SCIENCE - STANDARD 6
Interaction Among Living Things
1. A place where organisms live in is called a habitat. Examples of habitat are forests, sea, ponds and wetlands. 2. A community is made up of several populations of organisms living together in a habitat. For example, a population of lions living together with a population of deer ond zebra in the same habitat. 3. The organisms are inter-dependent among themselves for food. 4. Some animals live in groups, while others live in solitary.
Group animals and solitary animals
1. Animals in their habitat either live in groups or are solitary. 2. Animals get certain advantages by living in groups or being solitary.
Animals that live in groups
1. Group animals are animals that live together with other members of their species in a habitat. 2. They live and hunt for food together. 3. Examples of animals that live in groups are zebras, penguins, monkeys, lions, ants and swallows.
leopard and eagle. 3. tiger. koala bear. Examples of animals that are solitary are the pola bear. Solitary animals are animals that live and hunt for food alone. Some animals mark their territory by making scent marks or scratch marks on the tree trunk. (a) They can cooperate to hunt for food.
Animals that are solitary
1.Animals that lives in groups 4.
. (b) They can help each other to defend themselves from enemies. 4. (c) They can help each other to build their nest. They only come together for mating. 2. Advantages of animals that live in groups.
2. zebras compete with one another for water. 5. Competition exists when the basic needs of living things become limited.animals that eat other animals or plants. During the dry season. Advantages of solitary animals: (a) They can avoid competition for food. (b) They can avoid competition for space. Competition also exists between animals of the same species. 4. More than one species can compete for the same basic needs. Living things interact to obtain basic needs such as water.
. For example. Living things that share the same habitat normally interact with one another. food. Living things interact with one another in their habitat.plants that make their own food. which consist of: (a) producers .
Competition is a form of interaction among living things.
1. Competition is a form of interaction among living things in a habitat. space (shelter) and a mate for breeding. 6. a lion will have to compete with a cheetah for food such as a zebra. (b) consumers.Animals that are solitary 5. 3. Interaction takes place in the form of food chains and food webs. 7.
Competition may involve animals of the same species or different species. while the weaker one gets killed or is chased away. (d) predators. 8. when the number of elephants in habitat increases. 9.(c) prey. (b) water is limited (c) they want the same mate during the breeding season (d) they share a habitat (e) they try to defend or establish their living space or territory 12. Competition can exist in two forms: (a) inter-species (competition involving different species) (b) intra-species (competition among the same species)
A lion and cheetah fighting for food 10. When competing. for example.
.animals that are eaten by other animals. Competition becomes greater or more intense when: (a) the number of animals fighting for the same basic needs increases. Competition happens among animals when: (a) there are limited food resources. during a drought when many plants die due to insufficient water.animals that eat other animals. (b) the basic needs that the animals compete for decreases. the stronger animal wins. Basic needs that animals compete for include: (a) food (b) water (c) a mate (d) shelter (e) territory/space 13. for example. 11.
(a) Each plant will try to grow taller to get enough sunlight. nutrients and space
Aim To investigate competition among seedlings. is measured: the growth rate of the seedlings. nutrients and space. is kept the same: amount of water and sunlight that is present 2. Competition among plants become more intense if more plants grow in an area. (b) The growth of plants that fail in competition will be retarded.
Materials and apparatus Petri dish. cotton wool. green beans. The effects of competition among plants include. spoon and water. When competing .14. water. Plants compete for sunlight. is changed: number of seedlings in each dish. 3. Competition Among Plants 1.
The thing that 1. 2. the weaker animal will lose. water. 3.
. The defeated animal will: (a) lose a place for shelter (b) lose the opportunity to reproduce (c) lose their source of food.
Plants compete for sunlight.
The two Petri dishes are labelled as M and N. The cotton wools are kept moist with water daily. Record your observation. Both the Petri dishes are placed near an open window. 3. 6. Are the stems of the seedlings in Petri dishes M and N of the same size? Why? No. Three beans are placed as far apart as you can in the Petri dish labelled M. Are all the seedlings in Petri dish N of the same height? No. 2.Steps 1. The cotton wool is soaked with water.
. 2. the seedlings in Petri dish M have thicker stems than the seedlings in Petri dish N because they get enough basic needs and need not compete among themselves. 7. 4. Ten beans are placed into the Petri dish labelled N. 5.
1. the seedlings are of different heights.
A species of animals become extinct when all of the species dies.Discussion What do you think caused the seedlings to grow differently? The need to compete for the limited basic needs in the Petri dish.
4. Extinct means not in existence in the Earth anymore. Endangered species are species of animals or plants that are facing the threat of becoming extinct. 3. rhinoceros. The dinosaur become extinct because of the change in climate and weather on the Earth. blue whale.
. Endangered species 1. tapir and giant panda. 2. 5. dodo bird. African elephant. 2.
Protecting endangered species
Extinction of animals 1. Tasmanian wolf and auk bird. The dodo bird and Tasmanian wolf become extinct because of human activities such as excessive hunting and destruction of their habitats. Examples of animals that are extinct are the dinosaur. Conclusion Plants need to compete with each other when basic needs become limited. Examples of endangered species of animals are the orang utan.
Examples of endangered species of plants are the rafflesia and pitcher plants. illegal logging include activities such as logging without licence and logging outside licensed area. illegal and excessive logging 1.
. Human activities that cause the species to become extinct include: (a) illegal and excessive logging (b) illegal and excessive hunting (c) excessive development. 2. illegal and excessive logging cause many species to become extinct because their habitats are destroyed.Orang utan elephant
Human being carry out many types of activity. Many forest areas are developed into forms or residential areas. Enforcing the law. The development destroys many habitats and causes a large number of species to become extinct. 1. The table below show examples of animals that are commonly hunted by humans. 2. 2. Ways to prevent the extinction of animals and plants. 3.
Excessive Development 1.
Impact of human activities on the environment
1. Organising campaign against excessive logging. illegal hunting causes animals that produce only one or few offspring to be threatened with extinction. illegal and excessive hunting. 2. 1.Habitat destroyed because of illegal and excessive logging. Avoid consuming or buying product made from endangered species.
(e) Changes to the Earth's temperature. If forest are cleared and the number of plants decreases. (d) The loss of the Earth's natural water basin. while others may cause destruction to the enviroment. 7. carbon dioxide is realeased into the atmosphere. 6. Some activities are beneficial to mankind. it will disturb the balance in nature. it maintains the balance in nature. 5. fuel and materials for clothing.2. Thus. Plants absorb the carbon dioxide and release oxygen back into the atmosphere during photosynthesis. the following problems may arise: (a) living things will not be able to get their basic needs. Unplanned development may cause destruction to the enviroment through: (a) erosion (b) landslides (c) flash floods (d) water pollution (e) air pollution
4. (b) The balance is nature is disturbed (c) Human will be lose their source of medicinal herbs. When living things carry out respiration. 3. building materials. Living things need oxygen in order to survive.
. If humans do not plan their development activities properly.
(c) planning the development properly. 9. Soil particles exposed to rain water will be washed away. The soil particles are held together by the roots of plants. which result in landslides and floods. 12. they are not easily washed away by rain water. (b) planting new trees after logging. Soil erosion. 13. the oxygen level in the air decreases.8. During respiration. The flood water carries silt down to lower lands and clogs up rivers and drains. This causes soil erosion. 10. landslides and floods expose humans and their properties to danger. 11. Hence. (a) enforcing law to stop illegal and excessive logging. Steps to reduce destruction of the environment. while the carbon dioxide level increases.
. or may flow to housing areas. The surface of the land and the soil beneath it are protected by plants from direct exposure to the rain.