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Chapter Two

Britz 2 © 2009 Pearson Education. NJ 07458. 2nd ed. All Rights Reserved.A brief history of computers Š Š Š Š Š Š Simplest definition ² a device used to ascertain an amount or number by calculation or reckoning Invented by Chinese over 800 years ago ² abacuses Contemporary precursors ²punch cards & Londoner Charles Babbage (1822 ² 1871) ² not effective due to the lack of superstructure Dr. . Herman Hollerith ² 1st to successfully introduce a device exclusively designed for data processing ƒ Soon left civil service ² and opened the Tabulating Machine Company ² IBMµs immediate predecessor Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) ² Iowa State University Mauchly and Eckert ² Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer ² U of Pennsylvania Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. Upper Saddle River.

Precursor to both mainframes and PC·s. 1. 3 © 2009 Pearson Education. and required 200 kw of electrical power to operate. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458.S.ENIAC Š Š Š Š Š Developed at the University of Pennsylvania·s Moore School of Electrical Engineering Responsible for calculating firing and bombing tables for the U.500 relays. 2nd ed. All Rights Reserved. coupled with separate power supplies and air conditioning units. Britz . military Developed in 1945 Composed of 30 separate unites. and weighed 30 tons! It utilized 19. Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime.000 vacuum tubes.

NJ 07458. 2nd ed. Britz White Hat Hackers 4 © 2009 Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved.Techno-Lingo Back door Bit Bucket Black Hat Hacker Cracker Phreaking Red Hat Hacker Sneaker Spaghetti or kangaroo code Time bomb Trojan horse Vulcan Nerve Pinch Wedged Wetware Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. Upper Saddle River. .

All Rights Reserved. 2nd ed.Colossus I Š Š Š Š 1940·s ² at a secret government lab in Buckinghamshire. NJ 07458.000 charcters per second Used in WWII to break ´Enigmaµ codes used by the Nazi forces Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. Upper Saddle River. Scanned and analyzed 5. Britz 5 © 2009 Pearson Education. . England by Professor Max Newman Designed exclusively for cryptanalysis.

Britz 6 © 2009 Pearson Education. . NJ 07458.Evolution of Computers Abacus Punch Cards ABC computer ENIAC Colossus I Mainframes PC·s Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. Upper Saddle River. All Rights Reserved. 2nd ed.

A Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.Computer Language Three Functions ‡ Input ‡ Analysis ‡ Output Three Components ‡ Hardware ‡ Software ‡ Firmware Understanding Data ‡ Binary language ‡ Smallest piece ² bit ‡ 2 possibilities ² on (1) or off (0) ‡ 01000001 . 2nd ed. Britz 7 © 2009 Pearson Education. . Upper Saddle River.

Britz 8 © 2009 Pearson Education. keyboard. etc. modems. 2nd ed.Computer Hardware Input Devices ‡ Introducing information into the computer ‡ Includes: scanners. NJ 07458. etc. Output Devices ‡ Devices that produce and/or display information that has been processed by the computer ‡ Printer. All Rights Reserved. zips. Upper Saddle River. Data Processing ‡ Motherboard ² most important component ‡ Central Processing Unit Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. . monitor.

NJ 07458.Hard Drives & Mass Storage Devices Š Š Š Š Š Hard disk drives ² mass storage devices which are designed to permanently store that information which users intend to keep Categorized by their storage capacity Store both software and information input by the user Advanced exponentially (megabytes to gigabytes to terabytes and eventually. Britz 9 © 2009 Pearson Education. petabytes) Types of storage devices ² floppies to CD·s to DVD·s to Zips to Thumb/Pen drives Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. 2nd ed. All Rights Reserved. Upper Saddle River. .

Computer Software Definition ‡ A series of instructions that performs a particular task. Upper Saddle River. most personal computers are based on a DOS platform ‡ Contain GUI·s or WIMP·s Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime.POST Operating system ‡ A piece of software that runs user applications and provides an interface to the hardware ‡ Traditionally. NJ 07458. ‡ The interpretation of binary byte sequence represented by a listing of instructions to the processors Boot Sequence ‡ Series of steps taken by a computer immediately upon powering on which are necessary before it is usable ‡ ´pulling itself up by its bootstrapµ ‡ First step . Britz 10 © 2009 Pearson Education. . 2nd ed. All Rights Reserved.

Alternatives to DOS: Popular Operating Systems Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. 2nd ed. . NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River. All Rights Reserved. Britz 11 © 2009 Pearson Education.

Application Software Š Š Š Š Prepackaged instructions which allow users to perform a variety of functions. NJ 07458. . including: word processing. Everything is possible now ² games. Britz 12 © 2009 Pearson Education. etc. graphics. 2nd ed. PUPS ² potentially unwanted programs Malware ² malicious programming ² code that causes damage to computer systems Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. Upper Saddle River. etc. All Rights Reserved. statistical analysis.

Eudora. UC Santa Barbara & the University of Utah ƒ Cumbersome ² did not provide for interactive sessions ƒ Š 1970·s . Stanford. Pine. CU-SeeMe Š 1980·s ² introduction of NSF Net ² which encouraged communication between groups ƒ Š Š Š Š 1984 ² introduction of domain names to replace IP addresses 1989 ² HTTP 1993 ² mass availability and accessibility 2008 ² over 1 billion users © 2009 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. 2nd ed.Began with ARPANet ² Advanced Research Project Agency Network by DOD Designed to overcome threats from a blackout of communication in the event of a nuclear war ƒ Linked four universities (UCLA. Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime.A Brief History of the Internet Š Š Š Relatively new phenomenon NOT created by Al Gore 1969 . Britz 13 . NJ 07458. Gopher. All Rights Reserved.Opened to non-military users ² universities joined the consortium ƒ Still no e-mail or world wide web Resulted in a variety of software: UNIX OS. Mosaic Interface.

recovery. authentication. Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. NJ 07458. but are not limited to: Statistical models. 2nd ed. Britz 14 © 2009 Pearson Education. and analysis of digital evidence Data mining ² comprehensive analysis of large data sets designed to uncover patters and relationships. and artificial intelligence Forensic acquisition ² the process of creating a duplicate copy of computer media. . All Rights Reserved. mathematical algorithm. Analysis tools include. Upper Saddle River. Forensic authentication ² process of proving that an acquired image is an exact copy of the suspect media.A Sampling of Forensic Terminology Š Š Š Š Computer forensics ² acquisition.

2nd ed. NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. .Network Language TCP/IP ² Method of communication between programs which enables a bitstream transfer of information IMAp (Internet Message Access Protocol) ² A method of accessing electronic mail or BBS ² provides for remote retrieval POP (Post Office Protocol) ² designed to support ´off-lineµ message access ² messages are downloaded & then deleted from the mail service Routers ² special purpose computers (or software packages) that handle the connection between two or more networksPackets ² units of data exchanged between host computers Cookie ² a piece of information sent by a seb server to a web browser that the browser software is expected to save and to send back to the sever whenever the browswer makes additional requests from the server DNS (Domain Name system) ² based on a group of computers ofn a common network defined by a commonality of IP addresses. Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. Britz 15 © 2009 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.

All Rights Reserved. 16 . Britz © 2009 Pearson Education. and are distinguished in the literature by a lower case ´iµ ‡ Usually located in a small geographic area & share a common protocol (usually TCP/IP) The Internet Computer Forensics and Cyber Crime. NJ 07458.Realms of the Cyberworld Intranet ‡ Small. 2nd ed. local networks connecting computers which are within one organization & which are controlled by a common system administrator internets ‡ Connect several networks. Upper Saddle River.

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