain. LLC. The Pharmacy Act. 11. 7. c) Planning: Purpose and types of Planning. Shop and Establishment Ordinance 1969. Twenty First Century Pharmaceutical Development.Rong Liu. The Factory Law 1934. 13. USA. LLC. 2003. Lahore-Pakistan. LLC. 1998. Hr. rd Philadelphia. CRC Press. 3. CRC Press.Lachman L. The Manual of Drug Laws in Pakistan. 2000. 2001. 03 1. Bioassay techniques for drug development. LLC. Water Insoluble Drug Formulations. USA. 14. 1986.

Biguanides. London (1979). Aromatic acid and esters. Philadelphia. Thiabendazole. g) Innovation and creativity. Toronto. 138 . (c) Antimalarials: 4-Aminoquinolines. Recommended Books 1. Nitrofuran derivatives. PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT: (a) Material Management. Principles & Methods of Pharmacy Management. Sulfamethoxazole. Tariq Academy. Faisalabad-Pakistan (2002). The C V Mosby Company. (d) Anthelmintics: Phenols and related compounds. Mebendazole and Pyrantal. 8-Aminoquinolines. BIOLOGICAL ACTION. h) Communication. Halogens and Halogen compounds. sulphadimidine. Mefloquine and Cinchoha alkaloids. Forms of Operations control. Mercurochrome and Thiomersal. Requirements for adequate control. Louis. Pharmaceutical Management and Marketing. Sulphapyridine. (b) Sulphonamides: Prontosil. 2. Piperazine derivatives. Sulfadiazine and Sulfafurazole. sulphanilamide. 3. reference to their Note:- 1. Critical control points and standards. Formaldehyde and its derivatives. St. Dyes. Harry A Smith. CHEMISTRY. Lea & Febiger. Patrick Tharp & Pedro J Lecca. Pharmacy Management for students and practitioners. 03 The topics will be taught with special Pharmaceutical Applications. Pyrimidine analogues. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF THE FOLLOWING: (a) Anti-septics: Phenols and related compounds.Purpose: Steps in the Control Process. 9-Amino acridines. 1986. 2. SECOND SEMESTER 702 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-VI (Medicinal Chemistry-VI) (Theory) Cr. Hr. GENERAL PROPERTIES. M Ahmad & N I Bukhari. f) Motivation.

Chloramphenicol. Delhi. Mack Publishing Company. 4. e. Rifampacin. Aspirin. 2. 1. OCCURANCE. Martin and Cook. Magnesium Carbonate. Text Book of Synthetic Drugs. Bomby. New York. Recommended Books 1. Lithium Carbonate. Inorganic Preparations. Cephalosporins. Tyagi. Ethunamide. USA. Sodium Nitrite. Theophylline. Acetazolamiode. (h) Immunosuppressant Agents: Azathioprine and Cyclosporin. 2. Tromantadine Hydrochloride and Ribavirin. Hr. 1996.Flourouracil and Dacarbazine.g. ANTIBIOTICS: Penicillins. Sprironolactone. (f) Anti-tubercular Drugs: Ethambutol. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF OFFICIAL INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Aluminium Hydroxide. 5. Ammonium Chloride. Thiazides. Anmol Publications. Ferrous Fumarate. Alferd Burger. Ferrous Sulfate and Silver Nitrate. 2. Sodium Carbonate. 3. Antimony Gluconate. Isonicotinic acid. Streptomycin. Verghese Publising House. Calcium Gluconate. Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Jhon Willey & Sons. Benzyl Penicillin. Remington Practice of Pharmaceutical Science. Furosemide.(e) Diuretics: Mercaptomerin. 3. Hydrazid. Tetracyclines. Thioguanine. Cytarabine. Medicinal Chemistry. cycloserine. 1995. 704 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-VI (Medicinal Chemistry-VI) (Laboratory) Cr. Meralluride. 01 NOTE:.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. (g) Antiviral Drugs: Acyclovir. 139 . Pyrazinamide. Foye W O. PROPERTIES. Ethacrynic acid and Triameterene. Paracetamol. Kanamycin and Erythromycin. Assay of the Drugs like Sulpha drugs. 2001. 1990.

etiology. Methods of assessment. Malaria. Tetanus. ITS SCOPE. Soine and Wilson. AIDS. NON-COMPLIANCE: Definition. 706 PHARMACEUTICS-XVIII (Clinical Pharmacy-IV) (Theory) Cr. Anaemia. Typhoid Fever. Ulcer.5. Philadelphia. their clinical features. Bombay. Meningitis. Conjunctivitis. Dermatology (Scabies. Congestive cardiac failure. PHARMACEUTICAL CARE. (b) Basic introduction of some clinical situations. Fungal diseases). 01 140 . Soine and Wilson. Strategies for improving compliance and Designing of compliance trials. ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACY. 4. SAVE INTRAVENOUS THERAPY & HAZARDS OF INTRAVENOUS THERAPY. Tuberculosis. 03 1. 6. introduction and importance. Management and Treatment. Hr. Pneumonia. Diarrhea. Reasons for non-compliance. Extent of non-compliance. 6. Gout. Lee & Febiger. (b) Antidotes and their mechanism of action 5. 708 PHARMACEUTICS-XVIII (Clinical Pharmacy-IV) (Laboratory) Cr. Hapatitis. PHARMACIST IN COMMUN ITY 3. MANAGEMENT AND APPLICATION OF CARE PLAN. Role and Status of Poison Control Centre. 1983. Asthma. USA. Hr. CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY: (a) General information. Pharyngitis and Tonsilitis. Diabetes mellitus. Inorganic and Medicinal Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Block. Role of pharmacist in treatment of poisoning and general management of poisoning & overdosage. Block. Hypertension. Verghese Publishing House. Drug Selection. 1986. CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS: (a) General Strategy: Terminology of Disease. 2. Roche. Rabies. Inorganic and Medicinal Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Measles. Roche. pathophysiology and treatment of causes: Common Cold.

London. Black Well. Oxford Text Book of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2002. Oxford University Press. Encyclopaedia of Pharmacy. Guard Paul. Pharmacy Practice. nd 6. London.Clerkship in the Clinical setting. Joseph T Dipiro. A J Winfield. Pharmaceutical Practice. West Sussex. Kavin Taylor. Marcel Dekker Publishing. 12. Taylor & Francis.. 1998. Sue Horwood Publishing limited. A Behavioral Approach to Pharmacy Practice.Smith GDG and Aronson J K. Philadelphia. a Practical Guide to Success. 3 Ed. UK. Lee & Febiger. 2. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. Pharmacist Talking with Patients. 1998. 5. Simon Cook. Marcel Dekker Publishing. Inc. 2 Ed. USA. Joseph T Dipiro. 8. 10. 4.. Encyclopaedia of Clinical Pharmacy. 3. Churchill Levingstone. USA. Roger Walker. 1997. Deborah Rosenbaun. 1989. 141 . UK. USA. Drug interactions..Hansten P and Horn J. North Carolina. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. 7. 11. nd 2 Ed. Herfindal Gourley. 9.Mellainie J Rantucci. Churchill rd Levingstone. 2003. New York. 2003. Clinical Studies Management. 2000. Recommended Books 1. Clinical Research Coordinator Hand Book. Sarrison. William & Willkins. A project related to Clinical Pharmacy Practices will be completed by the students and will be evaluated by the external examiner. 1992. 1990. London.

Microbial assay. CBS Publishers & Distributers. Ellis Horwood. London. Modern pharmaceutics. 2. 1997. Coating of particles and To prepare. 2. 1994. 1997. 03 1. Marchell Dakker Inc.710 PHARMACEUTICS-XIX (Pharmaceutical Technology-II) (Theory) Cr. N K Jain. Particle size analysis using various methods. New York. General Principle and Methods of Microbial Assay. MODIFIED DRUG RELEASE DOSAGE FORM: The concept of sustained release. Pharmaceutical design and development. Hr.. Development of biopharmaceutical parenteral dosage forms. Principle. e. Introduction to Gene therapy. 01 NOTE:. Anya M Hellery. 4. Method of particle coating and Instrumentation in granule manufacturing. New Dehi.g. 6. New York. Microencapsulation. 2001. Pharmaceutics: Science of Dosage Forms Design. Taylor & Francis. Stability studies of Pharmaceuticals. John A Bontempo. T V Ramabhadran. Fundamentals of Genetic Engineering and its Application in Medicine. 1998. Product evaluation and testing. 5. 2 Ed. PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: Biotechnological aspects in the product development. 1990. 1987. 7. Matrices tablets. Lee & Febiger. 8. 142 . First order release approximation. London. Marchell Dakker Inc. Pharmaceutical Dosage Form in Drug Delivery System. Marcel & Dakker Inc. ELBS/Churchill Livingstone. Control release technology. Approaches based upon dosage form modification. Antibodies. M E Aulton. Implementation of designing. Joseph R Robinson Controlled drug delivery. Synthesis and Application of Monoclonal. Multiple dosing. nd New York. Immobilized Enzymes and their application in Medicine. Ansel. Controlled and Novel drug delivery. Recommended Books 1. Banker. New York. examine and control specifications of packaging materials.Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities. London. Drug delivery and targeting. 1990. 3. 712 PHARMACEUTICS-XIX (Pharmaceutical Technology-II) (Laboratory) Cr. Hr.

H John Smith. 2000. USA. Introduction to the principals of drug design and action.. CRC Press. 2000. 03 143 . 1997. Hr. 13. 1919 4. 1930 5. Hr. The Factory Law. 716 PHARMACEUTICS-XXI (Pharmaceutical Management & Marketing-II) (Theory) Cr. 2001. 5.Peter Blaisdell. CRC Press. Lee & Febiger. THE DANGEROUS DRUGS ACT. 1999. 3 Ed. LLC. SHOPS AND ESTABLISHMENT ORDINANCE. Shop and Establishment Ordinance. THE PHARMACY ACT. THE FACTORY LAW 1934. The Dangerous Drugs Act. 12. 10. USA. 11. 1919. 1997. Inject able drug development. Irfan Law Book House.Rong Liu. THE POISONS ACT. 1998. LLC.Lachman L.Pramod K Gupta. 2. 1930. Bioassay techniques for drug development. CONTROL OF NARCOTICS SUBSTANCES ACT. 714 PHARMACEUTICS-XX (Forensic Pharmacy-II) (Theory) 1. LLC. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy. 4. 01 Recommended Books 1. Attaurahman and M I Chaudry. Lahore-Pakistan (2003). CRC Press. 1986. Twenty First Century Pharmaceutical Development. LLC. The Pharmacy Act. 1967 3. Control of Narcotics Substances Act. USA. CRC Press. Cr. 3. 1934 6. 1969 7. 1969 WITH RULES. LLC. CRC Press. 2. USA. USA. rd Philadelphia. The Poisons Act. 14. 1967. 6. R Z Hussain.9. Water Insoluble Drug Formulations. The Manual of Drug Laws in Pakistan.

Traditional Pharmacies and The Super Drug Store). Prescription-oriented Pharmacies. Pharmacy Management for students and practitioners. Buying. MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Marketing channels. Tariq Academy. Pharmaceutical Management and Marketing. Pricing. Receiving. Harry A Smith. Philadelphia. Sales promotion and Customer Services. Recommended Books 1. Faisalabad-Pakistan (2002). 3. Principles and characteristics of Layout Design and Traffic Flow analysis. M Ahmad & N I Bukhari. St Louis. 3. SALES MANAGEMENT: Personnel. London (1979). 144 . Promotion and Advertising and Salesmanship. Consumer goods and purchases. Types of Community Pharmacies (Pharmaceutical Centre. The C V Mosby Company. Classes of Layout designs. PHARMACY LAYOUT DESIGN: Objectives of Layout Design. Lea & Febiger. Principles & Methods of Pharmacy Management. 2. 2. Toronto. 1986.1. Patrick Tharp & Pedro J Lecca.

CONDENSE COURSES FOR B-PHARMACY Theory Anatomy Biopharmaceutics Biostatistics Clinical Pharmacy Clinical Pharmacy-I Community Pharmacy Computer and its Application in Pharmacy Forensic Pharmacy Hospital Pharmacy Instrumentation Pathology Pharmaceutical Quality Management Pharmaceutical Technology Pharmacy Management and Marketing Practical Biopharmaceutics Clinical Pharmacy Clinical Pharmacy-II Clinical Pharmacy-III Community Pharmacy Computer and its Application in Pharmacy Instrumentation Pathology Pharmaceutical Quality Management Pharmaceutical Technology 145 .

PHIL SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR M. PHARMACEUTICS (Annual System) PART-I THEORY Title of Paper PAPER I: Pharmaceutics-I Marks 100 100 100 PAPER II: Pharmaceutics-II PAPER III: Biostatistics PRACTICALS PAPER IV: Pharmaceutics-I PAPER V: Pharmaceutics-II Total: 100 100 500 PART-II THESIS Grand Total: 700 200 146 .PHIL.COURSES FOR M.

Transdermal drug delivery system. Coating of Particles. Biopharmaceutics 1. Immobilized Enzymes. Bioavailability of disperse dosage forms. examine and control specifications for the packaging materials. 3. Correlation between in-vitro and in-vivo studies of different parameters of dosage forms. 3. PAPER-I A. Evaluation of disintegration in-vitro and in-vivo and its comparison with dissolution rate in-vitro and in-vivo. 6. 5. Crude drug assays: Humidity and Moisture determination. 4. Biopharmaceutical and Pharmacokinetic consideration in the development of controlled release drug products. synthesis and applications of Monoclonal antibodies. C. 5. 2. Microbial spoilage and preservation of pharmaceutical products. 2. Stability studies of Pharmaceuticals. 2. Commercial Production of microbial enzymes and their application. PAPER-IV At least 20 practical will be conducted according to the theory and available facilities. Determination of rheological properties of pharmaceutical preparation. Particle size analysis. Novel Drug Delivery System: Liposome & Niosome as drug carriers. Microbial Enzymes: Classification and Mechanism of Action. General Principles and Methods of Microbiological assays. Correlation between in-vitro and invivo studies of different parameters of dosage forms. Pharmacokinetic and Bioavailability Variations in disease state.PHIL. Pharmaceutical Microbiology 1. Surfactants and their applications in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms. Fundamentals of Genetic Engineering and its application in Medicine. Determination of drug 147 . 5. Application of pharmacokinetics and bioavailability in clinical situations. COURSE CONTENTS PART-I PHARMACEUTICS 100 Marks PHARMACEUTICS-I (Written) Advanced Pharmaceutics 1. 4. Micro encapsulation/Methods of Particles coating. e. to prepare.g. Specialized Pharmaceutical Emulsions. 3. Determination of plasma protein binding.M. Principles. 4. PHARMACEUTICS-I (Practical-I) 100 Marks B. Preparation and quality Control of cosmetics. Cosmetics and their quality control.

Paramount Press. London (1995). 17. 1995. Observation of drug resistant bacteria and isolation of certain mutants by Replication technique. Vol 1. New York. Lee & Febiger. Peragamon Press. London. 6. 1988. Martin A. 1983. Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Toxicokinetics and New Drug Development. Applied Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics. Staining of cell wall along with other important staining techniques. 2.P Macheras.Stephen H Curry. London. Drug disposition and pharmacokinetics. Urine and blood samples. 3 Ed. Chapman and Hall Ltd. Biopharmaceutics of orally administered drugs. 10. Text Book of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. CRC Press. rd 5. New York. Martin AMN. Milo Gibaldi. dyes and other chemical disinfectants against bacteria. USA. 8. Mill C C Casson. Oxford. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Recommended Books 1. 2004. Leon Shargel. New York. 15. 1977. Malcoln Rouland. Development of transdermal preparation. Microbial studies of sputum. 4 Ed. 1999. Attwood D and Flocence A T. Black Well Scientific Publishing. LLC. 14.metabolites in-vitro and in-vivo samples. 4. Ellis Horwood Limited. Barry B W. Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Swarbrick J and Cammatra A. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 3. Philadelphia. London. 7. 1982. Preparation of media and isolation of pure cultures and performance of culture sensitivity tests. Marchel & Dakker Inc. 1985. Determination of phenol coefficient. N Rheology of Disperse Systems. LLC. 1982. Champ & Hall. Assay of Microbial Enzymes. Acadamic Pess. th Appleton & Lange. Banker G S and Chun AHC Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences.Albert P Li. C Reppas and J B Dressman. 2002. Pharmacokinetics in drug discovery and Development.Robert E Notari. 148 . Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Response of heat. New York.Gibbson and Skett. Marchel & Dakker Inc. USA.Sarfraz Niazi. 1972. Physical Pharmacy. 16. Academic Press. 1986. Thomous N Tozer. William & Willkins. 13. New York. Antibiotic sensitivity tests and Microbiological assays. 12. Introduction to Drug Metabolism. 1985.Ronald D Schoenwald. London. 1990. 1989. London. London. 11. Surfactant Systems.. Academic Press. CRC Press.. Sherman P. 1975. 9.Avraham Yacobi. Invitro approaches for evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity. New York. Emulsion Science.

7. Black Well th Science Ltd.W B Hugo & A D Russell. Pharmaceutical Microbiology. Patient Communication. Microbiology: Essentials and Application. 11. Quality Control and GMP Compliance in Pharmaceutical Industry. Total Parenteral Nutrition. 4. 2 Ed.Collin and Lynes.. New York.M Mekallee. Clinical Pharmacy 1.. Latest developments and advances in the learning of clinical Pharmacy. John Willey & Sons. Vutterworth Heineman. Introduction to Microbiology. Surgical Supplies. 24. 2. Concepts and Techniques. Importance of design/layout of pharmaceutical industry.Alcamo. th 21. 149 B.Pelczar. John Bartlett Publishers. Optimization Techniques in Pharmaceutical Formulation and Processing. 2000. Churchill Livingstone. 2001.Time and Motion Study. 4. 25. .C. Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology. Q. 2. 3.. Precaution in handling/storage and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products containing anti-biotics. 23. 5 Ed. Radiopharmaceutical formulation techniques.18. William & Willkin. 1995. 1998.Jawetiz. London. 9. Validation of sterilization procedure. London. 20.Singleton and Sainsbury. PAPER-II A. McGraw-Hill Inc. Stability testing. 8. Microbiology.Calibration and Validation of instruments/equipments used in testing and manufacturing of drugs. 1998.Lippincot. 6 Ed. PHARMACEUTICS-II (Written) 100 Marks th Formulation and Product Development 1. Oxford. 2003. Biotechnological aspect of product development. 6 Ed. Medical Microbiology and Immunology. McGraw-Hill nd Inc. 3. 5. USA. Microbiology by Lipponcott. 10. Safety tests in Pharmaceutical Preparations. Granulation Technology. instrumentation and application in health care system. 1996. 6. 22. 19. Microbiological Methods.

Churchill Levingstone. a Practical Guide to Success. Stability studies of Finished Pharmaceutical Products. Sue Horwood Publishing Limited. Clinical Studies Management. Antidepressants.g. 12. New York. 1998. Patient Drug Profile. 7 Ed. 13. Black Well... Pharmaceutical Practice.. New York. Digoxin. 2 Ed. 1998. USA. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. J B Lippincott Co. Michel E Aulton. nd 11. 7. Guard Paul. Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics. Herfindal Gourley. Design and Development of Controlled Release Tablets. Recommended Books 1. Pharmaceutical Marketing Survey. Infectious diseases. 2003. nd 2 Ed. 1990. 2003.Deborah Rosenbaun. Sprowl’s (Dittert L W. 1986. Pharmaceutics. 1998.. 9.Kavin Taylor. Anti-biotics. Quality control of pharmaceutical dosage forms and raw materials. E A Rawlins.. 3 Ed. Berdley’s Textbook of Pharmaceutics. 2 Ed. 7. 8 Ed.Joseph T Dipiro. London. 150 . 6. Roger Walker. Specific Poisons and drugs: Diagnosis and treatment. Encyclopaedia of Clinical Pharmacy. Problem Oriented Approach: cardiovascular Disorders. Pharmaceutics. London. th 4. Sarrison. PAPER-V: PHARMACEUTICS-II (Practical-II) 100 Marks At least 20 practical will be performed relevant to the theory and available facilities e. William & Willkins. Ward Round Report. Inc. Analgesics. Benzodiazepines. CBS Publishers & Distributors. 2002. ELBS/Churchill Livingstone. Arsenic. Nitroglycerin and Cyanide. nd 3. (or recent edition) 1977. New Delhi. A Behavioral Approach to Pharmacy Practice. th 5. Pharmacy Practice. Churchill rd Levingstone. HawCourt Publisher. USA. West Sussex. London. Macmillan Publishing Co. American Pharmacy. The Science of Dosage Form Design. Ophthalmic and Parenteral Preparations. 6. Respiratory Diseases. Marcel Dekker Publishing. Design and development of controlled release formulations. J Winfield. 2. 8. 1992. UK. Renal diseases. 2000..Simon Cook. 10. North Carolina. Edt). London. Pharmacy Administration.5. Calcium antagonists. Bentley’s Book of Pharmaceutics. Formulation of Aerosols. Taylor & Francis. Inc. Clinical Research Coordinator Hand Book.

Pharmaceutical design and development. CBS Publishers & Distributers. 6. 16. 2 Ed. P-values. New Delhi. Test involving binomial and normal distribution. 17. 23. Multiple compression tests such as LSD. V Ramabhadran. it properties and application. Drug interactions. Sampling distribution and standard error.Smith GDG and Aronson J K. Pharmaceutics: Science of Dosage Forms Design.Joseph T Dipiro. Partitioning of sum of squares and degree of freedom. UK. 21. Development of biopharmaceutical parenteral dosage forms. 1987.John A Bontempo. Test of homogeneity. 1. 1989. Marchell Dakker Inc. Stratified random sampling. New York. 1994. 25. Controlled and Novel drug delivery. Test of Hypothesis and significance: Statistical hypothesis. Encyclopaedia of Pharmacy. London.N K Jain. 19. 1997. 1990. 151 . 5. Taylor & Francis. Drug delivery and targeting. New York. Marchell Dakker Inc. Test of significance based on "t"-distribution and "F"distribution. Oxford University Press. 24. Lee & Febiger. ELBS/Churchill Livingstone. New York. Marcel & Dakker Inc. Philadelphia. 22. Contingency tables. 2001. Lee & Febiger. 18. 15. 3. Pharmacist Talking with Patients. 1997. Paper-III BIOSTATISTICS (Theory) 100 marks. Oxford Text Book of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 4. Marcel Dekker Publishing. Student "t" and "F" Distribution: Properties of "t" distribution and "F" distribution. Test of significance. 20.14.. nd New York. 2. 1990. London. Sample and Population: Simple random sampling. Confidence intervals. 2002. London. Pharmaceutical Dosage Form in Drug Delivery System. 1997. Introduction: What is Biostatistics? Application of statistics in biological and pharmaceutical sciences.Joseph R Robinson Controlled drug delivery. Goodness of fit test: Chi-square distribution. Analysis of variance: One-way classification.Anya M Hellery. USA.Mellainie J Rantucci.Banker. 1998. Modern pharmaceutics. Ellis Horwood. Systemic and cluster sampling.Hansten P and Horn J. Level of significance.T. 1990. The analysis of variance models. Two-way classification.Ansel.M E Aulton.

Addison Wesley Pub Co. The completely randomized designs (CR-designs). John Wiley and Sons. Experimental Designs: (Advantages & Disadvantages) Basic principles of experimental designs. Wardlow A C. Co-relation/ regression analysis. 1985. 4. 6. Ilmi Kitab Khana. Latin square designs (LS-designs). 1983. Practical Statistics for Experimental Biologists. J D. 4 Ed. Sydney. Lahore. Nilton. Statistical Methods in Biological and Health Sciences. M. Introduction to Statistical theory. A Foundation Analysis in the Health th Sciences. Biostatistics. Remington R D Schork. Factorial experimental designs.. McGrew-Hill. New York. Urdu Bazar. Computer methods of statistical evaluation. Prentice Hall Inc.A. New Jersey. WJW. 3. 152 . J S and Tsokos. Wiley Series. NOTE: An Industrial study tour will be an integral part of the courses of study in Pharmaceutics. New York. 2. Sher Muhammad Chaudhry Part-I and Parrt-II. 1987. 1979. Randomized complete block designs (RCBdesigns). Statistics for Biological Sciences. 5. Recommended Books 1. Danniel. 1985.7. Schefler W C. Statistics with Application to the Biological and Health Sciences.

or application of known methods of research to some technical problems. 153 . which may either be continuation to the existing knowledge of the subject. PART-II PHARMACEUTICS THESIS 200 Marks The research work will be carried out in any branch of Pharmaceutics.Phil. This will also include seminar and viva-voce examination concerning research topics. The candidate will retain the fourth copy of the thesis. The thesis shall embody the results of research.M. Three copies of research thesis printed or type written shall be submitted for the examination at the end of the academic year.

SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR M. PHARMACOGNOSY (Annual System) PART-I THEORY Title of Paper PAPER I: Pharmacognosy-I Marks 100 100 100 PAPER II: Pharmacognosy-II PAPER III: Biostatistics PRACTICALS PAPER IV: Pharmacognosy-I PAPER V: Pharmacognosy-II Total: PART-II THESIS Grand Total:700 100 100 500 200 154 .PHIL.

phenolic plant products. H Wagner and P Wolff. Oxford. 1977. problems and prospects of discovering new drugs from higher plants. Tri-terpenoid. toxicity of pyrozolidine and indozolidine alkaloids. COURSE CONTENTS PART-I PHARMACOGNOSY 100 Marks PHARMACOGNOSY-I (Written) Advances in Pharmacognosy: Pharmacological approaches to natural products. Structure Elucidation of Natural Products : Application of spectroscopic and chemical techniques to the elucidation of the structure of natural products with particular reference to alkaloids. Biosynthesis of Natural Products: Introduction. study of treatment and prevention of plants toxicities. Biologically Active Natural Products. terpenes. Steroid Saponins. PHARMACOGNOSY-I (Practical-I) 100 Marks B. carotenoids and vitamin A. falvenoids and terpenes. 2. Berlin. mechanism and biosynthetic formations of amino acids. PAPER-IV At least 20 practical will be conducted according to the theory and available sources Recommended Books 1. steroids. Alkaloids and Diterpene from Euphorabiaceae. K Hostettmann and P J Lea. Springer – Verlag.and Sesquiterpenes with pharmacological and therapeutic activity. plant teratogens. saponins. alkaloids and glycosides. D. Biological or Therapeutic Activity. Saponins. simple phytotoxins. recent experimental and clinical data concerning anti-tumor and cytotoxic agents. New Natural Products and Plant Drugs with Pharmacological. 155 . plant induced cardiac and pulmonary diseases. Sapponins with biological and pharmacological activity. steroids. 1987. C.PHIL. screening and evaluation.M. plant irritant. water soluble vitamins. Plant Toxicology: An overview of plant toxicants. Clarendon Press. Lignans and Neo-lignans with potential biological activity. Mono-. PAPER-I A. Di.

New York. 7. E D Becker.3. M I Choudhary. Cambridge. 1990. R B Bates & W A Beavers. C L Khetraphal & A Saran. 11. Spectroscopic Methods in Organic Chemistry. 21. L F James and R F Keeler. Academic Press. Two Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Liquids. Magnetic Resonance and Medicine. Elsevier Science Publisher.R Chang. 8. New Jersey. Amsterdam.W H Williams and I Fleming. Stuttgrt. Basic Principles of Spectroscopy. G P Moss. London. 6. Heyden & Sons.R F Keeler. Tata-McGraw-Hill. Dominion Press. 5. 18. M Hamburger. 20. London. A Marston. 1973. Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds. 4. London. London. Carbon-13 NMR Spectral Problems. 1986. G Govil.P R Cheeke & L R Shull. 1978. 16. New Delhi. 1-2. Melbourne. London. McGraw-Hill. 12. J B Lambert. 1996. Ltd. Charendon Press. Chemistry and Pharmacology. John Wiley and Sons. Milard. Organic Structural Analysis. Oxford. Effect of poisonous Plants on Livestock. R G Cooks and G H Stout. London.A A Seawright. Natural Toxicants in Feeds & Food Stuff. 1983. Chichester. 19. G C Bassler and T C Morill.Atta-ur-Rahman. Reidel Publishing Co. 1981. PAPER-II PHARMACOGNOSY-II (Written) 100 Marks 156 . New York. Eds K Hostettmann. 1985. 14. One and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. 38 Academic Press.R F Keeler and A T Tu. Marcel Dekker Inc. London. 9. 1976. Vol. 1983. 17. 1971. 1989. 1978. KRV Kampen & L F James. McGraw-Hill.J B Harborne. H Baxter. 1984. Academic Press. Macmillian Pub Co. Vol. Dictionary of Toxins. The Avi Publication Co. Atta-ur-Rahman. The Humana Press. Hand Book of Natrual Toxins. Proton and Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy. Wolfe Publishing Ltd. Ed: The Alkaloids. 10. San Diago. Connecticut. LVerbit.D Frohne & H J Pfander.R J Abreaham and P Loftus. John Wiley & Sons. 15. H F Shural. 1984. M E Rose and RWA John Stone. 1984. 1985. 13. Cambridge University Press. 1980. Theory and Chemical Application. Plant Toxicology. Mass Spectrometry for Chemists and Biochemists.R M Silverstein. A Brossi. 1995. Phytochemistry of Plants used in Traditional medicine.A Bax D. M P Hegarty.

157 . D. Plant tissue cultures for the production of natural drugs. Elsevier Press. PAPER-V At least 20 practicals will be conducted according to the theory and available sources. Standardization of crude drugs and pharmaceutical aids. R E Martin. Lysergic acid derivatives (Ergotamine. Artemisinin derivative from antemisinin. C. Quality assurance procedures. Sapogenins (Diosgenin etc. Deliberate adulteration. Plant Biotechnology. Quality Control of Herbal Drugs Effects of enzyme action in crude drugs. Circular dichroism and Mass spectrometery. L G Copping. Determination of important parameters in a monograph. Etoposide from Podophyllotoxin. PHARMACOGNOSY-II (Practical-II) 100 Marks B. Cambridge University Press. Methyllergonovine. Phytochemicals of Natural Origin Preparation of Corticosteroids from natural products like Steroidal Saponins. Recommended Books 1. Cell Biotechnology: Development in plant cell cultures and recent approaches for high production of secondary metabolites (Drugs). Opportunities in Biotransformation. J A Pickett. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. London.A. Cambridge. Improper storage conditions. Quantitative microscopy in quality control Monographs of crude drugs and pharmaceutical aids. S H Mantell and H Smith. 1990. alkaloids and steroids. Hydergine etc.) and other related topics of current interest. Biotransformation of terpenes. 1983. Adulteration of crude drugs: Effect of faulty collection. Optical rotatory dispersion. 2.). C Bucke and A W Bunch. Morphine derivatives. Taxol derivatives. Elucidation and regulation of biosynthesis in cell cultures of plant species of strategic importance from both scientific and economic point of view. Spectroscopic Techniques: Advanced treatment of major spectroscopic techniques for the characterization of organic and drug molecules by Ultraviolet and IR spectroscopy. Assay of active constituents in crude drugs. Improper preparation for market.

1987. Multiple compression tests such as LSD. 5. Factorial experimental designs. Sampling distribution and standard error. Test involving binomial and normal distribution. J S and Tsokos. Clarendon Press. Charendon Press. 7. Eds: H Wagner and P Wolff. Corelation/regression analysis. London. Berlin. Two-way classification. PAPER-III BIOSTATISTICS (Theory) 100 marks. SpringerVerlage. 1977. Recommended Books 1. 3. The analysis of variance models. Experimental Designs: (Advantages & Disadvantages) Basic principles of experimental designs. Phytochemistry of Plants used in Traditional Medicine. Systemic and cluster sampling. Natural Antioxidants.3. McGrew-Hill. 6. Stratified random sampling. Introduction: What is Biostatistics? Application of statistics in biological and pharmaceutical sciences. P-values. Computer methods of statistical evaluation. 1. Randomized complete block designs (RCBdesigns). Partitioning of sum of squares and degree of freedom. Student "t" and "F" Distribution: Properties of "t" distribution and "F" distribution. The completely randomized designs (CR-designs). 7. Nilton. 1995. Test of homogeneity. M Hambruger. Test of Hypothesis and significance: Statistical hypothesis. 4. Champaign. 158 . 1983. 5. Academic Press. Level of significance. 4. 1996. Biologically Active Natural Products. Contingency tables. Oxford. Millard. it properties and application. Oxford. Confidence intervals. AOCS Press. J D Statistical Methods in Biological and health Sciences. Eds: K Hostetmann and P J Lea. Fereidoon Shahidi. K Hostettmann. Latin square designs (LS-designs). Analysis of variance: One-way classification. Hiroshi Kikino and Norman R Farnsworth. Sample and Population: Simple random sampling. 1988. Economic and Medicinal Plants Research (Volume II). A Marston. H Wanger. Goodness of fit test: Chi-square distribution. 2. Test of significance based on "t"-distribution and "F"-distribution. Biological or Therapeutic Activity. New Natural Products and Plant Drugs with Pharmacological. 6. Test of significance.

4. Prentice Hall Inc.. R D Schork. Three copies of research thesis printed or type written shall be submitted for the examination at the end of the academic year. 5. or application of known methods of research to some technical problems. M A Statistics with Application to the Biological and Health Sciences. Wardlow A C. 1979. John Wiley and Sons. Danniel. PART-II PHARMACOGNOSY THESIS 200 Marks The research work will be carried out in any branch of Pharmacognosy. New Jersey. 1985. The thesis shall embody the results of research. NOTE: A plant collection and study tour will be an integral part of the courses of study in Pharmacognosy. Ilmi Kitab Khana. 159 .Phil. Sydney. 4 Ed. Schefler. New York. 1987. 3. New York.2. 6. This will also include seminar and viva-voce examination concerning research topics. The candidate will retain the fourth copy of the thesis. Wiley Series. which may either be continuation to the existing knowledge of the subject. Addison Wesley Pub Co. WJW Biostatistics. Urdu Bazar. A Foundation Analysis in the Health th Sciences. Practical Statistics for Experimental Biologists. W C Statistics for Biological Sciences. Remington. Sher Muhammad Chaudhry Part-I and Part-II Introduction to Statistical Theory. 1985. Lahore. M.

PHIL PHARMACOLOGY (Annual System) PART-I THEORY Title of Paper Paper-I Paper-II Paper-III PRACTICALS: Paper-IV Paper-V Major Pharmacology-I Major Pharmacology-II Total: PART-II THESIS Grand Total:700 200 100 100 500 Major Pharmacology-I Major Pharmacology-II Biostatistics Marks 100 100 100 160 .SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR M.

Neurohumoral Transmission and Signal Transduction. Purification and Characterization of Proteins. Mutagenecity. Pharmacodynamics. Antiplatelets and Thrombolytics.M. Anticoagulants. 2. Sequencing and Synthesis of Nucleic Acids and Peptides. PAPER-I COURSE CONTENTS PART-I PHARMACOLOGY MAJOR PHARMACOLOGY-I (Theory) 100 marks. Toxicity Testing. 1. Biochemical Techniques Separation. Carcinogenicity. Corticosteroids and Immunomodulators. Flourescent Spectroscopy and Immunodetection. 3. 1. 4. Drugs acting on cardiovascular system. Serotonin. PAPER-II MAJOR PHARMACOLOGY-II (Theory) 100 marks. Teratogenecity. General Pharmacology Pharmacokinetics. PAPER-IV MAJOR PHARMACOLOGY-I (Practical) 100 marks. Antihistamines. Hypersensitivity (Drug Allergy). Cardiovascular System Autonomic Nervous System. Chemotherapy Antibacterials. Nucleic Acids and Phospholipids. Pharmacological Screening and Standardization. Antiprotozoals. Procoagulants.PHIL. Anthelmintics and Anticancers 161 . Hypolipidemics. Study of Drugs Metabolism and relevant enzyme. Drug Interactions. Bradykinins & Other mediators of inflammation). Antifungals. Antivirals. At least 20 practicals will be performed relevant to the theory and available facilities. Anti-gout. Eicosanoids (Histamine. Radiolabelling. Radio-immunoassay. Biochemical Pharmacology Transcription and Translation of Genes. Adverse Drug Reaction. Pharmacogenetics.

Narcotic Analgesics. Student "t" and "F" Distribution: Properties of "t" distribution and "F" distribution. General and Local Anaesthetics. it properties and application.2. Randomized complete block designs (RCBdesigns). Latin square designs (LS-designs). The completely randomized designs (CR-designs). Microbiology Bacterial and Fungal cell culture isolation. 6. Identification and maintenance of pure culture. Computer methods of statistical evaluation. PAPER-III BIOSTATISTICS (Theory) 100 marks 1. P-values. Two-way classification. Test involving binomial and normal distribution. Bacterial. Corelation/regression analysis. Multiple compression tests such as LSD. PAPER-V MAJOR PHARMACOLOGY-II (Practical) 100 marks At least 20 practicals will be performed relevant to the theory and available facilities. Protozoal Diseases. Analysis of variance: One-way classification. CNS Stimulants. 2. Test of significance based on "t"-distribution and "F"-distribution. Partitioning of sum of squares and degree of freedom. The analysis of variance models. Test of significance. Level of significance. 3. Antidepressants. Experimental Designs: (Advantages & Disadvantages) Basic principles of experimental designs. Neuroleptics. 5. Test of homogeneity. Immunology. Systemic and cluster sampling. Neuropsychopharmacology Drug Addiction. Test of Hypothesis and significance: Statistical hypothesis. Psychomimetics. fungal and Viral Origin. Sample and Population: Simple random sampling. Stratified random sampling. Recommended Books 162 . Anti-Epileptics. Factorial experimental designs. Toxins and Anti-toxins. 3. Confidence intervals. Sampling distribution and standard error. Introduction: What is Biostatistics? Application of statistics in biological and pharmaceutical sciences. Vaccines. 7. Contingency tables. 4. CNS Depressants. Sera. Anti-Parkinsonians. Goodness of fit test: Chi-square distribution.

3. 6 Ed. 1983. Japees Brother. 5. Milton. 2.. Wardlow A C Practical Statistics for Experimental Biologists. Danniel WJW. Fourth Edition. 1985. Statistical Methods in Biological and Health Sciences. Nilton. J D. 3. Prentice Hall Inc. 1987. New th Delhi. 8 Ed. New Jersey. 7. New York. Biostatistics. 1993. McGraw Hill Medical th Publishers. USA. James M Ritter and Lionel De Levis. Lipponcott. NOTE: An Industrial study tour will be an integral part of the courses of study in Pharmacology. New York. 2. Popular Prakashan. New Jersey. Human Pharmacology. 1995. 1991. Prentice Hall International Inc. Pharmacology. 1979. Mosby Year Book. Bio-Statistical analysis. 1993. Zar J H. (Biostatistics) 1. 2001. Statistics with Application to the Biological and Health Sciences. 1996. John Wiley and Sons. Paramount Publishing th Business & Professional Group. Remington. Sher Muhammad Chaudhry. W F. London. D R Laurance. Statistics for Biological Sciences.Bertram GK. 8. 11. 10. Little Brown & Company. Boston. 6 Ed. Review of Medical Physiology. Essential of Medical Pharmacology.. Oxford University Press. 5. 163 . Ilmi Kitab Khana. 4. Manuchair Edabi. New York. USA. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.. 2000. Winguard and Brody. 1987. Wiley Series. Lippincot William & Willkin. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. J D Tripathy. A Foundation Analysis in the Health Sciences. USA. Goodman Gillman. McGrawHill Book Company. 1983. J S and Tsokos. Statistical Methods in the Biological and Health Sciences. 6. Introduction to Statistical Theory (Part-I and Part-II). A Text book of Clinical Pharmacology. 2001. New York. 8. Addison Wesley Pub Co. 9. NJ. M A. Francis Hall. McGrew-Hill. Pharmacology. R S Satorkar and S D Bhandarkar. 4 Ed. 7. 1985. Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Schefler W C.William F Ganong. Urdu Bazar. J S and Tsokos S D. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. London. Bomby..(Pharmacology) 1. ELBS. Katzung B G. 1995. Lahore. th 6. 4. Sydney. Clinical Pharmacology. New York. R D Schork.

This will also include seminar and viva-voce examination concerning research. or application of known methods of research to some technical problems. Three copies of research thesis printed or type written shall be submitted for the examination at the end of the academic year. The thesis shall embody the results of research. 164 . PART-II PHARMACOLOGY THESIS 200 Marks The research work will be carried out in any branch of Pharmacology. which may either be continuation to the existing knowledge of the subject.M. The candidate will retain the fourth copy of the thesis. Phil.

SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR M.PHIL. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY (Annual System) PART-I THEORY Title of Paper PAPER I: Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I Marks 100 100 100 PAPER II: Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II PAPER III: Biostatistics PRACTICALS PAPER IV: Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I PAPER V: Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II Total: 100 100 500 PART-II Thesis Grand Total: 700 200 165 .

transient absorption spectra and life-time measurements of singlet. advantages and limitations of electrochemical methods. Chronocoulometry. Controlled-Current Techniques Chronopotentiometry. Controlled-Potential Techniques Chronoamperometry. Electrochemical analysis of substances of pharmaceutical and biological interest. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. advantages of flourimetric methods. Cyclic voltametry. potential generation across membrane. Nernest equation. Analysis of multicomponent systems. B. Cyclic chronopotentiometry. Infrared spectrophotometery Near infrared spectroscopy. photoelectrochemistry. monocheromators. solvent and steric effects. Spectrophotometric Analysis Instrumentation: Radiation sources. Electrochemical sensors. irrelevant absorption corrections. PAPER I PART-I PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY 100 Marks PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (Written) A. derivative and dual-wavelength Spectrophotometery Application in determination of molecular weight. Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometery Origin of molecular spectra. Rotatings disc voltametry.C. dropping mercury electrode.COURSE CONTENTS M. quantitative analysis. D. charge transfer spectra. signal processors. derivatization reactions. Analytical Development in Spectrophotometery 166 . polarography. Fluorescence Spectrophotometery Factors affecting fluorescence.PHIL. electrochemical terminology. single and double-beam spectrophotometers. Electroanalytical Techniques Introduction to Electrochemical methods Classification of electrochemical methods. detectors. spectrophotometric titrations. Principles of electrochemical cell. gold and carbon electrodes. triplet and radical species. rate constants and ionization constants. quantitative analysis of single and two component system. Electrochemical study of the mechanism of organic reactions. ion-selective electrodes. Amperometric titrations. rotating platinum. Difference. read-out devices. Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Flash spectroscopy. electronic transitions.

pharmacokinetic drug design. Oxidative. Study of drug receptor interaction with special reference to the mechanism of action of drug molecule. stabilization and preservation. Effect of physical and chemical factors on drug stability Thermal and photo stability of pharmaceutical substances in solid and liquid dosage forms. New York. development of stability indicating assays. target oriented drug design. Structure activity relationship determined by direct bonding studies. Recommended Books 1. phenolthiazines. Synthesis of compounds in accordance with molecular structure activity relationship. 167 . New York. Marcel Dekker. properties calculated by MO theory. Drug Stability And Drug Group Analysis Drug decomposition. Principles of computational chemistry of drug. A M Bond. molecular confirmations. photo catalysis and photo sensitization of drugs. D. 1980. P T Kissinger and W R Heineman.Physical and chemical properties of medicinal and Pharmaceutical substances relevant to analytical development: colorimetric. 2. analytical problems in Multicomponent systems and formulated products. Kinetics of complex reactions. New York. C. steroids and sulphonamides. Marcel Dekker. 3. Modern Polarographic Methods in Analytical Chemistry. Drug Designing And Synthesis Drug design. 1980. racemisation and epimerization reactions using drug as typical examples. structure based model. hydrolytic addition. A J Bard and L R Faulkner. Electro-chemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications. Some stereo chemical properties of possible receptor. accelerated storages tests. Rational drug design. benzodiazepines. concept. with particular reference to morphine related compounds. PAPER IV PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (Practical) 100 Marks At least 20 practicals will be conducted according to the theory and available facilities. Stereo-chemistry of drug molecules and their Pharmacologic activity. Wiley. Principles of molecular graphics. Quantitative model construction Property based models. Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry. photo chemical interaction. Computer graphic simulations. enzymatic and photochemical reactions in spectrophotometric analysis. expiry dates. Application of various analytical methods to the assay of antibiotics. 1984.

168 .McLafferty W A. Vol 2. 1978. Vol. 8.C S Creaser and AMC Davies.. 8.. 1986. The Theory and Practice of rd Industrial Pharmacy. Pharmaceutical Product Stability in: Quality Control in the Pharmaceutical Industry.C A Connors. 1. Chapters 18-22. McGraw-Hill. 1980. 11. 18-20. Allyn and Bacon. London. Philadelphia. 13. Inc. 1986. 20.C Hansch. Ed.J T Carstensen. 1971. H A Lieberman and J L Kanig. 1969. 3 Eds. Inc. 16. 2 Ed. Vol. 1990. Instrumental Analysis. Y V Pleskor and Z A Rotenberg. chapter 4. Chapters 1-5. New York. 1989. 2 Ed. Advances in Drug Research.A C Moffat.Organic Structure Determination. New York. 6. Vol. Ed. 23. Vol. New York.B Testa. Photoelectrochemistry.Knowles and C Brugess. 1990. JEO Reilly. Royal society of Chemistry. 5. Eds. Ed.K Florey. 17. Electrochemistry at Solid Electrodes. Mercel Dekker. New York. nd 7. Oxford. 12. 1973. 1978.. New York. 1980. 1972-1991. 1973. G D Christian. nd 10. Lea and Febiger. 1973. Analytical Applications of Spectroscopy.. Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry. J Fitzgerald. Academic Press. 21. Plenum Press. Philadelphia. nd 14. 1990-91. Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs. 1-40. Practical Absorption Spectrometry.R C Crippen. R N Adams. Vol 1-20. 9.M S Cooper. Marcel Dekker. 2. Chemicals Stability of Pharmaceuticals.J R Smythies and R J Bradley. Academic Press. 15. G L Amidon and J J Stella. Ed.. Inc. Identification of Organic Compounds with the Aid of Gas Chromatography. 1984. Pergamon Press. H H Bauer. Analytical Profiles of Drug Substances. P G Sammes and J B Taylor.. Vol. D J Pasto and C R Johnson. Analytical Photochemistry and Photochemical Analysis. Academic Press. New York.4. West Principles of Instrumental Analysis. Theory of Pharmaceutical System. London. D A Skoog and D M. 2 Ed. Englewood Cliffs. New York. Chapters 26-28. F W Benjamin. 22. Marcel Dekker Inc. Pharmaceutical Press. 1986. New York. NJ. Ed. 24. Chapter 7. Academic Press. pp141-238. pp221-250.. Willey-Interscience. Holt-Saunders.J Perun and C L Propst. Quantitative Drug Design. Computer-Aided Drug Design Methods and Applications. Prentice Hall. New York. 18. Receptors in Pharmacology. New York. 1978. London.I Lachman. Interpretation of Mass Spectra. Philipsines. 1973. Boston. New York. 1978. Marcel Dekker Inc. Eds. Y Y Gurevich..Y C Mastin. Chapman and Hall. 19. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York.

25.K Florey, Ed, Analytical Profiles of Drug Substances, Vol. 1-20, Academic Press New York, 1972-1991. PAPER II PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-II (Written) A. 100 Marks

Combinatorial Chemistry 1. Introduction to reactive and functional polymers. 2. Functional bead shaped materials – synthesis and characterization. 3. Polymer – supported reactions versus solution-phase reactions. 4. Automated synthesis the breakthrough point. 5. Synthesis of polypeptides, polynucleotide. 6. Combinatorial chemistry – principles. 7. Combinatorial chemistry – methods. 8. Combinatorial chemistry – drug design and combinatorial methodology. 9. Design of new materials by combinatorial chemistry. 10. Design of new catalysts by combinatorial chemistry. 11. Possible limitations of combinatorial chemistry. 12. Redesigning combinatorial technology – from here to the unknown. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Polymers In Controlled Drug Delivery Introduction to synthetic polymers. Conventional Vs. controlled release: Advantages and disadvantages, Pharmacokinetic consideration, Polymer as drug carrier. Monolithic matrix controlled systems: Dissolved drugs, Dispersed drugs, Drug dissolution/diffusion controlled system. Member controlled system: Constant activity reservoir, Unsteady state analysis (time-lag and burst effect), Drug release from multilayer membrane devices, Drug release from membrane matrix system. Swelling controlled systems: Hydro gels, Polymer degradation and erosion, Erosion/drug diffusion controlled, Swelling/erosion controlled.

B.

C. Isolation Techniques For Drug Analysis General Principles: Extraction Methodology. Isolation and Separation Techniques: Chromatography: Definition and basic principles of chromatographic procedure. Adsorption Column Chromatography: Theory, stationary and mobile phase chromatography, application to the analysis of drugs and metabolites. Paper Chromatography: Ascending and descending techniques, solvent systems, visualization. Open-Bed Chromatography.

169

Thin-layer chromatography: Theory, types of stationary phases and solvents, visualization and identification qualitative and quantitative applications to the analysis of drugs and metabolite. Adsorption Column Chromatography: Theory, stationary and mobile phase chromatography, application to the analysis of drugs and metabolites. High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Theory, stationary and mobile phase, recent advances, applications to the analysis of drugs and metabolites. Gas Chromatography: Theory, retention properties of stationary phases, derivatization techniques (methylation, acylation, silylation, etc) capillary GC, GC-Mass spectrometery application to the analysis of drugs and metabolites Size Exclusion Chromatography: Theory, types of stationary phase, separation of high molecular weight organic compounds and biopolymers. D. Macromolecular Targets For Drug Action Concepts of bio-selectivity in drug. Structure and properties of macromolecules. Enzymes and receptors. Molecular targets for design and development of drug. Lead compounds, basic concept and its natural and synthetic sources. Inter-calation of drugs, monofunctional inter-caltors, antitumour, antibiotics, synthetic anti-tumour agents, acridines and anthraquinones. Polyfunctional quinozaline diacridines bisanthracycline, 4-flouroquinolones. Peptido-glycanes, main structure, cell wall model, β-lactam antibiotics. Therapeutic effects of the inhibition of sterol metabolism with specific reference to hypo-cholesterolemic drugs. PAPER V PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I (Practical) 100 Marks

At least 20 practicals will be conducted according to the theory and available facilities.

Recommended Books
1. Delgado J M and Remers, W A Gisvolds. Textbook of Pharmaceutical th and Medical chemistry. J B Lippincott Co, 9 Ed., 1991. th 2. Wolff M E Burgers Medicinal Chemistry, Wiley Interscience, 4 Ed. 1981 Ed. Vols 1–111. 3. Diversity. Michael R Pavia, The Chemical Generation of Molecular. Sphinx Pharmaceuticals. A Division of Eli Lilly, 1995. 4. Adnan M M Majalli and Barry E Toyonaga, Solid Support Combinatorial Chemistry in Lead Discovery and SAR optimization, Ontogen Corporation, 1995.

170

5. Sarvajit Chakravarty, Babu J Mavunkel, Robin andy, Donald J Kyle, Non-peptidic Bradykinin Receptor Antagonists From a Structurally Directed Non-Peptide Library. Scios Nova Inc, 1995. 6. Keith Davies and Clive Briant, Combinatorial Chemistry Library Design using Pharmacophore Diversity Chemical Design Ltd. 1995. 7. Craig James and David Weininger, A Database System for Combinatorial Synthesis Experiments. Daylight Chemical Information Systems Inc, 1995. 8. Keith Davies and Catherine White, An Information Management Architectur for Combinatorial Chemistry, Chemical Design Ltd, 1995. 9. R S Pearlman, Laboratory for Molecular Graphics and Theoretical Modelling, Novel Software Tools for Addressing Chemical Diversity. College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, 1996. 10.Yvonne Connolly Martin, Opportunities for Computational Chemists Afforded by the New Strategies in Drug Discovery: An Opinion. Computer Assisted Molecular Design Project, Abbot Laboratories, 1996. 11.Arno F Spatola, Combinatorial Chemistry and Molecular Diversity Course at the University of Louisville: A Description. Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville. 1996. 12.Michael R Pavia, Chemically Generated Screening Libraries: Present and Future. Sphinx Pharmaceuticals. A Division of Eli Lilly, 1996. 13.Michael J Sofia, Chemical Strategies for Introducing Carbohydrate Molecular Diversity in to the Drug Discovery Process. Transcell Technologies Inc, 1996. 14.Maryjo Zaborowski, Chiron Corporation and Sheila H DeWitt. Data Management for Combinatorial Chemistry. Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research, Division of Warner-Lambert Company, 1995. 15.Lee and Robinson, Controlled Drug delivery: Fundamentals and Applications. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, 1987. 16.C F Simpson, Practical High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Heydon and Sons London, 1997. 17.J N Done, I H Konox and J Lohear, Application of High Speed Liquid Chromatography, Willey New York, 1974. 18.R L Grob, Ed. Modern Practice of Gas Chromatography, WileyInterscience, New York 1977. 19.J Q Walker M T Jakson, Jr and J B Maynard Chromatographic System. nd 2 Ed., Academic Press, New York, 1977. rd 20.E Haftmann. Chromatography. 3 Ed., Van Nostsrand Rehinhold, New York, 1975. 21., J M Miller, Separation Method in Chemical Analysis. Willey, New York, 1975. 22.C Hansch, Comprehensive medicinal Chemistry. Vol 1 to 6, Pergaon Press, Oxford, 1990.
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Two-way classification. 28. Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Test of Hypothesis and significance: Statistical hypothesis. 5. Ed. 27. Student "t" and "F" Distribution: Properties of "t" distribution and "F" distribution. The completely randomized designs (CR-designs). London. Latin square designs (LS-designs). Test of significance based on "t"-distribution and "F"-distribution. London. Randomized complete block designs (RCBdesigns). 3. Fl. 1986. Black Well. London. CRC Press. 1985. Contingency tables.B Stenlak. 24. 1991. J Athline Press. 6.I H Stockely. Drug Interaction. Test of significance. Partitioning of sum of squares and degree of freedom. Winterfeld. The Role of Organic Chemistry in Drug Research. Foundation of Molecular Pharmacology. Experimental Designs: (Advantages & Disadvantages) Basic principles of experimental designs. Computer methods of statistical evaluation. Goodness of fit test: Chi-square distribution. 2 Ed. 4. Scientific Publication. Test of homogeneity. nd 1. Systemic and cluster sampling. Boca Raton. Sample and Population: Simple random sampling. Athlone Press.Roberts S M and Prince B J. 1979. Trends in Medicinal Chemistry. Sampling distribution and standard error. The Chemical Basis of Drug Action. 1979. it properties and application.J B Stenlake.Forman J C and Johanson T. 1990. New York. Test involving binomial and normal distribution. Paper-III BIOSTATISTICS (Theory) 100 marks. Foundation of Molecular Pharmacology. Academic Press.B Testa. 1996. Confidence intervals.23. Mustschler and E. Corelation/regression analysis. 29. Level of significance. Stratified random sampling. Textbook of Receptor Pharmacology. VGH Germany. Medicinal Chemistry. Advances in Drug Research. Factorial experimental designs. Analysis of variance: One-way classification. P-values.. Introduction: What is Biostatistics? Application of statistics in biological and pharmaceutical sciences. USA. 2.E. The analysis of variance models. 26. Multiple compression tests such as LSD. Recommended Books 172 . Academic Press. 25. 7.

Wardlow A C. The candidate will retain the fourth copy of the thesis.Phil. Schefler W C. Wiley Series. 1987. Prentice Hall Inc. 173 . Addison Wesley Pub Co. J S and Tsokos.. Practical Statistics for Experimental Biologists. 1985. John Wiley and Sons. Statistics for Biological Sciences. Three copies of research thesis printed or type written shall be submitted for the examination at the end of the academic year. This will also include seminar and viva-voce examination concerning research topics. 1979. Biostatistics. The thesis shall embody the results of research. Remington R D. Sher Muhammad Chaudhry Part-I and Parrt-II. 5. McGraw-Hill. Urdu Bazar. NOTE: An Industrial study tour will be an integral part of the courses of study in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. M. Nilton. 4. Ilmi Kitab Khana. Schork M A Statistics with Application to the Biological and Health Sciences. New Jersey. 4 Ed. Introduction to Statistical theory.1. J D Statistical Methods in Biological and Health Sciences. 1985. PART-II PHARMACEUTICAL CHMISTRY THESIS 200 Marks The research work will be carried out in any branch of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. A Foundation Analysis in the Health th Sciences. New York. 6. or application of known methods of research to some technical problems. 2. which may either be continuation to the existing knowledge of the subject. 3. New York. Lahore. 1983. Danniel WJW. Sydney.

4. The Pharm-D 5 years curriculum approved by the National Curriculum Revision Committee of HEC and Pakistan Pharmacy Council will be considered as minimum standards. All the persons holding B-Pharmacy (4 years) degree should be given the opportunity to upgrade to Pharm-D (5 years) if they so desire. 2. 5. 7.RECOMMENDATIONS 1. 6. 174 . The HEC is requested to build liaison with Federal and Provincial Governments for affiliation of hospitals with Pharmacy Institutions for imparting training of students in Pharm-D degree program which is a requirement of clerk-ship training in clinical and hospital pharmacy as a part of their curriculum. From 2005 there will be no admission in the B-Pharmacy (4 years) degree programme. Pharm-D will be the first degree in Pharmacy. The B-Pharmacy 4 years degree must be upgraded to Pharm-D with a duration of 5 years. 3. The revision/upgradation of curriculum in pharmacy should be through the Higher Education Commission and its subsequent approval by the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan.