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ALLAH'S. CREAtiON,.' .

THE H.UMAN iBODY

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ALLAH'S CREATION,

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COPYRIGHT e.an BY - ISA HuIlAlUlAD.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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I~LUSTRATION OF THE HUMAN BODY:

ANTERIOR VIEW •••.•••.••••••.• ] DOSTF.RlOR VIEW ••.••.•••••••.• 2

THE FIVE ScNSES:SEE•

• 3

HEAR .

.. ....... 4

S~LL S

TASTE ••••••.•

FEEL •...•••••

. ......... 0.

.................. + + 6

TIlE SKIN + .. .. .. .. • • • .. .. .. .. • • • .. .. .. 8

~ DIGESTIVE SySTEM •.•••..•..•••..•..••.•••..•...••.••••... 9

SMALL Im-E.S'rINE + 10

THE LIVER + ..

THE COl..ON 13-

DEfECAT ION .

INDIGESTION ••••• CONST I PATION •••.

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............................ 11

............. 13

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. 14

PEPTIC ULCER •••••••.•••••••.••.••

• •..• 14

iiEmRRHO I DS. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . . .. 14

C I RCULA TORY SYSTEM........................ HOW TIlE HEART BEATS ••.•.•••..••.•••••••••• FLOW OF BLOOD THROUGH THE HEART ••.••••....

· ••. 15

+ ..... 16

ARTERIES ••••

Bl..OOD VE SS E LS. . .. • . -II ~.. • • .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. • • • + 1 7

............... 17

. . . .. . .. .. .. .

CA P I LLARI ES .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . . .. + .. .. .. • • ....... + ........ 19

lIE INS ..

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ABNORJI.tALITIES + + + 20

II DNEY. .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. . . 21

lTfERUS .

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BLADDER + 22

THE TtlE T1-IE

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. NERVOUS SySTEM ..•. SPINAL CORD ••••••..••

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• ••• ~ Z

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.............. 23

THE BRAIN + + .. 24

NERVE IMPULSES.A:~n CIRCUITS................ .••.••.• • ... Z7

THE SKELETA.L SYSTEM •••.••.•••••••.••.••••••• ~ ••••..•••••••• 30 THE ENDOC RI NE GLAND........................................ 34

n-tE PINEA.L GLAND •••••••••••••••..••.••

.. .. .. .. + ..

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THE RES P IRA TORY SYSTEM •••••••••.••••••• ~ • • . . ••••••• 1HE RE PRODUCT I VE SYSTEM...................... ••. DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ..•••..••.•

· ••• 36

• ••. 38

• .•• 40

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INTRODUCTION

HOLY QUR'AN 23:12~14

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~AND CERTAINLY WE CRBATBD NAN OF AN ~XTRACT OF CLAY, ~H.N HE MAKE HIN A SHALL LIF~-GERM IN A FIRM RESTING PLAC~~ THBN WI HAKB THB LIF«-G~RN A CLOr~ THKN NB MAKB THE CLO~ A LUMP OF FLBSH1 fHEN WE WAK6 TH! LUNP 0' FLESH BONBS, THBN ~E CLOTBB ~Hr BONES ~ITH FLBSH, rBBN WB CAUSK IT TO GROW INfO ANOTHBR CRBATIOB, SO BLBSS~D BE ALLAH~ THE BEST OF CREATORS!

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~AND FORMED THB LORD THE CREA~OR,ADAHIOF THB EARTH AND HB BLBW WrrH THE HourB IN HIS NOSB THE BREATH OF LIFt. SOIHE YASBIORaD ADAM A LIVING SOUL.~

ALLAH SUBHANA NA TA'AtA shaped and .Olded Adam (PBUH) the first .an

of ~he black 80odnes$ of the earth. Corinthians 15:47 states that!" ~HE rERsr ~A5 ~~. 0' ~8B RA.~H, BAR~Hy.R The first aan W&$ made f~om ALL the ele.ents that for.&d the e.~th~ Th~refo~e~ the earth contains eY~ry e18- .ent that .akes up a perfect hu-&n organi~m~ but ALLAH is the only one that can proportion these ele.ent:!!i to for_ the hLikeness" of Hi.self.

It ~as on the "sixth day~ that Xhalifat Ada. (PBUH) W&5 created, and· it was on ehis day that the elo.ent; Carbon, came into existence. This is why it is the sixth ele.ent of the Periodical T~ble of Ble.ents. Tberefor.~ Aan was without a doubt~ a .an whose skin was of Blackne5s~not a pale flashy .an~ but a Black Man. (Refer to SCIENCE OF CREATION~Edition Nu.ber 65)

Into this Black lubst*ncet he breathed "The Breath of Life"-A(Life) and Llah(Nothing) ALLAH. It was/is this "Br8ath"~ the True Light of ALLAH~ th.~ caused this blackness to Live.

The 'IB:roath.. 0 f Lifen ~a.de Ada. (Life Blood) a "Living Soul II whQ ."5 co.plate and ~erfect.

Contrary to the tkeorie. of the Western world. no one.or thine has

the powor to Create such a perfect piece of wDrk save ALLAH SUBHAHA·MA ~A1ALA. Ho alDne Is the one who makes fro. the aost ainute cell. to the aost co.ple~ organ work toeether h&~.oniously as it does in the Hu.an Rody.

Due to the lack of kno_ledge the lay.an has of his body and the dep.ndency it has on that "Breath of Llf~« fro. its Creator. ALLAH SUBHANA WA TA'ALAt we have co.posed this edition ALLAHtS CR5ATION* THE HUMAN BODY.

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-BOW CAN YOU DKNY ALLAH AND YOU W8RB KrrMOU~

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THE HUM!\N B·ODY POSTERIOR· (BACK) VIEW

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nm FIVE SENSES

The idea that five physical senses are present in the human being continues to prevail .insp_ite of recent e1!'iiJex.ce that there lIay .be "bthers. There are llct\1ll11y.seven hU-lman senses~ five that are physical and two are mental. The fiYe physical Senses are;

S e_ e • He a r ~ Ta s t e t Sill ell and Fee 1 • The two ~en ta 1 sens e s are b .. n"d on .... ha t is now

called Extra Sensory Perception (ESP). The sense organs do not see, smell * taste~ hear or tou~h, rather~ they contain receptor cells which respond to messages fr~ th. brain

&s they experience external stimuli. Receptor cells are sensitive to specific classes

of stimuli within a certain range of intensity. To explain sti~li{plural for stimulds) --it is external interfe~ence or action upon receptor cells. Light, for example~ is a stillUlus for vision. Our ability to see depends upon a certain 8IIIOUIlt of light p~tr.ting the lens and cornea of the eye so that it focuses on the delicate retina. Oa this part of the eyei are nerve cells which relay impulses to the cerebral coxtex of the br.in~ Thus an i~ge is visualized.

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The eye is moved by six vOluntary muscles ~nd i~ kept firm by transparent fluids within it. The eyeball consists of three layers of tissue. The outer layer is what

is known as the white of the eye* the black~ middle coat contains t~e blood supply and the innermost layer is composed mostly of nervous tissue. At the front of the eye,these coats change; the outer coat bec~e5 the transparent cornea~ a row!~ opening in the ~iddIe caat is the pupil~ and ~ehind it is the lens. The muscular iris surrounding the pUpil changes the size if the opening and gives the ~ye its color. The lens brings together the light from the objects one looks at and forms an image.

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disUlIt objects., .

The bll,ck. PO;l;'ti.vns Q~, the ~t~nl h cQiltinUQyi with the optic nerve. This area is made up of three layers of neurons (nerve cells)! (1) ganglion cells, (2) bipola~ cells and (3) rods and cones cells, these comprise the receptors for the sense of sight. These cells number seven miHion of the cone type and one hundred ~Uion of the rod type in each human retina~ The cones &re used for daylight vision~ when ~e see detail and color of objects. The rods are responsible for twilight vision by deans of a pigment called Visual Purple which requi!es Vitautn A for its proper chemical functioning~

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Upon being stimulated by light~ complexJ electro-chemical changes occur, and narve impulses are sent by ~ay of the Optic nerve to the Oc~ipital lobe of the cerebral cortex.

HEAR

There are two set$ of receptors in the ear: one set is concerned with hearing and the other with position sense. The acoustic nerve serves as the pathway to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex. Each sar consists of three distinct divisions: the external~ middle and inner.

The middle ear transmits sound waves from the external to the inner ear. These sound waves, set up by the tympa.nic lIIetnbrru-..r that lies at the end of the outer ear.

The middle ear i8 a tiny, irregular cavity in ~he t~oral bone. a chain of three tiny~ movable bones extends across the cavity of the middle ear. The function of these bones is to transmit sound waves fro~ the tyupanic mambrane (ear drum) to the inner oar.

The inner ear is a complex network of small, fluid-filled canals~ The inner ear contains the receptors for hearing and' ~OSl tion s~n.se~ 8. pa.rt of thi_s org~_ t_!)e ((o.c:h-. lea~ detects sound. Vibrations set up In the flu~d are transferred to a~ ln~ti~r ba5~ ~~rane and ·then to groups of microscopic hairs which respond to paTticular frequencies. These~ in turn. convey the impulses to the eighth cranial or gc~tic nerve.

Other portions of the inner ear are concerned with balance and positioning. Three

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.H"i.-(:Irc~l8l"___i~nil.s ~ set at" rig!}t an8!~s_. t~ each __ ·o~her ~_ start which coU'"ey. &_ sense of motion. These signals are triggered by the rocking of the fluid in the canals.

The ears are extremely sensitive to the smallest diffeTenc~s in the intensity of a sound and the time of its arrival to each ear. This fine discrimination makes it possible not only to detect the source o£ a sound with definite accuTacy~ but also to attend to certain sounds while ignoring those of less importance.

The sens~ of hta~ing is the last to dissappear when a person falls into states of inconsciousness; sleep. anaesthesia and death. It is also the first of the senses .to return. upon awakening or coming out of a state of anaesthesia.

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SMELL

The receptors for the sense of smell (Olfactory sense) are located in the nasal cavity. in the lining of the mucous memurane, These cells are supported by other cells and glands which secrete f l uj d that absorb and d i s so Ive gaseous particles of volatile. odorous $ubtances. Each receptor cell ends in a fine, nerve fiber which with many others, enter through a sma 11 channel in tho bony roof of the nasal calli ty. The sense of smell becomes rapidly adapted t.o odor-s as receptors are fatigued eas i Iy by persi stent odors. New odors. however, are detected at oncc. The sense of smell becomes most ac:ute in a state of hunger and during tile female'5 menstrual period the S.ense itself

is reported to be lO~OOO times more sensitive than taste. Odor stimuli can be detected at extr~ely low concentrations. Temperature and humidity also affect the d~ffusion of an odor frOl!l its source. The sense of smell plays a hrge part in the distinguish-

,iog of flavors of f'ood , anJ initiates the flow of certain digestive juices a t mealtime.

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The taste buds are tne receptors for the sense of taste. They are clusters of cells contained in goblet~6haped structures called Papillae which are located on the tongue and soft palate. At "the top of each bud is an opening called a taste pore , __ through this opemng , solutions enter ~ in order to stimulate the receptors. S'Jb-sta~=p·!~· must be in solution in order to be tasted. thus on~ of the functions of saliva i~ to dissolve subtances so that they can enter the taste pores and stimulate the receptors.

The receptors on the tip of the tongue are sensitive to salt and sweet, on the sides" they are sensitive to sour and sal~ and at the back of the tongue and roof of the mouth are the taste sensitivity to bitterness. The front two-thirds of the tongue is supplied by one nerve, the lingual nerve. The back of the tongue by another, and

the throat and larynx by certain branches of the vagus nerve~. ~ll of these nerves subserve touch~ temperature~ and pain sensitivity in the tongue. as well as taste. Prom the medulla of the brain. the gustatory (taste} fibers ascend hy a pathway to a ~mall cluster of cells in the Thalamus and from there to the taste-receiving area in the back of the cerebral cortex.

The skin as a major sensory organ has its own subdivisions of sense receptors which respond to various stimulij heat, cold~ pressure and pain. It has been obse~d that there are two senses of pressure) one for light and one for deep stimulation.

Two, for two kinds of temperature sensitivity. warmth and cold) and one for ~pain. The58 together~ are sometimes referred to as the Cutaneous ~enses. ~ot all parts of the. body are equally sensf.t ive . ~.n area that has few receptors can he almost msen .. sltive while areaS of high sensitivity have many·receptors. In studies, it has been found that the number of spots for pain sensitivity were the most. next in line was

t ouch ~ Jh ~1l co Id . The.1 eas t amount of a l''ii as w.::r e found f Qr s ens it i v i t Y to_ wa TIlt ~ •

Receptors for touch are found around the hair follicles~ in the fQrm of three nerve endings and in the,~apil18TY layer of the skin. Those for pressure a~e found in the tissue~ beneath the skin~ the mucous and serous membranes and near tendons and joints. Impu15es from these ~eccptors travel to the brain and spinal cord. Nerve

, S!ction of 01- fad:OIY ~pilhllnJm. Two oj· f<Y:tory c(!ll!, ~!lrlt ~howl'l, wit., ttl. (lJlQf} of one iIIX· wooing taw;'Iril tl"le brain.

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nerves distributed ~long the spinal cQrd contains a sensory bundle that se~ices a well

defined strip of skin, about an inch or more wide'. This sensory bundle is called a Dermatome. As spinal nerves overlap~ each place on the skin will represent two and somet1mes three dermatames. Thjs makes a segmented pattern allover the body~ from the head to the toes. All derm&tQmes channel into a single relay center deep within the brain, the Thalamus~ from here~ impulses are trans£ered to the paietal .lobe of the cerebral cortex..

The receptors for cold a150 lie near the surface of the skin, those fmr heat lie deep in the skin.

The receptors for pain are free nerve endings scattered throughout the body. an estimated seven million. These receptors respond to more than one type of stimuli.

An intense stimulu5 of any kind, a hat object~ for example~ can affect them. Pain is important in protecting U$~ the harmful nature of the stimulus is noted and sOlletillles the body is ~arned to make a cautionary ~efle~ or some type of defense reaction. This type of pain, experienced superficially Or deep in the skin and muscles. tendons and joints, is called Somati~ pain. Yet another type of pain that affects us is called Visceral ¥ain. This type of pain is experienced by the internal organs of the body, When impu ses concerning pain arrive in the brain. a reflex occurs which may be the feelings of pain, the tightening of muscles of the secretion of mucus in the affected organ. In this case) pain 15 localiLed accurately. There are case¥ on the other hand~ where the sensations of pain are refer~ed to a related area On the skin. This happens when impulses for visceral pain must use the same path~ay as those for cutaneous pain.

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bcntion is one of the several functions of the 5kin~ It &1so SOl"¥el· as a cowr-

int for the urulerlyin.g stnctl,1J'es. protecting thea fro- injury and gent invl:Sion.. . _

The · .. Un also ru,lps :relU1ate the body te.-perature by. ,ontroll:'K the' IIaOUP.t of h.8at 10.5111·: fro. the body.. EVlilporati01l of wa.t8r~ in the foni of perspil'ation·J f1'OII.·tl1r akin helps Tid the body of excess heat.

n.e ··sensory nerve ending:!iOu of the sk.in detects heat~ cold~ pain~ touch and pMS.un.

It also ablO:rbs certain dru,s and 'other chemical $ubstances~ which can be hand'ul if . in·Ioctieldes. ,as. and lead salts enter ·the body throulh the skin.

Perspiration (sweat) ·is 99 percent water with only ~all quantities of salt and or.pie uteri.Is which are waste products. It is excreted by the sweat~ or sudoriferous. slands which are found ovel" the entire skin :!'Iurface~ although. in larger nWibe-rs under· the ~ ~ on. the pal.. of the hands, soles of. the feet t and on the fo:reb8ad.

The ~:.eat Ilands are tubular glands with.. coiled ba.se and a tubolike duct Nhieh ends in a sore tn the skin~

Un4tr the cDlltrol 6f the nervous. system, these glands ... y be .cthated by sevenl fac.ton, heat. pain ~ fever ~ and nervousne S 5 •

The skin excretes appl'Oxill8.tely one pint a day of water. Yet. this PlDUnt Y~ri •• eccord1nl to the type of exeercise and the environ-ental tepperature. If exeesslve .-ounts of 5weatine DCCUrIi a gHat deal of sodiUll chloride (nIt) may be lost~

The skin is prote~ted by a thick oily substanc8'k~ as Sebu. Nhich is .e~rwted .by tho seba.coous glNlds, ~ lubrica.t.es the. 5kin~ keepinz it soft and. pli~le.

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THREE! DIMENSIONAL VIEW OF 1lIE SUN

8

, THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Di&estion is the p~ocess by _hich foodstuffs are broken down into th~ir constituent ele~~nt$. The Digestive System includes those parts, of the body where digestion t~ke~ place; the digestive tract and the orI.as that $upply it·~ith digestive fluid. In essence. the digestive tr*~t is nothing .ore than a lqng tube that extends from the mouth to the Aftus. It al~o· includes the Esophagus~ Stomach. Suall Intestine, and Colon (ur LarKe Inte5tlne). Organs and Glands which aid in digestion ioclude ~he Liver.· Gall Bladderl Pancrea3~ and Saliva~y Gland$.

It 1, i.portant to hote that foods we eat must first be broken dQW~ into .uch 3i.ple~ substances that can pass through membranes into the blood and. be absorbed by the cells. Meat.-~7:"! lind Fish (w!Ii,cr.: is hj.gh ~n proteins) .ust be br~ken dDwn into Amino Acids; POt8t08S~ rice~and bread (which are carbohydrates) &ust be broken down into sugars; butter~ .a~~arine~ and olive oil (which contain oils and fats) must be broken dcwft into fatty acids and Glycerol. a simple sugar. These substances Aaino Acids~ suaars and fatty acids are referred to as the end products of diS8stion.

The Dilestiv8 S,stea:

MOUTH; ~

The process of digestion bellns in the mouth, where the teeth chew and break. down the food so that it can be swallowed. The tongue positions the.food between .the teeth so that it can be swallowed. It then mixes the food and saliva together in order to convert the foed into a soft~ , wet .ass ~.lled a Bolus. The tongue initiates the swallowing reflex by which the Bolus leaves the mouth.

SALIVA:

Saliva is about 98 porcent ~ater. The re~a1nlng two percent inclades an enzyae called Salivary ADylase. which starts the digestion of carbohydrate$ into their proper suga~s.

Digs5tive en~~es a~e needed in order for the body to break down foodstuffs illto the •• ino acids. sugars fatty acids t and g Lyc'e r.o I r e.quired by the cells of the body.

ESOPHAGUS:

Tle Bolus (food) Is swallowed into the E$ophagbs~ a tube connectin~ the throat to the stoJlach. It is pu shed t hr oug h the Esophagu s by Peri s - t.ltic Motion~ whieh is by the continuous contraction of the mugcle~ b~hiad the Bolus.

STOMACH:

rho Sto.aeh is • ·thick ·walled enlargeD~nt·of the digestive tract.

,·It fans a J~ sh.aped bag tha t extends d i ago na r I y : from th e 1 eft side 0 f the bod, to the right ·side. The stomach serves as a storage place for ·toQd; it C8.n hold up to .four quarts of liquid when fully d Ls t end e d. The cri-aestiye syste", breaks down.'s.nd absorbs the food at a slower pace, as the body need$ it.

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DIGESTION IN TH~ STOMACH;

. Only a li.it.d a.ount of di~estion occurs in the-stomach. Mosi

of the digestion ta~5 p~ace in the s~al1 intestine. Proteins a~e the only foodstuffs broken down ih the stQmach~ and even they ar~ only par·

t iBll Y digest.d. '

The continual churning and ~ixing contractions of the sto~.ch, plus the last~ic juice and any liquids drunk during a ~eal~ finally wo~t tho foods into • thi~kJ saooth paste called Chy~e. Tbe Che~lcal co.position of variQus foods deter~lnes the length of time needed to convert thea into digestible compounds. Liquids pass out of the stomach al.ost· i •• ediately. Foods that are rich in carbohydrates are converted into Chy.e in about tbree hours. Prot~ins are broken down more slowlYt and f.t$ and oils are broken down only after five hours or so.

Th e Chr-..,. 1Ilines the Pyloric Sphincter ~ a ci rculllr muscl e located. at the 'end o£ the stomach where it joins the s .. all intestine. "'The pyloric sphinct6T is nQT~ally contracted~ and this prevent5 the food.

in tbe sto~ach fro. le,ving until they have been ~educed ~o the proper state. At th.is point t·h.e sph.t ne t e e relaxes a nd .. 1lews 5.a1l amounts -of chYJIo to squirt into the small ·intes·tine by tbe peristaltic contractions of the, stomach. The pyloric sphincter then closes again.

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INTERIOR OF STOMACH SHOWING RUGAE (MUCOUS HENBRANE LINING)

SMALL INTESTINE:

The Small Intestine· is .hero ·.ost digestion takes pla~e and the .nd. products .of digestion: amino acids, $uga~s, fatty aoids) .ine!alst .ad ~it •• lns are finally absorbed into the body_ The small intest1fte is·.a

. tuba about on~ inch thick. It.is 23 feet in lenlth, and twisted about

on itself. it fills Dost of tne abdominal cayity. . .

The enti~e inner surface of tho intestine consists of about five .il11on ~xtre.ely s.&11 projections called Villi that give t~e li~in8 the appearance of t~e fine velvet. 'The final products of dig~stion are absorbed \nto the body throulh the Villi. The wall of each V111u~ consi$t9 of • single layer of cel15, the cells have an a~erage lifet1.e of

. >

10

-'.~ i~

... :.~ < .:

THE STOMACH BEFORE AND AFTE~ A NEAL

one to three days before they are sloughed off and replaced by others. In order to absorb nutrients, each villus ~ontains blood capillaries ~nd • 5.a11 tube called a Lacteal that is part of the Lymphatic syste~.

TO ensure that the Villi cOQeirito·contact with as mu~h of the chyme as possible. each Villus contains a fine muscle fiber which contracts and relax~s spontaneously. The~e contractions cause the villi to s~ay fro. side to side~ to elongate and contract.

INTESTINAL JUICE:

".

PANCREAS:

The Pancreas is a tear-drop shaped gland. about six incheg long • . which is nestled behind the Duodenum and the stomach. The Pancreatic juice flows into the Duodenum through a tube~ the Pancreatic .Duct.

The Pancreas has two function$~ to secrete the hor~one5 Insulin and Glucagon into the bloodstream and facilite digestion by secreting about four pints of Pancreatic Juice daily. The pancreatic juice con~ain$ .• l&rle a~ount of bicarbonates~ which counteract the strong acid cont~nt of the Ghr~e .lesving the sto.ach. The pancreatic juice also contains

·digestive enzyme~) which are. important in the digestion of all foodstuffs incl~d1ng Proteins. Carbohydrates~ and fats.

THE LIVER:

The Liver. the largest gland in the body~ lies across the width of the abda.en at the lower margin of the ribs on your right Side. The li¥er h.~ Many,functions which are important in the body. inclading the production of Bile. a liquid necessary for the complete digestion of fats_

Bile Is about 98 parcent water. Among the solid su~st&nces di5.gvl~ 04 in the ~ater are bile pig~ents. wbich give the bile a golden brown color and which are. responsible for the.brown color of feces. Di$sol¥ed·~ ~lso in the bile are Bile Salts~ which e~ulsify the fats in the s~all into!~ine- which is a necessary step befo~e the fats can be broken dONn ifi-

to fa tty, acids and gl ycero 1. .<-

About a pint to two q ua r t s :. bile is s ec r e t ed daUy by tho 11 ~.~:~~jf5~;::'~:'

o.~ ~ ~ __

~--------------~----_.

Dj.~r •• of the Digestlv9 S~.tem (d~gestive tube~ or al.1Jl19nt.:ry c-tlln"l, and· accessorY' o~g ... n5.

letween •• als the bire duct fs closed off fro. the DUQdenu. by a circular .ulele eall.d the Sphincter of Oddi. The Bile collects in the Gall Bl.~~ which i •• storal8 or,an nostled· under the liver and eonnect.~to the bile

. d,uet" through • sh.Ol't exten.sion tube. Durini dig·ea.tion. the Spbinc"t;.H of .04dl'.pons and stored. bile ·is released fro. the lal1 bladder into the

. Ddod.nua~

n. ColoR (or latse intestine) is a tube about ,t~o in<=he·s i~ di •• - 'teT aDd .bout fiVe·feet lon, wAieh •• tes up the final portion of th~ Diles t.i ve trae t ~ t t for.s a. 1 arge i DYer t eo U wi t h Ln th e abdo.i na 1 c av - . ity .Dd surT~und. auch of the a •• ll intestine.

. The •• in function of the Colon is to absorb excess· water and salts

fro. ~h, Chy •• and return these su~stances to the body for further use. The 1' •• &I1I.ill..1 sol id wast es are d i • eha 'rled fro. e he body a& Feces. S.tl"o.ng peristaltic .aves called P.~i5t&ltic Rushes occur about three t~~eJ *

•• ,. Th •• e ru,hes, .h~ch .ppea~ to be s~imul.tad by e8ting~ farce the eontentl of the Col'on toward the Re4;tu.~ th.e final portion of thtt Coli)n~

. Pecos: consists of indigestibla inorganic ~atter (mainly calcium aftd phosphate co.pounds)~ plant fibers (chiefly cellulose)~ bacteria,

.nd water. Water •• kes up .ost of the total weight of the fecest the

re •• iDin. woi,ht is pTi.a~ily due to cellulose~and bacteria gro~inl in the colon. The colon i.!l ·fl lIed wi th an .enor.ous nuab e r Qf ba.c teria "hlch thrive OD the chya~ discharsed into it. Most Df the bacteria merely break dow~ the chr-& iDto tne final f~r. in which it is discharged from til. body. These bacteria also fora the ssses hyd ee g e n , hydrogen sulfide~ .ad •• thane wbich ,ive feces its ch.r&~teristic odor.

PI!PBC~TIOH:

Itt akes fro. three d .. ys to .

• week for the thy.e· to be redueed to feces and finally d1s~harled

fro. the body tbrough the anusj th~ OponiD8 at the end af the rectu •• There are two Sphinctor .uscles located 6t the anus. The aUler Sphincter i5 under ou~ coascious con~dl~ The in •• r Sphincter functions auto•• tically. As feees enters the r.ctu.~ the walll of tho rectu •.

• tretch~ which lives us the sensat-. ion of ~.ViD. a full bowel. In babios.l' .this sen •• tio.p 1 eads to. auto •• tic defecation in which th. f1aal third section of the colon eofttraets~ the abdo.inal Iuscles

. c;:ontrac:t ~ and. the $ ph.i nc t er au s cl e s at the anus r~l.x. autoaatically di.charlin, tb. feces fro. the

. body.

, .

._

Th~ L~rge IntsstJne and

INDIGESTION: rhe Small Intestine

Indige.tion is & 5to~ach co.p~8int

'.Yiaz .• wide vatioty of ,y.pto.s; a feeling of dlsco~foTt Qr queasiness iDo the .. to •• ch a.fter a at! -1. an ·'ac id II .5 to_deb. exc es s i ve ga sin the

.to ... c:h that d.istends the sto.ac::h lining. and Uh.,artburnff, which is cau.,S ecf" by the acidi c ch.YJI.& ba c king up into the e 50 pha gu s .

COMSTIPATION:

'cellulose: a ca~bci1iyarat.l!!i~ th.e chief substance c onpe s Lng the cel.J walls of'p·' ~nts.

CONSTlPAtiON·

Constipation i$ .any unus-ual delay in tbe expu·lsion of feces fro. the colon. When a bO.~l .oveaent dQe~ occur~ the fece~ pas~e5 ~ith difficulty and is very hard and dry.

PEPTIC ULCER~

P ept ic \11 car and Gas tri c u 1 c er r e sit It froO. long - t era i rl' i ta. t i-ons of tbe lining by the acid content of the sto.aeh or ~uadenu~. These·· ir~itations .fter ~ period of ti.e result in so~es, in the lining.

HEMORRHOIDS:

He.orrhoids. or Piles are svollen veins just within or just out-

side th~.nus. Th.y are caused by a restriction in the veins Ieadina fro. the anus. This restriction results in a buildup of blood pressure in the saaller vein" which causes thea to swell.

TEETH

Teeth a.re the first instr~&nts used in the 'pToce:ss of dige~tion.

Thr~e kinds of teeth enable us to ~ear~ chew, and grihd our food; ID~ CiSOTS at the front of the Douth~ pointed Canines* and flat Molars •.

GLANDS

Acrs ON

De.trln

SALIVARY

AC'rIVITIBS

. ....

PRODUCTS

Deztrin

Ifaltos.e

d rf

G.l.S!'RIC

Pepsin Protein t'rag-

H~drQcblorlc acjd G •• tric p:rcte ... .$e tJlsplilln)

c: ... tr1c l.1plIse

Act]vates pep~lQQgen

Prot"ltin 1'1IIulsifLed fats

menta"

F~tt!t' acids lin4 qlyc@,DlJ,

PAIICRBAB

zI

i'naul.ln

~ Starch; gl!j'cog'"ell ~ d:ertrin EJll:ul~i.r.J.ed fats

Protein

Fo!IIt.t~ acid. and gl-ycerol Pro tel n frAglIIent,. , •• ,ino acld9A

Glucose, s~~ro •• N4~."9'C

Xnt.rok1n •• e

p~(} te.8e8 -.It.8.# Sucrase L.~:t •••

~C't:.:f"",e:$9 fl'Yp,iniJQgen:

Protein Fr.J'IJa.~t<li~ .altoQG .sut'l'o&'$, LAPCiQ"

'l'rIJPsi.n

A.IIII.iho Acid. GltfC'dl8e GluC'C'.e &FrQto,.

LZV.I'.R

B.11 •• ~11 t5 Cno en.i.e.s)

!'JII!Il1s.i ~ jed ~ _£.t.

Large r.t g.lobU19i!!1

'II'

•• <

J.4

. ...:

.' .. - J .. ~

CIRCULATORY SYST~M

:The ~ireulatory system ~ay be considered the transportation network within the bodYJ for it is this system th~t transports the nec- 8S$ary fo~d and oxygen to the cells arid c8rrie~ away the cells waste. products. Materials entering ~nd leaving the cells are carried in the blood through a closed system of blood vessels~ the Arteries~ Veins.

and C.pillatie~. Blood is continually pumped th~ough the body·by a .u~cular organ* the Heart. The circulatory system is a closed syste. -hieh m~ans that the blood oridinarily does not leave the system, ratheT ·it is·~u~ped through the body in a .continuous circuit.

Th~ circulatory system is divided into t~o'subsysteDs or pathNays that are independent of ~a~h other. One ·~ubsys~em-the Pulmonarf Cir~ culation is the pathway of blood flow bet~een the heart and the l~ngs. The other system+ the Systemic Circulation is the pathway of blood flow between the heart and all parts of the body.

THill: HEART:

The heart ¥hich is located in the chest between the lungs and a little to the left of the ~enter of the body, hangs suspended fxo. a grpup of large blood vessels within the Thoraic cavity. In an adult~ the heart is about the size of a closed fist, and weighs about 110z. (ounces) .

The heart consists of a Cardiac Muscle. A thin layer of cell$ called the Endocardiua lines all the internal surfaces of the hea~t, including the heart valves. The outside ·of the he~rt is covered by a double .~.br.ne called the Pericardium. A thin layer of lluid between the double ~e.brane a~ts as\~ lubricant that enables the heart to .ov~ freel y without fric tion.,

.-

HOW THE HEART BEATS.:

He.rt tissue has the innate ability to contract rhythmically and spont.neously without the ·necessity of any outside nerve $ti~~lation .t all. If the beating heart of a ~$all animal is re~oYed and placed in A Dutrient solution that i~ che~ically similar to the ani~al's body fluid~·the diseQhodied heart will cantinu~ to co~tract rhythmicslly.

In fact. if onl y a piece of tis s u e it will continue to con t ra c t , rh;l.,~ con·tractive i.p~15e is initiat~d by ALLAH SUBHANA WA TAtALA·even thoqJh sci· entilts attribute it to muscle fibers called Purkinje fibeTs~ that hay •

• any of th~ characteristics of nerve fihers.

Contracttons begin _in the part of the heart muscle called the Si~ noatri.l Nod~ (S-A Node) or Paceq,ker. The pace~aker is located on the uppe~ right 'ld~ of the heart. The contractive impulse tr&vels rapidly to a central pa~t of th~ heart, the Atrioventricular Node (A~V Node) Th. i.pulse ~hen radiates rapidly fTO~ the A-V Node throughout the r.•• iader ~f the heart ~uscle~ and all of the heart auscle contr.cts in - synchroD:Y·

1he rat~ of heartbeat is controlled by nerve i~pulses trans.itte.· fro. the autono~ic nervous system. The heartbeat averages 100 beats ~et ~inute in a 3 year-old, about 90 beats per minute in a 12 re~r-Dld. and,about 10 beats per minute in a young adul~. The heartbeat int~e.'-·

.•• -,ain to about 80 beats per ~~nute as one grows older.

T.e rate of heartb~at can be affected by te~per~ture; extre •• col, . •• tes· the heart beat more slowly;~ he~t aakes the heart beat .or~ qYict~·

~ .

..- . ~

. •. . . ,.

15

.. ~

.. ct..

I ~ I I .. " ••• '".:.~:- ~

. -.. . : .. : ~~- ~

.":'-.,

\ .

.. "_

. ,

lJ._.~~~.~icals can al50 influence the heartbe~t.. An excess ~f carb~n _4102·1:-" .·in the blood. I for e xanp] e , increases 'the rllte of heartbeat.

:0:··'.<.· ·.'loOW. OF BLOOD THROUGH THE HBART;

:. ", I ~ ". -x-. :,:. -. ~

, ..... , ... : -: ,.' .. Th.e he a.rt C on s I s t s aft wO PUIIlPS wh i en 8 re :Ii: epar a te and. fndepen-·

·deni of each o~her but which function si.uItaneQusly .tthin the , •••

• true t ure . Ea c h pu1lllp co n s Ls t S 0 f. two ch aabe r s - a n upper ·cfi.:ar..:5e-r ca lIed ~ho ~triuD and a lower cha~ber called the VentTlcle. Bltiod frD. tb. body flows into the Right Atrium. ·The blood received by the riiht At%iu. is low in oxygen (deo~yg~n~ted blood). The·deoxygenated blood then passes into the Right Ventricle. from which it 15 pumped~ under prc$$ure, through the lungs. In the lungs, excess carbon dioxide in the blood is ~emoved and a -fresh supply of oxygen is picked up. _ The blood fro~ the lung~, nO~ rich with oxygen (ox~genated blood] ertters. the left side of the heart. It enters ~he Left Atrium and then passel into the Left Ventricle •. FroG there the ~xygenated blood '5 pu.ped

th roughout th e 1> 0 dy. ... '

With each contraction of the ventricles, about one fifth (l/S) ot a ·pint'of blood is discharged from the heart. Assuming 10 beats per .inute~ this a~ounts to a discharge of approximately 7 quarts of blood· pe~ .• inute. Within the average human lifetime~ the ~eart pumps & total of 18 .lIlton barrels of blood .

. Th·e period during which the heart au sc l e contracts is called SyS'"tole-, tne p·ebod during which the h e a r t aus c r e relaxes is Oia.stol~.

The Atr.a relax and contract at different t~mes~ in such _& way as to ensure that the Ventricles al~ays have availabe a full supply of blood.

The I\tria -a r e re i axe d and fi II ing wi th blood during the contr.c~ tion of the ventricles. Just before the ventricles reach ~he end of· their co·n tract.i;oR- ~ th e A t r I a begin to contract. Thi s bui lds up p~essvre in the ~tri~ with the result that blood enters the ventricles as 500n IlS they-reach the e1'Id of theft' contraction. As the ventricles con. t r 8. eta g a i n * the A. t ria ;r e 1 ax 1 e t tin g ;_ n a f res h . sup. P .1 Y, 0 f_ b). o~o d •.•

As blood f1·o\lls from the A.ttium to the ventricle it.-·is prevented fro. flowing backward by a·system of valves within each hal( of the heart. A valve called the A~rioventricular Valve is loeate4 in the passa,o.ay between each Atrium and· Ventricle. This valve consists of thini leaf-shaped flaps that extend ~rom the walls of the passageway. When blood flows from the ·AtriulII to the Ventricl e , these· fla.ps are pres50d flat against the wall of the passageway 50 that they offer no

\ resi~tance to flow. Ho~ever, if the blood attempts to flow in the op· posite direction, as when the ventricle contracts. the (laps are for-· ced away from the sides of the passageway and ~hey press tightly .g.ift~ st each other to block the flow of blood. String-like ligaments at-

tached to the heart muscle and the flaps open. .

Another valve, the Semilunar Valve~js located at the exit of •• ch ventricle" The -Se n i 1 u n ar Va I ve cons ists of po ck e t e l.d lee flaps of tissu. at t.a.che-d to the wall of the pas sageway. When the blood is di scharaed· from the Ventricle~ the pressure flattens to the flaps ·~gainst t.be sides

.... :of :the p453ageway. When the v e n t r I C 1 e is re laxed a.nd fi 11 i" with all-

. ~ .. ·, -, ,.,:·,·~1.,h.e;r suppl.y of blood, the valves close, the pocrket.s o f" the yalv.! .·fi·ll .. : -, /.. ~:''',:;''i·t'& backed-up blood and press tightly against .e ach c t h e r , thus bl"o.d,· .-' -. : .... ·iug· any flo.", of b f o o d into t:~e ventricle •.

.-.~.;:;_~.~~:~;~~-.:;_ "The va.lve actions a r e reflected in the sounds "Lubb vdubb j Lubb-

:rl['.-:''''' .~. >M;._.

}'~'~.:!::.'·:·.4 ... bbt' .ade by the heart. The "lubbU sound is !'lade by th-e Atrio,ventri-·

.~';'-.' .. (:ular valves as they close at tbe b e g i nn i ng of Systole. The "dubb "

souridt which i$ louder &nd sharper, is made by the closing of the seai-

I;

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16

.: :"

f:

, .

l~fta~ valves_ at the beginning of diastole. When you lie ~uietlr~ you can feel yo~r entire bpdy pUlsating in ti.e t6 the beating of your heart . . This puJsating'ls not caused by the pul$ations of the blaod within the hlood veslels.·as .any people suppose. Rather~ it i~ produced by the

·valves of the heart as slap shut during Systole and Diastole. The sl.p- ~ pina together of the valves produces pulse _aves that p.s~ through the blood in the Arte~ies .

. _LOOD VESSELS:

\

8lood travels through the body within a stste. of blood vessels eonsisting of arteries, capillaries~ and veins. Arteries branch con-

tinually into s.aller arteries~ into arteriole5~ and finally into a \

network of thin-wall~d capillaries. Oxygen and nutrient' fro. the blood pass th~Qugh the capillary walls and roach the cell.. Carbon dioxide

and ~th&~ .aste products ent&r the capillaries fr~ nearby celis.· The capillaries unite into Ve~ule5j then s •• 11 veinsl then increasingly l.rle~ veins. It is throu*h this Venous (vein) sy~te. that deoxYlen-

a~ed blood returns to the heart. • ..,

ARTERIE.S:

.-

~he system cif blood ve~sels that carries blood fro. the heart tD the body is the Arterial Syste.t· blood ves5els of the Arterial s,ste~ are celled Arteries. The prinCipal a~tery in the ·body~ the A~rta~ is connected directly to the heart. The left side of the hea~t discbargas ,the blood into the aorta. The aorta ascends fro. the heart, .~ches over in back,of the heart~ and then descends the len,th of the t~unk~ keeping eloso to the Vertebral Coluan which protects it alainst exter· nal injuries.

jus t as th e aOrt 11.. ellerge 5 fro. the heart ~ t.wo art er i! s p t._h e C.~io-~ n&ry Al'turies. branch off, to supply the heart lIuscle rith blood. A. the' aorta descends, other II.rtari&s b~anch off fro. it to supply other ma-

jor or,an~ and parts of the body with blood. •

The uajor arteries leading directly frD~ the heart are yery el.s~ tic. They h~~e the ability to stretch tn responso to the pulsations produced by the pumping action o~ the he.rt~ and a~e tbU5 able to absorb the pulsations and smooth the flow of blood into tho smallor $rt~ries .

. T·he UIOQth .uscle fibers in· t.he arteries are under the control· of the Autonomi~ Nervous System. These· smooth ·muscle fibers control ~e quantity of hlood passing through a specifiC organ. For ex •• plet .. &fte~ you eat a heavy ~eal, your digestive syste. beeo.e~ incr.asinfly a~ti.,e and con.sequen~ly requi t'"es an inc·rea.~ed q_uanti ty of blood. The .uscles that surround the. arteries leading to: your dige~sti~e sy·stflil. relax pe~~itting the arteries to expand. More blood can then flow thro· ugh the arteries to you~ stollach and intestine~~ At the sa~e ti.e~ slnee th..e .1I.ount of blood in yoUI' body rella.ins constant :restricting the

•• ount of blood flowing through thD~e arteries. .

The s •• lle~t, arteTieS are called Artioles. They are no" thicker tban a hu •• n hairt and a~e· ~~err 5~aller in dia.ete~. Arterioles .r~ often surrounded by a·s ingle nu s e Le fiber ~ which enables the body to· exer~ise extremely firie c6ntrOl in deteraining i~to which parts of . which .t t s s ue s blood will flow. The arterioh:9 branch directly to the capillaries.

17

. .:. ... :

, ,~

..

INTE~IOR OF rSE BBARX AND

aLOOD VESSELS OF TNB NBCK

\ .

1------,~

2 ...,..._ .......

I I

i.. . t i

i ; '

_.'., J

~ .: I ~/

.... _..._.

.. 1. extl!l'.rnal-ju.!{ular vein
J. in~ei"_.,al jugular vein
3. COlllmOn carot;'{j arterg
4. brachi9C!!!pli.alic .a.rter~
5. right pu 1Il1-0 na l-g after!l
6. right pulmonarw ~-8ins
1. Superior velola cava
a .. a.ortic s8111ilunar valve
51. right a tl'-i um
10. "tricuspid val VI!!
ll. rj ght vent:~jc.le
1·2. in.f,aior vena cava 13 . 14. .. 15.

16 . 17. 18. 19. 20. 2L 22. 23. 24.

.lI'illary: v.in subclavian vain brachlQceph.lic v.ln aortic IIIlrcll

L~£~ pUl~OD.X~ Art.ry p~1_on4r~ .z~.ry .

Left pul.onary·veln. .pul·JK)J).ry se..,..1lUl.lar " • .lv:. 18ft atriu.

a.1 t.r.l val ve - left:. "'entr.iclQ pap.ill arW" muscle

18

. I.:

< ,

~AP I LLAR IE S.:

,

Caplllaries are the p~i •• ry distributors of blood to the cells of ~e body. a.catise the watls of a capillary consist of a 5io,16 lay~r

-0£ ~el.1:!11 ~ Ii "1 I ... poss 1 b Le for nu-t·:Hen_"t:JIi, _ O)[llen~· aid o·t.h.er .substance:s

to 4!ffuso OUt of & capillary to the cells and for w,st, products~ suck ••. carbon dioxido. to pass thrOUih the capill.rt w~lls fro.·ne.r~y·cells.

r.- di ••• t.r of a capill.~y is only about eight microns. which il ••• 1- r ~h&D the di •• eter of an arte~iole and th~~efore the red blood cell • • ust sque.,e th.-oir lit .. )" ·in sinl'to file through the capillaries. De.pite.· their 5 •• 11 Ii Ie ~ the c.api l1a1'ie, fora · .. n extensi ve d,i str-ibution not-

~~rk. .

VEINS;

Upon leaving the c.pillarie5~ blood drains into very tiny v.in! called Venulel ~ _ The Venules· join togeth.er to fOl'D. veins, and the vein. increase in si~e as ~ey approach the heart. Veins returning deoxr •• n.ted. blood to the heart converge into two ,large .vei_ns thE! Superior· Vo •• C.ya~ and Inferior Vena Cave, which enter the ri,ht atriu. to,ether.

SiDe. Veins do not have to withstand the relatively hilft pr •• 5u~•• to which the aTteria! sY5tem is subjected. they ar. correlpondiul- 1, thinner aad do not have the .5truct~i8 of .u5cle an~ coftnectiy~ti'.u. fOYhd in the .rt~ries. In fact~ were it not for the p~.ssur. of ·tbe blood with. the vein~~ they would collapse just as firo hoses collap •• once they are dr.ined of water.

.-

To ·the eye, blood appears to be a deep ,ad fluid. slightly thick.• l' th.n ... ter. Once a s.a.apl e 1 s dra.wn a·nd treated to prevent clottinl. after a period of standing it will separate into two layors. The bot· ~o. layor which is about 4S percent of the total ~u.ntity of bloQd. consists •• inly of Red Blood Cells. plus a small.r nuaber of White Blgod C~lls, and blood Pl&telets. The upper layer _hi~h is about 55 p.rcent,of the tatal quantity~ is a clear. sli,htly yellow liquid call.d Pl .....

;'LASMA:

Piasa. ·is about 92 percent water. The re •• inina eight percent co~sl'ts of ~he.1cal substances dissolYed or sbsp~nded in the water:

Prot.i~ •• salts ••• tao acids. Ilucose. fats. ho~.anes~ antibodi.s~ .nzy ••• , vit •• ins. di5501v~d g.ses such a5 oxrg~n and nltr~len~· •• d u~ •• (whieh is • solid co.ponet of urine) and other vasie productsL Alto~~ther. thore are about 100 different subst.n~es in pl.,... All b.lp in .0 •• way to keep the body alive and functlon1n8 nor •• lly.

OF BLOOD CBLLS

I

.

~HrT~ ·~LOOD CE~L~

. I

REO BUlOn"" CELLS'

~ ~

. ~

..

· ·~'"ed blood cells or J3rythrocytes. are eXtrellely tiny~ l'ou.n4'·

.. ct. surrounded by a. me .. b r a ne , Red blood· cell s are vi tal to the.

j.';_ .'j.; ... , ... ~y_ be.ca.use. t he y t1;"anspo~t ,oxygen to t~e cells. a.nd carry away carbon ": .. , _.' -: ,. l-t.8rlde. Th~ s 1 S s·ccOJllp11shed by prot e rn .IlO 1 e cuk s s call e d : He.ollobin. ! .~; ..' Each Red. blood cell contains· about 280 million he~oglobln .01..:: ~'~·.'.'.:cuJ.s. A part of e ac h he1l.oglobin ao Le cu l e is a p'ig.ent caUod He.e ..

, .. ;."_~. i .: wh-:leh contains an a tall 0 f Iron. It is the I ron Atoll that attract' a ,!' . .olecuie of oxygen in the lungs and thus enables the blood to trans-

port the oxygen through the body.

ABNORMALITIES:

/

A shortage of Red Blood Cells or Hemoglobin results in a condition c91led Anemia. An Anemic individual is typically pale. weak. an4\ l,..tbarg i c (s I ee~py J _ d~owV:). Iron Deficiency Aneuia i So the Tesul t of . an iron deficiency in the dict~ or the excessiv~ loss of bl~od because of inte:'J:'nal bl e ed Ln g , as wi t h ul c e r s , ~ . If Anemia i s not a sy.ptoll of ulcers or an~ther abnorBality. adding iron ~c the diet* or taking iron ~abJet~. usually alleviates ~his condition ..

Pernicious Ane~ia~ on the other hand. results from a failure of the red bone ~~rro~ to produce suffici~nt red blood cells. This dis~ ea$e is the result of the body's·inability to absorb Yita~in B12~ • vita_in necessary for the production of Red Blood Cells f~o~ the intestIne., The failure to absorb vitamiri 812 is~ in turn, due to ~h •. inability of the body to produce a specific che~ical substance call •• the Intrinsic Fac~o~.

..

WHITE BLOOD CELLS!

White Blood Cells~ or Leucocytes, are.~uch less numerous than Re4 b160d cells; for every ~hite bloDd cell .in the body. ehere are· 100 red blood cells. Leucocytes vary.in si~e~ from slightly larger

than red blood cells to twice the $i~e of red blood cells. Child~en ,

nor~ally hav~ about twice as ~any leucocytes as adults.

The p~imary function of leucocytes 1s to protect the body .,ainst foreign microorganis~$. To d~' this. leucocytes .ust lIove actively through the body. The ~hite blood ~el15 are £le~ible and ~an squeeze

rpast the thin walls of the capillaries as they make their way tQ the site of an infection. At the site of the infection~ certain leueocytes destroy microorganisms by svrrounding and absorbing the ~1crODreanisus into their cell bodies, and then digesting the •• Leucocytes

increase in number considerably during pe~iods of illness. .

I f there is an emormo us' i ncr ease in the nunb e r of 1 eucocytes ~ .

't,i thout any ac compa nyl ng d i s ea s e or infect ion. the cause aay be Leuk.emia. Leukemia is a cancer of those ~i s su e s th a t produce the -white b load cell s , The cancer s t Ltau I at e6 th e· t i s su e s' to produce an abne r-, _ ~all, large number of Leucocytes~ as high as 500~OOO or one.milli~~. ~~r cubic milli~eter. The white ~ells crvwd out the xed blood cells

and plat~lets. pro~ucing a~emia and bleeding. .

BLaoD PLATELETS:

Blood ~la~elets are irregularly shaped fragmenLs pf larger eell •• They are about One quarter the size of red blood cells. Blood platelets play an .essential part in blood clotting. _ Once bleeding ~cc~r~ the pl~telets di~intergrate, initiating a series of chemical reaction~ necessary to ~heck the flow of blood.

20

"-.}r.:" r-: .........

..-' ~ .... _ .. ~ ~ -,

\ \

. I ". '

"The fe.ale- does not POSSCISS ..

prostate 21aDd nor is the f_Ie urethra IlS lOUI as in the "Ie. Other than tha, t the cOCIpOD.ents

of the Ul'~ary sys t_ axe shil1 ar ~ ._

THE URINARr SYSTEM

REMOVING WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE BLO~D

lI[)NEYS;

The tNO kidneys* each resemblinj a five~inch long kidney bean. arCl" :"l~cated on either side of the vertebral.column, just under th~ ribs.

Two 1arae arteries~ the Renal Arteries, deliver about One quarter of the " blood dis~harged fr~m the heart into the kidneys. "

"" ~R ~nor~ous quantity of bloDd;-about 1~800 quarts pass.s thxough

che kidneys every day.

" The kidneys filter waste substances-excess water. urea~ .ineraI

'salt!, and uther products fro~ the bloDd and return the blood to the heart v'ia t .... o Renal V~ins. The only sub s t auc e s that do not pass t h ro » Ulh th, kidneys are those ~hat are too lar&e; red and white bloo~ cells pl~tel~ts, dropl~ts of"fa~~ and very large protein substancus. These substances return to the ~ain bl~od c~rculation~

in e~ch_kldner the waste $ubst&nces cDllect and are expelled in fl~id for. through a Ureter. Every day the body produces about two(2) quarts of t~is fluid, wbic~"is called Urine.

21

URETERS;

·The Ureters (one fOT each kidney) are about 12 inches lon~ and ·as thi t: k • s ., pene i 1·' s 1 e a d . Thl!!l y conduct th e uri J;l.e t.o th e b l.dder. The, ssooth ~useles in the walls of e.~h ureter contract rbyth.ically in such a ~ay as to milk the drops of urine through tho ureter .nd·into the bladdeJ'.

BLADDER: .

The Bladder is a muscular bag in which u~ine is storedp 'he~ a sufficient amount of urine tollect$~ it is disch.rled fro. the body

th~oUlh a tube called the Urethra.) .

The muscles 5urroundini the bladder are wrapped around it_in th~e. directions. These muscles are Yery elastic .~d can .xp.nd·g~eat11' allowing the bladder to buld aore than a quart of urine if necessary.

A Sphincter ~uscle. which is under our eons~~ou5 control, surround, tke Urethra and prevents the urine fro~ dis~h.r8iftg,fro. the bladder uncon·

t~olled. .

Yhe urinary ~ystem serves ~o eli~ln.te .ast of the product, of cell me~&bolis~ in·the~form of u~ea. water) and salts. The kidneys are the

~05~ vit~l organs for pu~ifying the blood; and for this re.son~dise.s.s .~

o~ ob~tructions in the kidneys are likely to affect the functionina of .

~be heart &nd cirulatory system.

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

N~. w ....

OQ'.-Q

The vast network of bloc. v •• - sels c.r~ies blood to every c.ll' 1_ the body. Once this is aeeo.plish-

ed, there .Olt be 50.e way for the ~utrl.nts and oXYleR to l.ave the blood and enter the cell~ and for

the cell', .aste p~oducts to leave

the cell and enter the bloo4. Thl. exchange of nutrients and waste p~oducts .is aceo.plished throu,h the Tissue Pluid~ OT Lr-Ph. Ly.ph is • colorless~ watery fluid th.t SUTrou- \4 .ds every c:el1 of the body. It is' d.6:'.i"" ed. fro. blood pl .... * t.e ,

fluid .p.r~ of the blood.

Upon exchange, of nutri~Bt .....

'~. !.rJfP.!(Al'XC Sl::i'.t"EIf: TRANSPORTATION ",a:!!itoe products. pI.saa fil te-r .. oat OF .ATIRIALS TO AND FRON TS6 CE~L$. of th~ ~.pil1.ries to surround •• c. cell. 'In the course of this filt~ation red blood eell$t pl.t.l.t.~ and some pr6teins are left behind in the c.pillari.5~ The filt.red pl., •• tha't·.c:Hffu.!les "into the cell is l~p-h. It contains white blood. cell .. ~ '. nut r-Len t s , waSte products. and' o:lyg.n .. LYilph bathes each cell and is t"_. the liquid .edium of exchange between the ·c,lls and blood stre •••

. ~n the 'lytllphstic systea exists· Ly-.ph Node:s~ lu.py c:ollectioJls of cell.,.··

at tho juncture~ of the larger lymphatic ve.,els. There are lar,. collect· i.o n s 0 f fyuph nod 1i::9 1 n the Gra in ~ u-nder the ar.pi t II: ~ and in the nee); ~

t~ •• e lr-pll nodes pl'oduce LY1lPhocyte.s and. Antlbod.i.' that pro·teet th.

body .,ai n st. d. i seas e and in fee t ion .. They.l:so aetas t11 t OJ" ch.. t t'l'.p

22

"uy for.lln particles and ba~teria in the- b-ady. When for.ilD. .icr~or •• nl,.s enter the body~ the ly.ph nodes Irow larler as they produce the larle nu.ber of ly.phocytes necessary t~ filht·off the infection. T~e· to.DS 11, f-o r exa.p 1 e ~ are lIade 0 f i 1 y.pha ti c ti 55 1,10; they 0 it en. swell when th.~. is an infection 1ft the th~oat ..

"

THE NERVOUS S,YSTEN"

The lervou s Sys t e. i 5· the cOll.Jlunl c lit ion s and. con tl"O 1 net wo rk of t h. body. Thzou,h ~lectroche~ical impulses it senses, sorts~ .tore5. *nd VIO. na.ssa,es'l that control every body funct.ion and process. II:· is al- 10 ~esponsible for thoulht. strategy and 4ecision .akina. The Xervou, Iyste. is co.posed of an enor.ous neiwork of nerve fibers an' cells that

. ~ •• ehes ev~ry p.~t of the body. .

CEXTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM:

The ~o~trol centers of the .yste. ar~ the Br.in arid Spinal Cord •

• hi~h to,~th.r .ake up the Central Nervous Syste.. rt coordinates· .1- .o.t all the .ctivities of the.b~qy. The Central Nervous Syste. reeeiw Yel infonation froll all parts of the body via ineo.inS sensory n.rv·.I~ it then sorts out this informatjon; and finally it 50nd. the proper orders. throuah the Qutloina .otor nerves, to the parts of the body ro· quiria, adjust.ent.

._

SPINAL CORD:

Messages fro. sensory narv,s· enter the spinal cord t.hrotl.h an.y one of 31 pairs of spinal nerveS. T~e sp1nal cord.~ont.inJ a aray are. in which interconnections are •• de betw~en Sen50ry~ MQtor~ and "Intern.urous.· Sensory ".urons~ or ne~.e eells, react to sti.u11 (heat~ c.ld~ p~e.iure. etc) and t~.n$.it information fro. the·source of lbe iti.uli to the

Ipinal cord. ·Int erneurODS CQ_nhect the s~n.sory neurons to Motor Heuron., .hich coriduct "co~mands" f~ott the spinal cord or.b~.in to •• uscle or .l.nd. The spinal cord itself is .ff~rde~prot.ction by th. VOTt.bral Coluan, O~ Backbone. The Brain is protected by the Cr.niu., or Skul~.,

~~:~~~~~~

'l'JlB HUIIAN ·23

CERVICAL

<#

. ."t: .. •

·THORACIC N VES

. .

\

,LUMBA.R

SA.CRAL

....

CI!REiELtUM

. ,Il

TIlE BRAJN:

, I

The b~.in i, encased within the h~ayy bones of the C~.nlu.~ co"Only called the Skull) the Spin.1 Cord p.t58S throu&h th. hollow CeD~.rs . of the bone that mat. up the Vertebral tolu.n. or Backbone. ' Th. brain

."and Spinal Cord .e~le "ith eaCh other without. cl.arly defined boundary.

The braiD and SpiQ.al Cord aTe covered by three ••• bran •• can eel th ...... - iDles" C.~obrospinal Fluid within t.ho ••• bra~es an.d ... Uhi. hol1ow pOI'-· tioa. of· the brain .a~· spinal cord~ eu~hions the b~.in and ·spinal eord· .I.lnst e~t.rnal shocks *nd blows.

The Peripheral Nervou5 System includes all those p.rts of the Mer.

YOU. S1st •• that are not pa~t of the Cent~al ~&~VOUS Syste.. The Per··

.. .;;."

I • • •

• t .

. . '

i' .. ~r.i ·Heryous 5ystQ trans.it ~"",!ie.n:s;. t ion.s frC!l •. t he .• us el. s ~, ,s,.eJl,'G;ry .

,organs which a!'",f! the- _,yes" e&:rs.,-~.;)S·e,( Wl,r t01ri\1.~. ·.lid iat.8rn~~~~a.ns 01 the body to t~.e Cent",l Kflr¥'_9U'S Sys't". Through the Pe:l'iphera) Mer ... 'IOU.· S7'st •• ~ nerVe i.pulses ol'i"liMtinl in the bJ"a_in·at'e t:rans.itted fr .. thl!!· br.in and Spinal C"rd .... ta th.1f M·usel85 and Glands of the bod)", whtch .• n.bles _the brain to con~~ol.-the operation of tbe body.

-One i.portant part of t~'e Peripheral - HerYo~s Syste. i·ne-ludes th& Cranial Ner1'6s 10 'Which are located. ·"i thi...n .the h",'ad .and. neck of. the bod,.

~ Tk~ Cranial Nerves t~.ns.it. tb~ sensations of si,ht, sound~ ~.st~ ••• lI1 and balance fro. the sensory organs in t.;h.e head and neck of 1:he bod"..:

The Cl'anial MoJ!'''.s tr8ns.i t thfJ sensations of si*ht, lound,,_ tas"t·-e~ ••• 11 ~ and b.l~nc. fro. the sensory ~rlan5 in the head to the ~r.in; the .craat.l ne~Yes also trans.it·to the brain the &ens~tign5 ,rising in tho heart, lunl5~ and digestive sytte.. Th~ brain interprets these senla-

t ions f.ro. the sen.so_ry o~gan5. and ,then Q:;rde.r·, the "muse 1 e s .t e ta!<:.e 8..ny .

. • ppropl'l·a tfJ ac t i on! run· f'l'o. d .. n·,er ~ eat a. .e.1, relax. The, tr81l:s.i S ~ .• t~n· of sensations arising fro. the he.~t. lunl$~ .~d di,estiYe syst •• enable. the brain to control the bpe~atlon of theso i.po~t.ftt internal .y.t.tdlS .

<I' .

/

. ~.

•..

C •• ~KAL NBROUS srsrtw ARUS CO"C6"RB£D: 1. ,RAIN

J. SP IllitE. CORD·

PBRIP6BRAL WKRVOUS SYSr •• AJiI.AS COIIC.'U'SD:

r , IfU$CJ.,ll$ ..

2. SBIISORr ORGA.S

J~ Iwr8RRAL ORGANS

-i:.

rUNer ION OT THE N8RVOUS SY@fI.1I •

.. ' VOLUMJ'ARY I'UIIC'l!10NS:

COMrBOLL6"p IY:, C.II. •• RAL COR,1'BX

I.VOLUW~ARr 'UNc~rOHS:

COlfrROz,LBD BY: . AUTOMO.XC BBRVOUS srS~.N

Tf/IICTIOtlf ,

·GAf'B.R IB~ORIIA~10N FRO" ALL , r •• S'WSBS AND RBCORD Ir 'OR US. IN rHa ,urVRB.

'UNCI£ION:

RBGULAf'BS BR.A~NIWG~ BODY ,'I'HMPBRATURB, .III.OOD PR:8SSURll OPBRItTION OF CIRC.UL.l1'ORr, DrG.S~Iv.,.XCR.rORr·A.D R.PRODUC~lV. SrS~BN8w

.1

The Nervous Syste. c.n be .1so describ~d· aceordinl to·functio •• The ft~rYOUI srst •• controls both Voluntary and Involuntary functions. Yohlftta:ry futletlons ar e controlled by & spechl portion of the brain. the Cerebr.l Cortex~ ~he Cortex gathers infor •• tion ·f~o. all the sen·

.se!. and record it for·future use. It then sends out signal~ to the properr.u,cles to act in response to the intake of ~he sen$es~ u.i~1

p •• t exp.rienc •• s a 8uide~ ~

The I~voluntary 'uncti~n5 are cDntrolled by the Autano.i~ NerVOU5 SYlt •• , which includes all these parts Qf the·C~ntr&l and P.riph~r.l ~ervou. SY$te. that have any thin, at all to 40 with reeulatin, amd can:troll iDa the. internal body.. The Autonollie NeJ"vo\1:S 5yst·e. functions iuto-.tically~ and without our co~,eious knowl~dae~ to ro.ul~t. our bre.thift'~ body te.peratur8. bloo~ p~essur •• and t~e operation of ~ut

, .

25

~""""''''&''''''''If4l1' -,~""'.""'."'" ... _-". ............... .,,, _ •• - .. -r ...... --- ... ~· .......... .1 ............ __ • .

The Autofto.ic·NeTyoul SrSt~ is diYided into the Sy~pathetic and

the para8.~p.thetic sy.ste·.s. Tlu ,SV.P.~<"th ... e-itie and Pal'a.$~p .. ll~het.ic Syst.e •. 1 ha v 8- oppo·s.i.:t.·_e. ef fei~:t ii, Cin tJ1,e s •• e bOyd)'" Jun.c. t io n s ~ so t h;D-t .... ~ 1n~, control., .. o£ ~h.t r-,i.ti.'ction can be', .aint. lned ~ _, . .ihtsJ;.':.p.s the dri veT; ,? f' .an auto.obfl e us e s bO't'J{' t he brakes .n4 t lI.e • c e e 1 el':a"t.cfr~ .:t,o 118 i n t ai n t h~ . .speed appror i·

• t e ~o a 5 i tua t ion ~ 80 d.oe s the C en tra 1" 'N\rl"VOU S 3y st n· ell.pl by 'ttl: e .p .l'a .... s)'Wipathetic·"yste. to 510. bo&.-t rate and.SympathetIc systell to .(:.celet'ate it; .hen a p~r50n.·expariences fear or anger he of teD feels his heart hraceh. Th$ brain interpret' tbe anier or fe&r producing ·~ltu.tion· and

s 1 i 8h t 1 r . r 01 ea s e s t he Para syap. t het i c slol/I ng o f hell. r t :r:a t e in .uch· the.

s ... e w.y • dJ;"iY"er relesl!les· the brakes. ·As the Parasylbpa.thetie eontrpl .. - .. is rele •• ed~ the Syapathetic etf~ct of speeding up the heart·beeo.es .ore in£luential ana he.~t rat. increases. Thus. the Parasy~pathetie aRd.

Sywpa t het: i c elf ec t!l are co:ord ina t ed ~ an d t he actual heart rate i s . d·et.r-

.• i.cd by a balance between the two opposing syste.s.

; I

f .

., .

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· .

.. .

: .~

; ~ .~,

.. ~. :

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.~ -,

••• v

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-s P INAt._ cO.J{n

I

,~ . - ~ - .-

- : .',

:, I _i,

......

, . ~ ~;

.. "

(r··

'F IRST\ PART OF .. LARtE INTEST tHE

v-

......... .-

. -

SECOND PART OF

:·LARG·EINTEsriNE

.~ .

• I -, "."

· : ~ :

-rh. Au~ofto.la NarvoU8 S9.~Q •• w

TA1. 8~.t •• c.r~j •• i~~ul.e. to and·£ro~ the or~~nR bl.dlod ve •• el. and' 9'l.nd. c.u.I!IIJng· body re.ctian"s that· .~. DQt wjtbitt con.clo~. control.

... . ~ . . . .

. -

. ,

· ,

... ., ......

.... CIIwI....-, """'" .....-

.... ar~

.............

-'-'t _..

"' ....... II1~

.. aWDriIIaI m-a and tM tkln IIood ...,._,.

n.. .. ........,.~ 1nIfIch~

.... of btHthlP'IG

,.. Di •• IIl_ "..

hrllfallic It .. n." ....... ~ hIM ~r' Aph~ gf dltalift tuM s.c ...... 0# ~ry ilia ..... hc......_~~i .......... uM

pa~

.c.~ ·of liflIr UIJ(Uglfl to OIIKOtOl

,.. ~na,., S)UaIII

lJtIa«y bINder

.~wo! ....

s,h5lldom

MwdoI of Ik """rw.

..

~~\ ... '"

"_"_cI

I~ hI __

fhn. _ry IllIWa

"ad Co~

CGIIInxMd ... , ~ _

!:IitkMgj "'grIM wtttI 41Ia~ qdI and IJINIll;llnc:y

.. , ..

• •

.._. ~.:!If uMl"I'IIIII ~iI;I n.h ...........

~cf~ 1IIamatcw~

N-'uI- aI ad __ tta ....

..

1nC....-i

Ca~ (eoSJ.I.III}

S«retIan at .1II~Ma and -.pi ..........

NERVE IMPULSES AND CIRCUITS

The basic building hlock of the Ne~vous System is the Nerve,Cellt Dr Neuron. Neurons fora the net~ork of nerves throughout ·the body. Most

of the metabolic processes~of the Neuron t.k~ place ·in its ce.l body.

Two types of fi~er$ extend from the. cell body; a large numb,r_of Dendrit~ es and a single Axon. Nerve I.pulses enter th£. cell th~oUlh Dendrites . and 1 eaVe the cell thr-ough the Axo n. Bet ween indi vidua 1 ·Neur(lns is a. tiny a.p c~lled A S,naps~ across which the ner~e impulse travel,.

A Nerve I.pulse is ini t is ted, when an. outs id e sti.u 1 u s acts on a Neural Fiber. reversing the electrical charges o~ both sides of the fiber's .eabrane. The reversal rapidly travels along the riper's len- 8th. Cro55.e$ a synapse. Ilctivates the n'ext Neuron, and so on ,

The reac~ion·of the body to a stimulus is ,determined by a circuit of nerve i.pulses called a Reflex Arc. In the si.pl~st kind of reflex .T~ -R. !lefts·ory neuron trans.its. tbe illlpul s e to an interneuron. The interneUTon trans-its an impulse to a motor neu~on. which causas a .uscl. to .ove or a a:1 .. nd 1:-0 se cr e t e , The ·.Interneuron also transllits an iapu.l.e .si.ul,taneou,sly ,to neurons in .t he central rre r-v cu s systell so that: 'the ·br.in IJ alerted to the stiaulus.

• Th. che.ical ·and physical processes c0ntinuously going on in livin, ~ra.Di$.s and cells.

\'

21-

A eVptc.1 R.U~Dn and djrQctlo~ or nerv. J.pul.... ~he d.ndrlts8 cazry 1.pu~ ••• lato tn. cell. The Azon ~.rrJ •• 1.pul ••• • r.~ rro. the c.ll~

••

-A SIMPLE REFLEX ARC

~~ ••• rv. 1.guZ ••

h· • ."al. th .. ".".O£JII

ne"ron to the lntezn.urOn ~Dd then-to th. -otor n~uron •. 'r~. the ~tor n~ur~D ehe j~ul.e t~ ••• l. to th •• ~.cl. ~h.r. th.

r •• pon •• J 4.. rh.

1.pul •• erO ay .,-

. nap... tt"hJ. ch .r. Rot 11- JU8trat.d~ In co.,Jetiog

thl •• ~c. •

28

/.

rh. App • .,rance of a .an in· ,*r.I eao"tj on.ltl c.r i • .1 5. !'he S9mpathetja Division is $4%1.ally activated, preparing man Lor Ljght pr flight.

: '

29

L -

• <

.. '

"- """ ~

. .<

THE S~BLETAL SYSTEM

The 20'6 b01le. which .an i I eo.po s&d of are no t sol id ~ 1 next .. ass es •.

Rather· these vital structures.ar~ dy,n&.i~ little ufac:tol'iosu where .illions of ~elll are busily eng_,ed in work on a pToduction-lin. that would b. th •. envy of any 'IIlodflTn ass •• bl y plant.

App~oxi •• t.l, on~ {I) .il~ion woinout red blood corpuscles are destroyed every sec;.ond of .very. day in the b.ody, and it 1"5 i.port.ant ~ that·.an equal a..o.un:t· are t01'1led to replace thell .•

Otner Punction. of the $kelet&l 5yste.: .

In co.bili. tlon lilt th .C'.rt i laj:i neus ti s sue it for)u a sol id tl s.upport- . in·, fr •• eltOrk. u tor. UlO . softer tissues lind provides p-rotettion .for thelII •.. So •• partl of t_e skeletal sf.te. connect with each other in sueh &.vay . that they for. structures lik& eales or boxes in whicb 1nteTUAl or.a~s ' are lod,ed. An ~x •• _le of tbis is the chest (thorax)~ in _~i~h thG lunls' attd the heart o~cuP1 a protected·positioDA The skeleton also furnish.s surfaces for the attach.ent of .uscles. tendons and lig •• e.t~J which in turn pull· on the in4 i v id.ual bone sand .ake it· po l!I S i bI e for uS toO .0 ....

• bout. 7hua 9$e can see th.t bones and •• aclas are insepa~able eo.pan.

ion. in the orect and .ovi.g body. .

". : r "i::"

" I "~"),: ~"":'

-,

CLASSIPICATION OF IONES~

Bonos .~e clasSified on tho b.,i. of th~ir shape rather than accord· ina to size~ Por e1 •• ple th. relatiY~lr 5 •• 11 bones in rObr finler, art .till rel~rrod·t~ as ~lon. b6nes".

Long Banes: .

LOB, bOD.. are found e~~eptiOD. bein, t.e

.. ,

-.

"~', "~I

only cap. Short 'onos!

Short bones are locat.d in t~. wrist and the ankle •. They .teht be desc:.ribe·d •• cUbical in shape and cons ist. of sponlY bone covered .. i tl\

• shell ot co.pact bon ••

Plat lon. •• :

.Plat bones axe relatively thin, each beina COo.PQsed of t-wn platos of eo.pact bone whith .n~lo,o between the. a layer of spongy bone~

Tae rib. and several. of tb. skull bones are ex •• ples of this.

I~J'elul.r Jo:fte,:· .

. Irr •• ular bOD~. appear in various shapes and include all that are

not t. one of th. pr.~ •• dinl cla$$es. For o%a.ple. bones of the spin.l co 1 ld'D. "'the. j a. t etc ~ ·.:to irl'o-,ulal' bo ne!l . BuI ty port ions 0 f the I e bones cO.list of .pOft,y bone surrounded ~y • layer of e~.pact bone~ while tbe thiaaer part •• a, be eo.posed of two plates of co.pact bGn. with .a s •• U. aaoun.·t ot· "PO.DIY bone between thell~

S~s •• oid lORe,: '

With the .z~.ption of the knee e.p~ are very 5 •• 11. rounded ba~e, They •• v.lop in the capsufes of joints or in teDdons~ a~d their function is ·to reduce friction .

in the upper and the loveT extl'a.ities; tae bones of the wrist, the ankle and the tnee

,'.

-. ~

. ,

.. THE srELSTAL MUSCLES

. ,

Ove~ 600 .keletal .uscles .r~ under our coaaand. They vary .in $110. sh.p ... ·po .. .,r .nd aethod. of .. ttacu.ont. These .u'~ul .. r enlines eR.bl,. UI to .zecut. all •• sn.r 6f Tolunt.ry .ove.ents. They alao .&ke up .

tb., so- c:al1.od red •• at 0 f. 'the body ~ will i eh co.prl so about 36 ptt:r c:ent

"" "-'_

-" L"" "~~

30'

~" " ..

. , .

"'" ";"::",":

7B~ SKBLBTAL (BOKES) srS~EN

MUSCLE TISSUE:

.ox t~ bQdy 1(81..8b.t J,..n lIo.en· and

42 per cent in .en, Th' eo.bin.4 wel,kt of ~ll the skeletal .ulcl,. in the body is about three (3) times a~ great .s that ot ~11 the bones.

Function:

Skeletal .uscl.s are respon· sible for the .ove.ents of pa~ts of the body o~ th& body a5 • whole and a~e uSed in both voluntary and ~eflex ~o~~.ents. When .u5cl •• eontract~ they b~eo.6 shortor and thus exert & pull on their .tt.ck~· .ents. Most skeletal .u,cles are attached to the bon8s~ which futtction as leYers, aDd .ove thos. bones at the joints which serve

as suppo~t. Muscles do not U5- ually lie direetly over the part that is to .ove; instead thet are located above or.below it. 18 front of or behind it~ ~.pendinl on the deSired aovoaeatT P~r ~xa~ple~ the .us~le bodiei whi~h move the forear. are lo~.t~d 1n the region o£·the ar •• their tendons crossing the elbow joint to insert on the bottes of the fore-

.-

ara.

Many skeletal .uscle. are arianeed in pai~s. Wh,ri o~e 01 • pair con~raets the other .uacle. of the pair relaxes. The first is called the Priae Mover, and the second the Anta&oni~t. The relaxation Qf t~~ antagonistaakes possible coordtnated .ove.ent.

When you Nish to perfor.~. particular act such as rubbi., YOUT eye. the act 8S • whole il thou,ht of~·and you do not aualyze it into the indiyidu.l aU$cles that ~ou are loin. to use.

, .

Were it not for our muscle tissue, our bones and joints would b. us.- 1 •• " ·food could not .ove through the di&~5tive tract~ and blood ~ould not .ove thro~gh the dieestive tract~ And blo~d could not circulate thro~ih the vessels of the body. Any type of .ove.ent would be quite 1.po$sible~ MUI.Ie ttssue is aost fa.ou. fo~ itS ability to contract~·rir·~o short ••

< thu. prod¥cin& .ave.ent of internal and extern~l body parts. An .x •• pl •. of this 11 the 1.portant activity that begins long b.for. one is borA aDd continuos until_your l.st Binute of life; this is the contraction of hoart .u.cl. which results in the pu.ptn& of b~ood to .11 parts ~f the bo4y.

31

}.':;_.

o~ ... or.t.

Other i.portant.aov •• ents ar ethos e reI ill. t ed t o lI;r 'II & thinK ... or gettln.·oxYlen into aad ~a~bon dioxide ou~ of the lunJs~ The first g.sp or cry (A-Life, Lah-No otker) ALLAH, of • newborn infant indicates that the .uscles of respi~Btion have belun to function. (Refe~ to Edlt~on CHILDBIRTH AND ~EPRODUCTrON. Number 56). Soon afte~ birth We find other i.portant auscular activity gerting under' _ay~ actiyity over ~hich we have no Voluntary con~rol; the aove.~nt of food ~ateTialalone the

. g·.s troin t8:S t iIi. i t ra ct. the e.p· tying of the bowel~ the tran~port of urine froM the kidneys to the urinary bladder~ and then the e.ptYing of this bladder. Thes6 activities are p05sibla

by muscle tissue which is locat~ ed in the walls of various ortans.

Ano~her i.portant function of .uscle tissue is the production of Heat.. The che.ieal changes which occur dwring aUlcle . contraction produte· ~uch of the heat thAt is needed to .aintaift our nox.al body te.perature. An exa.ple o£ this i$ vhen you

Ilshi v e r " in cold 'ifoatl;ter ~ this is the body's atte.pt to produce mora heat and keep you war •.

.

. .. .,

. -,

.... .:::

.. ,

.-

I -, ~

TYPES OF MUSCL~ TISSUE

J

. .lfuj:cJu ,S'~rve 88 t" h. .. Bn- 9ine$~ of our body .nd are 40 constructed a~ to prQvjd~ varrin~ degrees oL speed and pow.r. There drB three t~p9. of .u.cl. t"issue (skel.t.ll 8moo~h .nd cardiac), each b.ing desJ9n.d tox tb. perEorm~na~ OI a ~.rt.jn t,g.

SI(e:t~TA.L MUSCLE!

Slelet.l Auseles aro attached to the b~nes~ cover the skelton and

.1Y~ shape tD the body, as .~ll as Dakin,· it possible for U$ to move about~ This au.scl. is al So referred ·to' as St-riated ~ ·due to t be striped appearan(:8 pi its indly~du.l fibers when seen under & ~icroscope. A third n •• e Volvnt.ry~ is_ so.eti.es used to indicate that this type of-muscle is under tk. ~ontrol of our conscious ~ill.

32

.

, .

.. '

.;

-"00

. . .

S.ooth .. usc 1 e 1 s ·yery .

pr •• ln..nt ·in th.e valls of the '.'ta.&c·h, the iD.t.'tlD.~ the urinarr bladder~ etcetera. s..ooth. _.v·scle also occurs in. the wall' ·0£ blood ~esse15. in the .l.nds aftd iu the skin. the ter. volun'.~y~ is used to 1ft~

.4ieate that this ~ype of .u.cle is not subject t~ Gur conscious c:ontrol. S.ootb .uscle .1,ht . b. eo.pared with· the .online of a fr.18ht elovator; loared for slow ,peed aDd he •• y duty. it eontinues to function day after day in _ ,law but steady •• nner.

, ,.

CARDIAC MUSCLE:

This tissu. is touad only in the •• 11 $ oft he .. K'.~t. ~ hen-c:" the ft •• , eardiac .uscl •• \It also is inyoluat.ry~ sine. ~e hav"e no col15e-iou·s. cDntyol of its .eti~ity. Our c&Tdi.c tistue

works day .Ctor day~ yet it i$ ~

capable of yigoroul response

for short periods. such .•• when

we .ake a dash f~ the b~s·o~

run up • flicht of stairs .

SIIOO'1H IIU$CLB FROIf- 'J'1:fa I.2'.s~rll •.

33

I_DOCIINB GLANDS:

/

. .~

CARDIAC IIlIsel;.

THE ~NDOCRI~B SYSTEM

2"11:8 ... .in te ... nce o~ th bod., j6 hjVhl~ d.p.nd$nt MPO~ the t.o. gre.t co .. upiaat1oD .~.e ... Dr eA. bodYI th. nervous .y.t •• aad the_~ndocrj~ •• vst... ~h. ~.~ ral'.1;d co-unJ.c. tian .arv1 a. 1.

'p~vjd.d bV th. a.rvou •• ~.t •• whicb j. c~.p.r4ble ~o t~. t.l.pbo~. 8~$te.1 nerv. j~pl ••• ~ t~av.Jj~g swlftl~ to and ~ro. ~b •• ceneral n~r~ogs 8y.t •• w.vJtchbo.rds· Qver nerve fJber ·vjr •• • _oable one to .aka rapid a4ja.t-

.. ~c. j~ both ~he eztern.l .n4.

the .t~ t"4Iu"n.l 'lnY i ran •• a t s. !Ph Bn40crina sy.e •• , iu aontr •• t:

t·o tb. nerVOU8 5 YI.t... p~o.,J.d ••

a .1 .,..,.r for. o~ CO"CUII.i ca ejon . ., becaU8e jt~ ..... , ••• r. c.r~1.d in the blood atr ••• In th. Eor.

oL hJgbly specl.1Jzed ~h •• lc.J .5ub.t:,utc.. (hor.-o ..... ). rll •••

two co .. unjc.~ion .,.t ...• r.

ol.~ .. el.!l coorai,;s_ted: ... _ ~;.cll·_ ona

..

, ,

The 2Dd.QC:r in., sy,t e. cODs·is t S 0 f hor.oAo produe in, _ cell s ~ which a". called. endq.criA. ,lands. These gla-nds are- relatively' si.p1e .!Itr-uc::ture:l, co":listift, of cluaps or cords of secretory cells that lie close to c.pilla~y ~et.orks aDd are suppo~t.d by delicate r.ticular,fibers. Because E~.~er'.~· il.Dd. have no ducts. their sec·retloDs are dischar,.d into the c::apill.rl.. , t.th.e-r than. on·to the sU:l'faeot or into .. cavity ~ of the bod)". thus the ••• 1 •• ~' .1.0 are r.ferr.d to ., Ductless Gian4s. or ~h. ~l&.ds of Iateya.l S.crotlo •• ~

~ . ".

Endocrine ,lands hava one i~portant featu~e in cQ~mon; their soc~etory products are c.r~ied pTi.arily in the blood strea~. even tnough the individ. u.l glands are located in widely separated regions of the body. They do

to r. a s y s t e. fOro. a fun c t ion a 1 po i n t 0 f vie w ( i . e.. the func t ion i ng 0 f

one affects the functioning of others).

HORMONES:

The secretion p r n d u c ed by endoc r ine gl a nd s are c.all e d uhoTlllon e s " a ter. derived fro_ words mea.ning "r o a r c us e " 01' "to s pu r on", Hormones are specific ~r&anic substances that are transported to various parts of the body~ where they regulate the rates of specific processes. In carrying out their regulatory functions. some hormones are essential to life itself and others ~re not.

In order to have mental and physical health and to preserve ho.eosta- 5is~ & delicate and intTicate balance must be maintained on the endocrine JyUe •.

PITUITARY GLAND

Description:

The pituitary gland, lies at the base of the brain~ to which it is .ttaehed by a thin stalk. Pituitary hor~ones dominate the activit~es of the thyroid glandJ the adreneal cortices. and the gonads.

THE PINeAL GLAND

Tho'plneal gland, or pineal body is a small cone-sh&ped structure lI'h.ich i$ intricate and highly sensitive l1bioiogical dock" which pa.rticipates in rejulating the gonad~, or se~ glands .

,

.... -.It--''''t"- Ova,), in t.aa .. cr

__ --of_ ~ ~ molt

GenereJ. Location of Ma.jer Endocrine Gle.pds in the Body

35

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Respiration is a broad term that is used in reference to the exchange

of ga,es between a living organism and its onvironment. lu man respiration involves the taking up of oxygen and giving off of carbon dioxide. Allah Subhana W. TalAla has deYi~ed an ingenious respiratory plan that involves the combined se~vice$ of two elaborate sy~tems (respiratory and cardiovascular] which are referred to as external and internal respiration.

External respiration involv~s the exchange of gases between the circulatin8 blood and the air. Internal respiration inVolves the exchange of gases between the circulating blood and the various tissue cells as they usc oxyge~ and produce waste carbon dioxide.

ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:

The o~g~ns wWich are concerned with external respiration are the nose, the pharynx, the l a r yn x , the trachea, the bronchi and the lungs in addition tn the .thoracic cage and the respiratory muscle5 and nerves.

NOSE:

The nose consists of an externaJ and internal portion. The external portion of the nose protrudes from the face and is highly variable in shape.

The int~~nal portion of the nose 11es within the skull between the base of

the c~anium and the roof of the mouth, in front of the nasopharynx{superior portion 0 f the throat).

,

THE PHARYNX;

The pharynx or throat is a tubulilr passageway that is attached to the b&s~ of the skull and extends downward behind the nasa] cavities, the mouth and the larynx to continue as the esophagus (food pipe). Its walls are composed of skeletal muscle, and the lining consists of mucous membrane.

THE LARYNX:

The larynx Or "vo Lc e box" s e r v c s as. a p a s s a g ewa y for air b e t w e e n the pharynx and the trachea. The uniquE ~tructuTe of the larynx enables it to fu.nction somewhat like a valve on ttgual'd duty" at the entrance of the windpipe. controlling air flow and preventing anything but air from entering the lONer air passages. Exhalation of air through the larynx is controlled by voluntary muscles and so enables the larynx to become the a,san of voice.

During the act of swallowing. the larynx is pulled upward and forward in such B way that the air passageway is closed off, a~d food is shunted into the esophagus. Should food or other foreign matter onter the larynx, & cough reflox is set up in an attempt to expel it; a common expression for such a mishap is that one has HswalJowcd d o w n the wrong throat".

rHE TRA.CHEA:

The trachea or wjndpipc is a floxihle, tubular stTucture that extends from the larynx dQ~n~ard through the midline of th~ neck and into the thorax. l'h e c a.r til a. g e r I n g s 0 f the t rae h e a h o I P t 0 J... e e pit ape nat a 1 1 t i r.l e S for the Jassage of air to and from the lungs.

rHE BRONCHIAL TREE:

The trachea ends by Jividing into right and left primary bronchi ~hich txt~nds to the lungs. Each hronchus enters the lung of its own side through :he Hilus (meaning an opening through which vessels. nerveS etc .• enter and leave an organ). The right pTimary hronchus lS more nearly vertical~ shorter lnd ~ider than the left. Therlforc, ~h~~ fOT~ign bodies enter the ~a~rirato~y ~assages they are likely to be found in the right primary bronchus.

THE LUNGS:

The lungs are the essential organs of respiration, since it is here that the exchange of gases between the blood and air t&ke~ place. They lie within the thoracic cavity. one On either side of the heart and the other contents in the space bet~een the lungs. The lungs are light~ porous ~nd spongy in texture, and they will float when placed in water. An important feature of the lung tissue is its great elasticity; this property is of funda~ental importance during the act of bTeathing.

FEHALE REPRODUCTTVP. ORCAN~ SHOWINtr PA~H OF OOCYT~ FROM OVARY INTO UTERINE TUEF. PAtH OF SpeRMATOZOA IS ALSO SHO~N.

ORGANS OF RESPIRATION!

LARynx, TRACHEA AND BRONCNIAt TREE ANTERIOR (FRONT) VIEW

--------------~-

Ulerine 1lltM!

RL1pt~red "",ari~() fOlII~~

\"""~ ~, ~ l;11~_\"' ~ Iii '.~ ~"'I . .:,fjl'-':· .~,... . r > -~ ~1 .'t~ ~".: v... ' .1J'"' l".; r ~ ~ ~ 4."_' ... u- U" u....-

p ... ., I ~ ... ~ ... _,. {

1 ,,- t - ~ " .' ".. ~. ~ .. • • I ":i. ""1 -_. t~ ~ r

.. ~ .. ~ r",! l'~f~ (" ....... ~~

" / r' rt. .;. ..

"SURELY THERE CANE OVER NAN WHEN- HE ··WAS NOTHING 'l'HAt COULD HE HENr~ONED, SUReLY ~E HAVE CREATED MAN FROH SPERN MIHaD firTH OVUM."

Scxu~l R~production is the union of two cells to form one~ which then grows into a new individual. The organs of the reproductive system may be divided into Two (2) groups:(l) the gonads (testes and ovari&s)~ ~hich pe~fo~. the double function of producing ~erm cells (spermatozoa and ova) and hor.ones (testosterone, estrogen and progesterone) and (2) a series of ducts fOT the t~ansporta.ion of geT~ cells. In the ~ale~ the part of duct ~yste. (penis) is mOdified tor the tran~fer of germ cells into the body of the fe.ale. In the £e~81e a part of the duct ~y5tem (uterus) is modified to suppo~t the growth and development of the new ind~vidu~l.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SY$TEM:

The male reprodu~tive system consists of a pair of male gon~ds or testes and a syste~ of excretory ducts with their accessory structures. The ducts aTe the epididymis. the ductus defern~ and the ejaculatoTY ducts.

The accessory structures are the seminal vC5icles~ the prostrate ~land~ the bulbo-urethral glands anp the penis.

The testes are su~pended outside of th~ abdominal cavity in a pouchlike sac called the Scrotull (Illeaning nbagrl). Within each t e s t e s are tiny coiled seminiferous tubules that are concerned ~ith the pfoduction of sper.-

& to z o a ~ t h e liS 1 e 5 ex c e 11 s + The s e t ub u I e s have a tota.l 1 eng t h of about

one-ha.lf mile.

The duct sY5tem serves to transport 5permatozo~ from each testes to the urethra. It includes the epididymis~ the ductu$ defer~ns and the ~j.culatory duct.

,

SEMBN:

The sper~ato~oaJ pluS the secretions of the 5eminal vesicles of the pros"tate gland and of the bulbo-urethl."al glands~ ::'J:a'\e ~p the sell:el:J. loIhic'\ i~ ejaculated during the ~&le sexual a~t. This thi~k~ grayish-white fluid has an $verage pH of abcut 6.5. ·Seuen is ejected by mean~ of cont~actlori of ~he smooth muscle of the pro~tate gland and the iontraction of ~ eert*in .usele in tha urethra. In the average male. each cubic centimeter of se.en contains 777)777.777 millio~ ~perm cells. (Refer ~o CHILDBIRTH AND R~PRODUCTION. Edition Nu~be~ S6) However. only one spermatozoon can fertili~e an oocyte (egg). and the re~Binder disinte~g~ate.

fEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The female r~pToductive syste~ consists of the paired gonads o~ ovaries the paired uterine tubes~ a single uterus and a vagina. T~e associated structures include the external genitalia and the m&Dmary glands.

OVARIES!

The ovaries are s~all. almond sh&ped bodies that are about 1~ inches in . length. They are located One On either side of the uterus~ below the uterine tube!~ and att6ched to the poste~io (ba~k) su~£ace of the broad liga.ent

of the uterus.

ThO ut.erus 15 1\ noQL..l~W !..I1.l;l:K-Wal.ie,,~ ~~"".3""""''''' .... LIt ..... ~~~ ¥_.~_,; ---

aunicates with those of ~he uterine tubes above and vith that of the V&eina below. Tho upper portion of the uterus is called the bfdl~ and the lONer constricted portion is called the rervix. The pOTtion 0 the body above

the entrance of the· uterine tubes is ~eferT~d to as the fundus.

IMPLANTATION

Pro. about 5 to 8 days after conception. the fertililed ovu~ i.pl~nts itself on the llning or wall of the uterus called the endome~riu.. After i.plantation~ 9o.etimes a small a~Ount of painless bleeding occurs (kno~n as spotting) which lasts for a few days. The endometriu~ gives the ne~ fOTtili~ed cell its beginning nourishment.

Onee the Dvum is in the fallopian tube, it move~ rapidly for soveral

• i nut e S • T h I!!I 0 v ull 1 S P TOp e 11 e d b Y rt C it i a. r r ( h air 1 i k e 0 U t g TOW t h 5 ) & n d con -

traction of the duct's smooth muscle coating~ These contractions soon di~1ni!h and Dvua ~ovement becomes so slow it takes several days to reach

the uterus. Bocause 0 f t h i s , fert i 1 i z a t ion 1Il.ust occur in the OV iduct

becausl!!I of the short life span of the unfertili~ed ovum.

Tr a. n 5 port II. t i Q n 0 f t he ~ perm tot h e sit e 0 f f e T t i li :z. at ion ·w.i t hi nth e..e OViduct i5 50 rapid that the .first sperQ cells arrive within 15 minutes

of ejaculation. The act ,of 'l'.ffprodu:t;::tion, provides t h c i.-:-ergy lor tr a n's no r t t out of the vagina into the uterus because of nhe fluid pressue of ej&culetion.

URHHR,,---

UFlltliA~"" BLApDEFI OPENED

.

,

'j

E.lAc;J LA TORY DUCT

, ... ( .

-~'~t:/

- - T[!;'IIS

raE NALB REP~ODUCTIVE SYSTEM

rR. VARIOUS· ORGANS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SVS~B. AR~ SBONN~ SHOWING THE PATH O~ THE SP.RNArO%OA TRON THE TIMB THEY LEAVE rar r.ST.S

. .

39

DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: FEMALE

CO\RcnO~lO\; is a cancer whi-c:h may occur In t he b reas t s or ut.o rus ;: Sympt orns are not alw,iYs not i ccab Ie in its car 1)' s t age s ,

l}YS~1U'ORRJlt:A: is a term used for pa i n fu l menstruation. Sympt oas are: abdominal pain.

headache ~ buck ache , nausea) and vorni t Ing ,

E_\"UUCERrIC L· r s: i. s 1 nf 1 arrutlat i ~n 0 f the muse I e membrane Lining t he ce rvi x , The mos t

p rom i nerrt s ympt cm is a vdginal Jlsc;larBe-- l.c uk o r r h e a .

H hi<.UU TlI~KlR.3: arc fibrous tumors in the ute rus • They may 0 r may not show symptoms (is a bno rma l bleeding from th€ ut c ru '5 and backache.

HY~~TEH~_C'm;'lfY: J SLtI"gi cal removal of the uterus.

4ASFCT()\lY : t he s u.q_~i ca 1 r'ernova 1 of the b re a s t .

RE-:-:WVFr.c; 1 0.\: th~ ~'OfcJ...ward di sp 1 a ccmen t 0 f the I_.L t e rus •

'; . .; LP l;\G lT L; is in f I amma.t i en uf the f a l I op i an tubes. It 1 s often accompanied ~'r 1 OKe r <.L~")J.omina 1 1_L' nd e r'ne s s and pain.

,

STERr lory: till'! i nub i 1 it]' to r ep ruducu wh i ch may occur IlL e i t he r sex.

l) 1 SO RD E 1\5 Of TJl E REP KO[) UC'l' 1 I.: [; W ~ TEY1 ~ ~L\ LE

IJ'T I ~ i ·lYt·T[" 13: II pain fu I SL-.'C 111 ru; in che ~~roin and sc rot um [1':> J. re su l t 0 f an in 1" cct Lon.

f)~rH:TJS: z ufl aiuna t s on o f ri t c s t i s wh i ch may be a complication of mwnp'"' , r n I l uen z a ,

Q, other lufe-etion. A symptom is the ~'to'ellii1g of scrotwn, accompanied by eicvatl::'J te~peraturc.

l' flO::;·] .Y:· I T l S : i n f 1 annat i on of -:: he p ro s t a r.e gl and ,

PH0S·'·,~.T[C"()\!"t': suT:.;i';-.(ll removal of a l I or pa rt of t he pros ta t I::' gland.

ANSARU ALLAH COh1~1UNITY, INC.

. .

VOLUf1E ONE ~

~ ..

~JljfZ,Jj!J

TH.E HOLY. QUR'AN

J .... ~.~~) It C QJ

· A"

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THE LAST TESTAMENT

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...... 'T1I·L ,~_

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$15.00

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J~ " ... J.I .,u I. HIli 'u .U,G '6U U MUJl~".,i, Jz .~.t11

A.T 1-A.ST, TlfE FIRST CONCISE TRANSI.J..TlOH OF TIlE HOL'!' (,lUll 'AN BY A NUBIAN I~' THE W.E:STERN

HEMISPHERE. A.L w..JJ AL lMAJo1: lSA A.BD' AJ .• UJ-i "ftJI1AJ+IAD AL HAHD I HAS BE EN" APPOI NTED TO

·'OPEN 1liE SEAL" AND· EXALT THE TRUTl-i 1W..T IliILL PREVAIL OVEF! ntE Ll E..S. ThlEREWITH.· ONE

Of HI S GRfA T fST ASS 1 GNHEHTS f S TIf.E. TRANS U. T ION Of rn E HO LY QUit· AN - - THE LA. ST TESTAMENT

lliESE T'TVJISLATEtr SECTIONS OF ntE HOLY QUR' AN WILL 1'II'P[.1IR 1 H VOLUHS UI:(fIL COW' L-LTf D .

VOLtME ONE. WHIQI I S SOON TO APPEAR, WI LL CONTA 1 N SUCH SURAHS (CHA.PTE:).S) AS: ,0\1.. FA.TlHAH,

Al. o..FIRtJN. AL JolASR. A.L !.AHA", AL nus. II.L FAL/IQ. AL NAS. AL ~lIn-IAJt., AL MA·UH. AL ASR.

AL QURAISH. AL FIYL AND AL HUMAZ.A.H. POHTlONS Of SURII.TlJ'L BAQ ..... RAH WILL APPEAR IN EACH

PUBLISHED \'OUME.

A.t.SO A.VA.I LABLE SOON: TAPES ON' T/I .. Jlf:l'"O (n IE PROPER R['C IT II. TJ ON OF TIlL JKJLY QUR' AH) rars IS 1Hf FIRST PROPER RECHAT10 .... · DONE Bl' ~ SULJANl::SE.-~RICAN- THF.RE HA.V£; UE,H MANY ATTDtP"n:i AT QUFI:' A.JHG REClTATION BY AMErlJCAJoj MllSLlP-iS, aur NON!:; kAVE COME AmHliER[ H£AJI TO CAPTlJR1NG THE TIlUE ESSENCE OF CORRECT ~EClT""TWN.-

PRICE ~lS.OO

ANSARU ALLAH COMMUNITY

rt1Mninfl !Jloon'

THE HOLY GOSPEL

I :t

THE

WORLD

THE

RE VEL A 11 OMS

OF JESUS

THE MESSIAH

TO

-""'h~.re does ~ l t:'<Xi)~ <.l i n i;; t lJL~ BOD).;, n r Revel;; t z on , 1;~1I- <:.!!;._; r,..·h"'! il..:; 1'~! 1 01, i s: i ~ i 7 i n~:J For the t : r_..;e t. i i'ilf.' t.tie se: ar,(i F.-.J ny IIVip top i C 5 a r e ~.·)<FJ,~ i nc~~' n·, (j-t i:..' 1 u_s _! no r h.;..

Sacred Books Df A':"~_lIH $CmJ,z',ll i'r',1 ~'_~' ALA (U1 cJ Tf"!_<:; tal71"€'';' r , ,\'c'~, ';"·!~S t .:Jr.;t:'<r: t ,J :,'~J' ~ I,t;' Hal y

I Qur'OIn) fo~ .it'oS" cC!n':iI"I.'i~tjar .. 1'fje H;JQk Ot Revelation ~"..il] h<'- ;""!"jtu·r,- in Cwo p~rt-s,. the vol umes rtmning i rom J - ; :, and 11-;'} in Chi] l--.r.{;:U!:i " '1'r;;;.'lE _: _! tp'r,lt i?c r rom /,!,"o;,- bl C to

t 'English w..i til cOr.Jr.'~,-n..1..!:"~ bu ,

AL ~U .l\L. I ~W1 1 SA ABD' AUAH IT1UI-Wi'WJ AL f.-1,AHD I • . ,-~

~ HO~v OUR' A,V 96; 1 '~ .. <~

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-Who dr~ Che four {4) hor~~;>m""'tJ s;pok.cn of in t/i.a Boo): of li:02VP-l.:J.tjo]) and 001-. is it eon-

firmed in the Hoi!) Qur' an ('niP. 1~~st Tes ta!ll<='n ~ ) ?

-J!.r!9 the 144, 000 mer. tio.'lt>_.,j' j. t: t he Book o t t:1E'v~' 1 at;· {)fi ChI" i 5 c "')J;. u(" Nu~;l ir: rand wheze is .i. e ' S cord i r'f.!tat:i wr. J. f' r he liol ,: ~):1I" <.3n:;

-On t.ne n:iurn of I sa (jcs US) r-be Mt:.-'55 i at: (A.nc i ntf'd OnE') {PBUff J , L.'i;.1 }l0. b(· <, i'ro;._,hc.>t? i','ht!!re would he roe urn» ;~'hc- a reo th~ p~p:i. ~ H~ will ret wrr. to"

-Wl)at: .are the Seven (7 J _'i~."J 1 ~ i n tll~ noon of R,-'vel.<1 ti Oil Litd lhc sec rc-t:» Lock e«: t-orn nd . t. fl!7J"ll?

-'!!rat. do the S~v~n (7) ..... ~'h .. t do the Sever. (7)

Woes ';Hia the Set"en TrLlmpets symIx:!_;jz~' in the Hook of J.:'(~\'~lau·onl [;(l J dp.,"l C ar.:ulE:"-5t.i c): s rnpr eeent: i r; tho: Roc·k 0 f ;\'{:'vcl.-, t 1 Ot~;'

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ANSARU ALLAH COMMUNITY

• • •

THE HOLY GOSPEL

THE REVELATIONS OF JESUS THE ME·SSIAH TO THE WORLD

/lotU.JJI(!(j

9 0 ~ ~.' ,Y,.y.-

HOW WILL THE RADIATION FROM THE BOMBS AFFECT YOU?

WHAT DOES ~HE BOT~~MLESS ~!T REPR~SENT?

~RAT·DrD YUHANNA (JOHN,HWON} REALLY SEE? DO THE ELDERS REALLY EXIST?

ARE YOU READY FOR THE SEVEN PLAGUES? WHO IS THE LAM3?

IS DAJJAL A MAn OR A BEAST? IS WORMWOOD REALLY A THREAT ~O MAN?

\lHICH OF' THE AMEF:I CAN P~ES !DEN TS REPBESENTED THE 'rG~EAT EEAR"?

W'tlAT PART DOES THE POFE PLAY IN REVELATION? WFIO ARE THE ~44tOOO?

UNDER WHAT CI~CUMSTANCES WILL THE DEVIL T~IUMPH?

~HO HAS THE KEY TO THE BOTTOMLESS FIT? WHEN WILL THE EARTnQUAKE OCCUR?

WHO ARE THE REAL SAINTS MENTtONED IN REVELATION?

FOR THE FIRST TIME THESE AND MANY MOR~ TOPICS ARE £XPLAINED r~ ~ETAll EMPLOY]NG THE SACRED SCR[PTURES OF ALLAH SUBHANA WA TAlALA (OLD T~STAMENTI NEW TESTAMENT~ LAST TESTAMENT~HOlY QUR/AN); ALL WORKlNG TOGET~ER} ALL CONFIRMING EACH OTHER TO REVEAL THE IRUIa:

DONA T ro~l S15,rJf)

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i1 . I -r. ..~ IPlrTII~r tf' ';~r oII~~J<T, AL ~~J U 1~~ "~

~ '- r, A PI RST I N A Sf RI ES 0/ THE MOST QUrST AN~;~N~~"~:'~~;~'; ~:: ':;< .,,~ I

~~~CITAT]ON OF THE GLORIOUS QUR'AN~ IN TAJWYD, FINAlLY~ WHAT THE WORLD HAS BEEN WAiTING FOR, TAJWVD AS REClTED BY HIS EMINENCE:

AI Hajj Allmam lsa Abd'Allah Muhammad Ar Mahdi {SPIRITUAL HEAD AND D[RECTOR OF ANSARU ALLAH COMMUNITY)

A MOUNUMENT ]N PROPER RECITIATI0~ OF THE QUR' AN AS DONE FOR THE FIRST TIME BY A SUDANESE AMERICAN. TAJWYD (PROPER ~jIAIiO]Q OF HOLY GURJAN WILL APPEAR IN A SERIES~ CHAPTER BY CHAPTER~ UNTIL ITS COMP~ETION,

GET T~EM ALL!! LEARN TO __RECITE

THE E N T IRE Q U R f __ A__1L~_l___ t

TH1S SERIES YOU CANNOT AFFORD TO B~ WlTHOUT. EACH GHA~TER CONTAINS ITS OWN RECORD~ AND AN EXPLANATJ ON OF THE CHAPTE R FROM THE QtlR ~ AN THAT J S BE[NG RECITED. NO WHe~E ELSE WiLL YOU FlND THE EXPLANATlON OF THE HOLY QUR'AN SO PERCISE AND CLEAR~ LEAV1NG ROOM FOR NO DOUB7 AND ERROR!~!

--ALSO AVA! LABLE SOON.,I FOR THE PUBL] C .. SALAT '(WORSH r p) J TAPES. A COMPLETE GUIDE TO LEAR~rNG THE PROPER RECITATION OF SAlAT, THE SECOND PILLAR OF FA1TH~ AND THE VEHICLE BETWEEN MAN AND ALtAH SUBHANA WA TA~ALA~ S~lAT MUST BE PROPERLY LEARNED AND COMPREHENED, TAWJYD (PROPER RECITATION) OF HOLY QUR~AN AND THE SAlAT TAPES ARE ALL TRANSLITERATED BY AL HAJJ AL 1MAM lSA ABDJALLAH MUHAMMAD AL MAHDII SPIRITUAL DIRECTOR OF ANSARU ALLAH COMMUNITY,

TAJWYD of Holy

Qur'an

AI Hajj AJ Imam l s a Abd'AI lah

,

__ .-_.

Muhammad A~ Mahdi

., .'.

FOR PRICE AND INFORMATION~ PLEASE CALL {2121 Qq3-1972, OR CONTANT:

ANSARU ALLAH COMMUN lTV

716 BUSHWICK AVE.,"" BROOKLYN, N.Y. 11221

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ANSARU ALLAH COMM UI--I!TY

.,

. COM I N G S 0' 0 N !

THE'RAATI'B (UNSHAKABLE,) AL IMAM MUHAMMAD AHMAD AL MANDl (08P)

T_HE ONLY TRUE MAHDI!

T4[ RAATl B (UNSHAKABJ_E) 1 S NOT A POLl q CAL DR Sf CT IS T WORK. EVE RY

MUSLI M REGARDLESS OF SECT t Bi; (T SUNN I s . SH I I IE; OR AHMADI YVAH ~ SHOULD OBTAI N A coPY OF THE MATll! (UNSI-IAKABlE), 1 TIS CC.~WOSED OF EXCE RPTS FROM THE HOLY QURrAN~ CERTAIN HAD1THSs AND PERSO~Al EXPERlENCES WITH SHAI KH KM I DR (MELCHES I DEKt SRA) I THE ANG~LS (SRA) AND THE PROPHET ' MUSTAFA MUHAMMAD AL AMJN PBUH)$ WITH WHOM HE CONVERSED DURING HIS MlSSJON AS GUIDE AND REFORMER OF THE SUDAN DURJNG THAT PjBlOD OF TIME. (SEE M.UH.AMr:lAP AHMAD" THE DUll' TRUE MAHDl. (AS) I EDl TI ON # 3).

IHf RAATIB (UNSHAKABLE) rs A aU[DE FOR MAN~ A SPlRIIUA~ ~ THAT INSPJRES HUMBLENESS AND SUBMISSJON TO ALLAH SU~HANA WA

~__ IAJALA. YOU CANNOT AFFORD TO BE WITHOUT YOUR COpy OF ~

.-...I.L~ BA8T1 B ( UNSH AK ABLE) WH I CH ~ l L L BE AVA IlAB LE SOON TO

THE PU8L] C.

F'OR INfOR:.~,'fIGN CALL: (212) 443-1'172

WHAT I S THE RAA Tl B, (UNSHAKABLE)?

TijE, RAAT 1]. (UN SH AK ABLE) •• , A H l GH L Y SP[RITUAL COMPOSITION WRlTTEN BY Al IMAM MUHAMMAD AHMAD AL MAHDt (AS)} WAS COMPLETED JUST BEFORE ~]S DEATH, EVERYNIGHT ~FTER S/LATUIL lSHA (EVENlNG WORSHlP); HE L~LlGENTLY 1NSCRIBED THE RAATIB UNTI~ THE SUN BY THE :tEAVE OF ALlAll SUC}iArM wA TAl ALAi EMERGED ONCE AGAlN STARTlNG A NEW

DAY,

NOT TO BE r~ I 5T AKEN FOR A NEW SCRIPTURE~ ~ RAATIU (UNSHAKABLE) POSSESSES HIGH MVST1CAL POWERS~ POWERS THAT BiND COMMUN1TlES AND 0r~NS ONE'S HEART 19 THE LOVE OF

A lAH SUlSHANA WA TA ALA. IF READ FA1THFULLV EVERY MORNING AFTER' SALATU~L FARJ (EARLY ~ORNlNG,~ORSH1P) AND AS OFTEN DUR]NG THE DAY AS POSS]BLE~ tHE LOVE AND D1SClPLINE OF WORSHIP (PRAYER) WlLL BE INSTILLED

I N TO ON E I S SO UL •

\~Lo~' t/1Ui I~DV~ 'I

THE RAATIB

(UNSHAKABLE) Of

IMAM AL MAHDI (AS)

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I( (f Ttl FIr&T 10 Ief:F1T FRJ1 nus LlmrrAl~If(i WRlT1B~ 1111 l(aRED lUfPlLY IN AAABIC RE.BA (QA$ICIL APIIBIO .. llE'TQQE IN ~Im nE aR' N~ 'tUlS n &lUI£!).

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BOOK ONE

'I.e". ,?lE~E(

1t ,,«J. It ~ ,

;/CLaitadte

7o't t~e "'"d.tie!

$15.00

What type of SEX LI·FE do you have?

It it ... cit~ng or·ltn·e ... ntful?

How to'be CI SEXUAL G,OURMET! o A: A l 5 IX G_"d ~t19V E, lA L.K.~~ are

they·."he :Hrme?

MASTURBAT ION: A Sin or CI 5a¥oi.L~ At who)' age should 5 E'X, E DUe A liON be tClughi?

SYPH~ILLIS·: A kil'1er,oF ~"'ve Qn.d lifet

THIS BOOK IS NOT TO UE MISTAKEN AS OBSCENE PORNOGRAPHIC MATE~lAl .. IT

IS AN AID TOWARD EDU(ATl NG T~E MATURE ADULT IN MAK I NG HI S/HER PRESEtH OR FUTURE RELA 11 ON MORE REWARD I NG, FOR f;. LEARtH NG EXPER I ENeE FROM THE

I SLAM I C ViE W ~ GEl ~.c QUA [ NT ED WITH.. , . , .. , . , • t • • I , • , " • " • • , • , • " • • , • • ,

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7~e Sex Lile ~-~jl\~~L,--

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*····*··*THE SEX LIFE OF A MUSLIM*·····4* • . ANSARU ALLAH COMMUNITY·

7160 8USHW·lCK AV.i. B/KiYN. N.Y lJ.2.11

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1ttl(# //'i4t.l4I.le t6 t/t,e Peed-ttef

ANSAR NEWSLETTER

MAIL YOUR ORDER WITH CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO:

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(Pr.EJlSE EliCWSE 2 S¢ FOR l1tt) ANSAR NEtlSLE'I"1'ERS; 45¢ FaR FOOR

ANSAR NEJiSLET'1ER S; AND 65C FOR SIX ANSAR NPlSU'1t'ERS).

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.aJ &141

I j

NEWSLETTER tm ~ 1 I~E MAN DE DUB TIMES

IN THIS NEWSLETTER~ THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF ANSAR NEWSLETTERS~ YOU WILL DIS,OVER THE TRUE MEANING OF SURATU'L FATJHAH (DEGREE OF THE OPENING), LEARN WHY THIS SURAH AND THE TRUE .MEANING BEHIND IT IS SO lMPORTANT TO THE TRUE BELIEVERS. THIS SURAH (CHAPTER) LAYS THE FOUNDATION ANy EXPLAINAT[ON OF THE REST OF THE HOLY QUR AN.

WE DED I CAT~ TH I S NEWS LETTE R TO /.L .tAJJ AL IMAM {SA ABO ALLAH MUHAMMAD Al MAHDI~ WHO FOR YEARS HAS BEEN STRUGGLING TO PR)PAGATE THE TRUTH IN ITS PRISTINE PURITY~

SEE WHY HE, THE SPI RITUAL HEAD A~m FOUf~DER OF THE ANSARU ALLAH COMMUNITY IN AMERICA

IS DEF I N ITELY THE MAN OF OUT _] I Mf..S.

GET YOUR COPY Of THE MAN OF OUR I15EZ!!!!

.~ .

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NEWSLETTER tJO. 2

~ HORSEMEN Of THE Af~CAL1;SE- CAN THE tlQLY QUa'AN $QLYf II.

_-WHO ARE THE FOUR HORS~MEN OF THE APOCALypse?

-WHAT DO EACH OF THE FOUR BEAST I~ TME BOOK OF REVELATlON SYMBOLIZE. -WHAT ARE THE EYES OF THE FOUR BEAST?

-~H~ WtLL THERE BE A GREAT EARTHQUAKE

AND WHEN?

-WHAT DO T~E RlDERS OF THE FOUR HORSES SYMBOLIZE?

FOR YEARS SCHO~RS~ PREACHERS~ AND TME~LO~ GlANS HAVE STRUGGLED TO SOLVE THE MYSTERY 9F THE FOUR HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE. THEY VE MADE MOVIES~ WRITTEN BOOKSi ~TC, AND STILL THEY DO NOT KNOW. ONLY THE HOLY QUR AN CAN SOLVE THE MYSTERY OF THE FOUR HORSEMEN, AND TKE SOLUTlON [S HERE FOR YOU~ RIGHT ~lTH1N THE PAGES OF TH l S NEWS LETtER,

THE. fQU~ HQRSEMEN Q~ IKLAfQCALyp,jf- CAN.

THE HOLY Qua AN SOLVE II, YES IT CAN ...

GET ONE TODAY! ! !

t-

NEWSLETTER NO.3 ~ JlliliZ Illi

SURATUcl HUMAZAT (DEGREE OF THE SLANDERER) IS THE SURAH (CHAPTER) OF THE HOLY QUR'AN~ WHAT IS [T ABOUT?

-HOW WAS AL MAHDI (AS) SLANDERED?

-HOW WAS THE PROPHET MOSES (PBUH)

SLANDERED?

-HOW WAS THE PROPHET [SA (JESUS~ P8UIt)~ SLANDERED?

-ijOW W~S THE PROPMET MUHAMMAD {PBU~) SLANDERED?

-HOW ]S AL HAJJ AL IMAM ISA ABD~ALLAH MUHAMMAO AL HAHDl BEJNG SLANDERED?

fIND THE ANSWERS TO THe~E AND MANY MORE QUEST[ONS ~N THE SURAH (CHAprE~) OF THE HOLY QUR AN CALLED HUMAZAT&11

'.

, ~ .....

. ~ ........ _·1 . ..:_... ~ . :._.

!.

MJI, ci'"-' A' :..rl The Most Dynamic Pa~phlet~

. '

in His,tory:

LITERATURE AUTIIORED BY:

; ~~l ~~jj AI Imam lse Abdt.~I!ah .~~u_~_~!l1_mad AI Mah~L ........

1. BOOK oF HANES 451. ISLNlIC IfARRIAGE, CEREIIONY AND

2 •. WIlY 'tHE BEARD? POLYGIUf r

3. ~s CHRIST REALLY CRUCIFIED] 50. CHRISTIANITY: THE POLI~ICAL·RELJ,Gxaw

4. ARE THE SCRIProSES tAMPERED WITH? 51. THOUGHTS OF A /lUSr.III hUIlAM IN

s. "OUR S~BOLN 52. ISLAMIC COOKERY

fi. THE DOG 53~ DIETARY LAIiS ·OF JI MUSLIN '0

7. TALISItfAN 54. SEX LIFE or A NUS LIN

8. YORUBA 55. YOUR BODY

9. SCIE:NCE OF HEALING 56. CHILDBIRTH AND REPRODUCrIQN

10. BILAL (HWONJ 57. ISLAMIC·COLORING BOOK

11. WHO IS THE PROPBKT IWHAMMAD (PBUH)? 58. CHILDREN FABLES OF MIR ABDULLAH

11. HUSLIM PRAYER BOOK 59. Wl£\T IS A HlJSLIH?

13. JW1lANHJU) AHHAD (AS),. THE ONLf TRUE ItfAHDI 60& rmAT IS A PROPfIET?

14. RAJJ 61. INTOXICATli' IS A SIN • ,

l5. LEViATHAN - 666 62. UNDERSTANDm THE BOcJK OF RBVJ'LATZGW

16. DID THE If(X; CQHE FOR MANKIND? 63. ISLAlfIC GMf8S OF MUSLINS

17~ THE LOST CHILDREN OF MU AND ATLANTIS 64. OPENLNG OF THE SEVENTH SEAL

ie. TRIBE OF ISRAEL IS NO HORE 65. SCIENCE OF CREATION

19. IS1JJfIC POETRY 66. THE TRUE ORIGIN OF NMlTIAL Mrs .

20. THE PALEIfAN 67. WILL SEND ELIJAII BEFO'RE 'rHE COIlING ott

21. SONS OF CANAAN THE GREA'! AND DRBADFUL DAY OF RB lDRP'

22. TSOH ALLAH TO HAN 68. CHRIST IS THE ANSWER

23. liEN tIRO DRESS IN WOMEN t S CLOTHES 69. RAAT IB (UNSHAKEABLE) OF AI. IIfAJI

24. WHY THE NOSERING? HUHNtHAD A1IHAD AL HAHDI {1t$}.

25. IS 'l'HE HOLY QUR t AN A PRODUCT OF HAN? 10. F ANI LY GUIDE 7'0 EASY ARABIC PIlRA.S&S

26. HADITH 71. ARABIC READER

27. FAST OF AAHHAMN 72. ARABIC rHE FIRST LANGUAGE

2B. TRIBAL BNCYCWPEDIA 73. ARABIC HATH BOOK I

2~. NBY ALLAH SHOfJLD NOT BE CALLED COD 74. ARABIC TAPE AND LESSON ONE

30. B'1'ERNAL LIFE AF'l'ER DEATH 7 5 ~ OUR t AlIIC ARABIC LESSON ONE

JJ.: GREAr JtFRICjl~ KINGS 76. WHAT AND JlHERE IS HELL?

J2. MlAT IS A JtIAS.1ID? 77. Kh't1TMTt S (SERMONS) OF AL llAJJ .u.

3 J ~ ADAM'S "( P BUN) -CALENDAR IHAJI ISA ADD·.1lLLAII NUHAIIIIAD AL JtJmU

34. 'l'HrJS SAID THE PROPHET HURAHHAD (PBUH) 78. JiHA7' ARE ANGELS]

.35. WRA7" S YOUR AS'I'ROLOGY SIGN BROTHER? 79. ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE

36. JlUSLIH MAN BO. THE HOLY ()UR'AN VOWIIE 7W

J 7. IlUSLili M:WAN 81. HOW TO TELL TIME IN ARABle

38. WY '1'1lZ nIL? 82. SAN'l'A OR SATAN? THE FALlJIiCY or

39. 'l'.i.JI;m) -- PROPER READING 01' OUR· AN CHRISTMAS ,

40. IIEN.srRlJA1'ION 83. '1'HE TRIU' STORr OF NOAH (PBVH)

a, SHORT TRANSLJl!"BD SECTIONS OF rHE B 4,.- fiBO, IlHAT, WHERE IS 'r1lB DlfVIL?

HOLY OUR.t lUI 85. ANCIENT EGYPT AND THE PHMAOBS

42. ISLAJlIC IIlJSIC 86. ISLA!llC BEAInY AIDS AND CVS'lOIfS

43. SCIBNCE OF THE PY1fAJUDS B7. ~HB FINAL ~

~4* POLrl'HUSIIf UUGZDN OF THE CANAANITES 88. NUSLIN FUNERAL -RI'!!ES

45. E :rBIBE' OF OIrDAAR (HJION) 89. SERIES or HADHB

46. IfO'l'HER OF ALL LANGUAilES 90. PREHISTORIC IfAN AND ANIIIAL$, DID

47. . 'ltSTIVALS AND CERE:HONIBS 'rREY EXIS'!'?

48. ARA.SIC IIADE DSr PART I 91 .. "lBE TRUE S2'0RY 01' A1JRA1lAH (PBVNJ

. .

ANS4RU A LL4H COMMUNfT f

716 BUSH WICK AVE., i1 RDOHLrN~ N • .Y •. 1'221 FOR ·INFOIWATION CALL (212) 443-1.972

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l!OU HAVE LATH "ON US; TO C:U:AN UP TIm FlLm IW):E BY tmI WEST AND ITS J«.1NSJJBMITrlNG fDqASo OOR WRDo; WE B~SEI:Qi' YOU, TO KEEP YOOR HAND O~R USJji TO' CONTROL mE B'TiUNGS OF tHE QalJRSES P:F OUR LIVES; mAT I'IE H-\Y 8E OPI.!'GHt" IN 'DiY &1GH'f~ WR ... LQRD'. AND ]F 1m DO WRonG" Pl.EI\SE SHOWER mY DIflNi BL!S5INGS

!i.ND mAGJVENJ3,fi5 QJII us. YIOU ARE 'JI'HE. QNL'Y llti;! THAT CANItAlS~ us 'mute i'OLlDW,ERS OF

me , FliOPHEr5" AND I II 'THI' NAME WE tAJUr( 'Ol\l. .,r. ...

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