History 12 Terminology Chapter 1

Autarky: The state of being self-sufficient, or independent of import from other countries. Balance of power: A situation in which peace is ensured by an equilibrium of alliances between major powers that check any move toward hegemony. Bipolar: A world in which there are two major powers or sphere of influence. Brinkmanship: The strategy of taking a nation to the brink of war in pursuit of foreign policy goals. It is a policy of threatening large scale or total war to force an opponent to back down in a confrontation. Collective Security: A system in which the collective power of several industrial nations is used to maintain international peace and security. Colonization: A country's indigenous culture is eroded by a corporate massculture, usually from a powerful, industrialized country Disarmament: The act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons Heartland: The central or important area of a land mass or nation. Intervention: Interposition or interference of one state in the affairs of another. Manifest destiny: the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Multipolar: New economic as well as political and military power has created a new international structure in which the bipolar world of the USA and the former USSR has been transformed into a multipolar one. Nationalism: A patriotic loyalty among people within a state resulting from common bonds of language, culture and tradition.

Status quo: Things as they are. Supranational: A method of decision-making in multi-national political communities. wherein power is transferred or delegated to an authority by governments of member states. .Non-aligned states: A state that pursues a policy of nonalignment. Super power: A state with a dominant position in the international system which has the ability to influence events and its own interests and project power on a worldwide scale to protect those interests. Sphere of influence: The extent to which a nation-state exerts its power beyond its borders. or an existing state of affairs. Transnational: A principle of carrying out an action across national borders. so as to have effects at a more general level Unipolar: A world in which there is only one dominant power or sphere of influence.

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