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2.810 Fall 2009 Professor Tim Gutowski
Page references are to Kalpakjian and Schmid 6th ed
Solid phase Liquid phase Mixed phase e.g. machining, bending e.g. casting, injection molding e.g. composites molding
Vapor phase -
e.g. chemical vapor deposition
Micro-electronics processes: Primarily etching type processes using either masks or beam. boring. grinding Non-traditional machining: EDM. Subtractive Processes Processes Machining: Turning. etc. waterjet.1. milling. chemical mechanical polishing… . chemical milling.
Subtractive Processes machining What is so great about machining? To first approx mat’l properties are independent of process Very flexible Good dimensional control (possible) Good surface finish (possible) .
long times Large quantities of waste Refixturing for large forces .Downside? Serial process .
How does machining fight back? Horizontal milling Forming tools High speed machining .
“Manufacturing Engineering and Technology” .Milling Cutter Arbor Spindle Spindle Shank End mill Arbor Slab milling Face milling End milling * Source: Kalpakjian.
Milling * ** Head Column Table Saddle Knee Base * Source: http://www.edu/marc/primers/milling/#Introduction . Kalpakjian .mtu.mfg. ** Source: Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.
EDM (ElectroDischarge Machining) Tool .html .electrode Dielectric (light oil) Workpiece P 769 * Initial shapes of electrode and workpiece Final complementary shapes of electrode and workpiece * Source: http://cybercut.edu/mas2/html/processes/edm/index.berkeley.
Wire EDM p 772 .
Waterjet Machining * Water preparation system Pressure generation system Cutting head and motion system *** water outlet ** High pressure water outlet Attenuator Abrasive particles Mixing chamber Water inlet as piston moves right Water inlet as piston moves left * Source: http://www.html. *** http://kbm.polsl.mt.smu.html. ** http://www.edu/rcam/research/waterjet/par3.edu/rcam/research/waterjet/par1.smu.pl/wjm/basics.gliwice.seas.html .seas.
berkeley.omax.com/components_of_waterjet.Waterjet Machining * Water preparation system Pressure generation system ** Cutting head and motion system * Source: http://cybercut.edu/mas2/html/processes/edm/index.html . ** http://www.html.
Lithography Illuminated areas Thin film (additive + subtractive) Mask Photoresist Substrate Exposing radiation EXPOSURE Positive resist Negative resist DEVELOPING ETCHING AND STRIPPING .
html Blanking .ca/processes/stamping/sp.qc.Blanking and Punching * Punch Sheet D T Die Part or slug Discarded Punching * Source: http://bdi-inc.
slow rates.2. fully automated Advanced Composites Processes Combination of additive and net shape processes Microelectronics Processes Physical and chemical vapor deposition processes and coating methods Joining & Assembly Broad category includes welding. usually limited in material choices. adhesives. Additive Processes Processes Rapid Prototyping Very flexible to part shape. and mechanical assembly .
Pros and Cons +Tailored materials + Structural complexity + High degree of automation .High waste for some . sequential .Slow.Hard to recycle .
Stereolithography (SLA) * * Source: http://cybercut.html .berkeley.edu/mas2/html/processes/stereolith/more.
Lamancusa. 1998 .Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) * Source: Michelle Griffith and John S." Rapid Prototyping. "Rapid Prototyping Technologies.
mov * Source: DTM Corporation (3D Systems) .Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) http://web.edu/2.mit.810/www/lecture/sinter_movie.
Selective joining of powder using ink-jet printing of a binder material
Print Layer Repeat Cycle
Last Layer Printed
* Source: Kruth, J.P. (1991), “Material incress manufacturing by rapid prototyping techniques”
Z corp rapid prototyping
Direct Printing of Metal Tooling;
ExtrudeHone Corp., Irwin, PA
Directly print metal parts and tooling.
Polymer binder into metal powder.
3 D Parts Forging Die made by 3D printing P 539 .
Lay-Up of Advanced Composites (a) Hand lay-up * (b) Hand assisted tape lay-up ** ** .
•Hand lay-up •Spray-up •Vacuum molding .
Automated composites •Filament winding •Tape lay-up •Diaphragm forming .
Aviation Week: Skunk Works' Cargo X-Plane Complete Posted by Graham Warwick at 3/6/2009 12:14 PM CST .
org/mems/beginner/deposition. PE(Plasma Enhanced) CVD Typical hot-wall LP(Low Pressure) CVD * * Source: http://www.LP(Low Pressure) CVD.CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) .Creates solid materials directly from chemical reactions in gas and/or liquid compositions or with the substrate material .html .memsnet.
html RF sputtering system .Material to be deposited is released from a source and transferred to the substrate .memsnet. Sputtering * * Counter Electrode e-beam evaporation system * Source: http://www.PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) .org/mems/beginner/deposition.Evaporation.
Thin film PV cell .CIGS Photo-response mapping Of a CIGS cell Ascent CIGS Solar Cell .
Pressure on Pressure released [Sequence in the resistance spot welding process] * AC or DC power source Electrode holder Electrode [Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding operation] Arc Work Work cable Electrode cable * Source: Kalpakjian. “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology” .Welding * Electrode Weld nugget Lap joint Pressure applied Current on Current off.
Continuous Processes Pultrusion of composites Metal Extrusion Net shape process Plastic Extrusion Czochralski Crystal Growth Continuous Casting .3.
constant cross section .constant cross section .Pros and Cons + Low unit cost for large runs + Low unit cost for large runs + Low unit cost for large runs .constant cross section .
Pultrusion of Composites * * Source: http://users.com/lord/manu.html .techline.
htm .Pultrusion machine * * Source: http://howard.engr.siu.edu/staff2/abrate/NSFATE/camps/pult.
Examples of extruded products Metal Extrusion Dummy block Ram Die Direct extrusion process Die Extruded product * Indirect extrusion process Fluid Hydrostatic extrusion process * Source: http://www.eaa.net/pages/material/extruded.html .
au/products/ .telfordsmith.com.Plastic Extrusion * Single Screw Plastics Extruder * Source: http://www.
p 532 .Plastic extrusion used in rapid prototyping.
... The Encyclopedia of Advanced Materials (Dantzig.. B. Greenwell. J. Michalczyk.) . A.Continuous Casting * * Source: Thomas. “Continuous Casting: Modeling”. J. eds. G.
de/matwis/amat/elmat_en/kap_5/illustr/i5_1_1.techfak.Czochralski(CZ) Crystal Growth * * Source: http://www.html .uni-kiel.
the kerf material represents lost exergy String-Ribbon Invented by Ely Sachs saves this material .String Ribbon Process In ID and wire sawing of Si ingots.
Others Liquids: Casting. Injection Molding. Viscoelastics. Powders. Others Mixtures: Infiltration.4. Others Hard tooling Solid forming – very fast cycle time Thermal processes – slower and depend upon cooling rate Dimensional control is not as good as machining Characteristics . Net Shape Types (& near net shape) Solids: Metal Forming.
Sheet Metal Stamping * ** Typical Stamping Die ** Drawing Forming * Source: http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/9911/Hosford-9911-figure1.qc. **: http://bdi-inc.html.html .ca/processes/stamping/sp.
***: http://www. “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”.org/facts/wwhy6.forging.johnsonforging.htm#fig3. **: Kalpakjian.com .Forging ** * No friction Friction force Open Die Forging *** Closed Die Forging * Source: http://www.
th/mahidol/eg/em_proj/group7/htm1text.Most common method of processing thermosets Mold Plunger Heated Mold Part Charge Mold Cavity * Source: http://www.htm .ac.Similar to metal forging process .mahidol.Compression Molding .
htm .html . ** http://www.eaa.com/Castings.cepsales.Metal Casting * ** Sand Casting Mold Die Casting machine * Source: http://www.net/pages/material/casting.
html .berkeley. “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”.Metal Casting * ** Making was pattern assembly Pattern meltout Slurry coating Shell Pouring molten metal Investment Casting Shell Mold Casting * Source: Kalpakjian. ** http://cybercut.edu/mas2/html/processes/castshell/more.
Powder Compaction * * Source: http://www.org/en_tozmetal.turkishpm.htm .
% Density Strength Ductility 0% Time Green compact Necks formed Pore size reduced Fully sintered . compared to solid material.Sintering 100 % Indicated property.
idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.htm .Injection Molding * * * Source: http://www.
idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.Injection Molding * Source: http://www.htm .
htm .”.com/designguide/dgprocesscap. ** http://www. Ogorkiewicz.Thermoforming * Heater Clamping Plastics sheet Vacuum Thin corner ** * Source: R.arrem. “Engineering Properties of Thermoplastics.
A.Blow Molding Descending parison Inflating Inflating and cooling * Source: W. “Polymer Conversion” .Holmes Walker.
Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) * Preform Tool Injection Cure Demold * * Source: http://howard.engr.edu/staff2/abrate/rtm .siu.
Summary • • • • • dimensional tolerance rate cost fixed costs materials .
Chryssolouris.2 Machining 25A.McGeough. Addison-Wesley. Advanced Methods of Machining.A. Kalpakjian. 6um RMS1 Grinding3 Creep Feed2 Grinding Rough milling of Al > 35hp LASER3 Chem.Typical Material Removal Rate 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 102 [cm3/sec] EBM1 EDM1. Milling2 Note: 1cm3/sec = 3. Springer-Verlag. Chapman and Hall. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. G. 1992 3. J. 1991 . Laser Machining. 1988 2.67 in3/min 1m X 1m area * References: 1. S.
Parallel processes require tooling. larger fixed costs. larger variable costs Specialty mat’l add to variable costs QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Unit cost: C/N =F/N + V Serial processes take longer. but short cycle time .
27 Homework #2 .Readings: Machining Kalpakjian and Schmid 6th Chapters 21 .
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