© 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

www.asminternational.org

Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

J. Gilbert Kaufman

ASM International® Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org

© 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)
Copyright © 2000 by ASM International® All rights reserved

www.asminternational.org

No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, November 2000

Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM’s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. ASM International staff who worked on this project included Veronica Flint, Manager, Book Acquisitions; Bonnie Sanders, Manager, Production; Carol Terman, Copy Editor; Kathy Dragolich, Production Supervisor; and Scott Henry, Assistant Director, Reference Publications. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kaufman, J. G. (John Gilbert), 1931Introducton to aluminum alloys and tempers / J. Gilbert Kaufman. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Aluminum alloys. 2. Metals—Heat treatment. I. Title. TA480.A6 K36 2000 620.1’86—dc21 00-056544 ISBN 0-87170-689-X SAN: 204-7586 ASM International® Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 http://www.asminternational.org Printed in the United States of America

© 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

www.asminternational.org

Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii CHAPTER 1: Introduction: The Nature of the Problem . . . . . . . 1 The Keys to Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristics of Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristics of Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . Applications of Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microscopy of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . Units and Unit Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 .3 .5 .5 .7 .7 .7

CHAPTER 2: Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . Cast Aluminum Alloys Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . Designations for Experimental Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum Alloy Temper Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Temper Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . 11 . 16 . 16 . 16 . 17 . 22

CHAPTER 3: Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 The Wrought Alloy Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How the System is Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal Alloying Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Wrought Alloy Strengthening Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Wrought Alloy Advantages and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Characteristics Related to Principal Alloying Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Wrought Alloy Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Links to Earlier Alloy Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unified Numbering System (UNS) Alloy Designation System for Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Cast Alloy Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii . . . 23 . . . 23 . . . 25 . . . 25 . . . 26 . . . 28 . . . 30 . . . 31 . . . 31 . . . 32

© 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

www.asminternational.org

How the Current Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation System is Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Cast Alloy Strengthening Mechanisms . . . . . . Understanding Cast Alloy Advantages and Limitations . . . . . Examples of the Use of Variations in Cast Alloy Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alloys for Different Casting Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Characteristics Related to Composition . . . . . . . . . . . Evolution of the Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNS Alloy Designation System for Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . .

. 32 . 33 . 34 . 35 . 35 . 35 . 35 . 36

CHAPTER 4: Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Tempers for Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review of the Basic Tempers for Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tempers Designating Residual Stress Relief of Heat Treated Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temper Designations Identifying Modifications in Quenching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Designations Indicating Heat Treatment by User . . . . . . . . . Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work between Quenching and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work Following Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tempers Designating Special Corrosion-Resistant Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temper Designation for Special or Premium Properties . . . . . Tempers for Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review of the Basic Tempers for Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . Subdivisions of the Basic Temper Types for Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importance to Understanding Aluminum Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . 39 . 57 . 60 . 67 . 68 . 68 . 70 . 70 . 71 . 71 . 73 . 73 . 74 . 76

CHAPTER 5: Understanding Aluminum Fabricating Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Ingot and Billet Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strip and Slab Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hot and Cold Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cast Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permanent Mold Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sand Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 . 78 . 78 . 79 . 79 . 80 . 80 . 81

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .asminternational. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 CHAPTER 6: Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers . . . . . . . . 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 . . . . . . 118 Other Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Die Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Applications by Market Area . . . . . . 187 Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welded Aluminum to Copper . . . 184 CHAPTER 8: Selected References . . . . 115 Building and Construction Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 . . Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 APPENDIX . . . . 118 Petroleum and Chemical Industry Components . Welded Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brazed Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . 164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Transportation Applications . . . . . . . . . 82 . 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .org Investment Casting . . . . . All Rights Reserved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welded Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welded Aluminum To Steel . 115 Electrical Markets . . . . 119 Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welded Wrought-To-Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 . . . . . 116 Marine Transportation . . . . 87 Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .© 2000 ASM International. . Combinations of Casting and Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Rail Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 CHAPTER 7: Representative Micrographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Applications by Alloy Class . . . . . . 117 Packaging Applications . . . . 225 Alloy Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180) www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

S Brar Seagate Technology Inc. Ngai Mun Chow Det Norske Veritas Pte Ltd. Goldman Precision World Products James F. Bhanu Sankara Rao Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research Mel M. All Rights Reserved. Hung Nanyang Technological University Serope Kalpakjian Illinois Institute of Technology Gordon Lippa North Star Casteel Jacques Masounave Université du Québec Charles A.org ASM International Technical Books Committee (1999-2000) Sunniva R. Seetharama C. Timmins University College of the Fraser Valley George F. Diak Queen’s University Dov B.R. Grochmal Metallurgical Perspectives Nguyen P. Deevi Phillip Morris. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180) www. Parker (Vice Chair) AlliedSignal Aircraft Landing Systems K.© 2000 ASM International. USA Bradley J.asminternational. vi . Vander Voort Buehler Ltd. Collins (Chair) Swagelok/Nupro Company Eugen Abramovici Bombadier Aerospace (Canadair) A. Schwartz Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (retired) Peter F.

are the following: O Heat Treater’s Guide: Practices and Procedures for Nonferrous Alloys O ASM Specialty Handbook: Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Finally. Croucher and Harry Chandler of ASM International provided input for the first draft version.© 2000 ASM International. Among the Aluminum Association publications used as key references. Among the ASM International books used as major sources. notably on the alloy and temper designation system and aluminum terminology. respectively.asminternational. I want to acknowledge the publications of the American Foundrymen’s Society. and the Diecasting Development Council. All Rights Reserved. Gilbert Kaufman Columbus. Chapter 8. Inc. Applications. Green and the Aluminum Association. and microstructure to service requirements. a California-based consulting metallurgist. S. Ohio vii . process history. for making available critically important material for inclusion in this book. J. provided excellent resources for casting terminology and descriptions of casting procedures. whose publications Aluminum Casting Technology and Product Design for Die Casting. John A. were the following: O Aluminum Standards and Data O Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Castings O Aluminum: Technology. I would like to acknowledge Dr. Inc. Dr. and Environment More complete citations to these and other reference materials are given in the Selected References. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180) www.org Preface The idea for this timely reference book was originally suggested by Tom Croucher. I broadened it out substantially to cover the understanding of the advantages and limitations of aluminum alloy/temper combinations in terms of the relationship of their composition. most notably for micrographs.

Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers J. Gilbert Kaufman, p1-8 DOI:10.1361/iaat2000p001

Copyright © 2000 ASM International® All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

1

Introduction: The Nature of the Problem
THE NEED FOR THIS BOOK stems directly from the increasing use of aluminum and aluminum alloys in automobiles and a great variety of other products that we encounter in everyday living. The excellent combination of light weight, high strength, great corrosion resistance, and reasonable cost has made aluminum and its alloys one of the most commonly used metal groups. Whereas weight saving by substituting light metals for heavy metals has been standard practice for generations in critical aerospace structures, it has now reached top priority status in a variety of other industries, including those manufacturing cars, trucks, military vehicles, aviation ground support vehicles, munitions, building and highway structures, and construction equipment. The transition from heretofore more widely used iron and steel can be especially difficult for those with little or no experience with aluminum and aluminum alloys. Of necessity, they must become conversant with a new alloy designation system and, perhaps even more importantly, with a great number and variety of tempers, the designations for which provide background on how the alloys have been produced to obtain the desired properties and characteristics. The positive news is twofold. First, contrary to the case for other metals, there are widely accepted alloy and temper designation systems for aluminum, created and maintained by the Aluminum Association, that are used throughout the aluminum industry. Those systems are published in the Aluminum Association publication Aluminum Standards and Data (see Chapter 8, “Selected References”) and are recognized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the American National Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for Aluminum (see Chapter 8). The second item of positive news is that, with a little concentration, the aluminum alloy and temper designation systems are consistent, logical, and easily understood.

2 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

The Aluminum Association maintains the alloy and temper designations systems and, in fact, is accredited by ANSI to carry out this role for the United States. The procedures for registering alloys and tempers, and a record of the alloys and tempers registered, are published in Alloy and Temper Registration Records (see Chapter 8) and are available at minimal cost for any producer or user to track. Further, standard aluminum tempers that have been registered with the Aluminum Association and are in widest use are described in Aluminum Standards and Data. An additional complication to be dealt with is the fact that, typically, each country around the world has its own designations system for aluminum alloys and tempers. Fortunately, great progress is being made in improving that situation, and the Aluminum Association’s alloy designation system is now recognized by about 90% of the world’s aluminum industry. The publication Recommendation: International Designation System for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys (see Chapter 8) has been accepted almost universally, and progress is slowly being made in broadening the agreement to cast alloys and certain basic temper designations as well. Regrettably, however, experience indicates that full acceptance of universal equivalents has not yet been completed, and situations requiring producers and buyers to discuss clarifications can still occur.

The Keys to Understanding
Thus, the principal keys to gaining a good introduction to aluminum alloys and tempers are knowledge and understanding of the alloy and temper designations systems themselves. The main mission of this book is to build upon the information available in sources such as The Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Registration Records and Aluminum Standards and Data to shed more light and understanding on the characteristics, production technology, and applications for the most commonly used aluminum alloys and tempers. To accomplish this, the basic aluminum alloy and temper designation systems, as developed by the Aluminum Association and documented in Aluminum Standards and Data and ANSI H35.1, are presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 explains the alloy designation system in greater detail with examples, and Chapter 4 covers the temper designation system in a similar manner. The processes used to produce aluminum alloy products are described briefly in Chapter 5, and representative applications are described in Chapter 6. We want to emphasize that the real authority on aluminum alloys and tempers is the Aluminum Association Technical Committee on Product Standards (TCPS), the group that, on behalf of the Aluminum Associa-

Introduction: The Nature of the Problem / 3

tion, maintains the alloy and temper designation systems and registers new alloys and tempers as they come along. At times, there is an unfortunate tendency on the part of some producers and fabricators to intentionally or unintentionally create their own designations for aluminum alloys and tempers and to do so in a style that misleadingly suggests that the newly created designations have been recognized by the industry as a whole through the registration process. This is unethical and improper because it misleads producers and users alike as to the heritage of the designation and dilutes the value of systems based on uniformity and industry standards. The independent creation of either alloy or temper designations without the complete registration process defined by the Aluminum Association and ANSI H35.1 is to be avoided. Any questions or decisions needed on existing or new registrations should be directed to that group at the following address: Aluminum Association Technical Committee on Product Standards The Aluminum Association, Inc. 900 Nineteenth Street, NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20006 We want to emphasize that the mission of this publication is to provide a brief introduction to aluminum alloys, including their applications. For more detail on the various aspects of this subject, readers are encouraged to consult the selected references in Chapter 8, particularly the complete treatise on the aluminum industry by D.G. Altenpohl, Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment.

Characteristics of Wrought Aluminum Alloys
It is appropriate to briefly note at this stage some of the basic characteristics of wrought aluminum alloys that make them desirable candidates for a wide range of applications. Wrought alloys are addressed first, then cast alloys. Corrosion Resistance. As a result of a naturally occurring tenacious surface oxide film, many aluminum alloys provide exceptional resistance to corrosion in many atmospheric and chemical environments. Alloys of the 1xxx, 3xxx, 5xxx, and 6xxx systems are especially favorable in this respect and are even used in applications where they are in direct contact with seawater and antiskid salts. Thermal Conductivity. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are good conductors of heat, and while they melt at lower temperatures than steels, approximately 535 °C (1000 °F). They are slower than steel to reach very high temperatures in fire exposure.

4 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Electrical Conductivity. Pure aluminum and some of its alloys have exceptionally high electrical conductivity (i.e., very low electrical resistivity), second only to copper among common metals as conductors. Strength/Weight Ratio. The combination of relatively high strength with low density means a high strength efficiency for aluminum alloys and many opportunities for replacement of heavier metals with no loss (and perhaps a gain) in load-carrying capacity. This characteristic, combined with excellent corrosion resistance and recyclability, has led to the broad use of aluminum in containers, aircraft, and automotive applications. Fracture Toughness and Energy Absorption Capacity. Many aluminum alloys are exceptionally tough and make excellent choices for critical applications where resistance to brittle fracture and unstable crack growth are imperatives. Alloys of the 5xxx series, for example, are prime choices for liquefied natural gas tankage. In addition, special hightoughness versions of aircraft alloys, such as 2124, 7050, and 7475, replace the standard versions of these alloys for critical bulkhead applications. Cryogenic Toughness. Aluminum alloys, especially of the 3xxx, 5xxx, and 6xxx series, are ideal for very low temperature applications because of the detailed documentation that their ductility and toughness, as well as strength, are higher at subzero temperatures, even down to near absolute zero, than at room temperature. Workability. Aluminum alloys are readily workable by a great variety of metalworking technologies and are especially amenable to extrusion (the process of forcing heated metal through shaped dies to produce specific shaped sections). This characteristic enables aluminum to be produced in a remarkable variety of shapes in which the metal can be placed in locations where it can most efficiently carry the applied loads. Ease of Joining. Aluminum alloys can be joined by a very broad variety of commercial methods, including welding, brazing, soldering, riveting, bolting, and even nailing, in addition to an unlimited variety of mechanical procedures. Welding, while considered difficult by those familiar only with joining steel and who try to apply the same techniques to aluminum, is particularly easy when performed by proven techniques such as gas metal arc welding (GMAW or MIG) or gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW or TIG). Recyclability. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are among the easiest to recycle of any structural materials. They are recyclable in the truest sense, unlike materials that are reused but in lower-quality products; aluminum alloys may be recycled directly back into the same high-quality products, such as rigid containers, sheet, and automotive components.

“Selected References. such as in the aerospace industry. A good example is the use of 7xx. The definitions included therein are taken primarily from Aluminum Standards and Data. Finish.Introduction: The Nature of the Problem / 5 Characteristics of Cast Aluminum Alloys The desirable characteristics of wrought alloys also are generally applicable to cast alloys. their use usually is limited to situations where expert casting techniques can be applied and where strength and toughness are at a premium.x series are the most widely used and especially chosen for large and very complex castings.x series are noteworthy for the fine finish they provide. and ZA Alloys and Aluminum Casting Technology (Chapter 8.x alloys typically provide the very highest strengths but are more difficult to cast and lack good surface characteristics.x alloys for bearings. Some widely used definitions include: O Commercially pure aluminum: Commercially pure (CP) aluminum contains a minimum of 99% “pure” metal. Magnesium. The 5xx. Therefore. Strength. As a result. but some generalizations may be made. with some additions from Product Design for Die Casting in Recyclable Aluminum.x and 7xx. Zinc. but they are more difficult to cast than the 3xx.x series are outstanding in this respect because their relatively high silicon contents lend a characteristic of good flow and mold-filling capability. The 2xx.x series and so usually are limited to those applications where that finish is paramount. the choice of one casting alloy over another tends to be determined by the relative abilities of the alloy to meet one or more of the following characteristics: O Ease of casting O Strength O Quality of finish Unfortunately. Ease of Casting. A more complete listing of applicable terminology is included in the Appendix. but in fact. The high-silicon 3xx.” contains details). Definitions for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys A few of the most useful definitions for aluminum and aluminum alloys and products applicable to the discussion in this book are listed in this section. the 3xx. few alloys or alloy series possess all three characteristics. Various specialty grades of .

forging.e. or other stock primarily intended for subsequent metalworking.6 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O O O O O O higher purity exist for use in special applications. It is quite usual to have several minor alloying elements in addition to one or two major alloying elements to impart special fabrication or performance characteristics. the major. or other metalworking process to produce semifinished products from which end-use products are subsequently made. and perhaps some minor. . Wrought aluminum alloy: This term is applied to alloys produced in ingot or billet form and subsequently worked by any of a number of processes such as rolling. by cold rolling or drawing). or other metal shaping processes. Cast aluminum alloy: This term is used in the context of this reference to mean alloys that generally are used in parts cast to final or near-final shape and to the ingot from which such castings are made.e.. Heat treatable aluminum alloy: For this type of alloy. Casting as discussed herein does not generally apply to the production of ingots. with one or more other elements added to provide a specific combination of properties and characteristics. billets. Longitudinal: The axis of the specimen is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the product and to the direction of major grain flow in the product. 99. therefore. b. The standard orientations most often referred to in material specifications and in testing documents and reports in general are the following: a. These alloys are referred to as heat treatable. must be strengthened principally by strain hardening (i.9999% pure aluminum). Aluminum alloy: A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more elements of which at least one is an elemental metal. cast alloy compositions are not used for subsequent rolling. alloying elements do provide significant solid solution and precipitation strengthening during solution heat treatment and subsequent aging. Tensile test specimens used for such determinations have prescribed specimen directions or orientations. extruding. Strain-hardenable aluminum alloy: This is the type of alloy for which the major and minor alloying elements do not provide significant solid solution and precipitation strengthening during any type of thermal treatment and which. and it is within the major plane of the product. Most aluminum alloys contain 90 to 96% aluminum. extrusion. up to and including the “six nines” aluminum (i.. These alloys are referred to as strain hardenable. drawing. forging. Generally speaking. which individual lots are expected to equal or exceed in 99% of the instances with 95% confidence. Specification Limits and Test Directions: Most aluminum alloy specifications include tensile property limits. Long transverse: The axis of the specimen is normal to the longitudinal axis of the product and to the direction of major grain flow in the product.

All tensile tests and. as well as a greater understanding of the aluminum industry in total. While not exhaustively representing all alloys and tempers referenced in the text. This orientation is used only when products are thick enough to permit the taking of practical specimen sizes. Many of the examples included herein are taken from D. both by alloy type and by market area. Applications of Aluminum Alloys It is useful in gaining an improved understanding of the alloy and temper designations for aluminum alloys to look at a variety of typical applications for a variety of the alloys in various tempers.G. Accordingly. tempers. a good cross section of the aluminum alloys and tempers discussed in this text is included.Introduction: The Nature of the Problem / 7 In relatively thin sections. Units and Unit Conversion The reader will note that the normal procedures for handling English/ engineering and metric units in ASM publications are not followed in this book. and applications. are encouraged to consult that reference. Rather. in fact. Aluminum: Technology. the applications are reviewed in Chapter 6. Applications and Environment. c. this orientation may be referred to simply as the transverse direction. Short transverse: The axis of the specimen is normal to the major plane of the product. This review provides additional insight into the advantages and disadvantages of the various alloy groups and illustrates the application of specific tempers for specific performance needs. and readers looking for additional details on the variety of applications of aluminum. a catalog of micrographs is included in Chapter 7 of this book. the standard procedures of the aluminum industry as . are made in accordance with the appropriate ASTM standard test procedures as presented in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Microscopy of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys To further assist the reader in understanding the principles of the alloy and temper designation systems and the consequences of applying the production technology implied by the temper designations. Altenpohl’s book. all mechanical tests. products. and thus normal to both the longitudinal and long transverse directions. in this book about aluminum alloys.

Note that this is not the result of a calculated conversion as for strength or modulus. but the result of a difference in the standard tensile test procedure. 1 MPa 106. Metric values are calculated using the exact conversion factors and then rounded to the nearest five megapascals. and one in metric/International Standard units. Tables 2 and 2M in Chapter 4).. one in each units system.S. in publishing two complete sets of the standards for wrought alloys for the industry.. the reader is referred to Aluminum Standards and Data and Aluminum Standards and Data 1998 Metric SI. These procedures are described briefly as follows. using gage lengths of 5D [five times the specimen diameter] rather than 4D as with engineering methods).. 5 MPa.e. For both wrought and cast aluminum alloys.e. which is similar to rounding to the nearest thousand psi [ksi]) for strengths and nearest gigapascals (i. or GPa) for moduli. As a result. elongations are about 5 to 10% lower when determined in accordance with international standard methods compatible with the metric system (i. These may not be readily converted back and forth since each represents a separate but compatible set of standards. more detailed information on industry practices... a practice known as “hard conversion. For aluminum alloy castings. . (i. For additional. For wrought aluminum alloy products. when tables of properties for wrought alloys are presented herein (e. two separate tables are shown. aluminum industry elected upon establishing metric standards for aluminum and aluminum alloy products to develop property limits and product dimensions in normal rounded values the way they would be found in a metric environment. Inc.g. one of English/engineering units. elongations are reported at about 10% lower in metric (SI) tables. the U.” This is in sharp contrast to the much less useful procedure known as “soft conversion” of using the odd numbers that result from direct calculation from the English/engineering values.8 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers documented by the publications of the Aluminum Association have been followed.e. Accordingly. The practice followed in this book is completely consistent with that followed by the Aluminum Association. metric (SI) conversions used by the aluminum industry are rounded soft (direct) conversions with rounding to represent comparable rounding used in the English/engineering system.

the temper designation system permits an understanding of the manner in which the product has been fabricated. the Aluminum Association. for the wrought alloy system at least. and the current system for the cast aluminum system was developed somewhat later. The Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Designation Systems covered in ANSI H35. The aluminum industry itself manages the creation and continuing maintenance of these systems through its industry organization. as noted earlier. Gilbert Kaufman. www. This chapter describes the basic systems as defined and maintained by that organization.1361/iaat2000p009 Copyright © 2000 ASM International® All rights reserved. Further.org CHAPTER 2 Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association IT IS VERY USEFUL for secondary fabricators and users of aluminum products and components to have a working knowledge of the Aluminum Association alloy and temper designation systems. forms the basis for the nearly worldwide International Accord on Alloy Designations. incorporated in ANSI H35.1 and. p9-22 DOI:10. Additional information is provided in subsequent chapters . Similarly. The alloy registration process is carefully controlled and its integrity maintained by the Technical Committee on Product Standards of the Aluminum Association. This committee is made up of industry standards experts. the Aluminum Association designation system is the basis of the ANSI Standards. The alloy and temper designation systems for wrought aluminum that are in use today were adopted by the aluminum industry around 1955.Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers J.asminternational.1 and Aluminum Standards and Data are outlined in this chapter. The alloy system provides a standard form for alloy identification that enables the user to understand a great deal about the chemical composition and characteristics of the alloy.

a two (2) for the second variation. O The 9000 series is unassigned. Wrought Aluminum Alloy Designation System The Aluminum Association Wrought Alloy Designation System consists of four numerical digits. a one (1) for the first variation. depending on the level of the added element. Table 1 Main alloying elements in the wrought alloy designation system Alloy Main alloying element 1xxx 2xxx 3xxx 4xxx 5xxx 6xxx 7xxx 8xxx 9xxx Mostly pure aluminum. but normally just the four numbers: O The first digit defines the major alloying class of the series starting with that number. O The 8000 series family is an “other elements” series comprising alloys with rather unusual major alloying elements such as iron and nickel.15 to 0. as well as recognizing the meanings of the designations themselves. O The third and fourth digits designate the specific alloy within the series. iron or tin) Unassigned . The alloy family is identified by that number and the associated main alloying ingredient(s). there is no special significance to the values of those digits. Table 1 shows the meaning of the first of the four digits in the alloy designation system.g. no major alloying additions Copper Manganese Silicon Magnesium Magnesium and silicon Zinc Other elements (e. Variations are typically defined by differences in one or more alloying elements of 0.10 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers to assist in understanding and using the systems. sometimes including alphabetic prefixes or suffixes. O The second defines variations in the original basic alloy: that digit is always a zero (0) for the original composition. with three exceptions: O Members of the 1000 series family are commercially pure aluminum or special purity versions and as such do not typically have any alloying elements intentionally added. and so forth.. they do contain minor impurities that are not removed unless the intended application requires it. nor are they necessarily used in sequence. however.50% or more.

These alloys do not respond to solution heat treatment. compositions of 99. . Within the 1xxx series. These digits are the same as the two digits to the right of the decimal point in the minimum aluminum percentage specified for the designation when expressed to the nearest 0.01%. O 2xxx series alloys have copper as their main alloying element. Compositions of the 1xxx series do not respond to any solution heat treatment but may be strengthened modestly by strain hardening. As with the rest of the alloy series. the last two of the four digits in the designation indicate the minimum aluminum percentage. O 6xxx series alloys have both magnesium and silicon as their main alloying elements.Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 11 The major benefit for understanding this designation system is that a great deal will be known about the alloy just from knowledge of the series of which it is a member. The compositions of a representative group of widely used commercial aluminum alloys are given in Table 2. taken from Aluminum Standards and Data (see Chapter 8. The characteristics of this series depend on the major alloying element(s). O 4xxx series alloys are based on silicon. They are heat treatable. some alloys are heat treatable. these alloys will respond to solution heat treatment and are referred to as heat treatable. for example: O 1xxx series alloys are pure aluminum and its variations. Alloys in this series are heat treatable. which combine as magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) following solid solution. but not heat treatable. O 5xxx series alloys are based on magnesium. Cast Aluminum Alloys Designation System The designation system for cast aluminum alloys is similar in some respects to that for wrought alloys but has a few very important differences as noted by the following description. the second digit indicates modifications in impurity limits or intentionally added elements. O 3xxx series alloys are based on manganese and are strain hardenable. and because copper will go in significant amounts into solid solution in aluminum. They are strain hardenable. others are not. often with significant amounts of copper and magnesium. depending on the amount of silicon and the other alloying constituents. “Selected References”). O 7xxx series alloys have zinc as their main alloying element.0% or more aluminum are by definition in this series. O 8xxx series contain one or more of several less frequently used major alloying elements such as iron or tin.

. .. .0 (continued) . .......... ...6 . zirconium 0. ... 12.12 ..0 6. ... . .. .. . ...... 0..... 0. .45% min aluminum 99.....4 4.. .. ..... .... . ... .12 .. 0. 0.8 2..8 0. . .0 4. ....... ..8 1... . .. . 0.5 4.12 .. ..4 4..50% min aluminum 99. .. .5 ... ..... ... .. .. ... .... .. . . ... . .... ..20 0.2 0.. .. . .6 0.25 0... .. . 0.... .. .9 . .... ... ... .... .25 0. .8 0..6 2. ..0 .0 .. ..... 2. .. ... ... 0....2 1. . ...... 0.. 2... .45 .0 7. ... .0 .............. ..50% min aluminum .....08 .. 0............. ... .12 0. ...4 4.. ...55 each. 0.15 . .. 0... 0..30% min aluminum 99.25 0.2 1..13 Listed herein are designations and chemical composition limits for some wrought unalloyed aluminum and for wrought aluminum alloys registered with the Aluminum Association. 0.....3 6... . ...4 4.....0 12.5 5.. . .. 0.... . .25 .. 0.. 1. . ..35 1.. .... .. .4 2..30 . . . .. . .. aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder Alloy Silicon Copper Manganese Magnesium Chromium Nickel Zinc Titanium 1050 1060 1100 1145 1175 1200 1230 1235 1345 1350(a) 2011(b) 2014 2017 2018 2024 2025 2036 2117 2124 2218 2219(c) 2319(c) 2618(d) 3003 3004 3005 3105 4032 4043 4045 4047 4145 4343 4643 5005 5050 5052 5056 5083 5086 5154 5183 5252 5254 5356 .50 .. 0....8 0. ..07 . ..5 1..... .5 3. 0.3 0. . ...7 0. . ..... .....0% min aluminum 99.. ....18. .. 1.18. .35% min aluminum 99... . ... (c) Vanadium.12 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 2 Nominal chemical composition of wrought aluminum alloys Percent of alloying elements.... (a) Formerly designated EC.. .. . ... ..15 0. ..... .2 10..... .........45 0.. ... 0.... .... ... .. ... ......9 . .. .. ...0 4... . .... ... .. .. This does not include all alloys registered with the Aluminum Association... .. .7 1..1 . 4..30 0.... . ..... .8 . .40 each.6 . .... . . (k) Iron.1. . .. . ....60% min aluminum 99. ... . . 0.... 0. ....5 4.15 0. .. 0. .18 .6 ... 1. (b) Lead and bismuth.... These lists are maintained by the Technical Committee on Product Standards of The Aluminum Association. .... .. .....5 5. ... .06 0.... 0..3 2.. ... ..75% min aluminum 99.....45% min aluminum 99. ... .. . . . . 1....7 ... .... ... (j) Boron.... .. ........ . .10..... 0.. (i) Iron...... 0. (h) Zirconium. .. 0.02.12 99... . ... 0.... .....35... (g) Zirconium.0 0. ..15 0. .. ....6 4... .. .5 . ...0 ... 1. ..0 3. . . ... .... ... (d) Iron. ...00% min aluminum 99.. ....... . .. . . .... ....14. . 0. .... . (f) Zirconium. . ...... .12.... . . 0. 0..... . .. ....7. .... .... .0 4... . .... 5. ..... ... ....0 ...40 0.50 1. . . .... .. .... A complete list of registered designations is contained in the Registration Record of International Alloy Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys.50 0.. (e) Lead and Bismuth.. . .. . .0 10. ...5 4..6 0... ..12 0...2 5...... . .4 2...

.. .. 0. .. ....09 .. . . .... . .2 .. . This does not include all alloys registered with the Aluminum Association. . .0 5.. . zirconium 0.. .. 1.. The cast alloy designation system also has four digits..4 0.23 0... ...0 0.... . 0.. .22 .08 0..... .35... . . . a decimal point is used between the third and fourth digits to make clear that these are designations used to identify alloys in the form of castings or foundry ingot. .7 .. . ... ..35 .. . .7 0.25 .5 3.... .... 0. ...6 0.7 1.......12 0.8 0.7 5..... ..0 2... . ...... ..... 0..9 0.... .0 7...6 2. ... (d) Iron..... .. . . . . (e) Lead and Bismuth.6 0.. ....0 0.7 0... .2 0. 0........... .... .... .6 0. ..1 0. .5 1.8 0. .... ... . . 4...... . .... ... . 1.. . . (j) Boron. ...8 1.7 6. .. . .. . . . ...... .4 2.... 0...25 0..... . ...12. .08 0..... .. ... .... .6 0......3 .40 each..14..8 2.. 0. . .0 1...28 ..4 1. .. 0... .23 0.. . ...... . ..18.10. .04 ...15 0. ... ... ... .... (a) Formerly designated EC... .. (c) Vanadium.7 5...... .10 ...5 2..... 0.......7 0...9 0.23 .5 5. . 0.. ......0 ..Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 13 Table 2 (continued) Percent of alloying elements. 0.. (k) Iron.......45 . . (h) Zirconium. ....6 1.2 1.. ..18.6 0.. .6 2.. . .. .8 0. 1...1 1. . . . 0. 0.. ..25 0.. .08 ..... 0. Listed herein are designations and chemical composition limits for some wrought unalloyed aluminum and for wrought aluminum alloys registered with the Aluminum Association.. .... 0..4 1... 0.7 ......25 . .... .0 2. .. ... ..6 1. ..02.6 0. ..6 0.7.8 0. 0.. ... . 0. .. ... 0... .... . .. These lists are maintained by the Technical Committee on Product Standards of The Aluminum Association..28 .. ... 1..0 0.28 .0 2.. ..7 0. . . . .13 0........ .. .. (i) Iron....... 0.... .40 0.5 0...1 2. ..... . ..... . . ......2 0..50 1.. 0.... .. However....12 . 0.. . . (f) Zirconium... . .. . .. ..25 0...1.. 0...6 .50 0. ..12 0.55 each....30 0. . 1... 2... . ..08 0... . ..12 0. .09 . .. 2. ... (b) Lead and bismuth.03 .6 5.....40 1.....0 0...... . .... A complete list of registered designations is contained in the Registration Record of International Alloy Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys......18 0.8 1. . . . ..6 6..... . 2.6 .. . . 0.. .. 0.7 0..16 . ........ ..20 .0 5.12 0.. aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder Alloy Silicon Copper Manganese Magnesium Chromium Nickel Zinc Titanium 5454 5456 5457 5554 5556 5652 5654 5657 6003 6005 6053 6061 6063 6066 6070 6101 6105 6151 6162 6201 6253 6262(e) 6351 6463 6951 7005(f) 7008 7049 7050(g) 7072 7075 7108(h) 7175 7178 7475 8017(i) 8030(j) 8176(i) 8177(k) .. . ..8 5..... . .. . ...12 . 0... . ....28 . 0. . and the first digit specifies the major alloying constituent(s) as shown in Table 3.. ...08 0. ..2 1. (g) Zirconium. 0..2 1..22 . . . .... . 0....

x 4xx.14 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers As for the wrought alloy designation system.x 9xx.1. These serial letters are assigned in alphabetical sequence starting with A.x 3xx. O The second and third digits identify the specific aluminum alloy or. except in cases in which the composition being registered qualifies as a modification of a previously registered alloy. the alloy group is determined by the element that comes first in sequence.00% max Copper Silicon. this typically represents the use of tighter limits on certain impurities to achieve specific properties in the finished cast product produced from that ingot. If the greatest mean percentage is common to more than one alloying element. Table 4 presents the nominal compositions of a representative group of commercial aluminum casting alloys.x series. with added copper and/or magnesium Silicon Magnesium Zinc Tin Other elements Unused series .01%.x 6xx. alloy.x Pure aluminum. as can be seen in Table 3. indicates ingot having limits for alloying elements the same as or very similar to those for the alloy in the form of castings. but omitting I.x 2xx. A fourth digit of xxx.0 indicates castings.x alloys. and X.x group.x through 8xx. or whether it is a new.x 8xx. O The fourth digit indicates the product form: xxx. Note that in Table 3. with X being reserved for experimental alloys.2 may be used to indicate that the ingot has composition limits that differ from but fall within the xxx.x 5xx. Q. For the 1xx. for the most part.x 7xx.1 limits. the various digits of the cast alloy system convey information about the alloy: O The first digit indicates the alloy group. O. Table 3 Alloy Cast alloy designation system Main alloying element 1xx. These digits are the same as the two digits to the right of the decimal point in the minimum aluminum percentage when expressed to the nearest 0. for the aluminum 1xx. the 6xx. indicate purity. the alloy group is determined by the alloying element present in the greatest mean percentage. A letter before the numerical designation indicates a modification of the original alloy or an impurity limit. the second two of the four digits in the designation indicate the minimum aluminum percentage.x series is shown last and for cast alloys is designated as the unused series. and xxx. For 2xx. Note that explicit rules have been established for determining whether a proposed composition is a modification of an existing. 99.

.0 707.. . . ...0 4..0 514.....0 4.. 0.. . .........0 1. .. ...0 319. . ..0 357... . .0 A242... .. ..Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 15 Table 4 Nominal chemical compositions of aluminum alloy castings Percent of alloying elements......0 308.. .. . .5 .....0 ...... 0.. 0..5 .4 ......0 A360.5 4..... . .0 A413. ... .0 360...005% boron.. 1. 0...8 4. ... .. (e) May contain higher iron (up to 2.0 A356. ..0 8... . ..0 356... . . .... .. .. ... ..0 354... ...0 C443... 0....0 2.52 0.0 359.0 0.0 336........ . ... ... . .. . .8 1. (a) Also contains 0... .....5 8. .. .8 .5 10..... . 0.30 . .0 5. . . . .5 ...0 1. .0 . .5 0..0 513.18 0. ..0 4..0 512...... . ..0 1...0 222. .... . .. 0. ... ..0 6... ... . ...0 8...... ...0 B443. .20 ...35 .. ... . .... .. .1 4...5 8.......0 A206.... . ... . ..2 .. . ....40 . 3. ..35 0.. ..5 1.. . .. .... .6 4... .. ..5 .. . .5 3. .. . ... .. . .. ..... ....... .... .0 333.......0 242. . ...5 ....25 0... . .. . .......... . ..... ... ...2 5.0 332.. . .. ....18% zirconium..... . ..35 0....2% tin.... .... .... .50 0.. (b) Also contains 0.14 .0 5. ...... . ... . .5 2..... ...5 2... ... . 0. 0..... .. . .0 4... . 1.. 6..0 443..0 7....... ..35 .. .0 9. d) (c) (c) (c) (f) .. ... .0 328..005% beryllium and 0... .... .. ..0 12...25 .. ...... (d) Also contains 0.. 2.. .. .5 1... ....... .6 2. .. ......... .. .....25 ...5 3. ......0 224.. . ...2 17....22 ..0 2.0 10. .0 295.7% silver... .. .. .. . . .... impurity limits are significantly lower than for the similar alloy listed just above. Values are nominal (i...5 3.. . .0% total) than 443....0 A380. . ....... .0 204..0 12.2 0. ... . .0 8.. . ......0 380.6 4.. ..28 1.... .... . ..0 12.12 . .. ...0 384. .. . aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder Alloy Silicon Iron Copper Manganese Magnesium Chromium Nickel Zinc Titanium Notes 201..2 5.5 3.e. ... .....0 383. . . ...0 208.0 B390.. .. .. .32 0.. .......0 C355.... 0.0 535.... ... .0 5. . ..0 and A443...1 (continued) ....0 3.. .25 1...30 0... ... . . .. ... .0 0. .. .. (f) Also contains 0.55 0. ..... 0. .0 10... . ... . .. average of range of limits for elements for which a range is specified)...0 518. .... . .... .. . ...0 4.. (c) For this alloy.. . . .. 4. ..5 6.... . ..0 413.8 . .... ..0 7... ..0 9... 2.. .0 240. .0.8 1. . .... .. .25 ...35 0. . ..40 1. ...5 9. ...... ..18 (a) (b) (c) (c) (c.... .......5 0. 0....0 7.0 7.0 ..10% vanadium and 0. (g) Also contains 6...0 A444....0 213.. ..0 355.0 5. .1 5. .. . .. . (e) .5 1.....55 . .25 ...6 4.. .. 3.. . ...0 9... . .. .. .5 0. ..0 9.2 7. .. .. . .5 9.5 11.. . . ..... .. .. . . ... ... ..5 0... .0 520.. ..... ...... 4.... .... 0. .6 0... .. 1.. 3..........0 A357. . .055% beryllium.0 7... . ..0 705...... .. .. ..... .5 0.... 0.. ..

0 852... 1. .. . ..0 . . 1.... ..16 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 4 (continued) Percent of alloying elements.5 7.2 6. .0.15 . .18% zirconium. 1... The O applies to cast products that are annealed to improve ductility . impurity limits are significantly lower than for the similar alloy listed just above...0 771....2% tin..0 851. (b) Also contains 0.. The first character in the temper designation is a capital letter indicating the general class of treatment... .. during development and before an alloy is designated as experimental. 0. .50 1.. .0 .7 ....7 0. .75 .. .9 ..0 712. 0.. (a) Also contains 0..0 713..1 designation is assigned.5 . .005% beryllium and 0.. .. O O.0 0.40 . annealed: Applies to wrought products that are annealed to obtain the lower strength temper.50 0..... (g) (g) (g) Values are nominal (i.g. 2014-T6). average of range of limits for elements for which a range is specified). . .50 .. Use of the serial number is discontinued when the composition is registered with the Aluminum Association and the ANSI H35..0 .0 and A443.. ....50 .35 0... However.055% beryllium.... 0.. (g) Also contains 6.. .005% boron..7% silver. ....0 850. . .. ..5 6..0 1....10% vanadium and 0.0 711.5 6. ... ... Designations for Experimental Aluminum Alloys Experimental alloys of either the wrought or cast aluminum series are indicated with the addition of the prefix X..... 0. although for cast alloys there generally are.20 .... . (f) Also contains 0. a new composition may be identified by a serial number assigned by the originating organization..35 0.0% total) than 443... .. (e) May contain higher iron (up to 2.. (d) Also contains 0. ..e. 2. . (c) For this alloy.. ... 0...0 . .. .... For wrought alloys there are no mechanical property limits associated with this temper. .... aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder Alloy Silicon Iron Copper Manganese Magnesium Chromium Nickel Zinc Titanium Notes 710. 0... 0. as fabricated: Applies to wrought or cast products made by shaping processes in which there is no special control over thermal conditions or strain-hardening processes employed to achieve specific properties.. This prefix is dropped when the alloy is no longer experimental...58 0.0 7. usually to increase subsequent workability. Aluminum Alloy Temper Designation System Basic Temper Designations The temper designation is always presented immediately following the alloy designation with a hyphen between the designation and the temper (e. The designations are defined and described as follows: O F...0 2. . 0.

. O H3. strain hardened and partially annealed: Applies to products that have been strain hardened more than the desired final amount. strain hardened: Applies to products that have their strength increased by strain hardening. or as a result of heat introduced during fabrication of the product.Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 17 and dimensional stability and may be followed by a digit other than zero. Stabilization usually improves ductility. O W. The number following H1 indicates degree of strain hardening. This designation is specific only when digits are used in combination with W to indicate the period of natural aging. Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers The temper designation system is based on sequences of basic treatments used to produce different tempers and their variations. Subdivisions of the basic tempers. O H. strain hardened and stabilized: Applies to products that have been strain hardened and then stabilized either by a low temperature thermal treatment. O H2. or H: Applies to products that are thermally treated. to produce stable tempers. O. with or without supplementary strain hardening. strain hardened only: Applies to products that have been strain hardened to obtain a desired level of strength without a supplementary thermal treatment. W 1⁄2 hr. They may or may not have supplementary thermal treatments to produce some reduction in strength. strain hardened and lacquered or painted: Applies to products that are strain hardened and that have been subjected to heat during subsequent painting or lacquering operations. and their strength is reduced to the desired level by partial annealing. Subdivisions of the Basic H Tempers. O H4. The first number(s) following the letter designation indicates the specific combination of basic operations: O H1. are indicated by one or more digits (descriptor digits) following the letter. The number added to H4 indicates the amount of strain hardening left after painting or lacquering. discussed next. The T is always followed by one or more digits. The number added to H3 indicates the degree of strain hardening remaining after stabilization. The H3 temper is used only for those alloys that will gradually age soften at room temperature if they are not stabilized. thermally treated to produce stable tempers other than F. solution heat treated: Applies only to alloys that age spontaneously after solution heat treating. O T. for example. The H is always followed by two or more digits. The number added to H2 indicates the degree of strain hardening remaining after partial annealing.

O A degree of cold work equal to approximately one-half that for the HX8 temper is indicated by the HX4 temper.. Several three-digit H tempers also have been standardized. O H112: Applies to products that may acquire some temper from working at an elevated temperature and for which there are mechanical property limits. A digit following H1. designate tempers intermediate between those just listed. O The numeral 9 is used to indicate tempers that exceed those of HX8 by 14 MPa (2 ksi) or more. and so on. ksi 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 . H2. Other recognized three-digit H tempers apply to types of sheet. or H4 indicates the degree of strain hardening as identified or indicated by the minimum value for tensile strength: O The hardest temper normally produced is indicated by adding the numeral 8 (i. HX8). but not so much or so consistent an amount of strain that they qualify as HX1. as shown in Table 6. the HX6 temper is used.e. ksi Minimum tensile strength in annealed temper. the following three-digit designations are recognized: O HX11: Applies to products that incur sufficient strain hardening after the final anneal such that they fail to qualify as annealed. the HX2 temper is used. 3. For all strain-hardenable alloys. H3. Table 5 Up to 6 7–9 10–12 13–15 16–18 19–24 25–20 31–36 37–42 43 and over Tensile strengths of HX8 tempers Increase in tensile strength to HX8 temper.18 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Adding Additional Digits: H Temper. O For a degree of cold work halfway between the O temper and the HX4 temper. O The numbers 1. similarly. 5. Table 5 indicates gains in the tensile strength of wrought alloys in the annealed temper when they are treated to the HX8 temper. O For a degree of cold work halfway between HX4 and HX8. and 7.

solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition: Applies to products (a) that are not cold worked after solution heat treatment or (b) for which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits O T5. cooled from elevated temperature shaping process and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition: Applies to products (a) that are not cold worked after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process or (b) for which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits O T2. cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process. and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition: Applies to products (a) that are cold worked to improve strength after solution heat treatment or (b) for which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits O T4. cold worked. then artificially aged: Applies to products (a) that are not cold worked after solution treatment or (b) for which the effect . cold worked. mPa 55 62 69 76 83 90 97 103 110 115 120 Subdivisions of the Basic T Temper. and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition: Applies to products (a) that are cold worked to improve strength after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process or (b) for which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits O T3. then artificially aged: Applies to products (a) that are not cold worked after cooling from elevated temperature shaping process or (b) for which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits O T6. The first number(s) following the letter T designation indicates the specific combination of basic operations: O T1. cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process.Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 19 Table 5M (metric) Up to 40 45–60 65–80 85–100 105–120 125–160 165–200 205–240 245–280 285–320 296 and over Tensile strengths of HX8 tempers Increase in tensile strength to HX8 temper. solution heat treated. solution treated. mPa Minimum tensile strength in annealed temper.

respectively H18. then cold worked: Applies to products that are cold worked to improve strength T10. H264. H295. respectively H12. may be added to designations T1 through T10 to indicate a variation in treatment that significantly alters the product characteristics that are or would be obtained using the basic treatment. respectively . H29. The specific additional digits shown in Table 7 have been assigned for stress-relieved tempers of wrought products. H394 H195. H31 temper. cold worked. H37 temper. H25. H38 temper. H27. H244. respectively H19. H34 temper. solution heat treated. H395 Tempers for aluminum pattern sheet Fabricated from Pattern or embossed sheet O temper H11. H24.20 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O O O O of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits T7. H294. H344 H154. H324 H134.. H284. H384 H194. H234. Additional digits. H36 temper. H274. then artificially aged: Applies to products (a) that are cold worked to improve strength or (b) for which the effect of cold work in flattening and straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits T9. solution heat treated and overaged/stabilized: Applies to (a) wrought products that are artificially aged after solution heat treating to increase their strength beyond the maximum value achievable to provide control of some significant property or characteristic or (b) cast products that are artificially aged after solution treatment to provide stability in dimensions and in strength T8. H26. precipitation hardening) Adding Additional Digits: T Temper. respectively H13. artificially aged. respectively H17. respectively H15. H224. H354 H164. cold worked. H32 temper. H254. solution heat treatment is achieved by: O Heating cast or wrought shaped products to a suitable temperature O Holding them at that temperature long enough to allow constituents to enter into solid solution O Cooling them rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution to take advantage of subsequent precipitation and the associated strengthening (i. H23. H22. H33 temper. the first of which shall not be zero. cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process. H364 H174. respectively H16. The special T-temper desigTable 6 H114 H124. H35 temper. H28. H39 temper. solution heat treated. respectively H14. H334 H144. H21.e. H374 H184. then artificially aged: Applies to products (a) that are cold worked to improve strength or (b) for which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits In all of the T-type temper definitions just described.

Plate. and rolled rings when stretched the indicated amounts after solution heat treatment or after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process. Extruded rod. These products receive no further straightening after stretching. bar. 11⁄2–3% permanent set Rolled or cold-finished rod and bar. Extruded rod. 1–3% permanent set Drawn tube. profiles (shapes). 1–3% permanent set Die or ring forgings and rolled rings. Temper designations T42 and T62 also may be applied to wrought products heat treated from any temper by the user when such heat treatment results in the mechanical properties applicable to these tempers. bar. Table 8 Temper Tempers for testing response to heat treatment Description T42 T62 T7X2 Solution heat treated from annealed or F temper and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition Solution heat treated from annealed or F temper and artificially aged Solution heat treated from annealed or F temper and artificially overaged to meet the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance limits of the T7X temper These temper designations have been assigned for wrought products test material heat-treated from annealed (O. bar. die or ring forgings.Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 21 Table 7 Temper Tempers for stress-relieved products Application Stress relieved by stretching TX51 Applies to plate and rolled or cold-finished rod or bar. O1. These products may receive minor straightening after stretching to comply with standard tolerances. 54) may be added to the designation W to indicate unstable solution heat treated and stress-relieved tempers. profiles (shapes). 52. and tube. nations listed in Table 8 have been assigned for wrought aluminum products from which test materials are taken and heat treated to demonstrate response to heat treatment of the product as a whole. 1–5% permanent set TX510 Applies to extruded rod. 1⁄2–3% permanent set Stress relieved by compressing TX52 Applies to products that are stress relieved by compressing after solution heat treatment or cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process to produce a permanent set of 1–5%. thermally treated at approximately the same time and temperature required for solution heat treatment and slow cooled to room temperature: Applicable to products that are to be machined prior to solution heat treatment by the user. and tube and to drawn tube when stretched the indicated amounts after solution heat treatment or after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process. and tube.) or F temper to demonstrate response to heat treatment. profiles (shapes). etc. and tube and to drawn tube when stretched the indicated amounts after solution heat treatment or after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process. bar. The following temper designation has been assigned for wrought products that are high-temperature annealed to accentuate ultrasonic response and to provide dimensional stability: O O1. Same digits (51. 1–3% permanent set Drawn tube. Assigned O-Temper Variations. Stress relieved by combined stretching and compressing TX54 Applies to die forgings that are stress relieved by restriking cold in the finish die. profiles (shapes). Mechanical property limits are not applicable. The products receive no further straightening after stretching. 1⁄2–3% permanent set TX511 Applies to extruded rod. .

22 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Note: As the O temper is not part of the strain-hardened (H) series. With this information.1. For more detailed information on any of the discussion presented in this chapter. discuss the meanings of some of the variations. and end users of aluminum products should be able to better understand the designations and. “Selected References”): O Aluminum Standards and Data (English/engineering and metric editions) O American National Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for Aluminum O Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Casting . In the chapters that follow. variations of O temper shall not apply to products that are strain hardened after annealing and in which the effect of strain hardening is recognized in the mechanical properties or other characteristics. Summary This completes an overview of the Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Designation Systems in the terms described in Aluminum Standards and Data and in ANSI H35. and provide illustrations of the usage of the systems. hence. we will look at the systems in more detail. the practices used in their particular situations. fabricators. the reader is referred directly to the master sources (publication information can be found in Chapter 8. heat treaters.

1361/iaat2000p023 Copyright © 2000 ASM International® All rights reserved. Gilbert Kaufman. Assignment of the first digit of the designation of a new alloy is fairly straightforward.Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers J. Thus. but significant quantities of both. for example. magnesium silicide (Mg2Si). 6066. In such cases. and the last two digits represent the specific alloy designation. the second digit is the variation of that alloy.org CHAPTER 3 Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations THE WROUGHT ALLOY DESIGNATION SYSTEM consists of four numerical digits. The Wrought Alloy Series How the System is Applied The First Digit. the 6xxx series requires the most judgment because alloys that have more silicon than magnesium. alloys such as 6005. In the latter case. specific guidance has been provided by the developers of the alloy designation system that the choice of alloy series assigned shall be in the order of copper (Cu). but find themselves in the Mg2Si series. magnesium (Mg). it will be assigned to the 3xxx series. are likely to be placed in the 6xxx series rather than the 4xxx series in establishing properties and characteristics due to the predominance of the magnesium and silicon combination. few judgment decisions are needed unless there are equal amounts of two or more alloys. . if a new alloy has equal amounts of manganese and zinc. and zinc (Zn). manganese (Mn). sometimes preceded by a capital letter as indicated in Chapter 2. all have significantly more silicon than magnesium or other elements. www. silicon (Si). The first digit indicates the principal alloying elements. as described in this chapter in the section “Principal Alloying Elements” and Table 1. Thus. p23-37 DOI:10.asminternational. and 6351.

or that the range for one of the major alloy elements has been shaded one way or the other to achieve certain performance. More recently. of which 7175 and 7475 remain active alloys known for their superior toughness. the designation 1060 indicates 99. for example. is likely to agree to the request if no confusion would result. The Third and Fourth Digits.. 7175. those digits came from the earlier designations (e. now inactive. Assignment of the second digit of the alloy designation is related to the variations in a specific alloy. and the sequence indicates chronology more than level of control. If the developer asks for a specific number when filing for registration. If the second digit is 0. 7375. the alloys may be registered. sometimes based on proximity of application to other alloys of the same series or because they judge them easy to remember or such. 7275. However.60% minimum aluminum in that composition. They serve only to identify the specific individual alloys and mean nothing in terms of the sequence in which the alloys were developed or registered.XX% purity of the aluminum used in preparing that composition. An example of the application of these principles is the alloy set 7075. it indicates that some special control has been placed on the impurity levels of that variation. the sequence has no significance in the composition variation. In the remaining 2xxx to 8xxx series. the committee would likely take the lowest used number in the sequence 1 to 99. for the older alloys. and 7475. and the alloys are ready for customer trials and/or perhaps multicompany production but are still not sufficiently well understood or documented to become standard alloys. when added fracture toughness was needed. The alloy designation system also calls for the use of capital letters in front of the four-digit numerical: O Experimental alloys—X: Early in the development of aluminum alloys. it generally indicates that the aluminum making up the bulk of the alloy is commercially pure aluminum having naturally occurring impurity levels. is an example of the latter. Alloy 2020. the last two digits in the 1xxx series indicate the purity level in terms of the first two digits after the 99.g. the last two digits have no special significance. . When the second digit is an integer 1 to 9. it has been the tradition that developers of new alloys ask for specific designations. notably iron and silicon led to the other variations. in many cases. when such development has moved beyond single-company in-house trials. the Aluminum Association Product Standards Committee. However.24 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers The Second Digit. Historically. 2024 was 24S before 1950). tightening of controls on one or more impurities to achieve specific properties. Thus. which oversees the system. The original alloy was 7075 with commercial quality aluminum. the digits are assigned sequentially as the situations occur. controls on various impurities. if no designation is requested. As noted earlier.

For example. This breakdown leads to the ability to recognize a variety of things about the alloys themselves because each of these elements carries certain characteristics with it into the aluminum system as defined in subsequent paragraphs. The only current example of the application of this procedure in commercial practice is 6005A—a modification of alloy 6005. B. when the first of the lithium-bearing alloys was put forth in the 1960s. etc. pure aluminum (1xxx) and alloys containing principally manganese (3xxx) or magnesium (5xxx) with only minor amounts of other elements must be strengthened primarily by strain hardening because they Table 1 Main alloying elements in the wrought aluminum alloy designation system Alloy Main alloying element 1xxx 2xxx 3xxx 4xxx 5xxx 6xxx 7xxx 8xxx 9xxx Mostly pure aluminum. rather than a change in the second digit. as recapped in Table 1. such variation sometimes is noted with the addition of a capital letter behind the original fournumber designation. O Variations—A. A historical example was the use of X2020. the most obvious characteristic of the alloy series defined by the designation is the major alloying element or elements. Remembering these associations will add immeasurably to understanding the behavior and proper treatments to be given the alloys..: Under certain situations when minor variations in alloy compositions are introduced. Another example is X7050. Principal Alloying Elements As indicated in Chapter 2 and in the previous discussion.g. iron and silicon) Unassigned .Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 25 but an X is added to the designation. Understanding Wrought Alloy Strengthening Mechanisms The first major piece of information conveyed by understanding the alloy designation system is the manner in which the alloy can be most effectively strengthened. no major alloying additions Copper Manganese Silicon Magnesium Magnesium and silicon Zinc Other elements (e. In general. from which the X was removed once the broad application of the alloy was considered appropriate and the properties and standards were well defined. the practice is to reflect such variations with the second digit as noted earlier in this chapter. That designation was employed for about ten years before the further use of the alloy was deemed inappropriate and its application was discontinued.

As the principal alloying element in this series. Thus. Pure Aluminum. And elements such as magnesium.. The situation is similar for the 8xxx series. or drawing. The compositions in this group have relatively low strength. solution heat treatment (a high temperature holding to permit the elements to go into solution). or some combination of these. with a significant amount of copper are.26 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers do not respond to solution heat treatment. elements such as copper (2xxx series). or zinc (7xxx) are the higher-strength series. cold rolling. however. they have extremely high ductility and formability and so may be readily worked or formed. the major alloying elements also indicate several things about basic behavioral or performance characteristics of the alloys. and then either natural aging (i. Thus. so most alloys in this series are considered non-heat-treatable. Many commercial aluminum . On the other hand. Copper. The result is that alloy series containing copper (2xxx). The following example characteristics may be noted. heat treater. alloy 4032 is an example. followed by a sufficiently rapid quench to keep the elements in solution. while those such as 8090. The 4xxx series is somewhat unique in that silicon alone does not provide much heat treating advantage. or user of the various alloys to be knowledgeable about these as well. even when strain hardened. Understanding Wrought Alloy Advantages and Limitations In addition to being indicative of specific strengthening mechanisms. some alloys such as 8017 and 8040 with only small amounts of alloying element are non-heat-treatable. 1xxx. stretching. are the principal means of strengthening. Pure aluminum has no appreciable amounts of any elements that can go into solution to provide solution strengthening or precipitation hardening. do not provide for an appreciable amount of the more significant precipitation hardening. It is helpful to a secondary fabricator. at room temperature) or artificial aging (holding in a furnace at a moderately elevated temperature) for precipitation hardening are most often used. and manganese. 2xxx. The 1xxx series aluminums also have exceptionally high electrical conductivity and resistance to all types of corrosive environments and may be readily joined by a number of commercial processes. and magnesium in combination with silicon as Mg2Si (6xxx series) do go into solution to an appreciable degree and provide the opportunity for appreciable precipitation hardening. while they are soluble to some degree in aluminum and provide modest solution strengthening. silicon.e. magnesium plus silicon (6xxx). for pure aluminum and the 3xxx and 5xxx alloys. copper provides relatively high strength because it provides solution strengthening and the ability to precipitation harden. zinc (7xxx series). However. in some 4xxx alloys the silicon is present with sufficient amounts of other elements such as magnesium that heat treatment is effective.

and very high resistance to corrosion in almost all environments. and so . 2xxx alloys in the T3 and T4 conditions may be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) when stressed in the short-transverse direction (i. Manganese provides only modest strength increase even when strain hardened but relatively high formability and ductility. Unless given special treatments. and those that also include copper and/or magnesium as well as silicon and so gain strength by solution heat treatment and aging. but it is appropriate to note that manganese is commonly employed as a supplementary alloying constituent in alloys of the other series to enhance strength. the ductility of 2xxx alloys is generally lower than for some other alloys (except in special variations that are discussed later).. Manganese. Alloys of the 3xxx series are readily weldable and are among the best for brazing and soldering applications. Commercial aluminum-manganese alloys contain up to 1. Magnesium. Precipitation hardening improves resistance to SCC but reduces ductility and toughness.Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 27 alloys contain copper as the principal alloying constituent in concentrations from 1 to 10%. 4032) are used for complex or finely detailed forgings such as pistons. Because silicon adds to their “flow” characteristics during working. Magnesium additions to aluminum provide among the highest strength non-heat-treatable alloys. The 4xxx alloys are readily welded and. another result of their high fluidity. and their resistance to atmospheric corrosion is not as good as that of pure aluminum or most non-heattreatable alloys. 5xxx. it is advantageous to do any required working or forming of the metal soon after quenching from solution heat treatment. normal to the principal plane of grain flow). but a few alloys such as 2219 and 2195 have been developed especially for applications requiring welding. it may be desirable to cool them until the mechanical work can be performed. These alloys also are exceptionally tough..2% manganese. In the fully hardened (age-hardened) condition. If a delay is needed. The 4xxx alloys are not highly resistant to atmospheric corrosion and tend to “gray” with time in humid environments.g. absorbing lots of energy during fracture. Because these alloys naturally age at room temperature. Most aluminum-copper alloys are not readily welded by commercial processes. some 4xxx alloys (e. Interestingly. which are not very strong but provide excellent flow and finishing characteristics. this characteristic is used to advantage with finishing techniques such as anodizing to obtain a variety of rich gray shades. in fact. 4xxx. include some of the mostly widely used weld filler alloys. 3xxx.e. Silicon. There are two types of silicon-bearing aluminum alloys: those with silicon alone.

some natural aging begins immediately after solution heat treatment. 7xxx. For these types of applications. so scheduling of any intended forming operations is essential. 5454. these alloys possess relatively poorer atmospheric corrosion resistance compared with other aluminum alloys and. As with the 2xxx and 6xxx series. they are readily joined by almost all commercial processes. However. Generally. so forming operations should be scheduled soon after the material is quenched. especially when combined with copper and magnesium. alloys such as 5052. Special treatments have been developed to deal with these characteristics and are especially important when the alloys would be subjected to high shorttransverse stresses in service (as described in the following paragraphs). This results in modestly higher strengths than possible with non-heat-treatable alloys. 6xxx. In addition. most especially by the major alloying element indicated by the first number of the .g. Alloys of the 6xxx type are among the easiest of aluminum alloys to extrude. knowledge of the alloy designation system also provides some information about the properties and characteristics of the alloys. Alloys of the 5xxx series are readily welded by commercial procedures. Zinc-bearing aluminum alloys.28 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers can be used in critical applications where superior toughness is vital. With both magnesium and silicon present. As with the 2xxx series. 7xxx alloys naturally age following heat treatment. As a group. aluminum forms a quasi-binary section with the Mg2Si phase of the magnesium-silicon system. Zinc. Two notable examples are density and modulus of elasticity: O Density: The density of each aluminum alloy is influenced by the density of each of the individual alloying elements. and 5754 containing less magnesium are recommended.. except for the special versions described later. the 5xxx alloys also have excellent resistance to atmospheric and seawater corrosion to the point that they may be used in severe marine environments (as described in more detail in Chapter 6). combined with generally excellent corrosion resistance. which in turn provides excellent precipitation-hardening capability. are less tough and more susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking under short-transverse stressing. multihollow or finned) shapes produced in this manner. Other Characteristics Related to Principal Alloying Element As noted earlier. and are thus widely used for complex (e. alloys with more than 3% Mg are not recommended for service in which significant exposure to high temperature may be encountered because some sensitization to SCC may develop. provide the highest strengths of any commercial series. Magnesium Plus Silicon.

90 11.49 19. Practical estimates of the density of an alloy also may be made by summing the percentages of each element present multiplied by the respective density of that element (representative values given in Table 2).32 1.0971 0.066 0.698 0.164 0.43 13.9 7. There are two important exceptions—magnesium and lithium.264 0. For example. by summing the percentages of each element present multiplied by the respective modulus. In Section 2 of Aluminum Standards and Data.324 0.084 0. Those alloys with mostly silicon or silicon combined with magnesium have densities about the same as pure aluminum.96 7. the moduli of elasticity of aluminum alloys.268 0.322 0. both of these relatively low-modulus elements have the effect of increasing the modulus of aluminum: magnesium by a small amount and lithium by a large amount. iron.0628 0.33 7. while alloys with copper. Thus.74 7.80 8.65 8.490 0.87 0.410 0. Table 3 provides the moduli of the major alloying elements for use in estimating the moduli of alloys in which they are used. Tables I and II provide both typical density values and procedures for calculating densities.313 0. with a few exceptions.699 10.260 0.379 0. alloys with magnesium and lithium present are lighter than pure aluminum. are influenced by the modulus of elasticity of the alloying elements in direct relation to the amount present.19 8.30 4.3 Aluminum Silver Gold Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Cobalt Chromium Copper Iron Lithium Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Lead Silicon Tin Titanium Zinc Zirconium 2.13 6.5 0. It must be emphasized that calculations made on this basis are to be considered to be rough estimates.258 0.53 1.54 7.23 . the modulus of the alloy may be estimated.019 0. The degree of influence is directly related to the percentage of the alloying element present. and zinc are heavier.55 8.Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 29 designation.32 0. O Modulus of Elasticity: As in the case of density.34 2.354 0.284 0.82 9. not suitable for Table 2 Densities of aluminum and aluminum alloying elements Density Alloying element g/cm3 lb/in.

6 16.0 2.0 37.0 16. wire.5 0. As stated earlier. Wrought alloys are available in a variety of product forms. bar. plate. forging.0 6. and 2324 are variations. These processes and products are described further in Chapter 6.30 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers design purposes. a plate Table 3 Elastic moduli of aluminum and aluminum alloying elements Elastic modulus Alloying element GPa 106 psi Aluminum Silver Gold Beryllium Bismuth Cadmium Cobalt Chromium Copper Iron Lithium Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Lead Silicon Tin Titanium Zinc Zirconium 69 71 78 255 32 55 21 248 128 208 0.0 36. tube. For design purposes.6 8.0 30. and fin stock. there is no substitute for precise measurements of modulus in accordance with ASTM Method E 111.0 16.0 28. rod.0 (a) Effect of magnesium is equivalent to approximately 75 GPa/11. providing variations especially useful for critical aerospace applications where high fracture toughness is vital. Example 1. the second digit of an alloy designation defines variations of the original alloy composition. This procedure was adopted first to make 2124.0 30.0 4. these values are lower-limit estimates.0 11. forging stock.0 12. . pipe. rivets. 2224.7(b) 44(a) 159 325 207 261 110 44 120 69(c) 49. (b) Effect of lithium is equivalent to approximately 207 GPa/30. The ingot or billet is hot worked into semifabricated wrought products by such processes as hot rolling and extrusion. of alloy 2024.1(b) 6. structural shapes. extrusions.3 10. but research metallurgists noted that controlling impurity elements such as iron and silicon enhanced the toughness of the alloy. (c) The modulus of elasticity of zinc is not well defined. Alloys 2124. foil.0 50. some of which are further finished by cold rolling or drawing. Understanding Wrought Alloy Variations Most wrought alloys start at the mill as cast ingot or billet. Several examples may help to illustrate this point.5(a) 23. actually higher-purity variations.8 10(c) 11.0 106psi. including sheet. The original alloy has been and continues to be useful for transportation applications.0 106psi.

another alloy designation system had been in place. making them especially useful for critical aerospace applications. When the four-digit system was installed.Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 31 alloy with all the advantages of 2024 but substantially higher elongation and toughness.” Thus. the UNS designation is based directly on the Aluminum Association alloy designation system. while 7475 is most often used in applications requiring sheet and plate. a specification or a component turns up where the older designation still is evident. Both 7175 and 7475 alloys have the same major alloying elements as 7075 but. Because it lacked sufficient rigor. . Occasionally. which provides a reference conversion showing both the current and original designations. The process was adopted subsequently to create 2324. alloy 24S became alloy 2024. including ASTM material specifications. scientists learned that control of the impurities and the relationship of the levels of certain minor elements added to the fracture toughness of alloys. Example 2. the UNS number is the Aluminum Association designation preceded by “A9. alloy 2024 becomes A92024 in the UNS system. it is useful to note that prior to the development of the current Aluminum Association Alloy Designation System. Some special processing also may be required for such alloys. as illustrated in Table 4. For wrought alloys. while not used in most domestic or international commerce. Alloys 7175 and 7475 are modifications of alloy 7075. Unified Numbering System (UNS) Alloy Designation System for Wrought Alloys The UNS alloy designation system. and the two surviving numbers became a part of the new system. the letters were dropped. and consistency. The old system for wrought alloy designations consisted of a one or two digit number followed by a capital S. especially in the short transverse direction. For example. alloy 17S became alloy 2017. Links to Earlier Alloy Designations For reference purposes. this system was abandoned in the 1950s and replaced by the current system. A capital letter in front of the alloy number was used to illustrate a variation of a basic composition. for example. 7075 is A97075. The Aluminum Association is the maintainer of the UNS designation system for aluminum alloys. and it is useful to be able to bridge the gap. Designations 7275 and 7375 were assigned earlier but then discarded and are no longer in commercial use. and similarly. For both wrought and cast aluminum alloys. is sometimes cited for information purposes in domestic or international standards. as in the case of the 2xxx alloys. Alloy 7175 has found most of its application in forgings. flexibility. an alloy for extrusions with similar attributes.

The first digit identifies the family. This is made more important because the most recent changes in the cast alloy designation system have occurred much more recently than those in the wrought alloy series. and so. when there are two major elements in equal percentage in .x designation represents the group of aluminumsilicon alloys that contain magnesium or copper. There may be many individuals still unaware of the most recent changes. In the material that follows. a 3xx. As with wrought alloy designations. and the fourth indicates the product form.32 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 4 Comparison of previous and current aluminum alloy designation systems Old designation Current designation 1S 3S 4S 14S 17S A17S 24S 25S 26S 32S 50S B51S 52S 56S 61S 63S 75S 76S 1100 3003 3004 2014 2017 2117 2024 2025 2026 4032 5050 6151 5052 5056 6061 6063 7075 7076 The Cast Alloy Series The cast alloy designation series has a more complex and confusing history than the wrought alloy series. based on the series listed in Table 5. For example. with a decimal point between the third and fourth numbers and a letter preceding the numbers to indicate variations. the current system is discussed first. followed by a look back at earlier designations systems. How the Current Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation System is Applied The cast alloy designation has four numbers. so there is a much higher probability that there are many parts in service and specified in drawings identified with earlier designations. The first three numbers indicate the alloy. some explanation will be given to the several variations of designations still rather widely applied to cast aluminum alloys. in addition to describing the current alloy designations.

x 4xx.x 3xx.0).Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 33 Table 5 Series Aluminum casting alloys Alloying element(s) 1xx. Prefix letters such as A or B indicate variations in the composition of casting alloys. The xxx. The final digit following the decimal indicates the product form casting or ingot. silicon plus copper and/or magnesium. As an example. If the designation applies to a finished casting. or zinc.x 8xx.60% minimum aluminum. but with tighter controls on iron and other impurities.0 was made may be designated A356. we can note several major characteristics of casting alloys by their alloy class.x 6xx.0 casting was made.x series. magnesium.x 9xx.1 or xxx. for example. a zero always is used (xxx. In the latter case. the xxx. though not all. alloy 356. Response to heat treatment is one important characteristic: . The ingot from which the A356. For all except the 1xx. the numbers may refer back to an earlier designation system. a 1 or 2 is used (xxx. if it applies to the ingot from which the casting was or will be produced.1 or 356.x 5xx.0 represents a casting of 99.0 indicates a variation of 356.1 version—is used to achieve special properties. the alloy is designated in accordance with the sequence: copper. alloy A356. Continuing the example above.x 2xx.x 7xx. instances. there is no special significance to those numbers.x series. the first digit of the designation. silicon. they neither indicate a sequence of any type nor represent any characteristic of the alloy. Understanding Cast Alloy Strengthening Mechanisms As with wrought alloys.x Unalloyed compositions Copper Silicon plus copper and/or magnesium Silicon Magnesium Not used Zinc Tin Other elements the alloy. The designation 356. In some.2.2 designation usually is limited to those cases where a narrower composition range of one or more of the elements—all within the composition limits for the xxx.2). both indicating the tighter control at the ingot stage. In the 1xx. relatively high purity. but overall similarity.0 alloy. The second and third digits identify a specific alloy of the family. 160.0 represents a finished casting of the silicon plus copper and/or magnesium series.1 normally would represent the ingot from which the 356. the last two digits represent the percentage of aluminum present in terms of the two digits to the right of the decimal point in that percentage.1 designation is the most common and refers to the common commercial composition.

and some individual alloys in the groups may exhibit somewhat different behavior.0 7xx. Among the most important such characteristics are those related to castability and to end-product properties and characteristics. Such ratings are generalizations.0 5xx. heat treatable O 9xx. sand and permanent mold castings foundries typically take advantage of solution heat treating capabilities.0: 6xx.0: 5xx. but even this is not usually a closely controlled procedure.0 4xx. Table 6 Class Characteristic ratings for cast aluminum alloys Fluidity Cracking Tightness Corrosion Finishing Joining 1xx. with ratings from 1 (highest or best) to 5 (lowest or worst).0 and 4xx.0: 3xx.0: Unalloyed. The reader also will note that there is no discussion of strain hardening as a strengthening mechanism for cast alloys. it is appropriate to note that while casting alloys of the 3xx. heat treatable Tin. it is not customary in the die-casting industry to use separate solution heat treatment for these alloys. This is simply because the vast majority of castings are produced to near-finished dimensions.0 8xx.0 groupings are listed as heat treatable. Understanding Cast Alloy Advantages and Limitations Based upon the effects of the primary alloying elements. as illustrated in Table 6.0: Other elements. limited use Despite these descriptive categorizations.0: 8xx. some generalizations may be made about several characteristics of the major classes of aluminum casting alloys. non-heat-treatable Unused series Zinc. and neither the shapes nor the dimensional controls lend themselves to stretching or compression cold work.0: 4xx.0: 2xx. Some strength advantage is gained by the rapid cooling from the casting process. heat treatable Silicon.0 3 1–2 1 5 3 4 4 1–2 1 4 4 5 3 1–2 1 4–5 4 5 1 4 2–3 2–3 3 4 5 1 1–3 3–4 4–5 1–2 1–2 3 1 2–4 1–3 1 3 4 5 .0 3xx. On the other hand.0: 7xx.0 2xx. heat treatable Magnesium. heat treatable Silicon plus copper and/or magnesium.34 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O O O O O O O O 1xx. non-heat-treatable Copper.

and 518.0. may be more variable in quality. an excellent example is illustrated by A356. As noted earlier. A384. 360. When the current system was adopted in about 1980. Other Characteristics Related to Composition As with wrought alloys.0 where iron and other impurities are controlled to lower levels (e. commercial die castings are generally limited to a relatively small number of compositions. but 356. without consistent relationships to major alloying elements.0 is a variation of 356. because of the relatively greater impurity levels tolerated by its specifications (e. for which the situation is quite parallel. Originally. Alloys for Different Casting Processes There are a variety of processes that can be employed to produce aluminum cast parts. Both are readily castable into complex shapes.” and to Tables 2 and 3 for the procedures on how to estimate these properties from the compositions. While many of the alloys can be produced from a wide variety of these processes. B390. it is useful to note that there have been two gradual transitions in casting alloy designations.0.6% Fe max).0.0. Reference is thus made to an earlier section in this chapter. 383. 0.or three-digit designation. 413.0. C443.g. and toughness are reliably provided. Around 1950. but there were still few specific rules or guidelines guiding alloy designation uniformity. namely.0. casting alloys were specified by a rather randomly applied two..0. as described in Chapter 5. Another example is A357.0. 380. there began the tendency to standardize casting alloys with three digits. “Other Characteristics Related to Principal Alloying Element..0.0. Evolution of the Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation System For reference purposes. with the increased wrought alloy standardization.0.0 as a variation of 356. including reduced ductility and toughness.0. ductility. often with the aforementioned letter prefixes. A356.0 as a low-impurity variation of 357. the change was both to reform the series designations to make it more reliable and consistent with regard to alloying constituents and to add the fourth digit. when links to earlier alloy designation systems are required. A360.0.0. A380. 384. which included the precursor casting ingot from which the castings are .Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 35 Examples of the Use of Variations in Cast Alloy Designations In the cast alloy designations more so than in the wrought series.g. both density and elastic modulus are directly related to composition. letter prefixes are used to indicate variations. 0. and the same procedures and rules apply.20% Fe max) with the result that appreciably higher strength.

representing the letter of the alphabet used. they are not universally accepted even in the United States. While the American Foundrymen’s Society (AFS) and the Non-Ferrous Founders’ Society (NFFS) accept and use the Aluminum Association/ANSI cast alloy designation system. UNS Alloy Designation System for Cast Alloys As noted earlier. ASTM. refer to the alloy designations used before the alloy series were rationalized by major alloying element. is based directly on the Aluminum Association alloy designation system.0. Therefore. the change was more drastic: alloy 108 became 208.2. and SAE specifications. and B518.0 (or B443.0).0.0 becomes A03560. A356. 356. unlike the case with wrought alloys. For some other alloys placed in the wrong series initially. or 356. No period is used. and so on.1. . as in the Aluminum Association casting alloy designation. castings designated as 356 castings became 356. So.0 becomes A25180.0. at that time. alloy 43 became 443. more surprisingly. as well as the former designations followed by federal. the current cast alloy designations are not so widely accepted throughout the world. as for wrought aluminum alloys. and in fact. respectively.0. for example. the ingot from which they were made became 356.0 becomes A13560. 3.1. and B214 became 512. the UNS alloy designation system for cast aluminum alloys.36 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers made. the Aluminum Association alloy designation is preceded by “A” followed by a “0” (zero) if there is no letter preceding the alloy designation. even the 1996 publications of the Die Casting Development Council still report cast alloy designations without the decimal point and the fourth digit and. or by 1. and A356 castings became A356. For cast alloys. A356. 2. A summary of some of the major changes over this period is shown in Table 7. Regrettably. Included in this table are both the current and former designations used within the industry.

. ... ..... B214 A214 214 218 220 Almag 35 Ternalloy 5 Ternalloy 7 A612 . . 33 34 39 38 380 . .0 328.. 322 335 323 336 . .. 324 . 309 308 306 383 303 .0 851.0 B850..0 C721.. .0 C443.0 A444.0 852.. 355 C355 356 A356 357 .0 A380 383.. Allcast Red X-8 F332..0 C355.0 214 218 220 Almag 35 603.0 710. CS43A CS74A CG100A CN42A C4A ..0 354.....0 308. 305 35 ..0 208... 382 .0 295....0 B443...0 512.0 520. ..0 518.. . 43 43 .0 413. ..0 513.. 360 A360 380 A380 383 384 390 13 A13 ...0 712. .0 713.. 311 312 313 314 310 315 .0 514.0 355..0 242. 304 ..... 326 327 332 331 321 . ..0 D712.0 .... SC64D SC82A SC103A SC94A SN122A ..0 332. B514. 108 C113 122 142 195 B295 A108 319.0 850. . .Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 37 Table 7 AA/ANSI Cross reference chart of aluminum casting alloy designations Former UNS Federal Old ASTM Old SAE 201.... Tenzaloy Precedent 71A 750 A850.0 A357... ..0 333.0 B390. SC51A SC51B SG70A SG70B .0 357.0 319...... GS42A GZ42A G4A G8A G10A GM70B ZG32A ZG42A ZG61B ZC60A ZG61A ZC81A ... SG100B SG100A SC84B SC84A SC102 SC114A SC174B S12B S12A S5B S5A S5C ... . Ternalloy 7 A712.0 A360 380.. .0 A356.. 320 ..0 384.. 108 C113 122 142 195 B295 A108 319 Red X-8 F132 333 A132 .. 40E Tenzaloy Precedent 71A 750 A750 B750 CQ51A .0 356..0 296..0 354 355 C355 356 A356 357 A357 359 360 A360 380 A380 383 384 390 13 A13 43 43 43 .0 204.0 535....0 613.0 771..0 443.0 A413....0 213..0 359.0 705..0 711.. . .... .0 333 A332..0 222.0 336.0 A02010 A02040 A02080 A02130 A02220 A02420 A02950 A02960 A03080 A03190 A03280 A03320 A03330 A03360 A03540 A03550 A33550 A03560 A13560 A03570 A13570 A03590 A03600 A13600 A03800 A13800 A03830 A0384 A23900 A04130 A14130 A04430 A24430 A34430 A14440 A05120 A05130 A05140 A05180 A05200 A05350 A07050 A07070 A07100 A07110 A07120 A07130 A07710 A08500 A08510 A08520 .0 A514.0 707... Ternalloy 5 607...0 360.

temper designations are alphanumeric designations appended to the alloy designations that convey to the producer and user alike information about the general manner in which the alloy has been mechanically and/or thermally treated to achieve the properties desired.e.. Gilbert Kaufman. p39-76 DOI:10.asminternational. Topics covered in this chapter include: O Review of basic temper designations and their major variations O Applications and variations of the O temper .Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers J.org CHAPTER 4 Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System This chapter provides additional detail and illustrations for the use of temper designations in the aluminum industry today for both wrought and cast alloys. those recognized by the industry because they have been registered by the Aluminum Association Technical Committee on Product Standards) are published either in Aluminum Standards and Data or in the Alloy and Temper Registration Records together with the procedures for registering alloys. This discussion expands on the basic Aluminum Association Temper Designation System as described in Chapter 2. or the temperatures used in the thermal treatments. Most tempers have specific mechanical properties associated with them. such as specific amounts of reduction during cold rolling.1361/iaat2000p039 Copyright © 2000 ASM International® All rights reserved. All standard tempers (i. Tempers for Wrought Aluminum Alloys As noted earlier. www. The temper designation does not indicate precise details of how the material has been treated. and satisfactory achievement of the intended temper is generally indicated by whether the specified properties have been achieved.

although not previously registered.0 10.0 10.5 5 6 7 9 9 … … … … 7 18 18 10. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties. c.0 10.. For O temper products. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension modulus. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.2 Note: Table values not intended for use in design.2 10. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. TX52) Identifying modifications in quenching (T5 versus T6. endurance limit(b). TX511. thick specimen. respectively. embossed sheet) Applications and variations of the T tempers Identifying stress relief (TX51. TX510. ksi Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield In 2 in.0 10. modulus of elasticity(c). Brinell No. f. 10 mm ball Shear.5 6. T736 and T74) As background and useful reference material in understanding more about aluminum alloy temper designations. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in.0 10.40 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O O O O Applications Applications Applications Applications a. T6 versus T61) h. diam specimen Hardness. thick specimen In 4D 1⁄2 in.0 10.000. b. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. identifying tempers for special or premium properties. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in. (i) T7451. 1⁄16 in. ksi Fatigue. and and and and variations variations variations variations of of of of the the the the F temper W temper H tempers T tempers Identifying cold work Identifying stabilization treatments Identifying partial annealing treatments Identifying specific products (e.0 10. ultimate shearing strength. % Strength.0 10. 500 kg load.0 10.0 10. ksi Modulus. Applications of H or T Tempers for Specific Performance (corrosion resistance. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in.. e.R. Moore type of machine and specimen.0 10. g. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86. respectively. (b) Based on 500. Heat treatment by nonproducer (heat treater or fabricator) (TX2) i. Table 1 Typical mechanical properties of wrought aluminum alloys(a) Tension Elongation. the typical mechanical properties of representative wrought and cast aluminum alloys are presented in Tables 1 and 2. . ksi % 103 1060-O 1060-H12 1060-H14 1060-H16 1060-H18 1100-O 1100-H12 1100-H14 1100-H16 1100-H18 1350-O 1350-H12 1350-H14 1350-H16 1350-H19 2011-T3 2011-T8 10 12 14 16 19 13 16 18 21 24 12 14 16 18 27 55 59 4 11 13 15 18 5 15 17 20 22 4 12 14 16 24 43 45 43 16 12 8 6 35 12 9 6 5 … … … … … … … … … … … … 45 25 20 17 15 (d) … … … (e) 15 12 (continued) 19 23 26 30 35 23 28 32 38 44 … … … … … 95 100 7 8 9 10 11 9 10 11 12 13 8 9 10 11 15 32 35 3 4 5 6.0 10.g.0 10.0 10.0 10. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651. d.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R.

5 10.6 10. 500 kg load.5 10. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in.6 10.8 10. T351 2024-T361(f) 2024-T81. Brinell No. ksi % 103 Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield 2014-O 2014-T4. T651 Alclad 2014-O Alclad 2014-T3 Alclad 2014-T4. respectively. (i) T7451.6 10.5 10. thick specimen In 4D 1⁄2 in. modulus of elasticity(c).000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R. T351 2024-T361(f) Alclad 2024-O Alclad Alclad Alclad Alclad Alclad 2024-T3 2024-T4..6 10.6 10. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in. % Strength.0 10.0 10.6 10. 10 mm ball Shear. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.5 10. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties. 1⁄16 in.000.6 10.5 10.0 10.6 10. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in. diam specimen Hardness.0 10.6 10. For O temper products.3 10.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 41 Table 1 (continued) Tension Elongation. T651 2017-O 2017-T4. although not previously registered.6 10.0 10. T451 2018-T61 2024-O 2024-T3 2024-T4. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86.0 2025-T6 2036-T4 2117-T4 2124-T851 2218-T72 2219-O 2219-T42 2219-T31.6 10. ksi In 2 in.6 10. T451 2014-T6. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. ultimate shearing strength. thick specimen.0 10.6 10.6 10.0 10. T851 2219-T87 2618-T61 3003-O 3003-H12 3003-H14 3003-H16 3003-H18 Alclad 3003-O Alclad 3003-H12 Alclad 3003-H14 Alclad 3003-H16 Alclad 3003-H18 8 16 5 14 4 10 (continued) Note: Table values not intended for use in design.6 10.6 10. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension modulus. T851 2024-T861(f) 27 62 70 25 63 61 68 26 62 61 27 70 68 72 26 65 64 67 65 70 58 49 43 70 48 25 52 52 57 60 66 69 64 16 19 22 26 29 16 19 22 26 29 14 42 60 10 40 37 60 10 40 46 11 50 47 57 11 45 42 63 60 66 37 28 24 64 37 11 27 36 46 42 51 57 54 6 18 21 25 27 6 18 21 25 27 … … … 21 20 22 10 … … … 20 18 20 13 20 18 19 11 6 6 … 24 … … … 18 20 17 11 10 10 10 … 30 10 8 5 4 30 10 18 20 13 … … … … 22 22 12 22 … 19 … … … … … … … 19 … 27 8 11 … … … … … … … 10 40 20 16 14 10 40 20 45 105 135 … … … … 45 105 120 47 120 120 130 … … … … … … 110 … 70 … 95 … … … … … … … 115 28 35 40 47 55 … … … … … 18 38 42 18 37 37 41 18 38 39 18 41 41 42 18 40 40 41 40 42 35 … 28 … 30 … … … … … … … 38 11 12 14 15 16 11 12 14 15 16 13 20 18 … … … … 13 18 17 13 20 20 18 … … … … … … 18 18(g) 14 … … … … … … 15 15 15 18 7 8 9 10 10 … … … … … 10.5 10.6 10.8 10.0 10.0 10.6 10.4 10. .3 10.8 10.R. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens.6 10.6 10. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. T351 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T81. endurance limit(b).6 10. ksi Modulus. ksi Fatigue. T451 Alclad 2014-T6. (b) Based on 500. Moore type of machine and specimen.

(e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in. diam specimen Hardness.0 10. For O temper products. respectively.0 10.3 10.0 10. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86.2 10.000. Moore type of machine and specimen. (i) T7451. (b) Based on 500. although not previously registered.2 10.2 10.0 10. 1⁄16 in..3 10.0 10. Brinell No. ksi In 2 in.0 10.0 10.0 11. % Strength. thick specimen In 4D 1⁄2 in. thick specimen.0 10.2 10.3 10. ksi Fatigue.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10. endurance limit(b). (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.3 10. ksi % 103 Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield 3004-O 3004-H32 3004-H34 3004-H36 3004-H38 Alclad Alclad Alclad Alclad Alclad 3004-O 3004-H32 3004-H34 3004-H36 3004-H38 26 31 35 38 41 26 31 35 38 41 17 22 25 28 31 26 55 18 20 23 26 29 20 23 26 29 21 25 28 30 32 28 33 38 40 42 42 63 60 42 46 10 25 29 33 36 10 25 29 33 36 8 19 22 25 28 23 46 6 19 22 25 28 17 20 24 27 8 21 24 26 29 13 28 31 35 37 22 59 50 21 33 20 10 9 5 5 20 10 9 5 5 24 7 5 4 3 8 … 25 10 6 5 4 11 8 6 5 24 9 8 7 6 25 12 10 8 7 … … … … … 25 17 12 9 6 25 17 12 9 6 … … … … … … 9 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 30 18 14 10 8 35 10 15 22 16 (continued) 45 52 63 70 77 … … … … … … … … … … … 120 28 … … … … 36 41 46 51 36 46 53 58 63 47 60 68 73 77 65 105 100 … … 16 17 18 20 21 16 17 18 20 21 12 14 15 16 17 15 38 11 14 14 15 16 14 14 15 16 15 17 18 19 20 18 20 21 23 24 26 34 32 25 … 14 15 15 16 16 … … … … … … … … … … … 16 … … … … … … … … … 12 13 13 14 14 16 17 18 19 20 20 22 22 … 23 10. H116 Note: Table values not intended for use in design. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values.0 10.0 10. modulus of elasticity(c). (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens.0 10.3 3105-O 3105-H12 3105-H14 3105-H16 3105-H18 3105-H25 4032-T6 5005-O 5005-H12 5005-H14 5005-H16 5005-H18 5005-H32 5005-H34 5005-H36 5005-H38 5050-O 5050-H32 5050-H34 5050-H36 5050-H38 5052-O 5052-H32 5052-H34 5052-H36 5052-H38 5056-O 5056-H18 5056-H38 5083-O 5083-H321. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension modulus.0 10. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.0 10.0 10. .42 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 1 (continued) Tension Elongation. 10 mm ball Shear.0 10.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R.0 10.0 10.2 10.0 10 10.0 10. ultimate shearing strength.4 10.R.0 10. 500 kg load. ksi Modulus.0 10.

2 10. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86.000. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in. modulus of elasticity(c). thick specimen In 4D 1⁄2 in.R.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R.2 10. ksi % 103 Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield 5086-O 5086-H32. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values.2 10. For O temper products.2 10. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. (i) T7451. T451 6061-T6. ksi In 2 in.2 10.0 10. 1⁄16 in.0 10. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in.2 10. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties.2 10. % Strength.3 10. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. H28 6061-O 6061-T4. ksi Fatigue. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in.2 10. although not previously registered.2 10. . has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.0 10..0 22 … (continued) Note: Table values not intended for use in design. T651 Alclad 6061-O Alclad 6061-T4. thick specimen.2 10. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension modulus.3 10.2 10.0 10. H116 5457-O 5457-H25 5457-H38.2 10. Moore type of machine and specimen.2 10. 500 kg load.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 43 Table 1 (continued) Tension Elongation.2 10.0 10.0 10. 10. H28 5254-O 5254-H32 5254-H34 5254-H36 5254-H38 5254-H112 5454-O 5454-H32 5454-H34 5454-H111 5454-H112 5456-O 5456-H25 5456-H321.2 10.3 10. respectively. H116 5086-H34 5086-H112 5154-O 5154-H32 5154-H34 5154-H36 5154-H38 5154-H112 5252-H25 5252-H38.3 10.3 10.3.2 10.2 10. diam specimen Hardness. ultimate shearing strength.0 10.2 10.3 10.2 10. endurance limit(b).2 10. 10 mm ball Shear. ksi Modulus.2 10. T451 38 42 47 39 35 39 42 45 48 35 34 41 35 39 42 45 48 35 36 40 44 38 36 45 45 51 19 26 30 28 33 38 40 42 23 28 18 35 45 17 33 17 30 37 19 17 30 33 36 39 17 25 35 17 30 33 36 39 17 17 30 35 26 18 23 24 37 7 23 27 13 28 31 35 37 20 24 8 21 40 7 19 22 12 10 14 27 15 13 12 10 25 11 5 27 15 13 12 10 25 22 10 10 14 18 … … … 22 12 6 25 12 10 8 7 12 7 25 22 12 25 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 24 22 16 … … … 30 18 14 10 8 … … 30 25 17 … … … … … 58 67 73 78 80 63 68 75 58 67 73 78 80 63 62 73 81 70 62 … … 90 32 48 55 47 60 68 73 77 40 50 30 65 95 … … 23 … 27 … 22 22 24 26 28 … 21 23 22 22 24 26 28 … 23 24 26 23 23 … … 30 12 16 18 18 20 21 23 24 12 15 12 24 30 11 22 … … … … 17 18 19 20 21 17 … … 17 18 19 20 21 17 … … … … … … … … … … … 16 17 18 19 20 … … 9 14 14 … … 10.0 10. Brinell No. H28 5652-O 5652-H32 5652-H34 5652-H36 5652-H38 5657-H25 5657-H38. (b) Based on 500.2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.

4 10. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension modulus. ksi Fatigue. T7651 Alclad 7178-O Alclad 7178-T6.0 10. ksi Modulus.0 10.2 10. endurance limit(b). T651 Alclad 7075-O Alclad 7075-T6. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. respectively.4 10.4 10. 10 mm ball Shear.0 10.0 10. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.0 10.R.4 10.0 10.4 10.4 10.44 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 1 (continued) Tension Elongation. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86.0 10.0 10.0 10.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R.0 10. Moore type of machine and specimen. although not previously registered. ultimate shearing strength.. modulus of elasticity(c). (i) T7451.4 10. ksi In 2 in.4 10.4 10.0 10.4 10.4 10. (b) Based on 500.2 10. T451 6066-T6. T651 7178-T76. diam specimen Hardness. 500 kg load.0 10. T651 6070-T6 6101-H111 6101-T6 6262-T9 6351-T4 6351-T6 6463-T1 6463-T5 6463-T6 7049-T73 7049-T7352 7050-T73510. T651 7175-T74 7178-O 7178-T6.4 10. .0 10. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in.0 10. 1⁄16 in.0 Note: Table values not intended for use in design.000. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in. T651 6063-O 6063-T1 6063-T4 6063-T5 6063-T6 6063-T83 6063-T831 6063-T832 6066-O 6066-T4.0 10.0 10. Brinell No. T73511 7050-T7451(i) 7050-T7651 7075-O 7075-T6. For O temper products. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties. % Strength. thick specimen.3 10.4 10.2 10. T651 7475-T61 7475-T651 7475-T7351 7475-T761 7475-T7651 Alclad 7475-T61 Alclad 7475-T761 8176-H24 42 13 22 25 27 35 37 30 42 22 52 57 55 14 32 58 36 45 22 27 35 75 75 72 76 80 33 83 32 76 76 33 88 83 32 81 82 85 72 75 77 75 71 17 37 7 13 13 21 31 35 27 39 12 30 52 51 11 28 55 22 41 13 21 31 65 63 63 68 71 15 73 14 67 66 15 78 73 14 71 71 74 61 65 67 66 61 14 12 … 20 22 12 12 9 10 12 … … … 10 … 15(h) … 20 14 20 12 12 … … … … … 17 11 17 11 … 15 10 … 16 10 11 … … 12 … 11 12 15 … … … … … … … … … 18 18 12 … … … 10 … … … … … 12 11 12 11 11 16 11 … … 11 16 11 11 … … … 13 13 … 12 … … … … 25 42 … 60 73 82 70 95 43 90 120 … … 71 120 … 95 42 60 74 135 135 … … … 60 150 … … 135 … … … … … … … … … … … … … 27 10 14 … 17 22 22 18 27 14 29 34 34 … 20 35 … 29 14 17 22 44 43 … 44 47 22 48 22 46 42 … … … … … … … … … … … … 10 … 8 9 … 10 10 … … … … … 16 14 … … 13 … 13 10 10 10 … … … … … … 23 … … 23 … … … … … … … … … … … … … 10.0 10. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.0 10. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in.0 10.0 10. ksi % 103 Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield Alclad 6061-T6.0 10.2 10. thick specimen In 4D 1⁄2 in.

(g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (b) Based on 500. T351 Alclad 2024-T361(f) Alclad 2024-T81.3 mm thick specimen. T451 Alclad 2014-T6.R. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 45 Table 1M Typical mechanical properties of wrought aluminum alloys. T651 Alclad 2014-O Alclad 2014-T3 Alclad 2014-T4. MPa Fatigue. 500 kgf load..000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R. For O temper products. % In 50 mm 1. (i) T7451. T351 2024-T361(f) Alclad 2024-O Alclad 2024-T3 Alclad 2024-T4. T451 2014-T6. (metric)(a) Tension Elongation. although not previously registered. 10 mm ball Shear. (h) Based on 6. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651. respectively. MPa % 103 Strength.000. MPa Modulus. endurance limit(b).5 mm diam specimen Hardness. ultimate shearing strength. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. Moore type of machine and specimen. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86.60 mm thick specimen In 5D 12. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than tension modulus. Brinell No. T451 2018-T61 2024-O 2024-T3 2024-T4. T851 Alclad 2024-T861(f) 2025-T6 2036-T4 2117-T4 2124-T851 70 85 100 115 130 90 110 125 145 165 85 95 110 125 185 380 405 185 425 485 170 435 421 470 180 425 420 185 485 472 495 180 450 440 460 450 485 400 340 295 485 30 75 90 105 125 35 105 115 140 150 30 85 95 110 165 295 310 95 290 415 70 275 255 415 70 275 315 75 345 325 395 75 310 290 365 415 455 255 195 165 440 43 16 12 8 6 35 12 9 6 5 … … … … … … … … … … 21 20 22 10 … … 21 20 18 20 13 20 18 19 11 6 6 … 24 … … (continued) … … … … … 42 22 18 15 13 (d) … … … (e) 13 10 16 18 11 … … … … 20 20 10 20 … 17 … … … … … … … 17 … 24 8 19 23 26 30 35 23 28 32 38 44 … … … … … 95 100 45 105 135 … … … … 45 105 120 47 120 120 130 … … … … … … 110 … 70 … 50 55 60 70 75 60 70 75 85 90 55 60 70 75 105 220 240 125 260 290 125 255 255 285 125 260 270 125 285 285 290 125 275 275 285 275 290 240 205 195 … 20 30 35 45 45 35 40 50 60 60 … … … … 50 125 125 90 140 125 … … … … 90 125 115 90 140 140 125 … … … … … … 125 125(g) 95 … 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 74 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 72 71 71 73 Note: Table values not intended for use in design. MPa Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield 1060-O 1060-H12 1060-H14 1060-H16 1060-H18 1100-O 1100-H12 1100-H14 1100-H16 1100-H18 1350-O 1350-H12 1350-H14 1350-H16 1350-H19 2011-T3 2011-T8 2014-O 2014-T4. modulus of elasticity(c). (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. T651 2017-O 2017-T4. .

(b) Based on 500. MPa Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield 2218-T72 2219-O 2219-T42 2219-T31. T351 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T81. For O temper products.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R. 500 kgf load.46 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 1M (continued) Tension Elongation. Moore type of machine and specimen. although not previously registered. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm. 10 mm ball Shear. MPa Modulus. modulus of elasticity(c). (h) Based on 6.5 mm diam specimen Hardness. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. MPa Fatigue. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than tension modulus. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties. Brinell No. ultimate shearing strength.3 mm thick specimen. (i) T7451. endurance limit(b). T851 2219-T87 2618-T61 3003-O 3003-H12 3003-H14 3003-H16 3003-H18 Alclad 3003-O Alclad 3003-H12 Alclad 3003-H14 Alclad 3003-H16 Alclad 3003-H18 3004-O 3004-H32 3004-H34 3004-H36 3004-H38 Alclad 3004-O Alclad 3004-H32 Alclad 3004-H34 Alclad 3004-H36 Alclad 3004-H38 3105-O 3105-H12 3105-H14 3105-H16 3105-H18 3105-H25 4032-T6 5005-O 5005-H12 5005-H14 5005-H16 5005-H18 330 170 360 360 395 415 455 475 440 110 130 150 175 200 110 130 150 175 200 180 215 240 260 285 180 215 240 260 285 115 150 170 195 215 180 380 125 140 160 180 200 255 75 185 250 215 290 350 395 370 40 125 145 170 185 40 125 145 170 185 70 170 200 230 250 70 170 200 230 250 55 130 150 170 195 160 315 40 130 150 170 195 … 18 20 17 11 10 10 10 … 30 10 8 5 4 30 10 8 5 4 20 10 9 5 5 20 10 9 5 5 24 7 5 4 3 8 … 25 10 6 5 4 9 … … … … … … … 10 37 18 14 12 9 37 18 14 12 9 22 15 10 8 5 22 15 10 8 5 … … … … … … 9 … … … … … (continued) 95 … … … … … … … 115 28 35 40 47 55 … … … … … 45 52 63 70 77 … … … … … … … … … … … 120 28 … … … … 205 … … … … … … … 260 75 85 95 105 110 75 85 95 105 110 110 115 125 140 145 110 115 125 140 145 85 95 105 110 115 105 260 75 95 95 105 110 … … … … … 105 105 105 90 50 55 60 70 70 … … … … … 95 105 105 110 110 … … … … … … … … … … … 110 … … … … … 74 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 79 69 69 69 69 69 Note: Table values not intended for use in design. respectively. % In 50 mm 1.R. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.000. . (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens.. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. MPa % 103 Strength. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86.60 mm thick specimen In 5D 12.

000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R. ultimate shearing strength. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than tension modulus. 10 mm ball Shear. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. .Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 47 Table 1M (continued) Tension Elongation. MPa % 103 Strength.R. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. % In 50 mm 1. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651. MPa Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield 5005-H32 5005-H34 5005-H36 5005-H38 5050-O 5050-H32 5050-H34 5050-H36 5050-H38 5052-O 5052-H32 5052-H34 5052-H36 5052-H38 5056-O 5056-H18 5056-H38 5083-O 5083-H321. H116 5086-O 5086-H32. (h) Based on 6. MPa Modulus. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties. 500 kgf load.000. endurance limit(b). MPa Fatigue.3 mm thick specimen. For O temper products. Brinell No. H116 5086-H34 5086-H112 5154-O 5154-H32 5154-H34 5154-H36 5154-H38 5154-H112 5252-H25 5252-H38. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86. modulus of elasticity(c). Moore type of machine and specimen. (b) Based on 500.5 mm diam specimen Hardness. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. respectively.. although not previously registered. (i) T7451. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. H28 5254-O 5254-H32 5254-H34 5254-H36 5254-H38 5254-H112 5454-O 5454-H32 5454-H34 5454-H111 140 160 180 200 145 170 190 205 220 195 230 260 275 290 290 435 415 290 315 260 290 325 270 240 270 290 310 330 240 235 285 240 270 290 310 330 240 250 275 305 260 115 140 165 185 55 145 165 180 200 90 195 215 240 255 150 405 345 145 230 115 205 255 130 115 205 230 250 270 115 170 240 115 205 230 250 270 115 115 205 240 180 11 8 6 5 24 9 8 7 6 25 12 10 8 7 … … … … … 22 12 10 14 27 15 13 12 10 25 11 5 27 15 13 12 10 25 22 10 10 14 … … … … … … … … … 27 16 12 9 7 32 9 13 20 14 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (continued) 36 41 46 51 36 46 53 58 63 47 60 68 73 77 65 105 100 … … … … … … 58 67 73 78 80 63 68 75 58 67 73 78 80 63 62 73 81 70 95 95 105 110 105 115 125 130 140 125 140 145 160 165 180 235 220 170 … 165 … 185 … 150 150 165 180 195 … 145 160 150 150 165 180 195 … 160 165 180 160 … … … … 85 90 90 95 95 110 115 125 130 140 140 150 150 … 160 … … … … 115 125 130 140 145 115 … … 115 125 130 140 145 115 … … … … 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 70 70 70 70 70 70 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 Note: Table values not intended for use in design.60 mm thick specimen In 5D 12.

modulus of elasticity(c). T451 Alclad 6061-T6. T651 6070-T6 6101-H111 6101-T6 6262-T9 6351-T4 6351-T6 6463-T1 6463-T5 6463-T6 250 310 310 350 130 180 205 195 230 260 275 290 160 195 125 240 310 115 230 290 90 150 170 185 240 255 205 295 150 360 395 380 95 220 400 250 310 150 185 240 125 160 165 255 50 160 185 90 195 215 240 255 140 165 55 145 275 50 130 255 50 90 90 145 215 240 185 270 85 205 360 350 75 195 380 150 285 90 145 215 18 … … … 22 12 6 25 12 10 8 7 12 7 25 22 12 25 22 12 … 20 22 12 12 9 10 12 … … … 10 … 15(h) … 20 14 20 12 12 (continued) … 22 20 14 … … … 27 16 12 9 7 … … 27 22 15 … … … … … … … … … … … 16 16 10 … … … 9 … … … … … 62 … … 90 32 48 55 47 60 68 73 77 40 50 30 65 95 … … … 25 42 … 60 73 82 70 95 43 90 120 … … 71 120 … 95 42 60 74 160 … … 205 85 110 125 125 140 145 160 165 95 105 85 165 205 75 150 185 70 95 … 115 150 150 125 185 95 200 235 235 … 140 240 … 200 95 115 150 … … … … … … … 110 115 125 130 140 … … 60 95 95 … … … 55 60 … 70 70 … … … … … 110 95 … … 90 … 90 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (b) Based on 500. T451 6066-T6. H28 6061-O 6061-T4. T651 Alclad 6061-O Alclad 6061-T4. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than tension modulus. H28 5652-O 5652-H32 5652-H34 5652-H36 5652-H38 5657-H25 5657-H38. endurance limit(b).. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. T651 6063-O 6063-T1 6063-T4 6063-T5 6063-T6 6063-T83 6063-T831 6063-T832 6066-O 6066-T4.3 mm thick specimen. Brinell No.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R. although not previously registered. Moore type of machine and specimen. respectively. .000. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. MPa Modulus.60 mm thick specimen In 5D 12. 500 kgf load. (i) T7451. % In 50 mm 1. H116 5457-O 5457-H25 5457-H38. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86. ultimate shearing strength. has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651. T451 6061-T6. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.R. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. 10 mm ball Shear. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm. MPa % 103 Strength.48 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 1M (continued) Tension Elongation. MPa Fatigue. MPa Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield 5454-H112 5456-O 5456-H25 5456-H321. (h) Based on 6. For O temper products.5 mm diam specimen Hardness.

ksi Fatigue. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm.0-F 222. ksi Modulus of elasticity(c).5 9 … … … … … … … 10.0-T61 224. 106 ksi Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength. Moore type of machine and specimen. ksi Sand 201. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm.R. or 4D. MPa Fatigue. endurance limit(b). has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.0-T72 65 68 60 45 51 21 24 27 41 55 55 60 37 28 36 14 15 20 40 40 (continued) 8 6 17 6 7 3 2 1 <0.3 mm thick specimen.. MPa Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield 7049-T73 7049-T7352 7050-T73510.000. T7651 Alclad 7178-O Alclad 7178-T6.0-T6 201.0-O 222. . Table 2 Typical mechanical properties of aluminum alloy castings Tension Yield strength(a).5 8. T73511 7050-T7451(i) 7050-T7651 7075-O 7075-T6. (h) Based on 6. MPa Modulus. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.5 mm diam specimen Hardness.0-T43 204. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86. T651 7178-T76.0-T4 208. MPa % 103 Strength. Data taken from various industry handbooks. % In 50 mm 1. ultimate strength. (b) Based on 500. Brinell No.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using the R. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater.5 Values are representative of separately cast test bars. T651 7475-T61 7475-T651 7475-T7351 7475-T761 7475-T7651 Alclad 7475-T61 Alclad 7475-T761 8176-H24 515 515 495 525 550 230 570 220 525 525 230 605 570 220 560 565 585 495 515 530 515 490 160 450 435 435 470 490 105 505 95 460 455 105 540 505 95 460 490 510 420 450 460 455 420 95 … … … … … 17 11 17 11 … 15 10 … 16 10 11 … … 12 … 11 12 15 10 9 11 10 10 14 9 … … 10 14 9 9 … … … 13 13 … 12 … … … 135 135 … … … 60 150 … … 135 … … … … … … … … … … … … … 305 295 … 305 325 150 330 150 315 290 … … … … … … … … … … … … 70 … … … … … … 160 … … 160 … … … … … … … … … … … … … 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 71 72 72 70 72 72 70 72 70 70 69 Note: Table values not intended for use in design. ksi Elongation in 2 in.R.0-T7 201. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than tension modulus. For O temper products. (i) T7451. 500 kgf load. Moore type of machines and specimens.5 10 130 … … … … … 70 80 115 123 … … … … 40 17 20 21 32 35 … 14 … … … 11 9 9. respectively. 10 mm ball Shear. modulus of elasticity(c). % Hardness. (a) For tensile yield strengths. ultimate shearing strength. (b) Based on 500. offset 0. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.. 500kg/10mm Shear. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum properties.000. although not previously registered. Brinell No.0-F 213.2%.60 mm thick specimen In 5D 12.7 10. T651 Alclad 7075-O Alclad 7075-T6. T651 7175-T74 7178-O 7178-T6.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 49 Table 1M (continued) Tension Elongation. not of specimens taken from commercial castings.0-T4 A206. typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. endurance limit(b).

0 8 3 9 90 … 70 85 90–120 75 … 80 75 90 55–85 70 80 80 45–75 65–95 … 65 80 90 85 75 85 … 60 70 75 60 … … 75 … … … … 60 85 16 100 100 140 115 40 25–55 30–60 … … 21 26 … 24 … 26 30 33 … 22 24 29 … … … 22 28 31 28 26 … … 20 26 24 20 … … … … … … … … 40 … … … … … 14 … … … … 8 11 … 10. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.2 10.0-T7 355.0-F 328.5 10. or 4D.0-T571 242.0 <1.5 8 … 10 11 11 … … … 8 9 9.0-F 34 31 27 32 32 30 31 32 36 41 29 27 30 36 25 34 23 28 35 35 38 35 39 24 25 33 34 28 23 26 40 30 25 26 50 40 46 50 26 26 40 36 19 17 21 28 20 18 30 20 23 … 16 24 32 16 18 26 24 14 21 12 23 25 35 26 29 29 18 20 24 30 21 12 18 30 20 13 17 42 34 36 42 26 26 40 36 8 6 9 (continued) 1 1 1 1 … 2 2 9 5 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 2 5 6 2 4 2 4 6 3 6 3 5 3 2 3 3 6 <1.0-T5 A390..0-T6 359.5 10.0-T62 295.5 10. ksi Sand (continued) 240. offset 0.5 … … … … … … … … 12 … … … 13 … 8 … … … 10.5 9 8.0-T4 295.3 … 10. Data taken from various industry handbooks.0-T51 357.0-T71 A356.5 10.3 10.0-T6 355.0 10.2 10.0-T7 319-F 319.0-T5 319. endurance limit(b).R. ultimate strength.0-F B443. Brinell No.7 … … 10.0-T51 356.2 10.2 10.5 10.0-T6 295. ksi Fatigue.0-T6 356.0-F 356. ksi Elongation in 2 in.0-T6 A390. not of specimens taken from commercial castings.0-O 242.0-T61 242.0-F A356. ksi Modulus of elasticity(c).0-T61 355. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater.0-F A390.0 <1.0-T7 443.0-T51 A356.3 10.5 10.0-T6 357.0 10.3 … … Values are representative of separately cast test bars.0-T7 A357.0-T6 356.7 10.0-F 242.5 10.50 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 2 (continued) Tension Yield strength(a).0-T71 C355.0-F A444.0 10.3 10.0 <1. 500kg/10mm Shear.0-T71 357. 106 ksi Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength.2 10.2%.0-T6 328.5 10 10 … … 8 8. (a) For tensile yield strengths.000.0-F 242.0-T51 355.0 10. . % Hardness.0-T6 355.0-T6 A356.7 10.0-T62 A390.0-F 357.3 10.5 … … … … … … … … … … 10. (b) Based on 500.5 10.0-T7 356.0-T75 295.0-T77 A242.5 … 7 7.2 … 10.0-F 355.

or 4D. ksi Fatigue. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.0-T5 713.0-T4 535.0-T4 511.3 10.0-F 520.0-F 710.0-T6 771.0-F 242.0-T5 23 21 20 25 48 35 35 36 33 37 32 32 34 34 32 32 32 36 36 42 48 20 20 27 65 68 60 48 62 63 35 33 30 37 35 30 47 69 39 28 34 40 30 36 45 9 12 13 12 26 18 18 18 22 30 20 20 25 25 22 22 27 30 27 35 45 11 11 22 55 60 37 29 38 50 22 16 24 35 31 24 42 60 20 16 19 27 16 26 39 (continued) 12 3 2 9 16 9 9 9 2 1 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 5 2 8 5 2 8 6 17 8 17 12 2 3 2 <0.0-T62 Values are representative of separately cast test bars. not of specimens taken from commercial castings.0-F 713.0-T5 712.0-F 319.5 … … 10 … 9 13 … … … … … … … … … … 10.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 51 Table 2 (continued) Tension Yield strength(a).0-T52 771. offset 0.0-T7 208.5 1 2 1 6 5 2 3 3 4 3 3 43 50 50 50 75 60–90 60–90 65 70–100 65–95 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 70–100 70–100 … 75–105 105–135 45 45 65 130 … … … … … 75–105 65–95 85 115 100 100 110 … 80 70 85 95 70 90 105 … 17 17 20 34 … … … … … … … … … … … 8 9 7 8 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 14 14 18 … … … … 42 37 … … 24 30 25 24 35 … 30 22 24 … … … … … … … … … … … 10 … 14 … … … … … … 9.0-T43 204.7 … 10. endurance limit(b).0-T5 707. ksi Elongation in 2 in.0-F 222.7 10.0-T53 771.0-T6 208.0-T6 201. .5 8.0-T5 324.0-T5 851.2%.0-T5 852.0-T7 308.0-T7 201.0-T5 771.0-F 535.0-T4 A206.0-F 707. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater.1 … 10. Brinell No.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.7 … … … Permanent mold 201.0-F 512. % Hardness.0-F 712.. 500kg/10mm Shear.0-T7 710. Data taken from various industry handbooks. ultimate strength. 106 ksi Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength.0-T71 850. ksi Modulus of elasticity(c).0-T6 324.0-F 319.7 10.0-T52 238. (a) For tensile yield strengths.0-T551 222.0-T63 296.0-F 324.0-T61 A249.0-F 514. Moore type of machines and specimens.0-T7 213. (b) Based on 500.0-T5 A535.3 … … … … … … … … … 10.000.0-T4 A206. ksi Sand (continued) A444.R.0-T5 771.3 … 10.3 10.

3 … … … … … … … 10.0-T51 A356.0-T51 357. ksi Fatigue.2 10.0-T5 328.0-T6 356.0-T61 359. or 4D. (b) Based on 500.0-F 705.5 … … … … … … … … … … … 10.0-T62 355.0-T65 354.0-T71 A356.0-T71 C355.0-T7 443.2 10.0-T5 A390. endurance limit(b). ksi Elongation in 2 in.5 10.0-F A444. Data taken from various industry handbooks.3 … … … … … … Values are representative of separately cast test bars.0-T51 356. Moore type of machines and specimens.0-T6 333.0 <1.0-T5 36 34 34 40 34 42 37 36 47 48 52 27 30 42 45 40 36 48 46 48 26 27 38 32 25 27 29 41 28 29 52 38 52 48 50 29 29 45 38 23 21 24 23 27 35 37 28 21 19 34 25 30 28 28 43 37 42 15 24 27 40 30 31 28 34 37 18 20 27 24 … 13 20 30 15 21 43 30 42 37 42 29 29 45 38 9 6 11 10 16 18 17 (continued) 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 2 4 2 4 2 2 3 8 6 5 5 2 5 6 3 8 5 12 6 4 5 5 5 6 6 <1. ksi Permanent mold (continued) 332.52 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 2 (continued) Tension Yield strength(a). .0-T61 355.0-F A356.2 10.0-F 242.0-T4 513.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.0-T7 A357.0-F A390. % Hardness.0-T61 354. Brinell No. ultimate strength.0-T62 356.5 10.0-T62 A390.0 <1. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.0-T6 C355.2 10.0-F 357.0-T6 359. (a) For tensile yield strengths.5 10.2 10. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater.0-F 535.5 10.5 10..0-F A444.0 10 6 13 21 7 8 10 105 65–95 90 105 100 105 90 105 125 … … … 75 90 105 85 85 90 100 100 … … 80 70 60–90 … … 80 … … 100 70 100 … … 110 110 145 120 45 30–60 44 45 60 60–90 55–75 … … 27 30 27 33 28 28 36 … … … 24 34 36 30 27 … … … … … 30 25 … … … … … … 35 … 35 … … … … … … 16 … … 16 22 … … … … 15 10.R.0-F 356.0-T6 357.0-T5 333.5 10.0-T6 357.0-T7 356.2 10.0-F B443.2 10.0-T7 336.0-F 355.5 12 15 12 14 … … … … … 10 10 10 10 … … … … … 13 11 … … … … … … 13 … 15 … 16 … … 17 15 8 … … 8 10 … … … … … 10.0-T7 355.0-T51 355. 500kg/10mm Shear.0-T6 A390.5 10.0-T551 336.0-T6 355.000.2 10.0-T61 C355.2%.0-T6 333. not of specimens taken from commercial castings.0-T571 333. 106 ksi Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength. ksi Modulus of elasticity(c). offset 0.0 <1.2 10.

(c) Average of tension and compression moduli.3 10.0-F 242. ksi Permanent mold (continued) 707.0-T4 A206.3 10.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.0-T5 850.2%. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus. MPa Modulus of elasticity(c). or 4D.2%. 500kg/10mm Shear. Data taken from various industry handbooks.0-T77 A242. (b) Based on 500. Brinell No. 500kg/10mm Shear.000.3 10. ksi Modulus of elasticity(c). Moore type of machines and specimens.0-F 384.0-T4 208.0-T5 45 28 32 23 20 18 32 44 46 46 47 45 48 40.0-F 213.5 10 1 1 1 1 … 2 2 130 … … … … … 70 80 115 123 90 … 70 85 90–120 75 … … … … … 275 115 140 145 220 240 … … 145 180 … 165 … … 95 … … … 75 60 65 60 60 … … 55 75 … 70 … … … … … … … … 74 73 … 71 71 71 71 71 … Values are representative of separately cast test bars. 106 ksi Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength. % Hardness.0-T7 201. Data taken from various industry handbooks.3 10. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater.0-T6 201. not of specimens taken from commercial castings. ultimate strength.0-O 242.3 … … 11.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 53 Table 2 (continued) Tension Yield strength(a). endurance limit(b).3 10.8 … 10. not of specimens taken from commercial castings.0-F 392. (a) For tensile yield strengths.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.0-F C443.0-F B390.0-T5 851. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.0-F A360. Brinell No.3 … Die cast 360.000.0-F 518.0-T43 204.0-O 222.0-F 413..3 10.0-T75 450 470 415 310 350 145 165 185 285 380 235 145 185 220 220 205 215 380 415 255 195 250 655 105 140 275 275 195 140 125 205 140 160 … (continued) 8 6 17 6 7 3 2 1 <0. .0-F A380. MPa Sand 201.0-T1 713. endurance limit(b). Table 2M Typical mechanical properties of aluminum alloy castings (metric) Tension Yield strength(a). 106 MPa Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength.0-T72 240. (a) For tensile yield strengths. ksi Elongation in 2 in. ksi Fatigue. offset 0.0-T571 242.0-T7 711. MPa Elongation In 5D..0-F 390.R.0-T61 224.0-T5 851.0-F 380. ultimate strength.R.0-T61 242.3 … 10.0-T6 852.0-F 383.0-F 222. % Hardness.0-F 242. (b) Based on 500.0-F A413.0-F Values are representative of separately cast test bars. MPa Fatigue.3 10.3 10. offset 0. Moore type of machines and specimens.5 46 42 43 42 33 45 35 18 22 11 11 … 23 25 24 23 23 22 24 35 36 39 21 19 14 28 3 7 4 12 5 8 5 3 4 3 4 4 3 <1 <1 <1 3 4 9 5 80–110 55–85 60–90 45 45 … 70 75 75 80 80 75 85 … 120 … 80 80 65 80 … … 15 14 … 21 28 26 28 27 … 29 … … … 25 25 29 29 … … 9 9 … 11 20 18 20 20 21 20 … 20 … 19 19 17 20 … … 10.

0-T7 A357.0-F A444.0-F A356.0-T61 355.0-F 535.0-F 328.R.0-T51 355.54 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 2M (continued) Tension Yield strength(a).0 <1.0 <1.0-T6 328.0 <1. endurance limit(b). offset 0.0-F 357.0 8 3 9 12 3 2 9 16 9 9 9 80 75 90 55–85 70 80 80 45–75 65–95 … 65 80 90 85 75 85 … 60 70 75 60 … … 75 … … … … 60 85 16 100 100 140 115 40 25–55 30–60 43 50 50 50 75 60–90 60–90 65 180 205 230 … 150 165 200 … … … 150 195 215 195 180 … … 140 180 165 140 … … … … … … … … 275 … … … … … 95 … … … 115 115 140 235 … … … 50 50 55 … 70 75 75 … … … 55 60 65 70 70 … … 55 60 60 60 … … … … … … … … 85 … … … 90 … 55 … … … 55 60 50 55 … … … 69 69 69 69 74 74 74 … … 70 70 70 70 70 70 … 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 … … … … … … … … … … 71 … … … … … … … … … … Values are representative of separately cast test bars.0-T7 319-F 319.0-T5 319. 106 MPa Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength. MPa Elongation In 5D.0-F 514. (a) For tensile yield strengths.0-T51 A356.2%.0-T6 355. MPa Modulus of elasticity(c).0-F 356.0-F 512.0-T7 443.0-T5 A390..0-T71 A356.0-T4 535.0-T7 356.0-T51 356.0-F A390. 500kg/10mm Shear.0-T62 295. not of specimens taken from commercial castings.0-T62 A390. % Hardness.0-F 220 250 285 200 185 205 250 170 235 160 195 240 240 260 240 270 165 170 230 235 195 160 180 275 205 170 180 345 275 315 345 180 180 275 250 130 115 145 23 145 140 170 330 240 240 250 110 165 220 110 125 180 165 95 145 85 160 170 240 180 200 200 125 140 135 205 145 85 125 205 140 90 115 295 235 250 290 180 180 275 250 55 40 60 60 85 90 85 180 125 125 125 (continued) 9 5 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 2 5 6 2 4 2 4 6 3 6 3 5 3 2 3 3 6 <1.0-T6 A356.0-T6 295. Data taken from various industry handbooks. MPa Fatigue. (b) Based on 500.0-T6 356. . (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. MPa Sand (continued) 295. ultimate strength.0-T6 355.0-F 355.0-T7 355.000.0-T5 A535.0-T6 A390.0-F 520. Brinell No.0-T6 356.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.0-T4 511.0-F A444.0-T4 295. Moore type of machines and specimens.0-T51 357. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus.0-T71 357.0-T6 359.0-T71 C355.0-T6 357.0-F B443.

Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 55 Table 2M (continued) Tension Yield strength(a).0-F 222.0-T7 336.000.0-T52 238. offset 0. Data taken from various industry handbooks.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.0-T5 324.0-T7 208.0-F 319.2%..0-T5 712.0-T7 308. (a) For tensile yield strengths. 106 MPa Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength. endurance limit(b). not of specimens taken from commercial castings. .0-T4 A206.0-F 710. (b) Based on 500.0-F 324.0-T71 850.0-T61 A249.0-T6 333.0-T52 771. ultimate strength.0-F 319.0-F 333.0-T5 328.0-F 713.0-T6 324.0-T6 201.0-T5 851.0-T4 A206.0-T5 713.0-T5 230 255 220 220 235 235 220 220 220 250 250 290 330 140 140 185 450 470 415 330 430 435 240 230 205 255 240 205 275 325 475 270 195 235 275 205 250 310 250 235 235 235 290 255 250 150 205 140 140 170 170 150 150 185 205 185 240 310 75 75 150 380 415 255 200 260 345 150 110 165 240 215 165 235 290 415 140 110 130 185 110 180 270 195 145 130 170 205 195 193 (continued) 2 1 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 5 2 8 5 2 8 6 17 8 17 12 2 3 2 <0.R. MPa Elongation In 5D.0-T551 222.0-T5 333.0-T6 208.0-T5 771.0-T6 333.0-T551 Values are representative of separately cast test bars.0-T7 201. 500kg/10mm Shear. Brinell No.0-T5 707.0-T53 771.0-F 242.0-T7 710. MPa Sand (continued) 707.0-T43 204.0-F 712. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus.0-T63 296. Moore type of machines and specimens.0-T5 771.0-T5 852. % Hardness. MPa Modulus of elasticity(c).0-T571 242. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.5 1 2 1 1 6 5 2 3 3 4 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 70–100 65–95 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 70–100 70–100 … 75–105 105–135 45 45 65 130 … … … … … 75–105 65–95 85 115 100 100 105 110 … 80 70 85 95 70 90 105 105 65–95 90 100 105 90 105 … … … … … … … … … … … … 95 95 125 … … … … 290 255 … … 165 205 170 165 205 450 … 205 150 165 … … … … … … 185 185 230 195 193 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 60 … 95 … … … … … … 65 60 … … 70 70 … 60 90 … … … … … … … 105 85 105 85 95 … … … … … … … … … … … … 71 71 71 … … … … … … … … … 74 74 … 74 74 … 70 … 74 74 … … … … … … … … … … Permanent mold 201.0-T7 213.0-T62 332.0-T6 771. MPa Fatigue.

0-T61 359.0-T6 355.0-T51 A356.0-T71 C355. MPa Fatigue.0-T1 713.0-T7 A357.000. % Hardness.0-F A390.0-T5 707.0-T65 354.0-T62 A390.0-F 355. MPa Elongation In 5D.0-F A356.0-T62 356. Moore type of machines and specimens. MPa Permanent mold (continued) 336. (b) Based on 500. compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.0-F B443.0-T6 C355. 106 MPa Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength.0-T61 355.0-F 357.0 <1.0-T7 711.0-T5 A390.0-F 535.0-T6 357. not of specimens taken from commercial castings.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R. 500kg/10mm Shear.0-T5 851. endurance limit(b).56 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Table 2M (continued) Tension Yield strength(a).0-T7 443. Brinell No.0-T7 355.2%.0-F A444.0-T5 325 330 360 185 205 290 310 275 250 330 315 330 180 185 260 220 170 165 200 285 195 200 360 260 360 330 345 200 200 310 260 160 145 165 160 185 240 255 310 195 220 160 140 125 220 295 255 290 105 165 185 275 205 215 195 235 255 125 140 185 165 … 90 140 205 105 145 295 205 290 255 290 200 200 310 260 60 40 75 70 110 125 115 240 125 150 75 75 … 160 (continued) 1 3 2 4 2 4 2 2 3 8 6 5 5 2 5 6 3 8 5 12 6 4 5 5 5 6 6 <1. (a) For tensile yield strengths. .0-T7 356. offset 0.0-T6 357.0-T6 A390.0-T71 A356.0-T6 852.0 10 6 13 21 7 8 10 3 7 4 12 5 8 5 125 … … … 75 90 105 85 85 90 100 100 … … 80 70 60–90 … … 80 … … 100 70 100 … … 110 110 145 120 45 30–60 44 45 60 60–90 55–75 80–110 55–85 60–90 45 45 … 70 250 … … … 165 235 250 205 185 … … … … … 205 170 … … … … … … 240 … 240 … … … … … … 110 … … 110 150 … … … … … … … … … 70 70 70 70 … … … … … 90 75 … … … … … … 90 … 105 … 110 … … 115 105 55 … … 55 70 … … … … … … … 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 … … … … … … … … … … … 71 … … … … … … … … 105 95 … 145 60 60 … 75 71 71 71 71 Values are representative of separately cast test bars.0-T51 357. Data taken from various industry handbooks.0-T5 851.0-T51 355.0-T6 356.0 <1.0-T61 C355.0-T62 355.0-T6 359.0-T51 356..0-T4 513.0-F A444.0-T5 850.R.0-F 705. ultimate strength.0-F 356.0-T61 354.0 <1. MPa Modulus of elasticity(c).

Brinell No. For example.0-F 384.0-F B390. Except in the case of cast parts.0-F 518. the temper designation consists of a capital letter indicating the major class of fabrication treatment(s) used. it may represent any production process or product .0-F 305 315 315 325 310 330 280 315 290 295 290 230 310 170 165 160 160 150 165 240 250 270 145 130 95 193 3 4 3 4 4 3 <1 <1 <1 3 4 9 5 75 75 80 80 75 85 … 120 … 80 80 65 80 195 180 195 185 … 200 … … … 170 170 200 200 140 124 140 140 145 140 … 140 … 130 130 115 140 71 71 71 71 71 … … 81 … 71 … 71 … Values are representative of separately cast test bars.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.g.2%.0-F A380. 2014-F designates an as-fabricated product form of alloy 2014.0-F A413. reductions). compressive modulus is nominally approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus.0-F 380. MPa Elongation In 5D. which may be in the final configuration. finishing. offset 0.0-F 383. drawing..000. ultimate strength. temperatures. most F temper products are “semifinished” products that will be used in some subsequent shaping. or thermal process to achieve other finished forms or tempers. 500kg/10mm Shear. forging. (b) Based on 500.0-F A360.R. with a hyphen between the two (e.0-F C443. recall that the first character in the temper designation (a capital letter. not of specimens taken from commercial castings. MPa Die cast 360. 106 MPa Type of casting Alloy and temper Ultimate strength. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. but rather the general combinations of practices followed.. Review of the Basic Tempers for Wrought Alloys The temper designation always is presented immediately following the alloy designation (Chapter 3). W. MPa Modulus of elasticity(c). or casting where there is no special control over the thermal conditions during working or the strain-hardening processes to achieve specific properties.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 57 Table 2M (continued) Tension Yield strength(a). as fabricated: This designation is used for wrought or cast products made by some shaping process such as rolling. Data taken from various industry handbooks. There are no specified limits on mechanical properties of any wrought F temper product. Information on each of these classes of designation and a few examples of each are provided by the following descriptions: O F. 2014-T6). extrusion. Moore type of machines and specimens. F. plus one or more numbers providing more specific information about how the processing was carried out. or T) indicates the general class of treatment. % Hardness. endurance limit(b).0-F 390. H.0-F 392. As review.0-F 413. MPa Fatigue. O. (a) For tensile yield strengths. These designations are not intended to provide the exact practices (times. Generally.

The H is always followed by two or more digits. forging. O O.58 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers form and may be used for products that have been rolled. extruded.. or 770 °F) for 2 to 3 h. and which product at some point in the process has been annealed (i. rolling. 2014-O designates any product form of 2014 whose most recent treatment has been holding at a high temperature ( 410 °C. the treatment would normally be given to increase toughness and ductility for its use in critical structural applications such as liquefied natural gas tanks. the purpose of which is to indicate the approximate amount of cold work and the nature of any thermal treatments that followed. the treatment would normally be given to increase ease of subsequent working while completely removing any effects of prior treatments.e. For this alloy. annealed: This designation is used for wrought or cast products made by some shaping process such as rolling. For example: a. forged. also apply to products that have been given supplementary thermal treatments to achieve some stabilization in strength level. strain hardened: This designation is used for non-heat-treatable wrought alloys that have had their strength increased by strain hardening (e.. This designation may. rod. The variety of subsequent designations available is discussed later. sufficient to remove the effects of any prior working or thermal treatments and usually resulting in complete recrystallization of the material). or any combination of those processes. . 5083-O designates any product form of 5083 whose most recent treatment has been heating up to a high temperature ( 345 °C. plate. but does not necessarily. or casting. or wire of alloy 1350 has been cold worked to increase its strength.g. The primary reason for using such a treatment on wrought alloys generally is to maximize subsequent workability or increase toughness and ductility to a maximum. given a high-temperature recrystallization treatment. For this alloy. 650 °F) and then cooled at an uncontrolled rate to room temperature. since a number of aluminum alloys will gradually soften slightly with time after cold working. For example: a. so the examples focus more on the H designation itself at this point. drawing. 1350-H12 indicates that sheet. Annealing treatments are used to achieve the lowest-strength condition for the particular alloy involved. extrusion. O H. The H12 combination indicates approximately 20 to 25% cold reduction without any subsequent thermal treatments (other variations are discussed later). slow cooling to 260 °C ( 500 °F) and then cooling at an uncontrolled rate to room temperature. b. drawing) usually at room temperature.

sold in that temper. but it is often helpful in whatever subsequent treatments are to be applied to know that elapsed time and the effects of the elapsed time on response to subsequent working or thermal exposure. this is not necessary and is of limited value since the time may continue to increase. and naturally aged by standard commercial processes to a stable condition. 6061-W1⁄2hr. Alloy 6061 naturally ages following a quench from a heat treatment. 5005-H18 indicates that sheet (the only product available in that temper) of alloy 5005 has been cold rolled to increase its strength.e. this may well be the final temper designation. there are no published standard property limits for wrought alloys associated with the W temper. Digits may be added to characterize more specifically the elapsed time since the cooling took place. The T always is followed by one or more digits that define in general terms the subsequent treatments. 6061-W indicates a semifinished product of 6061 that has been heat treated and quenched by standard procedures but not yet given any subsequent mechanical or thermal treatment. in particular. .. normally around 75 to 80% without any subsequent thermal treatment. and so the yield strength. to be followed by subsequent mechanical or thermal treatments).Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 59 b. solution heat treated: This designation is rather limited in its use and applies only to alloys that age naturally and spontaneously after solution heat treating (holding at high temperature followed by quenching or relatively rapid cooling to room temperature). O. and it is rarely a “finished” temper (i. The H18 combination indicates a large amount of cold work. For example: a..e. and applies to any product form of any heat treatable alloy that has been given a solution heat treatment followed by a suitable quench and either natural (i. in a furnace) aging.e. For example: a. such as artificial aging for precipitation hardening. O W. it is always an “in-process” temper.. quenched. Since this alloy achieves a commercially useful level of strength coupled with a high toughness in the T4 condition. As with the F temper. these will be discussed in more detail later. in air) or artificial (i. thermally treated to produce stable tempers other than F. b. except that a time (1⁄2 h after quenching) has been added to define the time lapse and perhaps permit some estimate of the effect on strength (assuming that aging rate data are accessible). 2024-T4 indicates a 2024 product that has been solution heat treated. of this material gradually increases with time until some treatment that will stabilize its properties is given. O T. or H: The T designation is the most widely used for heat treated alloys. and so the following examples focus on the T designation. indicates the same material as in the preceding example.

e.. and corrosion resistance in the T4 condition. and thus there is little to say about them except for one minor variation of the O temper that is covered later. The H always is followed by at least two numbers: O The first number after the H tells whether the strain-hardened alloy has been thermally treated and. The H temper indicates that the alloy involved has been cold worked by strain hardening. Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers As just indicated. most of the basic temper designations listed previously are used with additional numerical digits to define the practices more completely. Alloy 2014 does not have a useful combination of strength.e. 2014-T4 indicates an alloy 2014 product that has been solution heat treated and naturally aged to a stable condition preparatory to artificially aging it for precipitation hardening to the T6 temper.. to . so it is almost always subsequently given a precipitation hardening treatment. toughness. therefore. O The second number indicates approximately how much the alloy was strain hardened (i.e. O H3 indicates strain hardening followed by a thermal stabilization treatment (i. and W designations are generally used alone and provide the complete description. holding at a modestly elevated temperature to permit the properties to stabilize and avoid time-dependent age softening. discussed sequentially.. there was no subsequent thermal treatment. a partial anneal) to take the properties back to some stable level less than those achieved by the cold working. the alloy has intentionally been strain hardened more than the desired amount and then partially annealed back to achieve a specific level of strength. O. O Any subsequent numbers define special practices. the approximate percentage of cold reduction). variations of the normal indicated by the first two numbers. It is useful to review these additional digits and the resulting complete designations in considerable detail to obtain the best understanding of their meanings. if so. O H2 indicates strain hardening followed by a partial high-temperature recrystallization thermal treatment (i. When this temper is used. The first number. by what procedure. may be one of four possibilities: O H1 indicates that processing was limited to strain hardening. The F.60 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers b. The H and T are the most frequently used tempers and are. indicating variations in thermal treatments following cold work. Subdivisions of the H Temper for Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys.

meets properties for H12 temper) O 3005-H26: Strain hardened and partial annealed to effective strain hardening of about 75% (i. As noted earlier. or lacquering processes.e.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 61 which certain alloys. meets properties for H26 temper) O 5052-H32: Strain hardened and stabilized to effective strain hardening of about 25% (i. H2. O H3X and H4X tempers: The X indicates the effective cold work remaining in the metal following cold working and the intermediate temperature stabilization treatment or the thermal exposure involved in the subsequent forming. definition as used in the trade. H3. are prone). painting.e. meets properties for H42/H22 temper) As indicated by these examples.. It is useful to note that there are no unique property limits associated with H4X tempers. O H2X temper: The X represents the effective cold work remaining after the metal has been cold worked beyond the final level desired. the second digit is defined based upon the minimum value of the ultimate . rather.e. or H4. H3. O H4 indicates strain hardening followed by some thermal operation such as paint curing or lacquering in which the heat applied during this processing effectively reduces the degree of hardening remaining in the alloy and provides some stabilization to the final properties.. these H1. especially of the 5xxx series. According to the Aluminum Association rules. H2.. and H4 designations always are followed by a second number that indicates the approximate amount of cold work. indicates the effective degree of strain hardening remaining in the metal following the sequence of operations indicated by the first digit. meets properties for H32 temper) O 5052-H42: Strain hardened and given some finishing treatment that provides effective strain hardening of approximately 25% (i. Examples of the application of these designations include: O 3003-H12: Strain hardened approximately 25%.. and partial annealed back.” or approximate. no other treatment (i. The second numerical digits have both a technical definition according to the Aluminum Association and a “schematic. the property limits associated with the comparable H2X or H3X tempers are used. the digit following H1. This also may be accomplished by the heat applied during a subsequent forming.e. In other words: O H1X temper: The X represents the actual amount of strain hardening given the alloy. no thermal treatment has been given to reduce the effective work remaining in the metal.

62 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

tensile strength of the material. In other words, the level of strength achieved is compared with the standard limits published for the various alloys, and the level most nearly met is used as the appropriate temper. Therefore, the hardest temper normally produced is indicated by adding the numeral 8 (i.e., HX8), and the standard increase in strength from the annealed (no cold work) to the HX8 temper is judged by the values in Table 3. Tempers between O and HX8 are defined as follows: O A degree of cold work equal to approximately one-half that for the HX8 temper is indicated by the HX4 temper and would be indicated by an increase in tensile strength of one-half the value in the second column of Table 3 for the appropriate level in the annealed temper. As an example, the minimum tensile strength of 1100-O sheet and plate is 11 ksi, so the tensile strength limit for 1100-H14 is 11 ksi plus 1⁄2 10 (from Table 3) or 16 ksi. In the corresponding metric example, the minimum tensile strength of 1100-O sheet and plate is 75 MPa, so the tensile strength of 1100-H14 is 75 plus 1⁄2 75 (from Table 3M) or 112.5 MPa, rounded to 110 MPa. It is appropriate to note that the rules in Tables 3 and 3M were not used in the early days of the aluminum
Table 3
Up to 6 7 to 9 10 to 12 13 to 15 16 to 18 19 to 24 25 to 30 31 to 36 37 to 42 43 and over

Range of values per HX8 temper
Increase in tensile strength to HX8 temper, ksi

Minimum tensile strength in annealed temper, ksi

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Table 3M (metric)
Up to 40 45–60 65–80 85–100 105–120 125–160 165–200 205–240 245–280 285–320 296 and over

Tensile strengths of HX8 tempers
Increase in tensile strength to HX8 temper, MPa

Minimum tensile strength in annealed temper, MPa

55 62 69 76 83 90 97 103 110 115 120

Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 63

industry, and so there are exceptions among long-established property values. O A degree of cold work halfway between the O temper and the HX4 temper is indicated by the HX2 temper; a degree of cold work halfway between HX4 and HX8 is the HX6 temper. Following the example given for 1100, the respective tensile strength limits would be 14 ksi for H12 and 19 ksi for H16, respectively (the 0.5 ksi increments being rounded up). As a metric example for 1100, the respective tensile strength limit would be 130 MPa for H16, midway between the H14 and H18 values. O The numbers 1, 3, 5, and 7 similarly designate tempers intermediate between those just listed. In practice, these designations are seldom used; when they are, as in the case of 5657-H25, it is usually for some special product to indicate a specific treatment given to enhance some specific property (brightness, in the example given). The odd-numbered tempers also are used for pattern sheet temper designations, as described later. O The numeral 9 is used to indicate tempers with properties exceeding those of HX8 by 14 MPa (2 ksi) or more. This temper is achieved by cold rolling sheet to very small thicknesses, usually only a few thousandths of an inch. This designation also is used only for special products; the most important example is 3004-H19 sheet for can stock (i.e., starting stock for the production of aluminum cans). Some additional examples of two-digit H tempers that illustrate use of the first and second digits include the following: O 3003-H14: The “1” indicates that the material has been strain hardened and given no subsequent processing; the “4” indicates that the amount of strain hardening was about 50% of the level for the H18, or “full-hard” temper. O 5657-H26: The “2” indicates that the alloy has been strain hardened a relatively large amount and then partially annealed back to the desired level of effective cold work; the “6” indicates that the effective final level of cold work was about 80% of that of the full-hard H18 temper. O 5086-H32: The “3” indicates that the alloy has been strain hardened and stabilized; the “2” indicates that the degree of strain hardening was about 25% of the level for the H38 temper. Applications include sheet, plate, and drawn tube. Three-digit H Tempers. The final group of subdivisions of the H tempers that needs to be recognized involves the use of a third numeric digit for the H tempers. A third digit, such as HXX1, indicates a variation in a two-digit temper. Differences may be in such things as the degree of

64 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

control of mechanical properties or a special finish; in such instances, however, the differences are not usually very great. An excellent example of the use of a third digit of an H temper designation is the series used for embossed sheet (i.e., sheet that, after other processing, has been finish rolled, with rolls having specific patterns on the surface to impart the reverse of that pattern onto the surface of the sheet). Such products also are known as pattern sheet and have the specific set of temper designations listed in Table 4 associated with them. These designations follow the same rules just described but have the number 4 added to the standard designation describing its processing up to the final pattern rolling operation. Another example of a three-digit H temper indicating treatment to impart special properties is the H116 temper (e.g., 5086-H116), which has been given a unique combination of cold work and thermal treatment to make it especially resistant to the corrosive effects of water and high-humidity environments and to minimize the possible effects of stress-corrosion sensitization from high-temperature exposure. Two other examples of a three-digit H temper cover the special cases of products having an uncontrolled amount of cold work but still being required to meet minimum specifications (i.e., the H111 and H112 tempers): O Alloy 5086-H111: This temper recognizes that the alloy underwent some amount of cold strain hardening after annealing but not enough for it to qualify as an H11 or H12 temper. The H111 temper is usually applied to extruded shapes that must be straightened after annealing to meet straightness tolerances, but for which the amount of strain is not controlled beyond a very modest amount. There are mechanical property limits indicative of the modest cold work. O Alloy 5086-H112: In this instance, the product has been hot worked enough that it has acquired some added strength that is reflected in the mechanical property limits. The product has not been subsequently cold worked or annealed but retains the effective strain hardening imparted by the hot work. Applications of this alloy include sheet and plate, extruded tube, and extruded rod, wire, bar, and shapes.
Table 4
H114 H124, H224, H324 H134, H234, H334 H144, H244, H344 H154, H254, H354 H164, H264, H364 H174, H274, H374 H184, H284, H384 H194, H294, H394 H195, H295, H395

Three-digit temper designations for aluminum pattern sheet
Fabricated from

Pattern or embossed sheet

O temper H11, H21, H31 temper, respectively H12, H22, H32 temper, respectively H13, H23, H33 temper, respectively H14, H24, H34 temper, respectively H15, H25, H35 temper, respectively H16, H26, H36 temper, respectively H17, H27, H37 temper, respectively H18, H28, H38 temper, respectively H19, H29, H39 temper, respectively

Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 65

Subdivisions of the T Temper for Heat Treatable Alloys. The T tempers for heat treatable alloys may have from one to five digits following the T, and there are many more possible combinations than for the H tempers. The first digit after the T always indicates the basic type of treatment, and the second to fifth, if they are used, indicate whether the product was stress relieved and, if so, how it was stress relieved, and whether any other special treatments were given. The first digit after the T may be any of the following: O T1: Indicates that the alloy has been cooled directly from some high-temperature hot-working process such as rolling or extrusion and then naturally aged to a stable condition. As a result, it has received an “effective heat treatment,” but it has not received any other processing such as cold work that is recognized by special mechanical property limits. This temper is not widely used because, among other things, the corrosion resistance of the material may not be as good as with other combinations of treatments. O T2: Indicates that the alloy has been cooled from some hightemperature hot-working process such as rolling or extrusion and then cold worked before being naturally aged to a stable condition. Here again, the alloy has received an “effective heat treatment” as a result of the high-temperature treatment, but in this case, it has been cold worked sufficiently to increase its strength. This temper, as the T1, is not widely used because of limitations in certain characteristics compared with those given other combinations of treatments described as follows: O T3: Indicates the alloy has been given a solution heat treatment following hot working, quenching, cold working, and being naturally aged to a stable condition. This temper, like T4, T6, T7, and T8, indicates the use of a specific solution heat treatment (i.e., holding in a furnace at a sufficiently high temperature for the important alloying elements to go into solution, where they are retained upon quenching and provide a source of precipitation-hardening constituents). The amount of cold work is controlled to provide specific amounts of strain hardening with a commensurate increase in strength. This is a widely used temper type for 2xxx series alloys such as 2024, which naturally age efficiently following cold work. O T4: Indicates the alloy has been given a solution heat treatment and, without any cold work, naturally aged to a stable condition. This temper also is rather widely used for the 2xxx alloys. O T5: Indicates the alloy has been cooled from a high-temperature shaping process, usually extrusion, and then, without any intermediate cold work, is artificially aged. The artificial aging consists of holding at a sufficiently high temperature and sufficiently long time (e.g., 8 h at 175 °C, or 350 °F, or 24 h at 120 °C, or 250 °F) to permit precipitation

66 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O

O

O

O

O

hardening to take place. If there is any straightening or flattening to meet dimensional tolerances, it is not sufficient to be recognized with higher mechanical property limits. T6: Indicates the alloy has been solution heat treated and, without any significant cold working, artificially aged to achieve precipitation hardening. If there is any straightening or flattening to meet dimensional tolerances, it is not sufficient to be recognized with higher mechanical property limits. T7: Indicates the alloy has been solution heat treated and, without any significant cold working, aged in a furnace to an overaged (i.e., past peak strength) condition (also sometimes referred to as stabilized). This treatment generally is used for the 7xxx series alloys (e.g., 7075-T73 or T76) to improve their resistance to either stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) (T73) or to exfoliation corrosion (T76) attack; the T73 is the more severely overaged condition (see the subsequent section “Tempers Designating Special Corrosion-Resistant Tempers”). T8: Indicates the alloy has been solution heat treated, cold worked for strain hardening, and then artificially aged to achieve precipitation hardening. The material also may have been cold worked primarily to meet dimensional or stress relief requirements, but if the T8 temper is used, the amount of cold work is sufficient to be recognized by higher mechanical property limits. This temper primarily is used for the 2xxx alloys (e.g., 2024-T81 sheet). T9: Indicates the alloy has been solution heat treated, artificially aged to achieve precipitation hardening, and then cold worked to improve its strength. This temper is not widely used but is applied to the 2xxx series in some cases. T10: Indicates the alloy has been cooled from a high-temperature shaping process such as extrusion, cold worked, and then artificially aged for precipitation hardening. This temper rarely is used because there are no current commercial applications for it.

In all of the T-type tempers just described, solution heat treatment is achieved by heating semifinished or finished products to a suitable temperature, holding them at that temperature long enough to allow constituents to go into solution, and cooling them rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution so that they may be the basis of precipitation hardening upon natural (i.e., room temperature) or artificial (i.e., in a furnace) aging. Adding Additional Digits to the T1 to T10 Tempers. Additional digits, the first of which shall not be zero, may be added to designations T1 to T10 to indicate a variation in treatment that significantly alters the product characteristics that are or would be obtained using the basic treatment. There is no standard listing of all such possible variations, so

Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 67

the best way to illustrate and understand this usage better is to examine the major examples, as in the following sections that cover: O O O O O O Stress relief Heat treatment by user Variations in heat treatment procedures Variations in quenching procedures Addition of cold work before or after aging Special practices for unique properties

Tempers Designating Residual Stress Relief of Heat Treated Products
Two major classes of mechanical cold work are widely used by the aluminum industry to reduce the level of internal residual stresses in aluminum semifinished products resulting from prior heat treatment: O Stress relief by stretching, usually in the range of 1 or 11⁄2 to 3%, applied to rolled plate and rod, to extruded shapes, and occasionally to die or ring forgings; this treatment is designated by: a. TX51 for plate, rolled or cold-finished rod, and die or ring forgings b. TX510 or TX511 for all extruded shapes, where the extra digit 0 indicates stretching only, and the extra digit 1 indicates stretching combined with additional straightening such as twisting O Stress relief by 1 to 5% compressive cold work, usually applied to hand forgings and die forgings. This treatment is indicated by the TX52 temper designation. Sometimes these two methods of stress relief are used in combination (i.e., both stretching and compressing), indicated by the use of the TX54 temper designation. In all of these cases, the cold work for stress relief is carried out following quenching from the solution heat treatment and before artificial aging. While these temper designations for stress-relieved products have their widest use for heat treated products with T-type tempers, it should be noted that all of these designations may be applied to the W-type tempers as well. To illustrate the use of these designations for stress-relieved tempers, consider the following examples: O Alloy 7075-T651 plate: Basic temper is T6, indicating solution heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging; product has been stress relieved: T65; stress relief provided by stretching 1⁄2 to 2%: T651 O Alloy 7075-T6510 extruded tube: Basic temper is T6, indicating solution heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging; product has

68 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

been stress relieved: T65; stress relief provided by stretching 1⁄2 to 3%, without any additional twisting or mechanical straightening: T6510 O Alloy 7075-T6511 extruded tube: Basic temper is T6, indicating solution heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging; product has been stress relieved: T65; stress relief provided by stretching 1⁄2 to 3% and twisting for straightness: T6511 O Alloy 2014-T652 hand forging: Basic temper is T6; product has been stress relieved: T65; stress relief provided by compression 1 to 5% O Alloy 7050-T654 die forging: Basic temper is T6, indicating solution heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging; product has been stress relieved: T65; stress relief has been provided by a combination of stretching and restriking in cold dies: T654

Temper Designations Identifying Modifications in Quenching
Another means of minimizing residual stresses besides cold work following quenching is to quench the product in boiling water or oil following holding in a furnace for heat treatment, in contrast to the cold-water quench known to impart much of the residual stress. A special temper designation is used to designate such treatment the addition of the digit 1. Thus, for some wrought alloys in T4 (solution heat treated and naturally aged), T6 (solution heat treated and artificially aged), and T7 (solution heat treated and overaged/stabilized) conditions, a descriptive digit 1 is added to the regular temper designation to indicate a change from the normal quenching procedure. By itself, the “1” indicates a boiling water quench. A second digit may be used to indicate some specialized variation of that quench, for example: O Alloy 2014-T61 forging: Basic temper is T6 temper, indicating solution heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging. Material was quenched in boiling water following the solution heat treatment to minimize residual stresses: T61. O Alloy 2014-T611 forging: Basic temper is T6 temper, indicating solution treat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging. Material was quenched in a special way following the solution heat treatment to minimize residual stresses: T61. Quench medium was adjusted to give property level between T6 and T61 tempers: T611. O Alloy 2014-T6151 plate: Basic temper is T6 temper, indicating solution treat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging. Material was quenched in boiling water following the solution heat treatment: T61. Plate was subsequently stretched 1⁄2 to 3% for additional stress relief: T6151.

Designations Indicating Heat Treatment by User
Most temper designations are applied by the producer of the semifinished or finished products, and so the producer is in a position to ensure

These are the TX2 tempers. This is because of the difference in controls of processing variables in the producer’s operations compared with those in customers’ and their vendors’ plants. the TX2 temper is used most often for wrought products that have been heat treated from the O or F temper to demonstrate response to heat treatment. These values may differ from producer-developed specification limits. T732. Differences in producer and user testing requirements also must be taken into account.g. and elongation properties of each heat or lot of material to be delivered by the producer..g.g. T6 and T62) differ.. There are times when the mechanical property limits for the standard temper and the TX2 version of that temper (e. indicative of other aspects of the processing (e. cannot be assumed to apply one of the standard tempers described heretofore to a product in the same manner and with the same reliability as the original producer. T42. It is important. The producer guarantees tensile. therefore.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 69 that the specifications for strength and dimensional tolerances are met when parts are purchased by a customer who then performs some other shaping or machining procedure before the part is heat treated. .. T6. an aluminum company). However. It is important to note that the TX2 temper is the proper one to use any time a customer or vendor rather than the original producer heat treats a product. The TX2 designation is used in combination with tempers such as T4. to make clear that the responsibility for meeting mechanical properties rests with the customer rather than the producer. Aluminum producer mills are almost always starting with freshly produced F temper materials and are accustomed to paying close attention to the consistency in processing operations needed to ensure meeting materials specifications. or T762). or T76. An independent heat treater. T73..g. The TX2 descriptor is applied to wrought products heat treated from any temper by the user of the product or the vendor (e. the original producer no longer has any control over the degree to which the required final specifications are met. yield. On the other hand. structural engineers. and because customers and their vendors may not be able to do standard stress relief treatments such as those done by producers. These procedures provide the mill with a consistent statistical base of operations and good knowledge of allowable variations in aging times and temperatures for the semifinished parts. an aircraft company or its heat treating service) rather than the original material producer (e. may use tensile strength and yield strength values based on their extensive statistical analyses of finished parts. special temper designations have been developed to cover the condition when the final heat treatment and meeting of property specifications is the responsibility of the customer rather than the original producer. In practice. Therefore. which become the basis of their design values. such as those in the aerospace industry. regardless of how reliable. T62.

indicating solution heat treatment followed by cold work. Questionable material is either reprocessed or rejected. the basic temper is T6. indicating solution heat treatment. These are indicated by variations of the usual tempers for sheet that is simply straightened or flattened after heat treatment. and artificial aging followed by cold work. It is used only for a few standard products such as screw machine stock and wire. such as the T3 and T81 tempers of 2024. Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work between Quenching and Aging To obtain particularly high strengths in aluminum alloy sheet in the heat treated condition. Typically. O 6061-T94 wire: Basic temper is T9. The amount of cold work is significantly beyond that for straightening or flattening (T81 temper): T861. The T9 may be followed by other numbers indicating special modifications of the treatment: O 6262-T9 rod: Basic temper is T9. quenching. The amount of cold work is significantly beyond that for straightening or flattening (T3 temper): T361. the temper designations are T361 and T861. The added digit 2 in T62 indicates that the heat treatment and aging were carried out by other than the original producer of the forging (i. By comparison. by the user or a contractor of the user).70 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Each heat or lot is tensile tested to be sure that property requirements are met. the heat treater relies solely on the results of hardness and conductivity tests to determine whether heat treatment is done correctly. indicating solution heat treatment. quenching. alloys (notably 2024) sometimes are given additional cold work between solution heat treatment and artificial aging beyond that which might be used simply for straightening or stress relief. There is an assumption made by the customer that the material would pass tensile test minimums if tested. Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work Following Aging Another means sometimes used to gain added strength in aluminum alloy products is the addition of stretching or drawing following the heat treatment and artificial aging. O 2024-T861 sheet: Basic temper is T8. for 7075-T62 die forging. Modification given to ensure meeting requirements for product: T94 . respectively: O 2024-T361 sheet: Basic temper is T3. the end-user heat treater of the material may or may not be asked by the customer to tensile test each lot. indicating solution heat treatment.e. With the additional cold work.. and artificial aging. indicating solution heat treatment. and artificial aging. cold work. This is indicated by the use of the T9 temper. For example. and artificial aging followed by cold work. quenching.

Degree of overaging is for enhanced exfoliation corrosion resistance: T76. but it provides less resistance to SCC than the T73 temper. as illustrated by the following examples: O T7651 plate: Basic temper is T7. indicating solution heat treatment. The stress-corrosion enhancements may be used in combination with the special tempers for residual stress relief. Degree of overaging is for enhanced stress corrosion resistance: T73. indicating solution heat treatment. and it is to be used in a fairly broad . Such treatments are designated by the use of the T7-type temper. These capabilities are accomplished by the use of special processing (sometimes combined with tighter composition control). Note that this T76 temper has strengths superior to those available with the T73 temper. There are two basic variations of corrosion-resistance enhancement used for such alloys: O Enhanced stress-corrosion resistance. and the digit following the T7 indicates something about the extent of the treatment and of the resultant level of corrosion resistance. Temper Designation for Special or Premium Properties There are times when applications with special needs. and an artificial aging treatment beyond peak strength aimed at enhancing corrosion resistance in some manner. quenching. require special performance capabilities of aluminum alloys. well above that of the T6-type temper but at approximately a 15% sacrifice in tensile yield strength. Plate was subsequently stress relieved by stretching 1⁄2 to 3%: T7651. O T73510 extruded shape: Basic temper is T7. typically in the aerospace industry. When special processing is used. T76 temper: Indicating aging sufficient to improve resistance to exfoliation corrosion over that of the T6-type temper. quenching. rather than being aged to peak strength as indicated by the T6 temper. they are given an overaging or stabilization treatment following solution heat treatment and quenching. T73 temper: Indicating aging sufficient to increase stress-corrosion resistance to a relatively high level. and an artificial aging treatment beyond peak strength aimed at enhancing corrosion resistance in some manner. Plate was subsequently stress relieved by stretching 1⁄2 to 3% without further straightening or twisting: T73510.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 71 Tempers Designating Special Corrosion Resistant Tempers To increase the corrosion resistance of certain high-strength heat treatable alloys of the 7xxx series in particular. but strengths about 5 to 10% less than those of the T6 temper. O Enhanced exfoliation corrosion resistance.

however. aging beyond peak strength). Stress relieved by a combination of stretching and compressive cold work: T7454 Another means sometimes used to indicate special treatments by the temper designation is the use of an extra “6” added to T6 temper: O 7175-T66: Basic temper is T6. and artificial aging.. and in fact. It is always possible. toughness.72 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers commercial manner. The temper designation developed for 7175 forgings produced by this special processing was T736 (T73652 if stress relieved by compressive cold work). Several of these designations are noted subsequently. with specification limits on fracture toughness as well as strength: T74. and proposals for such unique tempers arise with some regularity. quenching. In such cases. high corrosion-resistant alloys led to the redefinition and simplification of T736 to T74. and corrosion resistance. high fracture toughness. with specification limits on fracture toughness as well as strength: T74 O 7175-T7454 die forging: Basic temper is T7. it is accomplished by individual producers. special processes were developed to provide 7175 forging (7175 being a special version of 7075 with tighter impurity limits control) with a superior combination of high strength. therefore. indicating solution heat treatment. Broader use of this approach for 7175 as well as 7050 and potentially other high toughness. and good corrosion resistance.. quenching. and corrosion resistance. indicating solution heat treatment. Several years ago. indicating solution heat treatment. a special temper designation usually is developed. the specific combinations of thermal and mechanical treatments used to achieve the properties required are not specifically spelled out in the literature. As is often the case with such special processing. Special treatment used to enhance combination of strength. that new temper designations are being developed and registered by the Aluminum . aging beyond peak strength). Special treatment used to enhance combination of strength. and aging to achieve special properties (e. the mechanical property limits for the special products are detailed so that the desired performance must be met. Special undefined treatment to achieve maximum strength: T66 The development of special temper designations to cover unique cases is under the auspices of the Product Standards Committee of the Aluminum Association. individual producers may have their own proprietary processes to accomplish the needs. quenching. Examples of such products and special processes are as follows: O 7175-T74 die forging: Basic temper is T7.g.g. and aging to achieve special properties (e. toughness.

but in practice. the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). In addition. The following discussion focuses on those differences while noting the similarities. O O. annealed: This designation is used for cast alloys that are annealed (i. and T. Tempers for Cast Aluminum Alloys The temper designation system for cast aluminum alloys is basically the same as that for wrought aluminum alloys. It is strongly emphasized once again that it is incorrect and unethical for anyone producer. and anyone interested in remaining abreast of such developments should purchase the Registration Records Series Tempers for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Products in addition to Aluminum Standards and Data. or customer/user to make up a temper designation in a format that implies or might be misconstrued to mean that the alloy has been registered by the Aluminum Association and recognized by others in the industry. a review of the basic temper designations can be restricted to the three types of tempers in commercial usage for castings: F. this is likely to be the temper supplied to the purchaser. as fabricated: This designation is used for cast products made by any casting process (e. there are some significant differences in usage. Unlike the case with wrought alloys. For example.. even minimum mechanical property limits published for the F temper. die casting. there are likely to be published typical mechanical properties and.e.g. and the International Accord (see Chapter 8. Aluminum Casting Technology. In this alloy.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 73 Association. therefore. O. etc. The descriptive sources for the aluminum alloy designation system. given a high-temperature stabilization or recrystallization treat- . sand casting. especially die castings.0-F designates a 360. the F temper is a very common finish or final temper for castings.0 casting as it has come straight from the mold and cooled to room temperature. unlike wrought alloys. described as follows: O F.) and refers to the condition of the casting as it comes from the molds without any further thermal or mechanical treatment. in some cases. heat treater. permanent mold casting. “Selected References”) community.. Review of the Basic Tempers for Cast Alloys For practical considerations. and this discussion. 360. also includes guidance from the American Foundrymen’s Society book. Such practices dilute the value and reliability of the entire temper designation standards recognized by the industry. such as Aluminum Standards and Data. focus more strongly on wrought alloys than on the cast alloys.

0 casting that has been heat treated. no additional digits on the designations for the F and O tempers. and to result in a softening of the material and the minimum practical level of mechanical strength. Example: 319. but it is not a very common finish temper for castings as it is for wrought non-heat-treatable aluminum alloys. there are no standard variations and. therefore.0 casting whose most recent treatment has been holding at a high temperature ( 415 °C.. but the usage varies slightly: O T4 indicates the casting has been given a solution heat treatment and. It results in relatively high strengths with adequate ductility and stabilizes properties and dimensions. at room temperature) to a stable condition.0-T5 O T6 indicates the casting has been solution heat treated and artificially aged to achieve maximum precipitation hardening. in a furnace). or 350 °F. intended for dimensional stability. Example: 295. there are four commercially used subdivisions: T4. thermally treated to produce stable tempers other than O or F: The T designation applies to any cast alloy that has been given a solution heat treatment followed by a suitable quench and either natural (i.. 222. and artificially aged. slow furnace cooling by a carefully defined program. Subdivisions of the Basic Temper Types for Cast Alloys For cast alloys. in a furnace) aging.. 8 h at 175 °C. which are discussed in more detail subsequently.0-T6 . sufficient to remove the effects of the thermal cycles it experienced during the casting and cooling processes. without any cold work. For example: 356. and increases strengths somewhat. This process stabilizes the castings dimensionally.e.e. in air) or artificial (i. focuses only on the T tempers. and so most cast alloys are subsequently aged.0-O designates a 222. thermal treatments. These subdivisions have generally the same meaning as for wrought alloys. or 250 °F) to permit precipitation hardening to take place. For the T type of temper for aluminum castings. or 775 °F) for 5 h. or 24 h at 120 °C.e.g. relieves residual stresses. T6. naturally aged (i. and T7. T5. improves machinability..0-T6 designates a 356. For castings.e. For example. The T is always followed by one or more digits that define in general terms the subsequent treatments. the following discussion.. For most casting alloys this is an unstable temper. therefore.0-T4 O T5 indicates the casting has been cooled from the casting process and then artificially aged (i.74 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers ment. quenched. The artificial aging consists of holding at a sufficiently high temperature and sufficiently long time (e. O T. comparable to W for wrought alloys. Example: 295. the treatment may be used both to improve ductility and increase dimensional stability.

O For T7: The T71..e. in a furnace). for A356. and T65 variations exist and deal with variations in quench media and/or artificial aging conditions. once again to increase dimensional stability or improve certain properties. . past peak strength) solution condition. the basic temper.0-T71. for 355. but the variations are not as well defined for castings as for wrought products. For different alloys. T7. T533.Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 75 O T7 indicates the casting has been solution heat treated and artificially aged to an overaged (i. past peak strength) condition. T75.. quenched. also primarily to increase dimensional stability or improve certain properties. indicates that the casting has been heat treated and artificially aged to an overaged (i. Example: 356. O For T6: The T61. as only a few of the tempers for casting have been recently enough registered to appear in Aluminum Association publications such as the Registration Record Series Tempers for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Products. For example. For example. T5. T52. The aging practice has been modified from the peak-strength treatment (which would have been indicated by T6) to ensure optimal performance.. T62. there is no clear resource to document the exact nature and degree of consistency of these variations in temper for cast aluminum alloys. and artificially aged following casting. This treatment is used to provide a better combination of high strength and high ductility and stabilization of properties and dimensions. Unfortunately. indicates that the casting has been cooled from the casting process and then artificially aged (i.0-T7 Additional digits are used sometimes with these T5. intended to either increase dimensional stability or increase strength. Many of the tempers go back many years and have not been through a rigorous rationalization process. T6. T551. For example. the basic temper. T6. indicates that the casting has been solution heat treated. for 242. and T571 tempers are recognized variations. T53. the basic temper.e. The artificial aging practice has been modified to further enhance the corrosion resistance and ductility.0-T61.0-T571. the same temper designation may not always mean the same variation in casting or heat treating practice: O For T5: The T51. they do denote variations from the standard practices of either casting or heat treating the part. A special chill was added as the casting cooled to ensure higher strengths. and T7 tempers.e. and T77 tempers are recognized.

The heat treater. and controlling documents. End users and their heat treaters and fabricators should understand these in considerable detail so that in their own subsequent processes they do not destroy some key capability provided by the producer’s treatment.76 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Importance to Understanding Aluminum Tempers One of the main points of the preceding discussion is to demonstrate that what may seem like a complex or confusing set of coded numbers in a temper designation can actually be recognized and understood by looking at the individual letters and numbers and recognizing the function and meaning of each segment. for example. is advised to constantly refer to specifications. to ensure that the end customer’s requirements are being followed explicitly. If this is not done. . end-user fabricators or heat treaters may face the prospect of salvaging parts rejected by the customer. drawings.

1361/iaat2000p087 Copyright © 2000 ASM International® All rights reserved. many from the reference noted in the previous paragraph. p87-118 DOI:10.00% min Al) to relatively purer 1050/1350 . and by type of application.asminternational. The major characteristics of the 1xxx series are: O Strain hardenable O Exceptionally high formability. Readers are referred to Aluminum: Technology. Applications by Alloy Class Wrought Alloys 1xxx.Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers J. All photographs are courtesy of the Aluminum Association unless otherwise indicated. www. Both approaches are considered in this chapter a review first by alloy class and then by application. and soldering The 1xxx series represents the commercially pure (CP) aluminum. brazing. Pure Aluminum. Gilbert Kaufman. as initiated in Chapter 3 and carried out in greater detail subsequently. corrosion resistance.org CHAPTER 6 Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers THERE ARE AT LEAST two approaches to overviewing important applications of aluminum alloys: by alloy class. Applications and Environment (see Chapter 8) for more detailed information on many of the applications mentioned in this chapter. and electrical conductivity O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 70 to 185 MPa (10–27 ksi) O Readily joined by welding. ranging from the baseline 1100 (99.

which has relatively tight controls on those impurities that might lower electrical conductivity. food packaging trays of pure aluminum (Fig.50% min Al) and 1175 (99. 2). 4). 2 Food packaging trays of pure aluminum (1100) . Electrical applications are one major use of the 1xxx series. means a significant weight and. 3). and a bright-polished telescopic mirror of a high-purity aluminum (Fig. 1). an electrical conductivity of 62% of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) is guaranteed for this material. cost advantage over copper in electrical applications. The 1xxx series of alloys are strain hardenable but would not be used where strength is a prime consideration. The primary uses of the 1xxx series would be applications in which the combination of extremely high corrosion resistance and formability are required (e. 5). Fig. combined with the natural light weight of aluminum. aluminum foil of CP aluminum and pet food decorated wrap (Fig. foil and strip for packaging. As a result.75 % min Al). chemical equipment.. tank car or truck bodies. and elaborate sheet metal work).88 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (99. Specific illustrations provided include an aluminum electrical bus bar installation (Fig. decorated foil pouches for food and drink (Fig. which. therefore. 1 Aluminum electrical bus bar installation with 1350 bus bar Fig.g. spun hollowware. primarily 1350.

They are not as resistant to atmospheric corrosion as several other series and so usually are painted or clad for added protection. in specific cases. The major characteristics of the 2xxx series are: O O O O Heat treatable High strength. 4 (a) Reynolds Wrap (Reynolds Metals Co. but some alloys are weldable The 2xxx series of alloys are heat treatable and possess in individual alloys good combinations of high strength (especially at elevated temperatures). VA) aluminum foil of commercially pure aluminum (1100 or similar) and (b) Reynolds pet food decorated wrap . 3 Decorated foil pouches for food and drink (1060 or 1100) (a) (b) Fig. Aluminum-Copper Alloys. at room and elevated temperatures Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 190 to 430 MPa (27–62 ksi) Usually joined mechanically.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 89 2xxx.. weldability. toughness. Fig. Richmond. and.

g. all developed specifically for the aircraft industry. Alloys 2011. Aluminum-Manganese Alloys. 7). Specific members of the series (e. 2017.90 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Primary Uses. there are high-toughness versions of several of the alloys (e. 5 Bright-polished telescopic mirror of a high-purity aluminum . 2124.g. Alloy 2195 is a new lithium-bearing aluminum alloy providing very high modulus of elasticity along with higher strength and comparable weldability to 2219 for space applications. the fuel tanks and booster rockets of the Space Shuttle (Fig. Illustrations of applications for the 2xxx series alloys include aircraft internal and external structures (Fig. and 2419) that have tighter control on the impurities that may diminish resistance to unstable fracture. For applications requiring very high strength plus high fracture toughness. 2324. structural beams of heavy dump and tank trucks and trailer trucks (Fig... and internal railroad car structural members (Fig. The higher-strength 2xxx alloys are widely used for aircraft (2024) and truck body (2014) applications. and 2117 are widely used for fasteners and screw-machine stock. 8). 3xxx. where they generally are used in bolted or riveted construction. 2219 and 2048) are readily joined by gas metal arc welding (GMAW) or gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and so are used for aerospace applications where that method is the preferred joining method. 6). 9). The major characteristics of the 3xxx series are: O High formability and corrosion resistance with medium strength O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 110 to 285 MPa (16–41 ksi) O Readily joined by all commercial procedures Fig.

6 Fig.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 91 Aircraft internal structure includes extrusions and plate of 2xxx alloys such as 2024. Fig. . 2124. External sheet skin may be alclad 2024 or 2618. and 2618. the higher-purity cladding provides corrosion protection to the aluminum-copper alloys that otherwise will darken with age. 7 Heavy dump and tank trucks and trailer trucks may employ 2xxx extrusions for their structural members.

now sometimes aluminum-lithium “Weldalite” alloy 2195 Fig. 8 .92 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (a) (b) (a) The booster rockets and (b) fuel tanks of the Space Shuttle are 2xxx alloys. originally 2219 and 2419.

and are readily welded. have excellent corrosion resistance. Primary Uses. 9 Internal railroad car structural members are sometimes 2xxx alloys (also sometimes 6xxx alloys). medium strength Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 175 to 380 MPa (25–55 ksi) Easily joined. 10) and tubing in commercial power plant heat exchangers (Fig. and soldered. The major characteristics of the 4xxx series are: O O O O Heat treatable Good flow characteristics.6 billion kg (3. brazed. Alloy 3004 and its modification 3104 are the principals for the bodies of drawn and ironed can bodies for beverage cans for beer and soft drinks. especially by brazing and soldering Primary Uses.5 billion lb) per year. . As a result. they are among the most used individual alloys in the aluminum system. 4xxx. 12) are alloys 3004 or 3104. Aluminum-Silicon Alloys. and in builders’ hardware because of its superior corrosion resistance. There are two major uses of the 4xxx series. Because of the ease and flexibility of joining. Alloy 3003 is widely used in cooking utensils and chemical equipment because of its superiority in handling many foods and chemicals. In addition. making it the largest volume alloy combination in the industry. both generated by the excellent flow characteristics provided by relatively high Fig.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 93 The 3xxx series of alloys are strain hardenable. 11). 3003 and other members of the 3xxx series are widely used in sheet and tubular form for heat exchangers in vehicles and power plants. Alloy 3105 is a principal for roofing and siding. in excess of 1. Typical applications of the 3xxx alloy series include automotive radiator heat exchangers (Fig. the bodies of beverage cans (Fig.

used for GMAW and GTAW 6xxx alloys for structural and automotive applications. . a medium high-strength. 10 Automotive radiator heat exchangers are of alloys such as 3002. The second major application is a weld filler alloy. here the workhorse is 4043. The first is for forgings: the workhorse alloy is 4032. Fig.94 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Fig. 11 Alloy 3003 tubing in commercial power plant heat exchanger silicon contents. heat treatable alloy used principally in applications such as forged aircraft pistons.

Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 95 Fig. Fig. For the same reason. Alloy 4043 is one of the most widely used weld wires used in applications such as the automated welding of an auto body structure illustrated in Fig. 13 Refrigerator coolant circulation system in brazed unit of high-silicon brazing alloy sheet As noted. 5xxx. other variations of the 4xxx alloys are used for the cladding on brazing sheet. this good flow ensures the complete and precise filling of complex dies. in the case of welding. Figure 13 illustrates a refrigerator coolant circulation system in a brazed unit of a high-silicon brazing alloy sheet. The major characteristics of the 6xxx series are: . it ensures complete filling of grooves in the members to be joined. In the case of forgings. Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys. 14. 12 The bodies of beverage cans are alloys 3004 or 3104. making it the largest volume alloy combination in the industry. the component that flows to complete the bond. the same characteristic—good flow provided by the high silicon content—leads to both types of application.

even at thicknesses up to 20 cm (8 in. including bridges. and 5083 are the workhorses from the structural standpoint. Specialty alloys in the group include 5182. 5xxx alloys find wide application in building and construction. Care must be taken to avoid use of 5xxx alloys with more than 3% Mg content in applications where they receive continuous exposure to temperatures above 100 °C (212 °F). They are readily welded by a variety of techniques. and marine applications. toughness. cryogenic. thus. the beverage can end alloy and.). and 5657 for bright trim applications. 5086. Fig. cryogenic tankage and systems for temperatures as low as –270 °C ( 455 °F) or near absolute zero. Such alloys may become sensitized and susceptible to SCC. alloys such as 5454 and 5754 are recommended for applications where high temperature exposure is likely. Alloy 4043 is one of the most widely used weld wires used in applications such as this automated welding of an auto body . Alloys 5052. and 5754 O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 125 to 350 MPa (18–51 ksi) Aluminum-magnesium alloys of the 5xxx series are strain hardenable and have moderately high strength. including automotive trim. 5754 for automotive body panel and frame applications. For this reason. 14 structure. highway structures. Primary Use.96 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O Strain hardenable O Excellent corrosion resistance. moderate strength O Building and construction. weldability. and 5252. excellent corrosion resistance even in salt water. and very high toughness even at cryogenic temperatures to near absolute zero. with increasingly higher strength associated with the increasingly higher magnesium content. 5083. and marine applications O Representative alloys: 5052. storage tanks. 5457. among the largest in tonnage. automotive. As a result. and pressure vessels.

decking. moderate strength High-speed. employ 5083H113/H321 machined plate for hulls. Fig. Aluminum-Magnesium-Silicon Alloys. 5083. decking. shown in Fig. 16 The internal hull stiffener structure of a high-speed yacht (see Fig. excellent extrudibility.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 97 High-speed. single-hull ships such as the Destriero. Single. hull stiffeners. 15. Other applications for the broadly used 5xxx series of alloys can be seen in Fig. 18 to 26. Figure 16 shows the internal hull stiffener structure of a high-speed yacht. and 5454. 17) (along with 6xxx extruded shapes. hull stiffeners. The major characteristics of the 6xxx series are: O Heat treatable O High corrosion resistance. single-hull ships such as the Destriero. as sheet and plate (Fig. 15 Fig. 15) . 6xxx. employ 5083-H113/H321machined plate for hulls.or multiple-hull high-speed ferries employ several aluminum-magnesium alloys. and superstructure. described next) with all-welded construction. 5383. and superstructure.

98 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 125 to 400 MPa (18–58 ksi) O Readily welded by GMAW and GTAW methods The 6xxx alloys are heat treatable and have moderately high strength coupled with excellent corrosion resistance. it is not only the first choice for many architectural and structural members. Single. 26).or multiple-hull high-speed ferries employ several aluminum-magnesium alloys 5083. making it possible to produce in single shapes relatively complex architectural forms. Fig. 17 . A unique feature is their great extrudability. it was prefabricated in a shop and erected on the site in only a few days. but it has been the choice for the Audi automotive space frame members. 5383. This feature is a particularly important advantage for architectural and structural members where stiffnesscriticality is important. A good example of its structural use was the all-aluminum bridge structure in Foresmo. Norway (Fig. and 5454 as sheet and plate (along with 6xxx extruded shapes) with all-welded construction. Alloy 6063 is perhaps the most widely used because of its extrudability. Primary Use. as well as to design shapes that put the majority of the metal where it will most efficiently carry the highest tensile and compressive stresses.

and pipelines. Fig. railroad cars. providing lightweight and excellent corrosion resistance. Fig. with high strength for forgings. and 6101and 6201 for high-strength electrical bus and electrical conductor wire. 19 The superstructure of many ocean liners. 18 Alloy 5083 was the workhorse for the 32 m (125 ft) diam spheres for shipboard transport of liquefied natural gas. the all-welded construction was 200 mm (8 in. . ferries.) thick at the horizontal diam. 6070 for the highest strength available in 6xxx extrusions. respectively.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 99 Higher-strength alloy 6061 extrusions and plate find broad use in welded structural members such as truck and marine frames. and most naval ships is of welded 5xxx alloy construction. Among specialty alloys in the series: 6066-T6.

28. 21 . 30. the famous Hughes wooden flying boat. the largest geodesic dome ever constructed. 5086. in Long Beach. Some of the other most important applications for aluminum-magnesium-silicon are in the structural members of wide-span roof structures for arenas and gymnasiums shown in Fig. such as the one made originally to house the Spruce Goose. CA. 100 m (400 ft) high (Fig. an integrally stiffened bridge deck shape.100 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Figure 27 shows that the power of extruded aluminum-magnesiumsilicon alloys is the “put-the-metal-where-you need-it” flexibility these alloys and the extrusion process provide. and a magnetic levitation (Mag-Lev) train in development in Europe and Japan Fig. geodesic domes. at 250 m (1000 ft) across. and 5083 aluminum-magnesium alloy welded construction. readily put in the roadway in hours (Fig. The demands of the superstructures of offshore oil rigs in high humidity and water exposure are met with 5454. 29). 31). Fig. 20 Rugged coal cars are provided by welded 5454 alloy plate construction. used to produce replacement bridge decks.

making that one of the largest volume alloys in production. Fig. as shown in Fig. . 34 to 36. Fig. Representative important applications of the 6xxx alloy series in automobile structures are shown in Fig. In addition. aluminum light poles are widely used around the world for their corrosion resistance and crash protection systems providing safety for auto drivers and passengers.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 101 (Fig. 23 Aluminum cans have ends of alloy 5182. 22 Automotive structures are likely to employ increasing amounts of 5754-O formed sheet for parts such as internal door stiffeners or the entire body-in-white. 32). 33.

The major characteristics of the 7xxx series are: O O O O Heat treatable Very high strength. Fig. 24 Fig. as in this example of a water treatment plant. as in this Alusuisse Alucoban example. 25 Sheet of 5xxx alloys often forms the surface of geodesic dome structures. special high-toughness versions Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 220 to 610 MPa (32–88 ksi) Mechanically joined 5xxx alloys are commonly used as external facing sheets of composite aluminum-plastic structural panels.102 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers 7xxx. . Aluminum-Zinc Alloys.

this photograph illustrates a major advantage of replacement aluminum bridges the ability to prefabricate the spans and move them in place quickly. The widest application of the 7xxx alloys historically has been in the aircraft industry. minimizing the disruption to traffic. provide the highest strengths of all aluminum alloys. These alloys are not considered weldable by commercial processes and are regularly used with riveted construction. Primary Use. Fig. where fracture-critical design concepts have The Foresmo Bridge in northern Norway is an excellent example of the use of aluminum-magnesium alloys for built-up girders systems. among the aluminum-zincmagnesium-copper versions in particular.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 103 The 7xxx alloys are heat treatable and. 27 . Fig. 26 The power of extruded aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys is the “put-in-the metal-where-you-need-it” flexibility these alloys and the extrusion process provide.

used in an alclad version.104 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers The structural members of wide-span roof structures for arenas and gymnasiums are usually 6063 or 6061 extruded tube or beams. covered with 5xxx alloy sheet. There are several alloys in the series that are produced especially for their high toughness. The atmospheric corrosion resistance of the 7xxx alloys is not as high as that of the 5xxx and 6xxx alloys. notably 7150. they usually are coated or. special tempers have been developed to improve their resistance to exfoliation . Also. for sheet and plate. and 7475. controlled impurity levels. in such service. 7175. 28 provided the impetus for the high-toughness alloy development. Fig. particularly of iron and silicon. thus. for these alloys. maximize the combination of strength and fracture toughness.

These tempers are especially recommended in situations where there may be high short transverse (through the thickness) stresses present during exposure to atmospheric or more severe environments. long-length drill pipe (Fig. Alloys with Aluminum Plus Other Elements (Not Covered by Other Series). 38). CA. made originally to house the “Spruce Goose. 100 m (400 ft) high.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 105 This geodesic dome in Long Beach. the T76 and T73 types. 37). and the premium forged aircraft part of alloy 7175-T736 (T74) shown in Fig. 29 Fig.” is the largest geodesic dome ever constructed 250 m (1000 ft) across. Applications of 7xxx alloys include critical aircraft wing structures of integrally stiffened aluminum extrusions (Fig. The major characteristics of the 8xxx series are: . 8xxx. Fig. respectively. 39. 30 Integrally stiffened bridge deck shape. which is usually produced in 6063 and SCC.

employ bodies with 6061 and 6063 structural . usually produced in 6063. nickel. 32 members. Each is used for the particular characteristics it provides the alloys. 31 Replacement bridge decks. and hardness O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 120 to 240 (17–35 ksi) The 8xxx series is used for those alloys with lesser-used alloying elements such as iron. strength. are readily put into the roadway in hours. Fig. Fig.106 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O Heat treatable O High conductivity. and lithium. Experimental magnetic levitation (Mag-Lev) train in development in Europe and Japan.

A forged helicopter component of aluminum-lithium alloy 8090-T852 can be seen in Fig. Lithium in alloy 8090 provides exceptionally high strength and modulus. Iron and nickel provide strength with little loss in electrical conductivity and so are used in a series of alloys represented by 8017 for conductors.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 107 Primary Use. 33 (a) (b) Fig. Aluminum light poles are widely used around the world for their corrosion resistance. and their breakaway-base crash protection systems that provide safety for car drivers and passengers. 34 Extruded aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys make up (a) a complete Verlicchi Nino & Fugli motorcycle chassis and (b) the entire body frame of the Audi A-8. and so this alloy is used for aerospace applications in which increases in stiffness combined with high strength reduces component weight. Fig. 40. .

and brittle constituent can create harmful internal notches and nucleate cracks when the component is later put under load. of most cast products are relatively lower than those of wrought products. The elongation and strength. good metallurgical and foundry practices can largely prevent such defects. As is shown later. 36 The General Motors Aurora.. which results in a largely heterogeneous cast structure (i. casting alloys contain larger proportions of alloying elements such as silicon and copper. however. Fig. This is because current casting practice is as yet unable to reliably prevent casting defects. has aluminum closure panels of alloy 6111-T4.108 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Cast Alloys In comparison with wrought alloys. In recent years. one having a substantial volume of second phases). . sharp. This second phase material warrants careful study. innovations in casting processes such as squeeze Fig. 35 Welded 6063 extrusions combined with 5083 tube and 357 casting make up the axle body assembly for the BMW Model 5. since any coarse. like many other production automobiles. The fatigue properties are very sensitive to large heterogeneities. especially in fatigue.e.

alloy 7075-T73 or hightoughness alloys such as 7050 or 7475 are among the principal choices. The major characteristics of the 2xx.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 109 casting have brought about some significant improvements in the consistency and level of properties of castings. and these should be taken into account in selecting casting processes for critical applications. some high-toughness alloys Critical aircraft wing structures are often of 7xxx alloy sheet or integrally stiffened extrusion construction. Aluminum-Copper Alloys.x series are: O Heat treatable sand and permanent mold castings O High strength at room and elevated temperatures. 37 Fig. 38 Long-length drill pipe often is made of 7xxx (as well as 2xxx) aluminum alloy extruded tube. 2xx. Fig.x. .

110 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 130 to 450 MPa (20–65 ksi) Primary Use. Fig. and in aircraft construction. The castability of the alloy is somewhat limited by a tendency to microporosity and hot tearing so that it is best suited to investment casting. in electrical engineering (pressurized switchgear castings). which has found important application in the aerospace industry. 39 An example of a premium forged aircraft part of alloy 7175-T736 (T74) Fig.0. The strongest of the common casting alloys is heat treated 201. 40 A forged helicopter component of aluminum-lithium alloy 8090T852 . Its high toughness makes it particularly suitable for highly stressed components in machine tool construction.

Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 111 Besides the standard aluminum casting alloys. Aluminum-Silicon Plus Copper or Magnesium Alloys.0-T6 (Fig.0/A380. and 357. and the newer thixocasting and squeeze casting technologies.x. and 390. especially. which provides a variety of high-strength options.0 for sand and permanent mold casting. 360.0. integral engine blocks. for instance.0 for many types of casting. 3xx. 41). and die castings O Excellent fluidity. there are special alloys for particular components. or bearings.0.0 also is one of the most frequently used aluminum Fig. For these applications.0.0.x alloys is an aircraft component that is made in alloys of high-strength alloy 201. In addition.0/A356. which to date is the aluminum casting alloy with the highest strength at approximately 200 °C (400 °F). such as alloy 201. as well as adequate strength at elevated service temperatures. 380. the relatively newly commercialized squeeze/forge cast technologies. investment castings. . high-strength.0/A357. Alloy 332. and some high-toughness alloys O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 130 to 275 MPa (20–40 ksi) O Readily welded The 3xx. the chosen alloy needs good wear resistance and a low friction coefficient. An example of an application for 2xx. the 3xx. Primary Use. The major characteristics of the 3xx. plus their response to heat treatment.0 and 356.x series of castings is one of the most widely used because of the flexibility provided by the high silicon content and its contribution to fluidity. Among the workhorse alloys are 319.x series may be cast by a variety of techniques ranging from relatively simple sand or die casting to very intricate permanent mold. for engine piston heads.0 for die casting. permanent mold.x series are: O Heat treatable sand. including. A good example is the alloy 203. 41 Aircraft components are made from high-strength cast aluminum alloys.

and die castings O Excellent fluidity. permanent mold.0 cast wheels.0-T6 inner turbo frame for the Airbus family of aircraft (Fig. The major characteristics of the 4xx. 42). Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys. and A356. These alloys have found applications in relatively complex cast parts for typewriter and computer housings and dental equipment.0 shown in Fig.x. 5xx. Primary Use. good for intricate castings O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 120 to 175 MPa (17–25 ksi) Alloy B413. which are due to its eutectic composition and low melting point of 700 °C (1292 °F). thin-walled. Among the illustrative applications are the thixoformed A356. The major characteristics of the 5xx. The alloy is particularly suitable for intricate.x series are: . 45). automotive industry (Fig. 4xx. 44). providing the ability to obtain exceptionally intricate detail and fine quality (Fig. 46). rear axle housing (Fig. and also for fairly critical components in marine and architectural applications.0 is notable for its very good castability and excellent weldability.0-T6 inner turbo frame for the Airbus family of aircraft casting alloys because it can be made almost exclusively from recycled scrap. 43. It combines moderate strength with high elongation before rupture and good corrosion resistance.x. fatigue-resistant castings. which are widely used in the U.x castings made by the investment casting processes. the gearbox casing for a passenger car in alloy pressure die cast 380.x series are: O Non-heat-treatable sand. 42 Thixoformed A356. complex 3xx. leak-proof. Aluminum-Silicon Alloys.S.112 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Fig.

and die castings Tougher to cast. 43 Gearbox casting for a passenger car. machinability.0 sand casting Non-heat-treatable sand. Alloys 512. 44 O O O O Rear axle housing of 380.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 113 Fig. permanent mold. and surface appearance Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 120 to 175 MPa (17–25 ksi) The common feature of this group of alloys is good resistance to corrosion.0 Fig.0 and 514. provides good finishing characteristics Excellent corrosion resistance. Primary Use.0 have medium strength and good elongation and are suitable for components exposed to seawater or to . in alloy pressure die cast 380.

which can be decoratively anodized to give a metallic finish or provide a wide range of colors. 46 A356.x castings made by the investment casting processes. These alloys often are used for door and window fittings. 45 quality Complex 3xx.0 cast wheels are widely used in the U. automotive industry. providing the ability to obtain exceptionally intricate detail and fine Fig. . Their castability is inferior to that of the aluminum-silicon alloys because of its magnesium Fig.S.114 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers other similar corrosive environments.

For die castings where decorative anodizing is particularly important. and farming and mining equipment. it tends to be replaced by 355. Representative applications include furniture. Applications by Market Area In the paragraphs that follow. garden tools. consequently. 7xx.x alloys. The major characteristics of the 7xx.0 is quite suitable.x alloys are relatively hard to cast and tend to be used only where their combination of superior surface finish and relative hardness are important.x. 8xx. where the high electrical conductivity (60% IACS) makes aluminum a cost-effective replacement for copper products: . As with the 7xx.x series are: O Heat treatable sand and permanent mold castings (harder to cast) O Excellent machinability and appearance O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 210 to 380 MPa (30–55 ksi) Primary Use. Because of the increased difficulty in casting 7xx.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 115 content and. For this reason.x alloys. alloy 520. they tend to be used only where the excellent finishing characteristics and machinability are important. Aluminum-Zinc Alloys. 8xx.x. Aluminum-Tin Alloys. The major characteristics of the 8xx.0. Electrical Markets The major products for which aluminum is used in electrical applications are electric cable and bus conductors. The prime example is for parts requiring extensive machining and for bushings and bearings. which has long been used for similar applications. office machines.x series are: O O O O Heat treatable sand and permanent mold castings (harder to cast) Excellent machinability Bearings and bushings of all types Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 105 to 210 MPa (15–30 ksi) Primary Use. long freezing range. a review is provided of the alloys often selected for products in a number of the major markets in which aluminum is used.

Automotive structures require a combination of aluminum castings. as discussed subsequently.116 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O Electrical conductor wire: 1350 where no special strength requirements exist. 6063 or 6061 extrusions (Fig. and so on: 6061. 6111 (Fig. and Truck Applications. 6111 (Fig. Van. 5754 O Bumpers: 7029. 5083. racks. 5086. 14) O Auto trim: 5257. 26. and extrusions to cover all good opportunities to increase gasoline mileage and reduce pollutants. 34a and b) O External body sheet panels where dent resistance is important: 2008. and 5005 sheet O Arena and convention center roofs: 6061 extrusions with 5xxx alloy sheet panels (Fig. Bus. 24) Transportation Applications The transportation market has several major subsections. conference centers and areas (i. siding: 3005. commercial storefronts and structures. long roof bay requirements). and 5454 plate (Fig. 6016. sheet. for space frame designs. 5657. 31. highway bridges and roadside structures. 6463 O Composite wall panels: 5xxx alloy sheet plus expanded polymers (Fig. Such applications include residential housing. Among the choices are: O Bridges and other highway structures: 6061 and 6063 extrusions (Fig. heat exchangers: 3003 (Fig. 7129 O Air conditioner tubes.. 6201 where a combination of high strength and high conductivity are needed O Bus conductor: 6101 O Electrical cable towers: 6061 or 6063 extruded shapes Building and Construction Markets Building and construction encompasses those markets in which architectural and/or structural requirements come together. and a variety of holding tanks and chemical structures (also considered under “Chemical and Petroleum Markets”). 36) . 36) O Inner body panels: 5083. Automobile. 5757 O Door beams. rails.e. 3105. 5657. 33) O Storefronts. 10. 29) O Residential housing structures: 6063 extrusions O Architectural trim: 5257. 30. Among examples are the following: O Frame: 5182 or 5754 sheet (Fig. 6063 O Hood. deck lids: 2036. 30). 22) or. seat tracks. Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV). curtain wall: 6063 extrusions O Building sheet. 14.

b) O Engine components: 2618 O Propellers: 2025 O Rivets: 2117. 5383. 17) Offshore stations. 2195. 15–17) Superstructure: 5083. 2219. 7049. 6070 (Fig. 8a. 15) Structural beams: 6061. 2195. 2091. depending on the specific component. as illustrated by the examples below: O Space mirror: High-purity aluminum (Fig. and other components that are immersed in saltwater: O O O O Hull material: 5083. gear boxes: 357. high fracture toughness. 43. and/or high modulus (sometimes all three). 6) O Wing structures: 2024. 6061. ships. 7) Wheels: A356.0 (Fig. The result has been a great number of alloys and tempers developed specifically for this market. 2124. 2324. 7050. 8090 O If high fracture toughness is critical: 2124. 2314. 7175 O Rocket tankage: 2195. aluminum lends itself to railcar structural and exterior panel applications: . Aircraft and aerospace applications require high strength combined with. 16. 6063 (Fig. 46) or formed 5xxx sheet Housings. offshore stations. 37) O Bulkhead: 2197. 7050 and 7475 sheet and plate or extrusions (Fig. 7050 stiffened extrusions (Fig. 5456 (Fig. 7) Truck trailer bodies: 5456 (Fig. 7475 O For maximum fracture toughness: 7475 O If stress-corrosion resistance is important: 7X50 or 7X75 in the T73-type temper O If resistance to exfoliation attack is vital: 7xxx alloys in the T76-type temper O For welded construction. 6053 O If high modulus is critical: Lithium-bearing alloys 2090.0 (Fig. 6063 (Fig. tanks: 5083. as for shuttle tanks: 2219. alclad 2024.0. 7050.Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 117 O O O O Truck beams: 2014. A357. 2419 (Fig. 5) O Wing and fuselage skin: 2024. 21) Rail Transportation Much as for automobile and truck bodies. 7175. 2224. 44) Aircraft and Aerospace Applications. 5456 Marine Transportation Many aluminum alloys readily withstand the corrosive attack of marine salt water and so find applications in boats. 5456 (Fig. high corrosion resistance.

5356. 20) Packaging Applications Packaging applications require either great ductility and corrosion resistance for foil and wrapping applications or great strength and workability for rigid container sheet applications (i. 5454 Coal cars: 5083. 5254. 6070 (Fig. 5454. 6063. 9) Exterior panels: 5456. 5183. a variety of specialty products find great advantage in aluminum alloys: O O O O Screw machine products: 2011. 20) Cars for hot cargo: 5454 (Fig. 5086. 5052 Tread plate: 6061 Weld wire: 4043 (for welding 6xxx alloys). 5556 (for welding 5xxx alloys) (Fig. 14) . Alloy choices include: O Aluminum foil for foods: 1175 (Fig. cans). 6262 Appliances: 5005. 5454 (Fig. 32) Tank cars: 5083. 6111 (Fig. 23) Petroleum and Chemical Industry Components The excellent combination of high strength combined with superior corrosion resistance plus weldability makes a number of aluminum alloys ideal for chemical industry applications.e. 2–4) O Rigid container (can) bodies: 3004 (Fig. 6063 Pipelines: 6061.118 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers O O O O O Beams: 2014. 6063 (Fig. 6061. 6070 Cryogenic tankage: 5052. 18) Containers for hydrogen peroxide: 5254.. 12) O Rigid container (can) ends: 5182 (Fig. 9. 5652 Other Markets While not major markets in themselves. 5083. 6063 Pressure vessels (ASME Code): 5083. 6061. even some involving very corrosive fluids: O O O O O Chemical piping: 1060. 6061.

A few were taken from D. ASM International. temper. temper. or casting.1361/iaat2000p119 Copyright © 2000 ASM International® All rights reserved. and product. it should be clear that the microstructures presented here are to be considered representative of the respective alloy.G. extrusion. an even wider range of variations in microstructure will be evident. a considerable range of microstructural features may be evident. www.asminternational. Thus. Altenpohl’s book Aluminum: Technology. The reader should recognize that even within a single cross section of a piece of plate. micrographs of a number of representative alloys and tempers are shown in the following pages. Gilbert Kaufman.Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers J. p119-184 DOI:10. courtesy of the Aluminum Association. pages 360 to 387.org CHAPTER 7 Representative Micrographs A COMPILATION OF MICROGRAPHS illustrating the microstructure of a wide range of aluminum alloys and tempers is a valuable additional resource in understanding aluminum alloys and tempers. forging. Volume 9 of the ASM Handbook. 1985. . and product but that not all other lots or even all other locations within these particular lots will look exactly like the examples provided. Inc. Micrographs were taken mostly from Metallography and Microstructures. Among different samples of a single alloy. Therefore. Applications and Environment (see Chapter 8).

cell size is from 50 to approximately 300 μm.004 in.).) thick: (a) hard rolled. 1 99.5 mm (0.99% high-purity aluminum as-cast. (b) after recovery.5% aluminum as-cast.99% 0. Structure of 99. 2 h at 150 °C (302 °F). .02 in. The residual melt has solidified mainly in the cell boundaries. 350 Fig. 2 99. DC case with grain refiner.5% aluminum.1 mm (0. Transmission electron micrographs show subgrain structure in 99. Grain size is smaller than 0.120 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Wrought Aluminum Alloys (a) (b) Fig.

(b) 2%.5% aluminum.” (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Fig. . Normal solidification rate. Continuous case 99. (d) 6%. The coarse cells solidified relatively slowly and belong to a “floating crystal. Average cell size: 60 μm. Recrystallized grain size as a function of cold work.Representative Micrographs / 121 (a) (b) (c) Fig.5% aluminum as-cast. (c) Adjacent coarse and fine cells in direct chill (DC) cast 99. various amounts of cold work. 4 Alloy 1100. (b) Fine cell structure. 3 99. (a) Coarse cell structure due to the solidification rate. Average cell size: 90 μm. The following percentage numbers indicate the degree of cold work before annealing: (a) 0%.5% aluminum. (c) 4%. (e) 8%. (f) 10%.

K. especially in the upper ingot. commercial purity aluminum ingots (DC cast in rolling ingot shape). (b) Composition of the cast structure near the ingot surface. with axes parallel to the heat flow. 5 Alloy 1100 as-cast. grain zone without directional cooling “equiaxed grain structure” (b) . The columnar grains grow in a direction opposite to the removal of heat. Columnar crystals (grains) can be seen in the outer zones. (a) Cross sections through cast. zone of columnar grains.122 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (a) Fig. R. St. The grain structure has been revealed through etching. narrow exterior band of fine crystals. due to rapid cooling of the surface of the casting.

Fragmented grain structure contains particles of CuAl2 (white. 0. solution heat treated. 100 Fig. outlined) and insoluble (Fe. Recrystallized. 6. then aged at 170 °C (340 °F) for 10 h. Longitudinal section. 9 . Particles are remnants of scriptlike constituents in the ingot that have been fragmented by working. Keller’s reagent. Longitudinal section. 100 Alloy 2014-T6 closed-die forging.5% HF. Structure contains particles of CuAl2 (white.Representative Micrographs / 123 Alloy 1100-O sheet. cold rolled. equiaxed grains.5% HF. and insoluble particles of FeAl3 (black).Mn)3SiAl12 (dark). 7 Alloy 1100-H18 sheet. See Fig. 0. Size and distribution of FeAl3 in the worked structure were unaffected by annealing. but very fine particles of CuAl2 have precipitated in the matrix. Note metal flow around insoluble particles of FeAl3 (black). See Fig. 7. 6 Fig. outlined) and insoluble (Fe. 8 Alloy 2014-T4 closed-die forging.Mn)2SiAl12 (dark). 500 Fig. cold rolled and annealed. Keller’s reagent. solution heat treated at 500 °C (935 °F) for 2 h and quenched in water at 60 to 70 °C (140 to 160 °F). 500 Fig.

124 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 2014-T6 closed-die forging. 100 Fig. 11 Alloy 2024-O plate. 50 Fig. hot rolled and annealed. 13 . outlined) and insoluble (Fe. Note lack of grain contrast. 25% HNO3. 100 Fig. overaged. Blister on surface is associated with hydrogen porosity. Solution heat treatment was sufficient. As-polished. 12 Alloy 2024-O sheet.Fe.5 in. but more CuAl2 has precipitated. KMnO4.Mn)2SiAl12 (dark). Keller’s reagent.) thick. Mn)Al6 and fine particles of CuMgAl2 that precipitated during annealing. 500 Fig. 13 mm (0. Fragmented grain structure contains particles of CuAl2 (white. but specimen was overaged. Elongated recrystallized grains and unrecrystallized stringers resulting from polygonization that occurred during the hot water working. Na2CO3. Longitudinal section. 10 Alloy 2014-T61 closed-die forging. Structure consists of light gray particles of insoluble (Cu.

15. solution heat treated at 495 °C (920 °F) and quenched in cold water. Keller’s reagent. 500 Fig. solution heat treated at 495 °C (920 °F) and cooled in still air. 500 Fig. The slow cooling resulted in intragranular and grainboundary precipitation of CuMgAl2. 500 Fig. Keller’s reagent. Dark particles are CuMgAl2. Keller’s reagent. and Cu2FeAl7. See also Fig. 500 Fig. The lower cooling rate resulted in increased precipitation of CuMgAl2 at grain boundaries. Cu2MnAl20. Keller’s reagent. solution heat treated at 495 °C (920 °F) and cooled in an air blast. 15 Alloy 2024-T3 sheet. solution heat treated at 495 °C (920 °F) and quenched in boiling water. The lower quenching rate resulted in precipitation of CuMgAl2 at grain boundaries. Longitudinal section. 16 Alloy 2024-T3 sheet. 14 Alloy 2024-T3 sheet.Representative Micrographs / 125 Alloy 2024-T3 sheet. 17 .

6. thick ingot). Keller’s reagent.4 mm (0. or 16 in. or 16 in. stretched 20%. Many strain lines have formed. 6. 19 Alloy 2024-T6 sheet. 100 Fig. Note absence of strain lines in structure.) thick (reduced from 406 mm. 20. or 16 in. stretched 2%. solution heat treated. See also Fig. Longitudinal section.24 in. Longitudinal section. See also Fig. 20 Alloy 2024-T6 sheet..4 mm (0. See also Fig. Some faint strain lines have formed. thick ingot)..) thick (reduced from 406 mm. thick ingot).24 in. stretched 6%. 20 and 21.) thick (reduced from 406 mm. 6. 100 Fig. Normal amount of copper and magnesium diffusion from base metal into cladding (top). sheet clad with alloy 1230 (5% per side). Keller’s reagent.126 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 2024-T3 alclad. 21 .24 in.4 mm (0. 21. Keller’s reagent. 18 Alloy 2024-T6 sheet. 100 Fig. Keller’s reagent. 100 Fig. Longitudinal section..

stretched. and artificially aged. Grains are flattened and elongated in the direction of rolling. 24. and artificially aged. 150 mm (6 in. 150heat treated. 150 mm (6 in. 150heat treated. and artificially aged. cold rolled. Section was taken in the rolling plane (long transverse) from the center of the plate thickness. 24 Fig. stretched. 22 thick. See also Fig. 2024-T851 plate. solution heat treated. 2024-T851 plate. cold rolled.) Fig. Longitudinal section showing the edge view of an area near the surface of the plate. cold rolled. 200 Alloy 2024-T851 plate. which received less cold working than the surface. Keller’s reagent.) thick. A short transverse section showing the end view of an area near the surface of the plate. and artificially aged. 23. Grains are flattened but are not as elongated as grains in Fig. 25 Alloy 2024-T851 plate.) Fig. Keller’s reagent.Representative Micrographs / 127 Alloy mm (6 in. Section was taken in the rolling plane (long transverse) from an area near the surface showing elongated grains. 200 Alloy mm (6 in. solution stretched.) thick. 23 thick. 200 . Keller’s reagent. solution stretched. solution heat treated. 200 Fig. cold rolled.

cold rolled. Specimen was taken from the center of the plate thickness. See also Fig. Longitudinal section. stretched. 26 Alloy 2024-T851 plate. Fragmented grain structure.) thick.) thick. Keller’s reagent. one small recrystallized grain. solution heat treated. Less cold working resulted in less deformation. solution heat treated. stretched.) thick. There is less flattening and elongation of the grains. 100 Fig. High rolling temperature limited strain and recrystallization. Complete recrystallization resulted from high residual strain in the forging before solution treatment. 150 mm (6 in. 30. 29 Alloy 2025-T6 closed-die forging. and artificially aged. 29. Keller’s reagent. and artificially aged. Longitudinal section. 200 Fig. 500 Fig. hot rolled. solution heat treated and artificially aged. A short transverse section showing the end view of an area from the center of the plate thickness.128 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 2024-T851 plate. 150 mm (6 in. Keller’s reagent. 200 Fig. and artificially aged. stretched. solution heat treated and artificially aged. 27 Alloy 2024-T851 plate. Incomplete recrystallization occurred because forging had lower residual strain before solution heat treatment than in Fig. cold rolled. 10% H3PO4. 28 Alloy 2025-T6 closed-die forging. 100 mm (4 in. Worked structure is only partly recrystallized. 100 Fig. 30 . solution heat treated. Keller’s reagent.

32 Alloy 2218-T61 closed-die forging. Alloy 2117-T4 rivet. 60 Fig.) thick 2090 sheet. The small recrystallized grains are in the rivet head.6 mm (0. Keller’s reagent. 31 Alloy 2090. cold upset. plate and sheet. (b) 1. recrystallized structure. (a) 45 mm (1.75 in. and the large grains are in the shank.Representative Micrographs / 129 (a) (b) Fig. The dark particles of insoluble FeNiAl9 phase show banding. 33 . Fine. solution heat treated and artificially aged. Keller’s reagent.063 in. Crystallized microstructures. quenched in water at 25 °C (75 °F) max. 100 Fig. which resulted from the working during forging. solution heat treated at 500 °C (935 °F) for 35 min.) thick 2090 plate.

500 Fig. solution heat treated. stabilized at 230 °C (450 °F) for 7 h.5% HF. 0. 500 . Longitudinal section shows no recrystallization of the worked structure.5% HF. solution heat treated at 530 °C (985 °F) for 2 h and cooled in still air. 0. 0. Note the large amount of slip (light parallel lines) that has occurred on two sets of slip planes. 34 Alloy 2219-T6 closed-die forging solution heat treated and artificially aged. Note increase in precipitation and alloy depletion near light grain boundaries. See Fig. Small particles of CuMgAl2 precipitated at grain boundaries. 100 Fig.130 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 2219-T6 closed-die forging solution heat treated and artificially aged. Keller’s reagent.5% HF. Small particles of CuMgAl2 precipitated at grain boundaries. 36 Alloy 2618-T4 forging. 37 Fig. larger particles are insoluble FeNiAl9 phase. Slower cooling resulted in an increase of CuMgAl2 at grain boundaries and within grains. 500 Fig. stabilized at 230 °C (450 °F) for 7 h. CuMgAl2 also has precipitated in grains.5% HF. larger particles are insoluble FeNiAl9 phase. 39 Alloy 2618-T61 forging. cooled in still air. Small particles of CuMgAl2 precipitated at grain boundaries. solution heat treated at 530 °C (985 °F) for 2 h. 500 Fig. CuMgAl2 also has precipitated in grains. 38 Alloy 2618-T61 forging. aged at 200 °C (390 °F) for 20 h. 0. Worked structure contains some recrystallized grains. 35 Alloy 2618-T4 closed-die forging. 35 for a totally unrecrystallized structure. aged at 200 °C (390 °F) for 20 h. Longitudinal section. 100 Fig. larger particles are insoluble FeNiAl9 phase. solution heat treated. Keller’s reagent. quenched in boiling water. quenched in boiling water. larger particles are insoluble FeNiAl9 phase. Small particles of CuMgAl2 precipitated at grain boundaries.

860 Alloy 3003-F hot rolled.Representative Micrographs / 131 (a) (b) (c) Fig. Grain elongation indicates rolling direction. 860 . Polarized light. Angular precipitates of the aluminummanganese-iron phase in the cast grains and at the grain boundaries. but not the crystallographic orientation within each grain. Longitudinal section shows recrystallized grains. 40 Alloy 3003 as-cast. 800 . Aspolished. (b) Structure of a DC cast rolling ingot heat-treated 72 h at 600 °C (1112 °F) then quenched. annealed. both primary (large. 41 Alloy 3003-O sheet. angular) and eutectic (small). then furnace cooled for 15 h to 450 °C (842 °F). Longitudinal section shows stringer of oxide from an inclusion in the cast ingot and particles of phases that contain manganese. Barker’s reagent. less than in (b) due to the shorter heat treatment. A fine AlMnFe precipitate originated from the supersaturated solid solution due to the slow cooling. the precipitates from the cast structure spheroidized. (c) Structure of a DC cast rolling ingot heat-treated 6 h at 600 °C (1112 °F). Through diffusion processes the precipitates have grown and rounded off (spheroidized). (a) Structure of a DC cast rolling ingot. 500 Fig. At the same time. 100 Fig. 42 .

As-polished. gray areas are particles of insoluble (Fe. Grain elongation indicates rolling direction. 45 . 500 Fig. 44 Alloy 5083-H112 plate.Mn)3Al12 particles during cold rolling. Mg2Si) or that contain manganese.5% HF.Mn)Al6 (large) and aluminum-manganese-silicon (both large and small) was not changed by annealing.Mn)3Al12. Higher magnification of the longitudinal section shows recrystallized grains. cold rolled. such as phases that contain magnesium (for example. Dispersion of insoluble particles of (Fe. 0. 750 Fig. cold rolled. 50 Fig. annealed. Keller’s reagent. The coarse. adjacent black areas are voids caused by breakup of the brittle (Fe. Small. 43 Alloy 5083 plate.132 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 3003-O sheet. outlined). Separate black areas may be insoluble particles of Mg2Si. dark areas may be particles of insoluble phases. but not the crystallographic orientation within each grain. Longitudinal section shows particles of primary MnAl6 (gray.

Development of microstructures during hot rolling at 315 °C (600 °F) . plate.Representative Micrographs / 133 Fig. 46 Alloy 5083.

Polarized light. As-polished. longitudinal section.5 in. 50 . In contrast to Fig. large particles are insoluble phases. cold rolled and stress relieved below the solvus at 245 °F (475 °F) .25 in. 50. 49 Alloy 5456 plate. Oxide stringer from an inclusion in the cast ingot. hot rolled. See also Fig. This type of recrystallization is frequently referred to as “dynamic recrystallization. hot-rolled slab. and Mg2Al3 (fine precipitate).4 mm (0. Longitudinal section.Mn)Al6 (gray). Particles are (Fe. Undesirable continuous network of Mg2Al3 particles precipitated at grain boundaries. 250 Fig. cold rolled and stabilized at 120 to 175 °C (250 to 350 °F) to prevent age softening. 25% HNO3.) thick. Partial recrystallization occurred immediately after hot rolling from residual heat.) thick.” Barker’s reagent. 13 mm (0. 500 Fig. 25% HNO3. The structure also shows some particles of (Fe. 48 Alloy 5456 plate. 47 Alloy 5454. 500 Fig. there is no continuous network of precipitate at grain boundaries. 6. Mg2Si (black).134 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 5086-H34 plate. 47. 100 Fig.Mn)Al6 (light gray).

hot rolled. Annealed at 345 °C (650 °F). interior grains show uniform reflection.4 in. The light. 53 Alloy 5457-O plate.Mn)Al6. 0. indicating random crystallographic orientation. 500 Fig.4 mm (0. 100 Fig.) thick. indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Fig. Fine particles of Mg2Si precipitated during the rolling. 500 Alloy 5457-F extrusion.) thick. 54 . photographed with polarized light.5the solvus. If carried through to final sheet. 52 Alloy 5457-F plate. Polarized light. 55–57. The grains are equiaxed. longitudinal section. outlined particles are insoluble (Fe. Surface grains (top) show random reflection. 100 Fig.Representative Micrographs / 135 Alloy 5456-O in.5% HF. 10 mm (0. Barker’s reagent. this amount of precipitate would cause an objectionable milky appearance in a subsequently applied anodic coating. annealed above Rapid cooling resulted in retention of Mg2Al3 in solid solution. A transverse section. Barker’s reagent. the dark particles are insoluble Mg2Si. See also Fig. 13 mm (0. 6. 51 hot rolled and plate. 25% HNO3.25 in.) thick.

55 Alloy 5457-O plate. Effect of cold rolling. 56 for annealed structure. Anodized coating from Barker’s reagent was stripped with 10% H3PO4 at 80 °C (180 °F). annealed at 345 °C (650 °F). Polarized light. See Fig. but ductility is lower than for specimen in Fig.4 in.Fig. annealed at 345 °C (650 °F). which improves formability. 100 Alloy 5457-O plate. 57 Alloy 5457-O plate. See Fig. Black spots are etch pits. Barker’s reagent. 200 Fig. 61. Barker’s reagent. Barker’s reagent. 80% reduction. 54 for annealed structure. See Fig.) thick. Polarized light. 60 Alloy 5657-F sheet. 100 Fig. 100 . 100 Alloy 5657 ingot. 40% reduction. Barker’s reagent.4 in. Effect of cold rolling. 59 Alloy 5657-F sheet. Effect of cold rolling. cold rolled (85% reduction). Polarized light. cold rolled (85% reduction). annealed at 345 °C (650 °F). Structure shows onset of recrystallization.) thick. Polarized light. Longitudinal section. Dendritic segregation (coring) of titanium. Grains are greatly elongated and contribute to high strength. 100 Fig. Stress relieved at 300 °C (575 °F) for 1 h. Polarized light. originally 10 mm (0. originally 10 mm (0. 54 for annealed structure. 58 Fig. Barker’s reagent. 10% reduction.) thick. originally 10 mm (0.4 in. 56 Fig.

Recrystallized grains and bands of unrecrystallized grains. scriptlike) and Mg2Si (black) See also Fig.) thick. as hot rolled (91% reduction).5% HF. 61 Alloy 5657 sheet. 250 Fig. 250 Fig.) thick. Anodized coating from Barker’s reagent was stripped with 10% H3PO4 at 80 °C (180 °F). Polarized light. 38 mm (1. Annealed at 315 °C (600 °F) for 1 h.5% HF. Particles of Fe3SiAl12 and Mg2Si are more broken up and uniformly distributed than in Fig.5 in. See also Fig.Representative Micrographs / 137 Alloy 5657-F sheet. 0. Longitudinal section from near plate surface. 65. Fig. 63 (midthickness). Longitudinal section from center of plate thickness. as hot rolled (91% reduction). cold rolled (85% reduction). 63 Alloy 6061-F plate. 62 segregation (coring)Banding from dendritic of titanium in the ingot (see Fig. 0. 38 mm (1. 64 and 65. 58). 64 .5 in. 100 Fig. Barker’s reagent. 200 Alloy 6061-F plate. Particles are Fe3SiAl12 (gray.

Grains in the interior of the extrusion are unrecrystallized.5% HF. H2SO4 HF. 250 Alloy 6063-T5 extrusion. 200 Fig. Precipitation of fine Mg2Si particles within the grains and coarser Mg2Si phases along the grain boundaries. Cross section.4 mm (0. 65 Fig.25 in. midthickness longitudinal section Fe3SiAl12 particles more broken and dispersed than in Fig. Most Mg2Si will dissolve during solution treating. Grains at surface of extrusion have recrystallized because of more working and heating. 67 . Actual size Fig. 66 Alloy 6063 as-cast. Tucker’s reagent.138 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 6061-F 6. Annealed at 580 °C (1076 °F) and slow cooled.) sheet. Transverse section. hot rolled (reduced 98%). 64. 0.

H2SO4 HF. 200 Fig. H2SO4 HF. 69 . oversaturated mixed crystal and primary phases aligned along the direction of the deformation. Metastable. Cooled with agitated air.Representative Micrographs / 139 Alloy 6063 extrusion. air cooled. 200 Fig. Longitudinal section. artificially aged. 68 Alloy 6063 extrusion. Cross section showing coherent fine precipitates and primary phases in the grains and coarser precipitates on the grain boundaries.

annealed at 580 °C (1076 °F) and water quenched.140 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 6063. Barker’s reagent. 70 Alloy 6063-T4. 50 Fig. Alloy segregation (coring) with areas of leftover molten material at the grain boundaries. Cross section. continuous casting. Cross section showing substantial removal of segregation and absorption of the cast phases. 71 . 50 Fig. Barker’s reagent.

banded dispersion of extremely small particles of a chromium intermetallic phase.06 in. 74 Alloy 6351-T6 extruded tube. 1. Keller’s reagent.5 mm (0.) wall. 73 Fig. Cross section showing precipitation of fine Mg2Si particles within the grains and cast phases along the grain boundaries. annealed at 580 °C (1076 °F) and air cooled.Mn)3SiAl12 (angular or scriptlike) and a fine. Barker’s reagent. polygonized subgrains are in unrecrystallized interior. Polarized light.Representative Micrographs / 141 Alloy 6063-T6. 72 Alloy 6151-T6 closed-die forging showing large particles of Mg2Si (rounded) and (Fe. 250 Fig. 100 . Coarse. H2SO4 HF. Longitudinal section. recrystallized grains at top are near surface. 200 Fig.

150 mm (6 in. Dendritic cells are more evident than in Fig. Barker’s reagent. 77 Alloy 7039-F plate.142 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 7039 ingot 305 mm (12 in. Grains are elongated and thinned by working. 10% H3PO4. 100 Fig. 75 Alloy 7039 ingot 305 mm (12 in. Barker’s reagent. 79.) thick. 50 Fig. See also Fig. 75 because of the higher magnification and the etchant used. 50 Fig. as hot rolled (50% reduction). 50 Fig. 76. Polarized light. 78 . See also Fig. 76 Alloy 7039-F plate.) thick. Polarized light. Dendritic cells also show precipitate formed during homogenization. Barker’s reagent. Polarized light. Grains are greatly elongated and thinned. as hot rolled (83% reduction).) thick. See also Fig. 50 mm (2 in. 78. Structure shows equiaxed grains with interdendritic areas of Mg2Si and Fe3-SiAl12.) thick.

78. 82 . The soluble particles of FeAl3 (light gray) were not affected by the annealing treatment. annealed. Dendritic cells are elongated and thinned by working. 77. 81 Alloy 7075-O sheet. 25% HNO3.Representative Micrographs / 143 Alloy 7039-F plate. 80 Alloy 7075-O sheet. 10% H3PO4. Platelets of MgZn2 precipitated at grain boundaries during slow cooling. 150 mm (6 in. outlined) were not affected by the annealing treatment. 100 Fig. 100 Fig. The insoluble particles of FeAl3 (light gray. as hot rolled (83% reduction). 81. annealed. See also Fig. 500 Fig. The fine particles of MgZn2 (dark) were precipitated at lower temperatures during heating to or cooling from the annealing temperature. 82. The fine particles of MgZn2 (dark) were precipitated at lower temperatures during heating to or cooling from the annealing temperature. 10% H3PO4.) thick. 25% HNO3. See also Fig. as hot rolled (50% reduction). 500 Fig. See also Fig. Dendritic cells are elongated and thinned by working. cooled more slowly from annealing temperature than specimen in Fig.) thick. 79 Alloy 7039-F plate. 50 mm (2 in.

86 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Fracture was caused by excessive assembly stress. 4 Fig. Keller’s reagent. Fracture surface of plane fracture in Fig. those in core are Cr2Mg3Al18 and (Fe. 1.) of alloy 7072 for 1. not reagent. Particles in cladding (top) are Fe3SiAl12. 88. 8 etched. Keller’s of parting-plane fracture in this alloy. 84.07 mm (0. Woody. Detail of parting.5 Fig.144 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 7075-T6 sheet clad with 0.6 mm (0.Mn)Al6. 84 (machined started at the machined hole and progressed parallel to hole at bottom). The fracture parting-plane fracture in Fig.064 in. Not polished. See also Fig.Fig. See also Fig. 84 Alloy 7075-T6 forging.0027 in. Parting-plane fracture in a forging that contained a bushing in a machined hole. 350 Fig. 83 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. brittle fracture pattern is typical the flaw lines of the forging. 85 . Keller’s reagent.) total thickness. 87 and 88.

See also Fig. 88 for details of a small area of the portion of the defect at lower right. 200 Fig. or lap. at a machined fillet in a forging. Surface appearance of a lap (at trough. 8 Fig. 87 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. or healing. at lower right in Fig. 10 Fig. 88 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Fold. during forging. Keller’s reagent. indicating that the defect occurred during forging. Defect was continuous before machining. 90. Not polished. Enlarged view of an area of the fold. which prevented it from welding. Keller’s reagent. Defect contains nonmetallic particles. 89 . not etched. oxides. and voids. or lap.Representative Micrographs / 145 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. See also Fig. 87. Forging flow lines bend in the vicinity of the lap. center).

91 Fig. 500 Fig. The cracks developed from the cavities. See also Fig. See Fig.75 . Section through the forging lap shown in surface view in Fig. 89. which indicates that the defect occurred during forging.146 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 7075-T6 forging. 9 Fig. which were produced during solidification of the ingot and which remained during forging because of inadequate cropping. Keller’s reagent. 94. The trough at the surface is at the left. The grains near the lap are deformed. Band of shrinkage cavities and internal cracks. Fractured lug. 90 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Arrows illustrate sites at machined hole where stress-corrosion cracks originated because of stress acting across the short transverse grain direction. Keller’s reagent. 92 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Keller’s reagent. 93 and 94 for higher magnification view of this defect. 2.

91 that contains rows of unhealed shrinkage cavities (black) shown at higher magnification. Keller’s reagent. The cracks developed from shrinkage cavities. 93 Alloy 7075-T6 Higher magnification view of Fig. 91 that contains intergranular and connecting transgranular cracks shown at a higher magnification. 95 . 94 fractured lug in forging. Area of the forging in Fig.that contains intergranular cracksarea of the Fig. Keller’s reagent. No cracks have developed from the cavities in this particular area. 95 for view of cracked area. See Fig. See also Fig. Area of the forging in Fig.Representative Micrographs / 147 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. 200 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. 200 Fig. 93. Keller’s reagent. 92 caused by stress corrosion. 200 Fig. which resulted when assembly of a pin in the machined hole produced excessive residual hoop stress in the lug.

Keller’s reagent. Fracture in an extrusion.148 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 7075-T6 forging. not etched. 96 Fig. Not polished. fractured). Brittle surfaces in a tension-test specimen machined from an alloy 7075-T6 forging that contained a defect of the type shown in Fig. 3 Fig. 97 Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. 91 (shrinkage cavities and internal cracks). 200 . Segregation originated in the ingot and persisted through to the final product. showing segregation of chromium particles (light gray.

100 200 Alloy 7075-T6 plate. both of which originated in the ingot.Representative Micrographs / 149 Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. Pitting-type corrosion (dark area) in the surface of an aircraft wing plank machined from an extrusion. Intergranular corrosion. Keller’s reagent. 200 Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. 99 Fig. Fracture Fig. Keller’s reagent. 200 Fig. Grain boundaries were attacked. 98 dross (center) and some segregationshowing a spongy inclusion of of chromium particles (left) at fracture surface. . Keller’s reagent. causing the grains to separate.

Exfoliation-type corrosion. Keller’s reagent. Higher magnification view of Fig. 102 . 102. 20 Fig. resulting in a leafing action. showing how the corrosion product caused the uncorroded. Keller’s reagent. 101 (rotated 90°).150 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. recrystallized skin of the extrusion to split away. See also Fig. Rapid attack was parallel to the surface of the extrusion and along the grain boundaries or along striations within elongated grains. 200 Fig. 101 Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion.

Keller’s reagent. 103 Alloy 7075-T6 alclad sheet. 200 Fig. Fretting corrosion product is Al2O3. showing the deformed grains and necking at the fracture. 106 Alloy 7075-T6 sheet. 200 Fig. 1050 .Representative Micrographs / 151 Alloy 7075-T6 alclad sheet.2 mm (0. Brittle fracture in overheated alclad sheet.) thick sheet that was fayed to a 4130 steel strap in a fatigue test. 104 Alloy 7075-T6 extruded bar. Typical ductile fracture. caused by solid-solution melting at the grain boundaries. Keller’s reagent. Keller’s reagent. 200 Fig.125 in. Typical branched intergranular stress corrosion cracks. Keller’s reagent. 105 Fig. Transverse section. Surface fretting (dark gray) on 3.

150 Fig. and artificially aged. Keller’s reagent. Keller’s reagent. See also Fig. Some unresolved Mg2Si may be present. 108 Fig. 110 Fig.006 to 0. The forging was peened with S230 cast steel shot to an Almen-gage intensity of 0.Mn)Al6 (dark gray). Sacrificial corrosion of cladding prevented exfoliation of sheet during testing. 75 . (b) Transverse section.005 in. 109 Alloy 7075-T7352 forging. total thickness).2 mm (0. 3. Keller’s reagent.125 in. See also Fig.125 in.125 in. The surface of the sheet (at top) shows deformation and roughening. clad with 0. 3. solution heat treated.(a) (b) Alloy 7075-T652 forging. exposed in a test chamber containing a fog of 5% NaCl for two weeks. (a) Longitudinal section.008 A. and artificially aged. 111 Alloy 7178-T76 sheet. or 0. 75 Fig. This is a normal structure. 111. Note exfoliation of the sheet. solution heat treated. cold reduced. 250 Fig. showing the effect of saturation peening. Fusion voids (black areas) and agglomeration of insoluble phases (dark gray).) thick.1 mm (0. Particles are insoluble (Fe.) thick. Keller’s reagent. cold reduced. Eutectic melting temperature was exceeded during solution heat treatment. Keller’s reagent. 107 Alloy 7075-T7352 forging.127 mm (0. 250 Alloy 7178-T76 sheet.2 mm.) of alloy 7072 (3. 109..

Keller’s reagent. light particles. surrounding equiaxed grains. Core of alclad sheet used in resistance spot weld shown in Fig. and Cu2FeAl7. 115–118. 114 . Oval nugget has zone of columnar grains. The flow lines of the joint show the movement of metal toward the edge of the bar during weld upsetting. See also Fig. 113 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with alloy 1230. Cu2MnAl20. 150 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with alloy 1230. 500 Fig.5% HF. 114. 115–118. 0. Tucker’s reagent. The dark particles are CuMgAl2. 112 Pressure weld (cold) in alloy 2014-T6 bar.Representative Micrographs / 153 Welded Wrought Aluminum Alloys Fig. 10 Fig. Resistance spot weld. CuAl2. See also Fig.

500 Fig. Outer zone of nugget of the weld alloy 1230. 550 Fig. Keller’s reagent. The structure consists of small equiaxed grains. 114 showing eutectic segregation depletion (light of the nugget.Mn)3SiAl12 (dark) Keller’s reagent. This inner zone is surrounded by an outer zone that consists of columnar grains. 550 Fig. 120 and 121.) thick sheet used for the weld shown in Fig.125 in. which shows inner zone of band) at edge of nugget and concentration (dark band) in nugget. Structure of 3. Keller’s reagent. 117 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with 1230. See also Fig. Longitudinal section. See also Fig. 115 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with alloy 1230. 114. 118 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with alloy 1230. 116 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with alloy Fig.154 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Fig. 100 . Columnar grains are normal to the edge Fig.2 mm (0. 114. 116. Outer zone of nugget (at interface) of resistance spot weld made in alclad sheets. Keller’s reagent. 119 Parent metal alloy 2219-T37 sheet. Keller’s reagent. 115. 550 the base metal. Transition zone of the weld in shown in Fig. Elongated grains of solid solution with particles of CuAl2 (light) and (Fe. Inner zone of nugget of the resistance spot weld shown in Fig. Unfused cladding (right) projects into the weld nugget. See also Fig. 114.

Gas tungsten arc weld in a butt joint. 10 Fig. Alloy ER 2319 filler metal. Alloy ER 2319 filler metal. Keller’s reagent. 120 Weld in alloy 2219-T37 sheet. 122. 121 Weld in alloy 2219-T37 sheet. 123. See also Fig. Electron beam weld in a butt joint. See also Fig. 10 .Representative Micrographs / 155 Fig. Keller’s reagent.

Edge of the fusion zone of the electron beam weld shown in Fig. 123 . 120. Alloy ER 2319 filler metal. See also Fig. 122 Weld in alloy 2219-T37 sheet. Keller’s reagent. The base metal is on the left.156 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Weld in alloy 2219-T37 sheet. 100 Fig. 121. Edge of the fusion zone of the gas tungsten arc weld shown in Fig. Alloy ER 2319 filler metal. The base metal is on the left. Gas tungsten arc weld in a butt joint. 123. 100 Fig. Keller’s reagent.

Structure shows particles of CrAl7 (coarse black). 124 Welded alloy 5052-O sheet. used for weld shown in Fig.) thick. Keller’s reagent. Keller’s reagent. 127.) thick. 500 Fig.) thick. 125 Welded alloy 5052-O sheet. Filler metal was alloy ER 5356.40 in. 500 Fig.40 in. outlined areas are pits.Representative Micrographs / 157 Parent metal alloy 5052-O sheet. 126) is to the right. Structure equiaxed dendrites of aluminum with much Mg2Al3 precipitate near dendrite boundaries forming the dark band in Fig.40 in. 127 Weld in alloy 5052-O sheet. 125–127. 500 Fig. Keller’s reagent. Bead of weld shown in Fig. Filler metal was alloy ER 5356. 10 mm (0. Weld bead (See also Fig.) thick. Tucker’s reagent. 10 mm (0. 126 Fig. where etchant removed Mg2Si. 10 mm (0. See also Fig. Gas tungsten arc fillet weld. 10 mm (0. 15 . 127. The structure consists of equiaxed dendrites of aluminum with a fine precipitate of Mg2Al3 (dark) in the dendrites and at dendrite boundaries.40 in. 124–126. Rounded.

128 Weld in alloy 5456-H321 plate.) thick. See also Fig.5 Fig. Alternating current and ER 4043 filler metal were used.6 mm (0. Edge of fusion zone (base metal is at bottom) of the electron beam weld in Fig. 10 Fig. Note the extent of the heat-affected zone. 129 for details of the edge of the fusion zone. 5. 130 .) thick. Keller’s reagent. 129 Weld in alloy 5456-H321 plate. Keller’s reagent. Electron beam weld in a butt joint. 1. Gas tungsten arc weld in a butt joint. 131 and 138. 100 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet.158 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Fig. 25 mm (1 in. Keller’s reagent. 128. 25 mm (1 in.) thick. See Fig.063 in. No filler metal was used.

) thick. Keller’s reagent.063 in. See Fig. See Fig.) thick sheet.125 in. Edge of the fusion zone (base metal is at left) of the electron beam weld in Fig. shown at a higher magnification than Fig. 131 Fig. 133 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet. 138 for structure of edge of fusion zone. 3. 133.Representative Micrographs / 159 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet. Keller’s reagent. 3. The microstructure is the same as Fig. Particles of Mg2Si (black) and Fe3SiAl12 (gray) in base metal (left) and interdendritic Al-Mg2Si eutectic in weld metal. 132. 130. 134.) thick sheet used in making the weld shown in Fig. 136 but contains more Mg2Si.6 mm (0. 132 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet. Keller’s reagent. Keller’s reagent. 100 Fig. Structure of 1. See also Fig.2 mm (0.125 in.2 mm (0. No filler metal was used. 10 Fig.2 mm (0. 133 and 134 for details of the edge of the fusion zone. Note abrupt change from structure of base metal to that of weld bead.125 in. 100 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet. 134 . 500 Fig. Electron beam weld in a 3.) thick.

using alternating current.4 mm (0. next to weld beam (right). Gas tungsten arc weld in a butt joint. black areas) is evident. 100 Fig.4 mm (0. The base metal is located on the left.6 mm (0. Interdendritic network of aluminum-silicon eutectic (dark) in weld beam (right). Elongated grains of aluminum solid solution contain particles of Mg2Si (black). is narrower and more pronounced than in Fig.250 in. 138 Welded alloy 6061-T6 plate.) thick sheet.) thick plate. using alternating current. 136 and 137 for other views of the weld.063 in. See also Fig. See also Fig. Alternating current and ER 4043 filler metal were used. The structure is the same as that in Fig.250 in. 136 Welded alloy 6061-T6 plate. 100 Fig.Fig. Dark band of Al-Mg2Si eutectic in heat-affected zone. Edge of fusion zone of a weld made in 6.5 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 plate. 137 (weld made with alternating current). Keller’s reagent.4 mm (0.) thick plate. 131. Keller’s reagent.) thick plate used in making the weld shown in Fig.) thick.250 in. 100 Fig. 137 Welded alloy 6061-T6 plate. Edge of fusion zone of a weld made in 6. dark band of Al-Mg2Si eutectic in the heat-affected zone.250 in.4 mm (0. 135. 5. Keller’s reagent. 139 . using straight-polarity direct current. Keller’s reagent. 135 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 plate. and weld bead is located on the right. Keller’s reagent 100 Fig. 137. 6. Edge of fusion zone of a weld made in 1. Structure of 6. but some porosity (large.

) thick plate using straight-polarity direct current. 140 Welded alloy 6061-T6 plate. The microstructure is the same as for the 6. Black dots are Mg2Si particles. 142. 100 Parent metal alloy 6061-T6 extruded tube. Keller’s reagent.Representative Micrographs / 161 Fig. Edge of fusion zone of a weld made in 1. 139. 50 Fig. ER 4043 filler metal.4 mm (0. 141 Fig. 142 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 extruded tube. Keller’s reagent. Structure of the extruded tube (extrusion direction vertical) used for the weld shown in Fig. Gas tungsten arc fillet weld joining a 6061-T6 tube (upper left) and an A356-T6 investment casting. Keller’s reagent. but the amount of interdendritic aluminum-silicon eutectic in the weld bead is greater.063 in.6 mm (0.250 in) thick plate in Fig. 15 .

Structure consists of dendrites of aluminum solid solution (light gray) and aluminum-silicon eutectic matrix (dark). 143 10 Weld in alloy 7039-T63 plate. 143. See Fig. 50 . made with 4047 (BAIS-4) filler metal. 145. Keller’s reagent. Electron beam weld in a butt joint of alloy. 25 mm (1 in. 146 for details of structure of the smaller fillet. 144 for details of the edge of the fusion zone. Fig. Edge of fusion zone (base metal is at bottom) of the electron beam weld in Fig.Fig. 145 Fig.) thick. Keller’s reagent. Aspolished. No filler metal was used. As-polished. 146 Brazed joint in alloy 6063-O sheet. See Fig.) thick. 100 Brazed Joints Brazed joint in alloy 6063-O sheet. Smaller fillet of brazed joint shown in Fig. 5 Fig. 25 mm (1 in. 144 Weld in alloy 7039-T63 plate.

Aspolished. As-polished. Larger fillet of brazed joint shown in Fig.Representative Micrographs / 163 Fig. Structure consists of dendrites of aluminum solid solution (light). 147 Brazed joint in alloy 7004-O sheet. made with alloy 4245 filler metal. 50 Fig.5% HF. 149 Brazed joint in alloy 3003 brazing sheets (clad on both sides with alloy 4343 filler metal). Brazed joint in 12-O brazing sheets. Brazed joint between alloy 7004-O sheets. 147. and particles of primary silicon (dark). 30 . 148 for details of the microstructure of the larger fillet. 0. matrix of aluminum-silicon eutectic (mottled). 148 Brazed joint in alloy 7006-O sheet. Fillets show dendrites of solid solution (light) in aluminum-silicon eutectic matrix. 5 Fig. See Fig.

solution heat treated and stabilized. sand cast. premium quality cast.5% HF. 150 Alloy 201. 0. See Fig. 0.164 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Cast Aluminum Alloys Fig.5% HF. 500 Fig. Structure is a fine precipitate of CuAl2 in grains and at grain boundaries. 156. and artificially aged. premium quality cast. Higher magnification view of Fig. Structure consists of an interdendritic network of undissolved eutectic CuAl2 (gray. no undissolved eutectic CuAl2. See Fig.0-T7.5% HF. 152 for structure at higher magnification. 152 Alloy 222. 100 Alloy 201. 0.5% HF. 0. some shrinkage cavities (black). 153 . as premium quality cast. some shrinkage cavities (black). 151 and 152 for the effect of solution heat treatment and stabilization.0-T61. outlined). solution heat treated. The structure consists of an interdendritic network of rounded CuAl2 containing blades of Cu2FeAl7 and some Fe3SiAl12 (dark-gray script). 250 Fig.0-F. Note that the presence of silver in the alloy has resulted in some agglomeration of the precipitate.0-T7. and stabilized. See also Fig. 100 Fig. 151 showing pattern of CuAl2 precipitate that resulted from segregation of copper (coring). solution heat treated. 151 Alloy 201.

5% HF. 500 Fig. and stabilized. 0. as premium quality cast. 155 and 156 for the effect of heat treatment on the structure. almost all of the eutectic CuAl2 present in Fig. The structure consists of an interdendritic network of rounded CuAl2 (light gray) containing blades of Cu2FeAl7 (medium gray) and some particles of silicon (dark gray). solution heat treated. 500 Fig. 155 Alloy 224. 0.0-F. Enlarged view of structure in Fig. as premium quality cast.5% HF. See also higher magnification view in Fig. 0.0-T7. See Fig. The structure consists of an interdentritic network of undissolved eutectic CuAl2 (gray. 156. premium quality cast. 100 Fig. and stabilized. 0. 154 Alloy 224. 157 . 156 Alloy 238.0-F. solution heat treated. outlined). 100 Fig.0-T7. 154 has been dissolved.5% HF. 155 showing a fairly even pattern of very fine particles of CuAl2 precipitates in the aluminum grains and slightly larger particles of the precipitate at grain boundaries. Structure: fine CuAl2 precipitate.5% HF.Representative Micrographs / 165 Alloy 224. as permanent mold cast.

The microstructure contains large shrinkage voids (black).5% HF. Dendrites of aluminum solid solution solution heat treated. and some interdendritic particles of work of silicon particles (dark gray. and CuAl2 was dissolved during and (Fe. Other constituents are inter. 158 Alloy 319. and artificially show segregation (coring). 250 Fig. as permanent mold cast. permanent solid cast. 160 . As-polished. angular) and CuMgAl2 (gray). 100 Fig.0-F. as investment cast. Fig. Keller’s reagent. Structure consists of an interdendritic neteutectic (mottled). as permanent mold cast.aged. 161 Alloy 319. 100 solution heat treating. Segregation in dendrites of solid solution was dendritic network of silicon (dark gray) rounded CuAl2 eliminated by diffusion.0-T6.0-F.0-F. 0.166 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 240.Mn)3SiAl12 script. 159 Alloy 308. 50 rounded particles of CuAl2 (light gray) that contain blades of Fe2Si2Al9. an interdendritic network of Al-Cu-Mg Fig. Keller’s reagent.

0. aged. The angular. modified by sodium adsand cast. Blades are Fe2Si2Al9.356.0-T6.Representative Micrographs / 167 Alloy 356. 0. Hydrogen porosity (black) in a 356-T6 permanent mold casting that had been solution heat treated and artificially aged. and stabilized.0-F as investment cast with Fig. dark-gray constituent Light-gray interdendritic network consists of particles of is silicon. solution heat treated.5% HF. 250 Fig. 165 dition. 163 Alloy 356. As-polished. Black script is Mg2Si. sand cast.0-T51. Al2O3 inclusions. 164 Alloy 356.0-T7. silicon. artificially sodium-modified ingot.5% HF. Structure: rounded particles of silicon and blades of Fe2Si2Al9. 250 . 100 Alloy Fig.5% HF. 162 Fig. 50 Light script is FeMg3Si6Al8. 0.

). 2 (a) (b) Fig. Comparison of structure fineness using dendrite arm spacing (DAS). . Tucker’s reagent.05% Ti refiners. 166 Alloy 356. (b) DAS 40 μm.0-T6. See also Fig. 167.). Macrograin size is 1 mm (0. 168 Alloy A356. The macrograin size is 5 mm (0.005% B added as grain 0. 2 Alloy 356.168 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Fig.0-F sand casting with Fig.0-T6. Tucker’s reagent.04 in. (a) DAS 20 μm.20 in. 167 and 0. Two structures in the eutectic alloy A356.0-F sand casting to which no grain refiner was added.

0-T6. 172 for a higher magnification view. Dendrite arm spacing.0-T6. solution heat treated. 50 μm. 171 . 0. 1% Fig.Representative Micrographs / 169 Alloy A356. 171 and 172 for the effect of solution heat treatment and artificial aging. The structure consists of an interdendritic network of eutectic silicon (gray). 170 Alloy A357. Compared with Fig. 0. some particles of Mg2Si (black). porosity. as premium quality cast.0-T6. See Fig. 169 Fig. Scanning electron microscope image of the fracture surface of a cast sample of A356. premium quality cast. elongation in rupture. See Fig. 100 Fig. 170. Only on the right is there a small area (appearing fibrous) of ductile fracture where there had been cohesion. with microporosity exposing the bare dendrites.5% HF. the silicon particles in the eutectic have been rounded and agglomerated by solution heat treatment. and artificially aged.5% HF.0-F. 100 Alloy A357. 3–4%.

500 Fig.0-T6. Commercial thixocast parts and the equiaxed development of the -crystals in the solid solution before and after deformation (thixostructure). showing that very little undissolved Mg2Si (black particles) remained after solution heat treatment. and some of the particles of silicon are more angular than those in the desirable structure shown in Fig. No silicon precipitate is visible. permanent mold cast. 171. Fig.0-T61.Alloy A357. the solidification process being limited to the residual melt in the thin layers between them. 176. At higher magnification than Fig. premium quality cast. (a) Microstructure of a log in A357. insufficiently solution heat treated and artificially aged. Here. 0. solution heat treated. 173 Alloy A357. 174 for the effect of insufficient solution heat treatment. See also Fig.5% HF. the shape and size of the primary crystals remain unchanged. 500 Fig. permanent mold cast.0-T6.5% HF.5% HF. 0. 175 . aged at 155 °C (310 °F) for 10 h. 0. Structure contains undissolved Mg2Si (black). 175.0-T61. 174 (a) (b) Alloy A357. 172 artificially aged. (b) Microstructure of a landing gear component “thixoformed” in a die casting machine. quenched in water at 60 to 80 °C (140 to 180 °F). A desirable structure: rounded silicon particles and no undissolved Mg2Si.0-T6. 500 Alloy A357. solution heat treated at 540 °C (1000 °F) for 12 h. and Fig. See Fig.

and sludge.5% HF. by (E). by (D). See also Fig. which should not cause machining difficulties.0-F die casting. particles of eutectic silicon. aluminum matrix. 179 Alloy 380.5% HF. Eutectic silicon is indicated by (C). 0. 177.5% HF. 260 Fig. and particles of sludge. 177 Alloy 380. 0. 176 Alloy 380. Aluminum oxide particles are indicated by (A) and (B). by (C). See also Fig. Fine Al2O3 (A). 178 Fig. See also Fig. near the machined surface (B) of an alloy 380-F die casting. Sludge is a highmelting iron-manganese-chromium phase that forms in high-silicon aluminum alloys. 260 Fig. 0. 178.5% HF.Representative Micrographs / 171 Alloy 380.0-F die casting. 176. Area near a machined surface (A) shows structure typical of a casting that has desirable properties: interdendritic particles of eutectic silicon (B) and CuAl2 (C) in a matrix of aluminum solid solution (D). 520 . CuAl2 by (D). by (E). 179.0-F die casting. 130 Fig. Area near a machined surface (A) illustrates some primary crystals of sludge (B) in the aluminum matrix (C) that contains eutectic silicon (D). 0.0-F die casting shown at a higher magnification than in Fig.

425 Fig. 182 Fig. 65 Fig. 0. 180 shown at a higher magnification. The hard area caused difficulty in machining.5% HF. Some sludge (D) in hard area.0-F die casting.0-F die casting. 181 Alloy 380.5% HF. Eutectic silicon particles (C) in aluminum matrix (D) and particles of sludge (E and F). 130 . Hard area (A) at a machined surface (B) of an alloy 380-F die casting. Hard area (A) is separated from the area of normal structure (B) by a “flow line” (C) where two streams of liquid alloy met. 183 Alloy 380. 180 Alloy 380. 180 shown at a higher magnification. 0. Figures 181 and 182 show details of the microstructure in the hard area.0-F die casting. Edge of hard area in Fig. near the machined surface (B) of an alloy 380-F die casting. Structure consists of a heavy concentration of eutectic silicon (A) and CuAl2 (B) in the aluminum matrix (C). 0.5% HF.5% HF. caused by entrapped air. 1300 Fig. 0.172 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 380. Hard area in Fig. which differs from the normal microstructure (C).0-F die casting. Gas porosity (A).

0-F die casting. D. 520 Fig. both caused by 185 at higher magnification. or incorrect injection and back which consists of interdendritic particles of eutectic silicon (B) in an aluminum matrix (C). B) and flow lines (C. 0.Representative Micrographs / 173 Fig.0-F die casting. Fig. which shows that the Al2O3 particles (A and B) are fine and failure of the streams of molten metal to merge. 65 Alloy 384. and E) are associated with the Al2O3 55 particles.0-F die casting.5% HF. Cold-shut (A.5% HF. Area (E) in Fig. and C) in an alloy 384-F die casting.5% HF. but also has some pressures. 185 Alloy 384. (F) is eutectic silicon. 65 Al2O3 particles (D. 184 Alloy 384. Flow lines (A. Small particles of cast surface (E) of an alloy 384-F die casting. 187 Alloy 384. Fig. at the may not cause machining problems. 186 .5% HF.0-F die casting. see Fig. sludge (C. 0. 0. 186. (G) is matrix of aluminum solid solution. B. These lines may have been caused by incorrect gating. incorrect die lubrication. and in outlines area E). Region near a cast surface (A) has the desired structure. 0. For a higher magnification view of area (E). D).

Gas-porosity Fig. C. 0. which wasincaused by384-F of the mold flow lines (B) an alloy die casting. Coarse primary crystals of cavity (A). and Al2O3 (G). and D) removed from trapped air.5% HF. eutectic aluminum matrix (D).174 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy casting. some sludge (E) is present.0-F die and associated(A). 0.5% HF. Microstructure is eutectic silicon (C) in an the structure consists of aluminum matrix (E). Figure 183 shows for flow lines without voids. 130 .5% silicon (F).0-F die casting. 65 Fig. Void poor Fig. 0. 40 HF. B. 190 Alloy 384. at a machined surface (B) of an alloy 384-F molten alloy 384 prior to die casting. 189 Alloy 384.0-F. The remainder of die casting. 188 filling 384. which was caused by ensludge (A.

0. angular. 100 Fig. and large. 191 Alloy 392. 192 . 0. 192. as permanent mold cast.0-F. The structure consists of silicon (small. however. unrefined primary particles) and Mg2Si (black constituent).0-F. the addition of phosphorus to the melt refined the size of the particles of primary silicon. gray particles in eutectic. The structure consists of silicon (small.Representative Micrographs / 175 Alloy 392. angular. 191.5% HF. See also Fig. gray particles in eutectic) and Mg2Si (black constituent). See also Fig.5% HF. as permanent mold cast. 100 Fig.

as die cast. Angular gas porosity (B. (B) in normal and rounded silicon in undesirable struca sound region.176 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Alloy 413. 0. The gate area (A) of the casting has the desired structure. 194 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. 11 tures (C and D). which consists of interdendritic particles of eutectic silicon (B) and the light-etching matrix of aluminum solid solution (C). Note extreme fineness of all particulate constituents. showing 195 at a higher magnification. Area (G) in Fig. and D) scattered from the outside wall eutectic silicon (A) in matrix of aluminum solid solution (E) to the inside wall (F).5% HF.0-F die casting. of an alloy 413. 193 Fig. 41 Alloy 413. See Fig.0-F die casting. 0. C. The structure consists of eutectic silicon (gray constituent). 195 . 0. blades of Fe2Si2Al9. 196 Alloy 413. and some light-gray particles that probably are Fe3SiAl12 in a matrix of aluminum solid solution. Gate area (A) Fig. 520 Fig. 100 Fig.5% HF. 0.5% HF.0-F. 196 for details of (G).0-F die casting.5% HF.

35 aluminum solid solution (D). which was caused by air (B) and a region of undesirable structure (C and D) entrapment. and the other produced an undesirable start of flow line between region of normal structure (B). 41 also Fig. 201. Gate area (A) There are areas of undesirable silicon of a die casting that has a cold-shut void structure (B) and a gas pore (C). Area of coldshut void (A) in Fig.0-F die casting. 520 . 199 showing and interdiffuse.5% HF. in a region that otherwise exhibits a normal surrounded by areas of normal structure (E and F). The void resulted when two streams of molten metal failed to merge Fig.0-F die casting. 0. 200 and 201. and region of undesirable structure (E). 199 and 200. See also Fig. Fig. Inner end of cold-shut void (A) in Fig. See also Fig. Gate area (A). 197 Alloy 413. One of the streams produced a normal structure (B). 198.Representative Micrographs / 177 Fig. 0. 199 Alloy 413. 198 Alloy 413. 200 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. 11 Fig. 0. 0.0-F die casting.5% HF.5% HF. See structure (D).5% HF. with eutectic silicon (C) of normal shape in matrix of structure (C).

178 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Alloy 413.0-F die Fig. 200, Fig. 201 separating normalcasting. Continuation of flow line (A) inin alumistructure (B), with angular silicon (C) num matrix (D), from undesirable structure (E), with rounded silicon (F) in aluminum matrix (G). Line extends across entire section thickness. 0.5% HF. 520

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 202

Alloy B413.0-F. (a) Angular. (b) Lamellar. (c) Modified

Representative Micrographs / 179

Fig. 203

Alloy 443.0-F, as sand cast. Large dendrite cells resulted from slow cooling in the sand mold. Interdendritic structure: silicon (dark gray), Fe3SiAl12 (medium-gray script), and Fe2Si2Al9 (light-gray needles). 0.5% HF. 500

Alloy as permanent mold cast. Fig. 204 Large B443.0-F, cells resulted from slow dendrite cooling in the sand mold, but the dendrite cells are smaller than in Fig. 201 because of faster cooling in the metal permanent mold. Interdendritic structure: silicon (dark gray), Fe2SiAl12 (medium gray script), and Fe2Si2Al9 (light gray needles). See Fig. 205. 0.5% HF. 500

Alloy C443.0-F, as die cast. Dendrite cells are smaller than in Fig. 203 and 204 because of the very rapid cooling obtained in the water-cooled die-casting die. Interdendritic structure: silicon (dark gray), Fe2SiAl12 (medium gray script), and Fe2Si2Al9 (light-gray needles). 0.5% HF. 500

Fig. 205

Alloy 520.0-F, as sand cast. Structure is insoluble particles of FeAl2 (black) and an interdendritic network of Mg2Al2 phase (gray). Figures 207 and 208 show the effect of solution heat treatment 0.5% HF. 100

Fig. 206

Fig. 207 Alloy 520.0-T4, sand cast, solution heat treated at 425 °C (800 °F). Structure is insoluble particles of FeAl2 (black) and an interdendritic network of Mg2Al2 phase (gray), although the solution heat treating has dissolved most of the Mg2Al2 phase. See also Fig. 208. 0.5% HF. 100

Fig. 208 Alloy 520.0-T4, sand cast, solution heat treated. Solidus was exceeded during solution heat treating, and melting of the eutectic has formed a lacy network and rosettes of Mg2Al2 phase (gray). See also Fig. 207. 0.5% HF. 500

Alloy D712.0-F, as sand cast. Interdendritic network: particles of CrAl7, Fe3SiAl12, and FeAl6. Note the segregation (coring) of magnesium and zinc in the grains. See also Fig. 210. Keller’s reagent. 100

Fig. 209

Fig. 210 Alloy D712.0-F, as investment cast. Interden- Fig. 211 Alloy 850.0-F, as permanent mold cast. Note dritic network: particles of CrAl7, Fe2SiAl12, hot tear, which occurred at or above the and FeAl6. Intergranular fusion voids (black) were caused by solidus, and some Al-CuAl2 eutectic (gray) back filling of eutectic melting as a result of exceeding the solidus tem- tear. Particles of tin (rounded), NiAl3, and FeNiAl9 (both irregular). 0.5% HF. 100 perature during dip brazing. Keller’s reagent. 100

Representative Micrographs / 181

Welded Cast Aluminum Alloys

Fig. 212

Welded alloy 295.0-T6, investment casting. Electron beam weld in an alloy 295.0-T6 investment casting. Weld was made without filler metal. Overheating during welding resulted in a considerable amount of dropthrough (right), with accompanying longitudinal shrinkage cracks in the center of the weld metal. See also Fig. 213. Tucker’s reagent. 5

Welded alloy 295.0-T6, investment casting. Edge of fusion zone of weld shown in Fig. 212 (base metal at bottom). Large dendrites of solid solution in base metal, small dendrites in weld bead. Al-CuAl2-Si eutectic in both. Keller’s reagent. 150

Fig. 213

Fig. 214

Welded alloy 356.0-F, investment casting. Edge of a fusion zone of a gas tungsten arc repair weld in a 356.0-F investment casting. Alternating current and R-SG70A filler metal were used. Interdendritic aluminum-silicon eutectic (gray); porosity (black). See also Fig. 215. Keller’s reagent. 50

Welded alloy 356.0-F, investment casting after solution heat treatment. Particles of eutectic silicon have become rounded and agglomerated. Zone between weld bead and heat-affected zone is less clearly defined than in Fig. 214; porosity remains. Keller’s reagent. 50

Fig. 215

50 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356.0-T6.0-T6. 216.182 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Welded Wrought-to-Cast Alloys Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356. Al-Mg2Si eutectic is between the grains of the heat-affected zone of the tube. 217 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356. ER 4043 filler metal. 216.0-T6 investment casting (sodium-modified. 50 Fig. Interdendritic network is eutectic silicon. Edge of the fusion zone of the weld shown in Fig. 15 Fig. grain-refined) used for the weld shown in Fig.0-T6. Aluminum-silicon eutectic is present between the dendrites of the weld bead. 216 Fig. Keller’s reagent. 218 . Structure of A356. with the tube at the left and the weld bead at the right.0-T6 investment casting. Gas tungsten arc fillet weld joining a 6061-T6 tube (upper left) with an A356. Keller’s reagent. Keller’s reagent.

some in the weld bead. Keller’s reagent. Interdendritic aluminum-silicon eutectic is present. 220 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356. 216. Interdendritic network of aluminum-silicon eutectic is present in the matrix solid solution.0-T6. 216. 220. Dendrites of solid solution are less equiaxed.0-T6. Keller’s reagent.0-T6. Keller’s reagent. and a large amount in the heat-affected zone of the casting. 221 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356.Representative Micrographs / 183 Fig. 216. Edge of the fusion zone of the weld shown in Fig. 50 . 219 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356. 50 Fig. 50 Fig. Bead (near casting) of the weld in Fig. with the weld bead at the top and left and the casting at bottom and right. Bead (near tube) at the weld in Fig. more columnar than in Fig.

Cracks (black) have appeared in the aluminum-copper phase (light gray) at the relatively smooth interface. 223 Aluminum-steel weld. As-polished. A num sheet (top) and steel. 225 Fig. Aspolished. Explosive welded Fig. Ripple at interface of explosive welded joint between alumijoint between aluminum sheet (top) and steel showing characteristic ripples at the interface. 60 As-polished.184 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Welded Aluminum to Steel Fig. 6 Welded Aluminum to Copper Aluminum-copper weld. Explosive welded joint between aluminum sheet (top) and copper. 223. 224 . dark-gray phase (which probably is FeAl3). Cracks have appeared in the ripple is shown at a high magnification in Fig. 222 Aluminum-steel weld.

See mark.1361/iaat2000p187 Copyright © 2000 ASM International® All rights reserved. Aerospace Material Specification. An aging process that results in increased strength and hardness. the reader is referred to those publications for more complete terminology for casting and casting processes. These terms may be helpful in understanding and interpreting other information in this book regarding aluminum alloys. but it is hoped that most of the terms that are unique to the industry are defined and may help in understanding the alloy and temper designations that are the subject of this book. American Foundrymen’s Society AMS. age softening. tempers.asminternational. A AFS. p187-224 DOI:10.org APPENDIX Terminology The following list of terms covers wrought and cast aluminum products and their production. Note: Italicized words within a definition can be found as a separate entry in this list. production processes. www. American Welding Society. The terms included for casting processes are taken from publications of the American Foundrymen’s Society (AFS). age hardening.Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers J. abrasion. ASME. Spontaneous decrease of strength and hardness that takes place at room temperature in certain strain-hardened alloys containing magnesium. traffıc. ANSI. AWS. . The list is not intended to include every term likely to be used within the aluminum industry. and applications. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Most of these terms come from the Aluminum Association publication Aluminum Standards and Data and are republished with the permission of the Aluminum Association. American National Standards Institute. Gilbert Kaufman.

annealing. see specific product such as plate.188 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers aging.375 in. alloy. anodizing. anodizing sheet. An aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is metallurgically bonded to either one or both surfaces of an aluminum alloy product. Referring to newly produced. See buckle. See lamination. Precipitation from solid solution resulting in a change in properties of an alloy. Thermal treatment (H2X temper nomenclature) given cold-worked metal to reduce strength and increase ductility to controlled levels other than annealed temper. B back-end condition. It is a result of the oxidized surface of the billet feeding into the extrusion. or greater). specified angular dimensions in the cross section of a shape or bar. A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section. . with sharp or rounded comers or edges. or is a regular hexagon or octagon. sheet. tube. arbor mark. A thermal treatment to soften metal by removal of stress resulting from cold working or by coalescing precipitates from solid solution. arbor. A condition occurring in the last metal to be extruded. See sheet. alclad. Conformity to. See aging. partial. A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more elements of which at least one is an elemental metal. alligatoring. and that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded. Nongrooved roll that stiffens or strengthens work rolls. arbor break. angulation. The deliberate departure from a horizontal passline on the entry side of a rolling mill used for one-side bright rolling. or deviation from. usually occurring slowly at room temperature (natural aging) and more rapidly at elevated temperatures (artificial aging). arbor. unmachined castings that have not been subjected to any form of finishing operations (beyond gate removal or shot-blast cleaning) or treatment of any kind. bar. including heat treatment. See mark. thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion. angularity. For alclad products. as-cast condition. artificial aging. backup roll. annealing. anodizing. Forming a coating on a metal surface produced by electrochemical treatment through anodic oxidation. or wire. which is square or rectangular (excluding plate and flattened wire). and in which at least one perpendicular distance between parallel faces is over 10 mm (0.

bar. and tube. general. The piece of sheet stock cut out by blanking die. bar. One common base box for aluminum is 20. Bar brought to final dimensions by hot rolling. and so on. blister. Cold-finished bar produced from rolled bar. bar. A loose center buckle extending to near the edges of a sheet. Bar brought to final dimensions by hot extruding. produced on a blooming mill. blister. See edge. coating. A knoblike projection on the main body of a forging or casting. Bar brought to final dimensions by cold work to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances. or drawing. cold-finished extruded. Taper or slope in the bottom of a forged depression to assist the flow of metal toward the sides of the depressed area. A blister that has ruptured and may produce a void. See scratch. bleed out. This condition can occur during extrusion or thermal treatment. bloom. bar. A raised area on the surface of an extruded product due to subsurface gas expansion. bar.360 in. saw-plate.2) originally composed of 112 rectangular sheets. boss. blow hole. cold-finished. core. or natural/synthetic resin. forging. extruding. See also blister. bond. clay. A piece of metal cut or formed to regular or irregular shape for subsequent processing such as by forming.). A raised spot on only one surface of the metal whose origin is between the cladding and core in clad products. cold-finished rolled. bow. A hot-worked semifinished product suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling. blast cleaning. rolled. A blister in the coating of an alclad or a clad product. blister. blister. blank. Longitudinal curvature of rod. billet. A material used to hold the grains of foundry sand together to form a mold or core. bottom draft. A raised spot (one or both sides) on rolled metal. binder. bending.Terminology / 189 bar. extruded.232 m2 (31. belled. See two-tone. an oil. Cold-finished bar produced from extruded bar. A process to clean or finish castings by use of an air blast or airless centrifugal wheel that throws abrasive particles or metal shot against the surface of castings. profiles (shapes). It will subsequently be drawn into a cup or end shell. belled edge. block mark. belly. bar. A semifinished hot-rolled product. each 356 by 508 mm (14 by 20 in. rectangular or square in cross section. base box. tension. Bar brought to final thickness by hot or cold rolling and to final width by sawing. It can be a cereal. Bow is measured after allowing the weight of the extrusion to minimize the . An agreed-upon unit of area used primarily in packaging applications.

center. A rolled. trapped. See streak. Wire for use as a filler metal in joining by brazing. Deviation from straight of a longitudinal edge. in a furnace (furnace brazing). This may be accomplished by means of a torch (torch brazing). Undulation (wavy region) that occurs approximately at both quarter points across the width. brazing rod. See crazing. Undulation (wavy region) along the edge(s) of the metal. buff streak. burnish. brazing. arbor. broken eie. buckle. bristle mark. buckle. bright sheet. or departure from flat. Bend. Undulation (wavy region) that is smaller sized and often circular in shape. A distortion of the surface of the metal. Curvature in the plane of sheet or plate in the rolling direction. lateral. buckle. Sheet of a brazing alloy or sheet clad with a brazing alloy on one or both sides. buckle. bristle. See streak. A deviation from the desired cross section due to the absence of a certain portion of the die used to extrude the profile (shape). bow. buffing. See mark. resulting in one portion of the extrusion being longer than the other or nonuniform contraction during quenching. longitudinal. edge. Undulation (wavy region) in the center of the metal. A mechanical finishing operation in which fine abrasives are applied to a metal surface by rotating fabric wheels for the purpose of developing a lustrous finish. . wrinkle. buckle. quarter. broken edge. with severity decreasing as the distance increases in the coil from the original source. See sheet. it is found on the inside diameter of a coil but can appear on the coil outside diameter as a result of a prior winding operation. buckle. bow. broken matte finish. bruise. or by dipping in a molten flux bath (dip or flux brazing). transverse. crease. (S1SBF) and (S2SBF). occurring perpendicular to the slit edge of a coil and which are repetitive in nature. brazing wire. buckle. Normally. (1SBMF). burnish streak. bow. or cast round filler metal for use in joining by brazing. oil can. Curvature across the rolling direction of sheet or plate. broken. See mark. roll bruise.190 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers deviation. Bow can be caused by a nonuniform extrusion rate across the cross section. brazing sheet. extruded. broken surface. See edge. Nonuniform surface on the inside of packed rolled foil (bright spots). trapped. See buckle. Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 425 °C (800 °F) but lower than those of the metals being joined.

centrifugal casting. cinching. A thin ridge of roughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting. a permanent mold is rotated rapidly about the axis of the casting while a measured amount of molten metal is poured into the mold cavity. center buckle. See also mullen test. C Camber. tension. commonly applied to cylindrical castings. See buckle. A rigid electric conductor in the form of a bar. . lateral. center. trimming. The act of pouring. See mark. open-seam. expressed as a percent. See two-tone. See tube. metal. repeating. Centrifugal force is used to hold the metal against the outer walls of the mold with the volume of metal poured determining the wall thickness of the casting. or sucking molten metal into a mold (made of sand. bus bar. chip mark. pumping. bursting strength. chop. See dent. chill. pumping. Heat treatment and other processes are used to remove these strains. chatter mark.Terminology / 191 burnishing. blanking. Strains in a cast metal component resulting from internal stresses created during cooling. traffıc. This lug is finally machined or cut away. Metal sheared from a vertical surface of a die forging. casting yield. shearing. Internal chills are placed in the mold cavity and become integral parts of the casting. See mark. or sucking molten metal into a mold or set of dies and allowing it to solidify. or sawing. carbon. An object formed by pouring. casting (verb). butt-seam tube. casting strains. chafing. ceramic. Metal insert placed in a mold to increase speed of cooling. burr. chatter. A lug or boss added to a forging so that on-center machining and forming may be performed with one setup or checking. In the centrifugal casting process. See scratch. casting (noun). See bow. The difference in thickness between the middle and edges (average) of a sheet. The pressure required to rupture a foil specimen when it is tested in a mullen instrument under specified conditions. The weight of casting or castings divided by the total weight of metal poured into the mold. See mark. carbon mark. which is spread by the die over an adjoining horizontal surface. chucking lug. or graphite) or a set of metal dies.

It is measured with the sample on a flat table. cold shut. which for any reason has become so bent or twisted that it must be withdrawn from the rolling operation and scrapped. coating blister. A jamming of the mill by aluminum product while being rolled. coiled sheet. With the coil core vertical (eye to the sky) and viewed from above. coil set differential. ceramic and excess metal from an investment casting. clockwise coil. A coating thickness greater than nominal in localized area of sheet. cobble. With the coil core vertical (eye to the sky) and viewed from above. coil set. coating. coating. (2) . coating drip. Continuous film on the surface of a product. a trace of the metal edge from the inside diameter to the outside diameter involves clockwise movement. sheet. and is the difference in elevation of the comers on one end. a piece of aluminum. Longitudinal bow in an unwound coil in the same direction as curvature of the wound coil. See dirt. reversed. made with sand containing sodium silicate. coating buildup. usually along edges. coating. clad sheet. coating. high or low. coil set. See sheet. See sheet. or foil. Longitudinal bow in an unwound coil in the direction opposite the curvature of the wound coil. Removal of sand and excess metal from a sand casting. CO2 process. coating streak. (1) A linear discontinuity in a cast surface caused when meeting streams of metal fail to merge prior to solidification. See blister. coiled. coating. The difference in coil set from edge to edge of a coiled sheet sample. a trace of the metal edge from the inside diameter to the outside diameter involves counterclockwise (anticlockwise) movement. conversion. See streak. which are hardened by permeating the sand with carbon dioxide gas. See coil set. counterclockwise (anticlockwise) coil. due to uneven application techniques. coil orientation. A nonuniform extraneous deposit of coating on the coated sheet. coil orientation. concave side up. An inorganic pretreatment sometimes applied to a metal surface to enhance coating adhesion and to retard corrosion.192 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers circle. cleaning. clad. A circular blank fabricated from plate. Molds and cores. Failure of the coating to meet the agreed-upon thickness limits measured in weight per unit area. coating oven trash. or excess metal from a die casting. coil curvature.

A hollow cylinder on which a coiled product may be wound that forms the inside diameter of a coil. electrical metallic. conversion coating. water stain. conversion. A distortion. controlled cooling. A finishing process. permanent) deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain hardening occurs. concentricity. Out-of-round condition of coil often due to inappropriate tension during rewinding operations. coring. See telescoping. See coating. core. and/or mechanical operations. Curved such as the outer surface of a sphere. unless specific reference to a condenser application is intended. conduit. rigid. See back-end condition.e. conduit. or internal damage. chemical. causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product. Plastic (i.Terminology / 193 Forging defect developed by metal flowing into a section from two directions. See also tubing. a die with two or more different cavities for different castings. core blister. cracking. combination die (multiple-cavity die). Conduit having dimensions of ANSI schedule 40 pipe in standardized length with threaded ends. A tube used to protect electric wiring. corner turnup. cold working. condenser tube. concavity. coned-out coil. . convexity. Curved as the inner surface of a sphere. condensation stain. See corrosion. for example. corrosion. The deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. The term “heat-exchanger tube” is preferred. contour. Process by which a metal object is cooled from an elevated temperature in a manner that avoids hardening. See also convexity. That portion of the outline of a transverse cross section of an extruded shape that is represented by a curved line or curved lines. corrosion. exfoliation. In die casting practice.. core (for casting). Conformance to a common center as. Separable part of a mold that usually is made of sand and a binder to create openings and various specially shaped cavities in castings. that alters the appearance of an aluminum surface via coating. See also concavity. resulting in a discontinuity at the junction. or combination of processes. buckle. coloring. or twist condition that causes the corner(s) of the sheet to deviate from a perfectly flat plane on which it rests. See blister. can ends. collapse. Corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the metal surface. the inner and outer walls of round tube. core (for rolled products).

Corrosion associated with the current of galvanic cell consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or two similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes. A sharp deviation from flat in the sheet that is transferred from processing equipment subsequent to the roll bite. corrosion. . For metric units. use square meters per kilogram. or internal stresses in the material. cutoff. D deep drawing. A defect is anything that renders the aluminum unfit for the specific use for which it was ordered. Failure by cracking resulting from selective directional attack caused by the simultaneous interaction of sustained tensile stress at an exposed surface with the chemical or electrochemical effects of the surface environment. intergranular. corrosion. A macroscopic effect of numerous surface tears. coupon. corrosion. Superficial oxidation of the surface with a water film. Removal of gates. held between closely adjacent metal surfaces. defect. Curl is most prevalent in laminated structures where the components have differing physical properties. Forming rolled metal into a series of straight parallel regular alternate grooves and ridges. An undesirable condition caused by uneven rates of absorption or evaporation of moisture. cross hatching. risers. covering area. which can occur when the entry angle into the cold mill work rolls is large. See crazing. corrugating. crown. crease. stress-cracking. in the absence of circulating air. pitting. uneven rates of contraction or expansion. corrosion. which correctly stands for stress-corrosion cracking. water stain.194 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers corrosion. transverse to the rolling direction. Yield expressed in terms of a given number of square inches in a pound. curl. and other excess metal from a casting. See convexity. Localized corrosion resulting in small pits or craters in a metal surface. crazing. Aluminum will corrode if it is anodic to the dissimilar metal. Corrosion occurring preferentially at grain boundaries (also termed “intercrystalline corrosion”). usually without substantial thinning of the sheet. galvanic. The term often is abbreviated SCC. Forming a deeply recessed part by forcing sheet metal to undergo plastic flow between dies. A piece of metal from which a test specimen may be prepared.

A metal block used in the die casting process. a sharply defined surface impression on the metal that may be caused by a blow from another object. respectively. High-pressure die casting and low-pressure die casting are terms commonly used in Europe to differentiate between what in the United States would be called. A longitudinal depression or protrusion formed on the surface of drawn or extruded material. incorporating the cavity or cavities that form the cast component. See also mark. die number. Metal forms between which metal is forged or through which metal is extruded. cold chamber.Terminology / 195 dent. die casting. Die casting process in which the metal injection mechanism is not submerged in molten metal. In the United States. repeating. Injecting molten metal under pressure into a mold chamber. Today. or a wax pattern. Localized surface deviation from flat generated by expansion of vapor during thermal treatment of cold-rolled coiled sheet. Term used in Europe for producing a casting by pouring molten metal (gravity pouring) into a metal mold. A casting produced by the die casting process. dent. Metal form(s) used to produce a die casting. die (in casting). zinc. die line. the process is most suitable for high-volume production of aluminum. this is simply die casting. The shapes of the dies control the form and shape of the finished parts. which is formed by metal die. by either cold-chamber or hot-chamber die casting machines. Repeating depression caused by a particle adhering to a rotating roll over which the metal has passed. See also low-pressure casting process and high-pressure molding. . expansion. The number assigned to a die for identification and cataloging purposes. die casting (verb). In Europe. handling. and magnesium alloy castings. and which usually is assigned for the same purpose to the product produced from that die. See streak. with no application of pressure. and means for cooling and ejecting the casting. In the United States. Die casting process in which the metal injection mechanism is submerged in the molten metal. diffusion streak. die casting. hot chamber. a lost foam pattern. Die lines are present to some degree in all extrusions and are caused by a roughening of the die bearing. diffusion. pressure. the molten metal distribution system. gravity. die casting (noun). dent. (1) For rolled products. (2) For extrusions. this is the permanentmold casting process. any casting produced in a metal mold. In Europe. a synonym for handling mark. a casting made in a metal mold (set of metal dies) in which the metal is injected under high pressure. die casting and low-pressure permanent molding. die casting. die casting. die (in forging or extrusion).

Earing is caused by nonuniform directional properties in the aluminum and/or by improperly adjusted tooling. deep drawing. dry sand molding. change the cross section or shape. other more common dry sand molding techniques use sand with binders that can be cured by chemical. draw and iron-can bodies. dropped edge. duct sheet. dropped. draft. disc. dirt. redrawn to the final diameter. (1) In forging. tool. or foil. A circular blank fabricated from plate. or harden the material. printing. reaction induced by mixing with the sand or by blowing gases through the mold after it is formed. and then wall ironed to reduce the wall thickness and to achieve the required height. . drawing. dry surface. drag mark. drawn-in scratch. an operation of working metal between flat dies to reduce the cross section and increase length. ductility. sheet. drawn-in. See scratch. suitable for duct applications. and thicknesses. dry sheet. from which a central concentric area has been removed. or patterns from dies or molds. or spinning. widths. double shear. supplied in coils and of a quality suitable for drawing into wire. Ability of a casting to remain unchanged in size and shape under ordinary atmospheric conditions.196 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers dimensional stability. See rub. A foil surface substantially free from oily film and suitable for lacquering. castings. or catalytic. The property that permits permanent deformation before fracture by stress in tension. Wavy symmetrical projections formed during cupping. or coating with water-dispersed adhesives. A hot-worked intermediate solid product of uniform cross section along its whole length. Sand mixed with binders that cure by baking is one form of dry sand mold. Taper on the sides of a die or mold impression to facilitate removal of forgings. See lube. See edge. A product formed by pulling material through a die. Term that refers to a method of fabricating a can body in which a cup is drawn from flat sheet. See notch. Dry sand molds are made by many different processes. (2) The process of pulling material through a die to reduce the size. double shear notch. Foreign debris from rolling or post-rolling operations imbedded in or under the coating. Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers. E earing. drawn product. low. drawing stock.

electrical resistivity. or scraped by an object. Deviation from a common center as. edge. Edge of a coil that has been bent. belled. edge. wavy. edge. rippled. Edge(s) containing crack. turned edge. The difference between the mean wall thickness and minimum or maximum wall thickness at any one cross section. edge. build-up. torn. divided by average height at the valleys. See buckle. See buckle. edge. multiplied by 100 and expressed in percent.2) in cross-sectional area would have a resistance of 0. dropped. downward edge deflection. which has a resistivity of 1/58 ohm-mm2/m at 20 °C (68 °F) and an arbitrarily designated conductivity of unity. Degree of earing is the difference between average height at the peaks and average height at the valleys. the inner and outer walls of a round tube. liquated. this capacity is expressed as a percentage of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). the elastic limit is the yield strength.017241 ohms at 20 °C (68 °F). Typical causes include excessive edge burr. The highest stress that a material can withstand without permanent deformation after complete release of an applied stress. A continuous. split.) for flat specimens. The permissible degree of eccentricity can be expressed by a plus and minus wall-thickness tolerance. edge. elongation. and dog bone-shaped cross-sectional profiles. edge. See two-tone. edge. Surface condition remaining after portions of a side of an as-cast rolling ingot deforms enough during hot rolling to become top and/or bottom surface(s) of the rolled product at an edge. edge. Ears occur in groups of four or eight with the peaks of the projections located at 45° and/or at 0 and 90° to the rolling direction. broken (cracked). edge. for example. For . edge. eccentricity. The capacity of a material to conduct electrical current. The percentage increase in distance between two gage marks that results from stressing the specimen in tension to fracture. band. This means that a wire of 100% conductivity. damaged. The electrical resistance of a body of unit length and unit cross-sectional area or unit weight. The original gage length is usually 50 mm (2 in. Wavy symmetrical projections formed in the course of deep drawing or spinning as a result of directional properties or anisotropy in sheet. For aluminum. belled. The value of 1⁄58 ohm-mm2/m at 20 °C (68 °F) is the resistivity equivalent to the IACS for 100% conductivity. and/or tear caused by the inability to deform without fracturing. electrical conductivity. See edge. For most practical application purposes.Terminology / 197 ears. 1 m (3 ft) in length and 1 mm2 (0.002 in. elastic limit. Excessive buildup of material on edge(s) during a rewinding operation.

poured into the sprue. A region in extruded hollow profiles observed after creating two streams of metal and rejoining them around the mandrel of a porthole or bridge die. Loose sand is poured into the flask and vibrated in and around the pattern-and-sprue assembly. . extrusion. and is the length charged into the extrusion press cylinder. extrusion billet. The tendency for a metal to break under conditions of repeated cyclic stressing considerably below the ultimate tensile strength. Elongation values depend to some extent upon size and form of the test specimen. The diameter of a circle having a circumference equal to the outside perimeter of other than round tube. A longitudinal discontinuity in the extreme rear portion of an extruded product. It is usually a cast product but may be a wrought product or powder compact. extrusion seam. The starting stock for extrusion billet. the gage length is 5D for metric usage and 4D for U. extrusion log. Molten metal. fillet. endurance limit. feeder. The starting stock for the extrusion operation. feed in. See riser. standards. Extrusion log is usually produced in lengths from which shorter extrusion billets are cut. expendable pattern casting. embossing. feed line. For example. fin. Extrusion billet is a solid or hollow form. See holiday. See streak. Raising a design in relief against a surface. commonly cylindrical. grinding. those obtained in 5D will be lower than those for 4D. equivalent round. A concave junction between two surfaces. This process is also widely referred to as lost foam casting. F fatigue. vaporizes it and the foam pattern instantly and replaces its shape with what becomes the casting when it solidifies. See back-end condition. The limiting stress below which a material will withstand a specified large number of cycles of stress. the values obtained from sheet specimens will be lower for thin sheet than for thicker sheet. A thin projection on a forging resulting from trimming or from the metal under pressure being forced into hairline cracks in the die or around die inserts. eyehole. Metal casting process that employs a foam plastic pattern-and-sprue assembly that is usually robot positioned in a metal flask. which is normally discarded.S. extrusion butt end defect. A product formed by pushing material through a die.198 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers cylindrical specimens.

foil. A rolled product rectangular in cross section of thickness less than 0. etched. quarter buckle. is forced between the die interfaces. intermediate temper. matte one side (M1S). mechanically grained.15 mm (0. fish mouthing. which shows the direction of plastic flow on the surface or within a wrought structure. A line left on a forging where flash has been removed. brought about by incomplete leveling of the paint. usually transverse to the direction of rolling. (2) For extrusions. foil. A condition in coated sheet where portions of the coating become loosened due to inadequate adhesion. foil. foil. foil. . flatness (off contour) pertains to the deviation of a cross-section surface intended to be flat. flash. tempers. foil is equal to and less than 0. Foil intermediate in temper between annealed foil and hard foil. foil. flange. hard. Coiled sheet or foil in specific alloys. Foil mechanically roughened for such applications as lithography. Flatness can be affected by conditions such as die performance. In Europe.006 in. Foil with a diffuse reflecting finish on one side and a bright specular finish on the other. Foil completely softened by thermal treatment. Often described by location across width (i. thermal effects. and so on).Terminology / 199 finish. annealed. and thickness ranges suitable for manufacture of fins for heat-exchanger applications. flow lines.. fin stock. foil. Foil fully work hardened by rolling. Foil on which a pattern has been impressed by means of an engraved roll or plate. flag. embossed. edge buckle. Foil chemically washed to remove lubricant and foreign material. in excess of that required to fill the impressions. A thin protrusion at the parting line of a forging that forms when metal. flash line. Foil having a uniform bright specular finish on both sides. chemically cleaned.e. See rib. The characteristics of the surface of a product. (1) Lines on the surface of painted sheet. A forging defect caused when metal flows past the base of a rib. and stretching. flaking. Foil roughened chemically or electrochemically to provide an increased surface area.).). A marker inserted adjacent to the edge at a splice or lap in a roll or foil. flatness. See lamination.20 mm (0. bright two sides. center buckle. foil. foil. (2) The line pattern revealed by etching. resulting in rupture of the grain structure. flow through. foil. (1) For rolled products.008 in. a distortion of the surface of sheet such as a bulge or a wave.

forging. forging. A metal part worked to a predetermined shape by one or more processes such as hammering. forging. The term used to describe the relative workability of forging material. die. which is directly applicable in fracture control. draftless. forging. forging plane. forging. fracture toughness. or other section suitable for forging. forging stock. forging. A forging made in a single set of impressions to the general contour of a finished part. usually with wire brushes. forging. upsetting. A wrought or cast rod. blocker-type. formability. foil. Foil having a nonuniform finish that may vary from coil to coil and within a coil. fretting. traffıc. forging billet. fold. no-draft. mill finish (MF). hand. The term forging stock is preferred. in predetermined areas. See reroll stock. A forging worked between flat or simply shaped dies by repeated strokes or blows and manipulation of the piece. forging. press. the formation of flash. precision. A forging that has been restruck cold to obtain closer dimensions. See mark. forging. A closed-die forging made in dies constructed and operated to eliminate. to sharpen comers or outlines. forging. A forging having part or all of its cross section greater than that of the stock. A generic term for measure of resistance to extension of a crack. and so on. draftless.200 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers foil. upset. See forging. rolling. A forging discontinuity caused by metal folding back on its own surface during flow in the die cavity. forging. circumferentially rolled from a hollow section. flashless. A forging formed to the required shape and size by working in impression dies. rolled ring. forging. pressing. Foil abraded. The relative ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic deformation. The term is sometimes restricted to results of a fracture mechanics test. hammer. A forging produced by repeated blows in a forging hammer. to increase hardness. to produce a roughened surface. forging. cold-coined. foil stock. bar. and in non-heattreatable alloys. scratch brushed. A forging produced to tolerances closer than standard. A forging with zero draft on vertical walls. . forgeability. A die forging produced by pressure applied in a forging press. A reference plane or planes normal to the direction of applied force from which all draft angles are measured. A cylindrical product of relatively short height.

It travels down the sprue through the runner into the feeder or riser then through the gate into the casting cavity. glaze. grease streak. A more localized gross rolled-in scratch. center. The mold is composed of a prepared mixture of sand. gouge. gas porosity. G gage. Sometimes used as a general term to indicate the entire assembly of connected columns and channels carrying the metal from the top of a mold to the part forming the casting cavity proper. rolled-in. friction. Specifically. A term previously used in referring to the thickness of a wrought product. The gate is the breaking point at the casting from which the gating system is separated from the casting. When molten metal is poured into a mold. A measure of crystal size usually reported in terms of average diameter in millimeters. revealed by etching a polished section. gated system. Thickness is preferred in dimension description. the point in the runner system at which molten metal enters the sand mold cavity. Casting defects caused by gases trapped in molten metal or developed during solidification. it is poured into the pouring basin or cup. . See pickup. gouge. sea coal. Gating is the term used to describe all of the passages leading to the casting cavity. green sand molding. and gates in a mold through which metal flows to enter the casting cavity.Terminology / 201 friction scratch. grease. Term also applies to pattern parts that form the passages or to the metal that fills them. green sand. See buckle. gate. Term also applies to equivalent portions of the pattern. grains per square millimeter. See scratch. A gross scratch. and moisture for use while still in the damp condition. See streak. One or more patterns with gates or channels attached. The complete assembly of sprues. clay. runners. The directional characteristics of the metal structure after working. The mold is not cured or dried and therefore is known as a green (uncured) sand mold. full center. rolled in. See also scratch. gating system. or grains per cubic millimeter. roll. grain size. See also scratch. gated patterns. grain flow. Moist clay-bonded molding sand ready for making molds.

The higher the temperature is. heat streak. The purposes of this process are to (1) reduce microsegrega- . Region in which film is absent due to nonwetting of the metal surface by the coating. See mark. herringbone. hardener. hardness. heat treat lot. holding temperature. Minute hairlike sliver along edge(s) due to shearing or slitting operation. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this definition. homogenizing. See streak. Void in rolled product. Commonly used as a shop term to denote a thermal treatment to increase strength. A discoloration due to nonuniform oxidation of the metal surface during solution heat treatment. abrasion. the higher the equilibrium gas content in the metal will be. holiday. A process whereby ingots are raised to temperatures near the solidus temperature and held at that temperature for varying lengths of time. An alloy that may be strengthened by a suitable thermal treatment. Brinell hardness of aluminum alloys is obtained by measuring the permanent impression in the material made by a ball indenter 10 mm in diameter after loading with a 500 kgf (4. high-density molds from green sand. Rockwell hardness: An indentation hardness test based on the depth of penetration of a specified penetrator into the specimen under certain arbitrarily fixed conditions.903 kN) for 15 s and dividing the applied load by the area of the impression. The temperature at which the liquid casting alloy is held during casting. heat treat. The term also may refer to stiffness or temper. An alloy containing at least some aluminum and one or more added elements for use in making alloying additions to molten aluminum. Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way as to obtain desired conditions or properties. or cutting. hole. See lot. herringbone. Also referred to as master alloy. heat treat stain. See streak. heat treatable alloy. heat treating. or to resistance to scratching.202 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers H hair. slitter. Usually set as the lowest temperature that fills the mold (no misruns). A term applied to certain types of high-production sand molding machines in which high-pressure air is instantly released from a large pressure vessel to produce extremely hard. usually by indentation. heat. handling. Typical cause is a nonmetallic inclusion during rolling. See also solution heat treating and aging. handling mark. high-pressure molding. Resistance to plastic deformation.

fabricating. plastics. A part formed in a confining die from a metal slug. hot spot. rolling. A process that uses high pressures at elevated temperatures to close interior voids in castings or consolidate P/M products. extrusion. roll. forging. See also bow. Hook can be caused by nonuniform metal flow during breakthrough. hot isostatic pressing (HIP). An impurity. The injected liquid is solidified in place by heating or baking. hot line pickup. inclusion. impregnation. hook. A cast form suitable for remelting or fabricating. See pickup. See weld. These areas usually are associated with lower hardness and coarse magnesium silicide precipitate caused by nonuniform cooling after extrusion. ingot. Dark gray or black surface patches appearing after anodizing. . and proprietary compounds. A condition of the metal at excessively high working temperatures characterized by low mechanical strength and a tendency for the metal to crack rather than deform. inclusion. Plastic deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain hardening does not occur. stringer. See also ingot. incomplete seam. I impact. See also ingot. incomplete. speed. See tear. Media used include silicate of soda. hot working. ingot. ingot. by rapid single-stroke application of force through a punch. causing the metal to flow around the punch and/or through an opening in the punch or die. usually cold. drying oils with or without styrenes. usually cylindrical. fabricating. Sometimes confused with hot tearing. suitable for extruding. metallic or nonmetallic. ingot. A crack in a casting caused by thermal contraction of the part combined with thermal expansion of the surrounding steel die. hot shortness. A cast form that is solid or hollow. A process for making castings fluid tight by pressure injecting them with liquid synthetic resins or other sealers. remelt. the crack surface looks quite different under low-power magnification. extrusion. that is trapped in the ingot and elongated subsequently in the direction of working. Foreign material in the metal or impressed into the surface. hot cracking. hot tear. and ingot. ingot.Terminology / 203 tion by promoting diffusion of solute atoms within the grains of aluminum and (2) improve workability. An abrupt deviation from straightness. It may be revealed during working or finishing as a narrow streak parallel to the direction of working.

A cast form intended and suitable for remelting. A metal pattern die is used to produce the wax or plastic expendable patterns. A metal component (plug or stud) that is placed in a die casting die or sand mold allowing molten metal to be cast around it. more permeable refractory until the shell is of sufficient thickness for the strength required to contain molten metal. modifies the structure. The insertion of paper or application of suitable strippable coatings between layers of metal to protect from damage. fabricating. A cast form suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling. Material which. investment casting. forging. rolling. thus making it possible to pour very thin wall sections. See lot. A process in which a wax pattern is invested (dipped in a slurry then sprinkled with loose sand). The process also is known as the lost wax process. Molten metal is poured into the molds while the molds are still superheated. inspection lot. remelt. ingot. The molds then are put into a furnace where the wax or plastic is melted and burned out of the mold cavity. insert. forging. ingot. forging. A cast form intended and suitable for subsequent working by the forging process. and the mold is baked. particularly high-temperature. the wax pattern is melted out. investment molding. extrusion. dimensional accuracy. which is then filled with a refractory slurry and air dried. and ingot. The slurry is air dried and redipped several times using cheaper and coarser. See also ingot.204 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers ingot. Molds are produced by dipping wax or thermoplastic patterns in a fine slurry to produce as smooth a surface as possible. when added to molten metal. This process is expensive and is used to produce parts that would be very difficult or impossible to machine. . making a thick. injection. and so on (rolling ingot. extrusion ingot). green pottery mold. See also ingot. Investment molding produces casting of superior surface finish. ingot. Investment molds also are produced as solid molds by putting the pattern assembly in a flask. After the mold dries. inoculant. inspection. heat-resistant alloy applications such as turbine blades. and without parting fins or seams. and thereby changes the physical and mechanical properties to a degree not explained on the basis of the change in composition resulting from its use. ingot. The component becomes an integral part of the casting. A cast form suitable for rolling. rolling. The process of forcing molten metal or plastic into a die cavity. interleaving. producing a ceramic shell or mold. This process is repeated several times. Molten metal is poured into the mold to make a casting. fabricating. such as turbine engine parts. forging ingot. extruding. usually for producing castings.

Elongated surface markings or depressions appearing in patterns caused by localized plastic deformation that results from nonuniform yielding.Terminology / 205 K kink. The line pattern that shows the direction of flow on the surface. leveling. oil. liquated edge. knock-out. lateral. liquated. tension. sheet. sheet. thermal. lap. . See mark. An internal crack or separation aligned parallel to the direction of major metal flow and. liner. The mechanical flattening of plate. (1) For rolled products. leveling. lateral bow. (2) For extrusions. See mark. Leveling continuously carried out by uniaxial stretching. weld. See edge. it can be caused by contaminants that feed into the metal flow before it reaches the die opening or cracked billets. lamination. usually with the assistance of bending. an abrupt deviation from straightness. chatter (roll or leveler). looper. See seam. L lacquer. leveler streak. line. an abrupt bend or deviation from flat that is caused by localized bending during handling. parallel to the rolled surfaces. leveler. Leveling carried out by uniaxial tension. See bow. or foil. The bleeding of the low-melting constituents through the solidified ingot surface. layout sample. In extrusions. stretcher. leveler chatter. Lueders. leveling. See mark. See fold. in the case of plate. The slab of coating metal that is placed on the core alloy and is subsequently rolled down to clad sheet as composite. See also back-end condition. A prototype forging or a cast used to determine conformance to designed dimensions. usually in a drawing operation. A kink can be caused by handling. flow. knife mark. leveling. Closely spaced symmetrical lines on the surface of metal that has undergone nonuniform deformation. Occasionally used to describe oil stain. line. Leveling carried out at an elevated temperature under an applied load normal to the surface to be flattened. See streak. See dent. Leveling carried out by bending. See also stain. leveler mark. liquation. line. knife. roller. repeating. extrusion. knock-out mark. leveling. or foil. line.

In a low-pressure (sand mold) casting process. The casting process. See bow. . Failure of the lubricant to meet the agreed-upon minimum limit measured in weight per unit area.) low-pressure casting process. evaporative-pattern. (2) For heat treated tempers. long transverse direction. inspection. if heat treated in a continuous furnace. Lubricant limit exceeds the maximum agreed-upon limit measured in weight per unit area. See extrusion log. The term low-pressure permanent molding (LPPM) is a casting process in which air pressure is introduced into a molten metal holding furnace to force molten metal (usually aluminum alloys) up a central tube into the metal mold cavity. section. Lueders. also known as full-mold. See also longitudinal direction. looper. or expendable-pattern casting. See wrap. temper. cavity’s molding. lost foam casting. See line. A condition in which the parting line of a forging is not all in one plane. sheet. Material of the same mill form. lube. and size traceable to a heat treat lot or lots and submitted for inspection at one time. high. longitudinal. See also vacuum casting process. section. For plate. charged consecutively during an 8 h period. temper. loose. an identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form. Lueders line. lot. and forgings. Once filled. an automatic mechanism seals the mold immediately. temper. lot. longitudinal direction.206 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers lock. lube. The direction of major metal flow in a working operation. alloy. the same basic approach is used to force molten metal up a tube into the cavity of a sand mold. looper line. longitudinal bow. loose wrap. and the mold is quickly removed from the filling tube connection and turned over before the metal solidifies. is one in which a polystyrene pattern is vaporized by molten metal during the metal pour and is thereby lost. alloy. Pressure is maintained on the heat until the metal in the mold solidifies as a casting. an identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form. and size submitted for inspection at one time. log. alloy. (1) For non-heat-treated tempers. low. See line. all material of the same thickness is considered to be of the same size. section. and size traceable to one heat treat furnace load (or extrusion charge or billet in the case of press heat treated extrusions) or. the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction that is also at right angles to the thickness of the product. heat treat. polycast. (For sheet and plate.

A continuous scratch (which also may be creased) near a slit edge. (2) For extrusions. (2) For extrusions. arbor. A line that is generally perpendicular to the rolling direction. bristle. It is a result of metal-to-metal contact during the quenching of solution heat treated flat sheet or plate. mark. The repeat distance is a function of the offending roll diameter. Faint intermittent marks at the edge of a coldrolled product. (1) For rolled products. iridescent. mark. See also inclusion. Narrow continuous line near the rolled edge caused by a contacting micrometer. bearing. mark. a . mark. inclusion. See dent. roll. heat treat contact. Raised surface approximately 25 mm (1 in. mark. knife. damage that can be imparted to the surface during handling operations. chatter (roll or leveler). caused by sheet contacting the slitter knife. mark. A depression in the extruded surface caused by a change in bearing length in the extrusion die. mark. mark. chatter (roll or leveler). Damage in the surface of the product whose name is often described by source. mark. mark. metal-on-roll. Gray or black surface marking caused by contact with carbon run-out blocks. mike. crimped wire shaped. This mark is caused by action of devices designed to rewind coils without weave. carbon. (1) For rolled products. and oriented in any direction.) long. bite. handling. Appearance of surface where actual inclusion or the void it left is observed. pinch. mark. mark. tool. edge follower. irregularly shaped stain with a slight abrasion located somewhere within the boundary of the stain. mark. A small solid protrusion or circular fin on a forging or a casting. The mark usually has no relationship to the rolling direction. mark. an area of broken surface that is introduced after processing. drag. mark. mark. or noncircular arbor. See crease. which are usually perpendicular to the rolling direction. damaged. repeating. Numerous intermittent lines or grooves that are usually full width and perpendicular to the rolling or extrusion direction. knock-out.Terminology / 207 M mark. a small repeating raised or depressed area caused by the opposite condition on a roll. See mark. leveler chatter. resulting from the depression of a knock-out pin under pressure or inflow of metal between the knock-out pin and the die or mold. Surface damage in the vicinity of a coil inside diameter caused by contact with a roughened. See rub. Brownish. stringer. mark. mark.

roll bruise. A bandlike pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded section and perpendicular to its length. mark. rub. for example. whip. A rub mark can occur by metal-to-metal contact. A large number of very fine scratches or abrasions. stop. mike. A snap mark can occur whenever there is an abrupt change in the extrusion process. See also mark. A cross-hatched appearance left by jaws at the end(s) of metal that has been stretched. These marks are seen if insufficient metal has been removed after the stretching operation. mark. mark. A dark color from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. mark. See also mark.208 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers longitudinal groove or indentation caused by pressure from contour rolls as a profile (shape) passes through them for dimensional correction. arbor. endurance limit. roll. See mark. mark. mean diameter. mike mark. tail. A mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contacting surface. See scratch. mark. snap. mark. microporosity. See also mark. See hardener. These properties often are incorrectly referred to as physical properties. A greatly enlarged roll mark with a very shallow height or depth. tensile strength. that have been processed to minimize internal stress of the kind that causes distortion when material is disproportionately re- . mechanical properties. The average of two measurements of the diameter at right angles to each other. stop. roll bruise. take-up. mark. movement in handling. traffic. snap. tension. mark. Those properties of a material that are associated with elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied. A bandlike pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded section and perpendicular to its length. The term applied to products. stretcher jaw. or that involve the relationship between stress and strain. See mark. and movement in transit. mark. minimum residual stress (MRS). Extremely fine porosity in castings caused by shrinkage or gas evolution. A surface abrasion that is generally diagonal to the rolling direction. See buckle. A stop mark occurs whenever the extrusion process is suspended. usually flat rolled. mark. apparent on radiographic film as mottling. roll skid. Abrasion that results from relative movement between contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A full-width line perpendicular to the rolling direction and repeating as a function of a work roll diameter. It is caused by a fluttering action of the metal as it enters the rolling mill. master alloy. modulus of elasticity. tab.

nonfill. The load reached at the point . The space in a mold that is filled with liquid metal to form the casting upon solidification. and in shear. See aging. mold. nick.2% offset (0. so there are three kinds of moduli of elasticity for any material modulus in tension. Testing machine applies increasing pressure to 645 mm2 (1 in. or wall thickness of a tubular product. Testing or inspection procedure that does not destroy the product being inspected.002 in. notch.. of gage length). Rolled products. Measurement of bursting strength of foil in pounds per square inch.2) of the sample until it ruptures. extrusions. see scratch. As there are three kinds of stresses. A refractory container into which molten metal is poured to produce a specific cast shape. mismatch. per in. non-heat-treatable alloy. Failure of metal to fill a forging die impression. Error in register between two halves of a forging by opposing die halves not being in perfect alignment. The ratio of stress to corresponding strain throughout the range where they are proportional. in compression. N natural aging. Deviation of thickness or diameter of a solid product. nondestructive testing. double shear. mullen test. O off gage.002 mm per mm. pressure. Yield strength by the offset method is computed from a load-strain curve obtained by means of an extensometer. handling. modulus of elasticity. A straight line is drawn parallel to the initial straight line portion of the load-strain curve and at a distance to the right corresponding to 0. This offset may occur if the flat sheet or plate product is longer than the blade for the final shearing operation. The channels through which liquid metal enters the mold cavity and reservoirs for liquid metal are not considered part of the mold cavity proper. mold cavity. offset. or 0. from the standard or specified dimensional tolerances. Nonuniform surface appearance resulting from uneven pressure distribution between adjacent layers of the product. An alloy that can be strengthened only by cold work. mottling. An abrupt deviation from straight on a sheared edge.Terminology / 209 moved from one of the two surfaces through mechanical or chemical means. see mark.

A condition unique to stepped extrusions where more than one cross section exists in the same extruded shape. See annealing. patterned sheet. another die behind it for the major configuration. or in. oil stain. Metals cast are usually aluminum alloys.210 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers where this straight line intersects the curve divided by the original cross-sectional area (mm2. Improper alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before rewinding and insufficient rewind tension are typical causes. parent coil. orange peel. usually metal. See embossing. See stain. except that it is made proportionately larger to compensate for shrinkage due to the contraction of the metal during cooling and solidifying. A casting process that uses a long-life mold. parent plate. See stain. pattern. oxide discoloration. A pattern has the same basic features as the part to be cast. oscillation. partial. A wood. or wax replica of a casting that is used to form the cavity in a mold into which molten metal is poured to form a cast part. A plate that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. permanent mold casting. metal. An embossed pattern distortion due to misalignment of the male and female embossing rolls. plastic. The parent plate may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller plates to provide the required width and length. Surface roughening on formed products that occurs when large grains in the metal are present. or small. Slightly raised fins can appear on that portion of the shape where the two dies meet. into which molten metal is poured by gravity. ovalness. cross section and. P pack rolling. See also profile. after its removal. although a few producers pour iron into water-cooled metal dies. A coil that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. See quality. partial annealing. heat treat.2) of the tension test specimen is the yield strength. parting line. The parent coil may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller coils or into individual sheets or plates to provide the required width and length. . stepped extruded. out-of-register. See also telescoping. A stepped shape uses a split die for the minor. Uneven wrap in coiling and lateral travel during winding. oil. The simultaneous rolling of two or more thicknesses of foil.

25 in. pitting. solvent. pit. See also streak. density. The properties. thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion. Tube in standardized combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness. repeating. plate. pop. heat conductivity. pickup. See aging. Blister and/or void in the coating resulting from trapped solvents released during curing process. A depression in the rolled surface that usually is not visible from the opposite side. pipe. Homogenizing is a form of preheating. preheating. Small particles of oxide adhering to the surface of a product at irregular intervals. Circle cut from plate. plate circle. pipe. The transfer of portions of the coating from one surface of the sheet to an adjacent surface due to poor adhesion of the coating. See aging. pipe. pickup. Composite plate composed of an aluminum alloy core having on both surfaces (if on one side only. alclad one-side plate) a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core. See corrosion. commonly designated by nominal pipe sizes and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) schedule numbers. for example. other than mechanical properties.3 mm (equal to or greater than 0. coating.Terminology / 211 physical properties. precipitation heat treating. Pipe commonly used for structural purposes. porosity. Extruded or drawn pipe that does not contain any line junctures resulting from the method of manufacture. pickup. electrical conductivity. Small particles of aluminum and aluminum oxide generated in the roll bite. alclad. that pertain to the physics of a material. . plate. pipe. drawn. precipitation hardening. A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section and with thickness over 6. repeating. See dent. A high-temperature soaking treatment to provide a desired metallurgical structure. seamless.) with sheared or sawed edges. or numerous other causes. pinch mark. See crease. roll. Pipe formed by hot extruding. A typical cause is solvent popping. piping. thermal expansion. which subsequently transfer to the rolled product. (1) Minute hole in foil. It may be distributed uniformly and/ or in streaks. Holes or nonspecific cavities in a casting from insufficient feed metal during solidification. (2) A small-sized void in the coating of a sheet or foil product. pipe. pickoff. Pipe brought to the final dimensions by drawing through a die. structural. pinhole. extruded. See back-end condition.

A profile produced by cold finishing a rolled profile. used primarily for making small gears. cold-finished extruded. profile. profile. hollow. wire. The ratio of the area of the void to the square of the gap is dependent on the class of semihollow profile. See mottling. profile. which does not exceed a 125 mm (5 in. concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations. profile. the alloy. and round inside. pressure. and the gap width. stepped extruded. profile. profile. solid. cold-finished rolled. longitudinal serrations outside. longitudinal. profile. Any hollow extruded profile other than class 1. A profile produced by hot extruding. A hollow profile of generally circular cross section and nominally uniform wall thickness with one hollow or solid protuberance or lip parallel to the longitudinal axis.212 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers pressure mottling. plate. pinion hollow. class 1 hollow extruded. lip hollow. profile. A profile in which any part of its cross section is a partially enclosed void the area of which is substantially greater than the square of the width of the gap. profile. profile. profile.375 in. flute hollow. profile.) or more in diameter and whose weight is equally distributed on opposite sides of two or more equally spaced axes. extruded. A profile produced by cold finishing an extruded profile. A profile brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die. the void of which is round and 25 mm (1 in. A profile brought to final dimensions by cold working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances. A profile in which any part of its cross section completely encloses a void. . tube. profile.) diameter or 70 mm2 (0. or foil. profile. cold-finished. An extruded profile with a cross section that changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length.) diameter circumscribing circle and has a single void of not less than 10 mm (0. profile. used principally for heat-exchange purposes.2) area. class 3 hollow extruded. A hollow profile having plain inside surfaces and outside surfaces that comprise regular. drawn. rolled. which is of a form other than that of sheet. helical extruded. rod. A wrought product that is long in relation to its cross-sectional dimensions. A profile other than hollow or semihollow. Any hollow extruded profile other than class 1 or class 2.110 in. A hollow profile with regularly spaced. profile. An extruded profile twisted along its length. A profile produced by hot rolling. profile. profile. semihollow. class 2 hollow extruded. bar. A hollow extruded profile.

sizes. a gas. Rigid Container Sheet. See inclusion. A profile in certain standard alloys. I-beams. rear-end condition. tapered extruded. such as angles. redraw rod. such as castings. quarter. Heating metal again to hot-working temperature. A hollow profile with a cross section of tear-drop shape. Examination of the soundness of a casting by radiography. stringer. channels. Deviation from a circular periphery. razor streak. See back. Q quality. streamline hollow. In general. profile. quarter buckle. it is not expressed as plus or minus. which usually occur at or about 90° to each other. For channels and I-beams.Terminology / 213 profile. Controlled rapid cooling of a metal from an elevated temperature by contact with a liquid. H sections. and sections. tees. profile. radiography. no structural changes are intended. Sheet suitable for the manufacture of reflectors. and zees. there are two standards: (1) Aluminum Association Standard and (2) American Standard. structural. refined aluminum. The use of radiant energy in the form of x-rays or gamma rays for nondestructive examination of opaque objects. commonly used for structural purposes. tempers. Aluminum of very high purity (99. reheating. quenching. See buckle. An extruded profile with a cross section that changes continuously in area along its length or a specified portion thereof. to produce graphic records that indicate the comparative soundness of the object being tested. or a solid. Fracture caused by thermal stresses induced during rapid cooling or quenching or by stresses caused by delayed transformation after the object has been fully quenched.end condition. quenching crack. R RCS. usually expressed as the total difference found at any one cross section between the individual maximum and minimum diameters. Since quality is the difference between extreme diameters.950% or higher) obtained by special metallurgical treatments. This term is not recommended. . radiographic inspection. The term drawing stock is preferred. reflector sheet.

214 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers reoil. A semifinished rolled product of rectangular cross section in coiled form suitable for further rolling. See mark. See wire. A rectangular semifinished product. rivet. Rod brought to final dimensions by cold working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances. rolled ring. . The uniform ground finish on the work rolls that is imparted to the sheet or plate during rolling. cold-finished extruded. cold-finished rolled. Sometimes referred to as a head or feeder. rod. roll chatter. rolled-in. See streak. roll coating. or casting to provide stiffening.) diameter. rod. See edge. liquated. rod. Oil put on the sheet after cleaning and before coiling for shipment to prevent water stain. rib. cold-heading. riser gating. Examples: foil stock and sheet stock. roll grind. rod. extruded. reroll stock. Rod produced by hot extruding. roll. (1) A chamber that forms the reservoir for feed metal necessary to compensate for losses caused by shrinkage as the casting solidifies. chatter (roll or leveler).375 in. rolled ring. Rod having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core alloy to which it is bonded. roll pickup. forging. An extraneous chip or particle of metal rolled into the surface of the product. rolled. cold-finished. cold-heading. rod. rivet. rod. rod. rolling slab. Rod produced by hot rolling. coating. rolled-in metal. An elongated projection on a shape. riser. rod. Rod produced by cold working extruded rod. See scratch. which is not less than 10 mm (0. See forging. roll. rolled-over edge. rolled-in scratch. alclad. roll mark. A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its circular cross section. cold heading. rod. Rod produced by cold working rolled rod. Gating system in which molten metal from the sprue enters a riser close to the mold cavity and then flows into the mold cavity. See pickup. produced by hot rolling fabricating ingot and suitable for further rolling. See mark. See rod. thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion. (2) The pattern part that forms it and the metal solidified in it. Rod of a quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts.

includes sprues. It usually consists of two mold halves. Minor indentations at an angle to the rolling direction that result from coil oscillation during unwinding or rewinding. . S sample. Metal castings produced in sand molds. runner system. scratch. (2) For extrusions. See mark. with other sections as they exit the press. A part. saw-plate bar. tool. machine. rub. handling. the set of channels in a mold through which molten metal travels to the mold cavity. That portion of the gate assembly connecting the downgate or sprue with the casting. rub. An indentation that is straight. a sharp indentation in the surface usually caused by a machine or during handling. drawn-in. making it relatively smooth to the touch. widths. a synonym for handling mark. A ropelike appearance in the rolling direction after the metal has undergone severe deformation. scratch. scalping. sand mold. gates. A scratch occurring during the fabricating process and subsequently drawn over. A surface area showing a scratch or abrasion resulting from contact of the hot extrusion with the press equipment or tooling or. runner. (1) For rolled products. roping. Also called gating. or piece taken for purposes of inspection or test as representative of the whole. See also mark. See bar. See also mark. is in the rolling direction. and is caused by contact with a sharp projection on equipment. saw-plate. portion. friction. and mated to form the mold cavity. rub mark. and risers. A scratch caused by relative motion between two contacting surfaces. The term quality is preferred. runners. A mold is a form that contains the cavity into which molten metal is poured. Mechanical removal of the surface layer from a fabricating ingot or semifinished wrought product so that surface imperfections will not be worked into the finished product. roundness. This term is not recommended. Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers. scratch. sand castings. separately made. handling. scratch. A more severe form of rub mark. oscillation. scratch. rub. in the case of multihole dies. scratch. and thicknesses suitable for the manufacture of corrugated or V-crimp roofing.Terminology / 215 roofing sheet.

but not less than 0. sheared. The maximum load divided by the combined cross-sectional area of the two planes is the shear strength. The term profile is preferred.) and with slit. incomplete. scratch. scratch. Shear strength usually is determined by inserting a cylindrical specimen through round holes in three hardened steel blocks. A scratch caused by moving contact of coating against a nonmoving object in an oven. The number assigned to an extruded or drawn profile (shape) for identification and cataloging purposes. usually the same number assigned for the same purpose to the die from which the profile (shape) is made. rolled-in. the center of which is pulled (or pushed) between the other two so as to shear the specimen on two planes. thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion. It will then appear as a grayish white ladder (distinct transverse lines within the longitudinal indentation). See also weld. sheet. The junction line of metal that has passed through a hollow die. Seams are present in all extruded hollows produced from the direct extrusion process and in many cases are not visible. usually the result of a defect in working that has not bonded shut. See scratch. section number. . An unbonded fold or lap on the surface of the metal. alclad one-side sheet) a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core. alclad. which appears as a crack. shape. Composite sheet composed of an aluminum alloy core having on both surfaces (if one side only.15 through 6.3 mm (less than 0. separated and rejoined at the exit point. oven. serpentine weave. seamless. slippage. Sheet with metallurgical characteristics and surface quality suitable for the development of protective and decorative films by anodic oxidation processes. tension. sheet. A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section with thickness over 0.250 in. A short longitudinal indentation parallel to the rolling direction. shear strength is considered to be the maximum average stress computed by dividing the ultimate load in the plane of shear by the original area subject to shear.216 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers scratch. seam. shear strength. This term is no longer recommended. anodizing. A hollow product that does not contain any line junctures resulting from method of manufacture. tension. sheet. A scratch that is subsequently rolled. In practice. extrusion.006 in. See snaking. or sawed edges. seam defect. scratch. The maximum stress that a material is capable of sustaining in shear.

sheet stock.) thick. See edge. and forgings. slug. flat circles. Sheet cut to specified length from coils and which has a lesser degree of flatness than flat sheet. Sheet having a moderate degree of brightness on one side and a mill finish on the other.Terminology / 217 sheet. Circles cut from flat sheet. tension. See hair. one-side bright mill finish (1SBMF). coiled circles. broken (cracked). A difference in thickness between the two edges of plate. clad. Sheet in coils with slit edges. sheet. Thin fragment of aluminum that is part of the material but only partially attached. or sawed edges. the direction through the thickness perpendicular to both longitudinal and long transverse directions. Sheet with sheared. See scratch. coiled cut to length. sheet. Contraction that occurs when metal cools from the casting or hot-working temperature. sheet. . or foil. slitter hair. side crack. A process in which resin-coated sand is laid on a heated pattern. sheet. Sheet having a uniform bright finish on one side and a mill finish on the other. sheet. mill finish (MF). sheet. side set. Circles cut from coiled sheet. coiled. sheet. clad one-side sheet) a metallurgically bonded metal coating. See reroll stock.80 in. Shell molds are made from a mixture of sand and thermosetting resin binder. standard one-side bright finish (S1SBF). Surface damage or residual liquation that is subsequently rolled are typical causes. For plate. the composition of which may or may not be the same as that of the core. slitter.40 to 0. skip. sheet. slit. Sheet having a uniform bright finish on both sides. sheet. one or both sides of which has a factory-applied paint coating of controlled thickness. Composite sheet having on both surfaces (if on one side only. shell mold process. flat. standard two sides bright finish (S2SBF). slippage scratch. sliver. A metal blank for forging or impacting. sheet. sheet. which has been flattened or leveled. sheet. Sheet. painted. An area of uncoated sheet frequently caused by equipment malfunction. Two mating shells are glued together to make a precision mold to produce a casting with excellent dimensional accuracy and a smooth surface texture. shrinkage. bonding it together to form a hardened shell about 10 to 20 mm (0. shell molding. short transverse direction. Sheet having a nonuniform finish that may vary from sheet to sheet and within a sheet and may not be entirely free from stains or oil.

straightness. A yellow to brown area of surface discoloration at the ends of the extruded length.218 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers smudge. water stain. stabilizing. speed. Heating an alloy at a suitable temperature for sufficient time to allow soluble constituents to enter into solid solution where they are retained in a supersaturated state after quenching. Tensile or compressive strain is the change. saw lubricant. specimen. Nonuniform coating application that results in the absence of coating in certain areas. See smudge. stain. Also known as liquid metal forging or forge casting. It is the residue of certain types of saw lubricants if they are not removed from the metal prior to the thermal treatment. See corrosion. Characteristic of having adjacent sides or planes meeting at 90°. due to force. This condition is caused by a weaving action during an unwinding or rewinding operation. squeeze casting. speed crack. spot. A discoloration due to nonuniform oxidation of the metal surface during heat treatment. The absence of divergence from a right (straight) line in the direction of measurement. per unit of length in an original linear dimension in the direction of the applied force. The end joint uniting two webs. solution heat treating. deposited on the sheet during rolling. . lube. Adherence of foil surfaces sufficient to interfere with the normal ease of unwinding. sprue. A low-temperature thermal treatment designed to prevent age softening in certain strain-hardened alloys containing magnesium. sometimes covering large areas. stain. referred to its original size or shape. A series of reversing lateral bows in coil products. it is a casting process by which molten metal (ferrous or nonferrous) solidifies under pressure within closed dies positioned between the plates of a hydraulic press. strain. A dark film of debris. smut. starvation. splice. stain. speed tear. heat treat. water. Surface discoloration that may vary from dark brown to white and is produced during thermal treatment by incomplete evaporation and/or oxidation of lubricants on the surface. A nonuniform extraneous deposit of lube on the coated sheet. sticking. A measure of the change in size or shape of a body under stress. stain. squareness. See tear. The vertical portion of the gating system through which molten metal first enters the mold. snaking. speed. That portion of a sample taken for evaluation of some specific characteristic or property. oil. See tear.

See streak. grinding. is parallel to the direction of rolling. herringbone. bright. or hot-working stages of fabrication. A banded condition caused by nonuniform adherence of roll coating to a work roll. A streak often is described by source. A streak on the sheet surface in the rolling direction caused by transfer from the leveler rolls. Milky colored band(s) parallel to the rolling direction that vary in both width and exact location along the length. it also is called hot mill pickup. grease. A bright superficial band or elongated mark that produces a nonuniform surface appearance. buff. Surface discoloration that may vary from gray to brown and found only on alclad products. streak. If generated in the hot rolling process. streak. Surface discoloration that may vary from gray to black. It can be created during hot and/or cold rolling. . A bright region on the sheet caused by excessive roll surface wear. coating. A narrow discontinuous streak caused by rolling over an area containing grossly excessive lubricant drippage.Terminology / 219 strain hardening. streak. These streaks usually appear lighter than the surrounding metal. Modification of a metal structure by cold working resulting in an increase in strength and hardness with loss of ductility. streak. streak. heat. diffusion. structural. roll. A longitudinal discoloration that can occur where there are large changes in wall thickness as a result of uneven cooling. A nonuniform appearance on an etched or anodized surface caused by heterogeneities (variabilities) remaining in the metal from the casting. Elongated alternately bright and dull chevron markings. mill buff. and contains rolled-in foreign debris. streak. It is usually extraneous material from an overhead location that drops onto the rolling surface and is shallow enough to be removed by etching or buffing. streak. streak. pickup. streak. streak burnish. coating. streak. dirt. bearing. streak. A superficial band or elongated mark that produces a nonuniform surface appearance. See streak. continuous streak caused by smudge buildup on a buff used at shearing or other operations. A dull. streak (stripe). streak. heat. roll. A streak with a helical pattern appearance transferred to a rolled product from a work roll. See streak. streak. thermal processes. cold. streak. streak. streak. A nonuniform surface appearance parallel to the rolling direction. leveler.

See corrosion. Longitudinal nonuniform coating thickness caused by uneven application of the liquid coating. the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. and characterized by a certain structure and mechanical properties. See line. tooling plate. sheared. A defect caused when one face of a forging is sucked in to fill a projection on the opposite side. traffic mark. tension scratch. The term sheet is preferred.) or greater in thickness and with edges either as-cast. strip. Abrasion that results from relative movement between contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. stress relieving. suck-in. tooling pad. and so on used in the production of extruded or drawn shapes or tube. A term usually referring to the dies. of wraps in a coil so that the edges of the coil are conical rather than flat. Minute surface cracks on rolled products that can be caused by insufficient ingot scalping. stretcher strain. or both. See scratch. Lueders. See mark.220 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers stress. In tensile testing. Also called ultimate strength. Improper alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before rewinding is a typical cause. The reduction of the effects of internal residual stresses by thermal or mechanical means. primarily in one direction. Stress is normally calculated on the basis of the original cross-sectional dimensions. stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Force per unit of area. structural streak. A dark color . Lateral stacking. torn surface. or sawed.3 mm (0. compressive. tension. roll bruise. A series of surface cracks perpendicular to the extruding direction. speed. mandrels. The condition produced by either mechanical or thermal treatment. Speed tearing normally occurs in corner radii or extremities of a section and is caused by localized high temperature. surface tear. See streak. temper. See also oscillation. tensile strength. T tail mark. This term is not recommended.250 in. The three kinds of stresses are tensile. tear. stress-cracking. and shear. A deep longitudinal rub mark resulting from abrasion by extrusion or drawing tools. tool. telescoping. Allowable deviation from a nominal or specified dimension. See chucking lug. structural. tolerance. A cast or rolled product of rectangular cross section over 6. with internal stress levels controlled to achieve maximum stability for machining purposes in tool and jig applications. striation.

arc-welded. transverse direction. tube bloom. tube. This term is not recommended. with or without the use of filler metal. Sheet or plate having a raised figured pattern on one surface to provide improved traction. thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion. longitudinal. and that has uniform wall thickness except as affected by corner radii. trim inclusion. (Note: This product may be produced from either seamless or nonseamless extruded stock or from welded stock. A tube. fluted. A tube produced by forming and seam brazing sheet. or square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners. extruded.Terminology / 221 from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide usually is observed. See bow. tube.) tube.) tube. concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations. A tube formed by hot extruding. embossed. heat-exchanger. tube. tube. tube. A welded tube produced by winding the sheet to form a closed helix and joining the edges of the seam by welding. The term tube stock is preferred. . A welded tube. drawn. tread plate. Tube that has integral fins or projections protruding from its outside surface. helical-welded. A hollow wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section. (Note: This product may be either seamless or nonseamless. tube. transverse bow. finned. A tube of nominally uniform wall thickness having regular. Composite tube composed of an aluminum alloy core having on either the inside or outside surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core. elliptical. A tube brought to final dimensions by cold drawing through a die. the outside surface of which has been roll embossed with a design in relief regularly repeated in a longitudinal direction. tube. transverse. Tube made from sheet or plate butt welded by either gas tungsten or gas metal arc welding method. the seam of which is formed by positioning one edge of the sheet against the other for welding. A direction perpendicular to the direction of working. tube. The term usually is not applied to coiled tube or to tubes for use in refrigerators or radiators. A mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contacting surface. a regular hexagon or octagon. alclad. brazed. butt-welded. tube. tube. A tube for use in apparatus in which fluid inside the tube will be heated or cooled by fluid outside the tube. which is symmetrical and is round. Edge trimming accidentally wound into a roll of foil.

(Note: This product may be produced by die and mandrel or by hot piercer processes. redraw. A sharp color demarcation in the appearance of the metal due to a difference in the work roll coating.222 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers tube. tube stock. tubing. U ultimate tensile strength. tube. tube. Also referred to as butt-seam tube. for use with compression-type fittings as a protection for electrical wiring.) tube. tube. twist. . (1) For rolled products. See tensile strength. A shape normally produced from sheet of nominally uniform wall thickness and approximately tubular form but having a longitudinal unjointed seam or gap of width not greater than 25% of the outside diameter or greatest overall dimension. A semifinished tube suitable for the production of drawn tube. (2) For extrusions. The term tube is preferred. open-seam. A tube having certain standardized length and combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness thinner than that of rigid conduit. tubing. tubular conductor. after extrusion. seamless. This term is not recommended. a winding departure from flatness. structural. welded. A tube produced by forming and mechanically lock seaming sheet. lap-welded. The term tube stock is preferred. sized. lock-seam. This term is not recommended. tube. A drawn tube whose cross section changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length. the seam of which is formed by longitudinally lapping the edges of the sheet for welding. electrical metallic. tube. stepped drawn. has been cold drawn a slight amount to minimize quality. A welded tube. A tubular product suitable for use as an electric conductor. commonly designated by nominal electrical trade sizes. tube. two-tone. A tube that does not contain any fine junctures (metallurgical welds) resulting from the method of manufacture. A tube produced by forming and seam welding sheet longitudinally. tube. a winding departure from straightness. A tube that. Tube commonly used for structural purposes.

W water stain. A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section. wettability test. A composite wire product composed of an aluminum-alloy wire having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or . extruded. whip marks. weld line. (Cold welding is a solid-state welding process in which pressure is used at room temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial deformation at the weld. vent mark. whip. or cast round filler metal for use in joining by welding. welding wire. slitter. whisker. water stain. Wire for use as filler metal in joining by welding. or is round. See hair. wavy edge. which is square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners or edges. See mark. hexagonal. See buckle. separated and not completely rejoined. weave. or bosses on shapes and forgings. Joining two or more pieces of aluminum by applying heat or pressure. and whose diameter or greatest perpendicular distance between parallel faces is up through 10 mm (less than 0. wire.) welding rod. The degree to which a metal surface may be wet to determine the absence of or the amount of residual rolling or added lubricants or deposits on the surface. alclad. web. or both. wire. The junction line of metal that has passed through a die forming a hollow profile (shape). the metal is drawn into the mold through gates in the bottom of the mold. welding. edge. A process in which a special design sand mold or a permanent (metal) mold with a bottom opening is used and a vacuum is placed on the mold. or octagonal. See seam. A rolled. flanges. incomplete.Terminology / 223 V vacuum casting process.). A small protrusion on a forging resulting from the entrance of metal into a die vent hole. weld. to produce a localized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface.375 in. extrusion. It is a foundry industry term for any casting process in which metal is melted and poured under very low atmospheric pressure. See oscillation. (1) A single thickness of foil as it leaves the rolling mill. See corrosion. Flare testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity. (2) A connecting element between ribs. with or without filler metal.

cold-heading. the yield strengths in tension and compression are approximately equal. flattened and slit-flattened. rivet. loose. wire. The relative ease with which various alloys can be formed by rolling. extruding. cold-heading. wire.2% of gage length. drawn. See wire. Wire brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die. flattened. wire. work hardening. For aluminum alloys. wrought product. A product that has been subjected to mechanical working by such processes as rolling. and so on.224 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers aluminum-alloy coating that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded. Wire of quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts. forging. See crease. See strain hardening. extruded. . A condition in a coil due to insufficient tension that creates a small void between adjacent wraps. wire. forging. Wire produced by hot extruding. wrinkle. workability. Y yield strength. extruding. wire. thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion. Wire having two parallel flat surfaces and rounded edges produced by roll flattening round wire. Wire that has been slit to obtain square edges. wire. wrap. The offset used for aluminum and its alloys is 0. and so on. The stress at which a material exhibits a specified permanent set.

....................... 99(F) stress-corrosion cracking ...... 90........... See Mark........... 3 alloy registration process controlled by ..... 90..... 91(F) mechanical properties ....... 96..... 94..... 30(T) physical properties ....................... 69.........asminternational........... 39 Alloy registration process ...... 30–31...................................................................... 112–115 Aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys construction industry alloys .................. 6 variations in compositions ........... 188 microstructures of forgings ...... 98..............© 2000 ASM International....... 114–115 mechanical properties ... 104(F).. 112(F) Aircraft industry.............. 80 Aluminum-copper alloys aerospace industry applications .. definition .... definition . 29(T) welded to copper ........ 106(F) electrical industry alloys . 5... 4................... 98 ........ 98(F)........... 7–8 casting alloy designation system ............ 1 mechanical properties ........ definition . 130(F) wrought alloys ....... 107......................... 25 Aluminum Association ... 109–111(F) special alloys for engine components .............. 113 properties ........................................ 73.............. . 102(F).... 109–111(F) properties .......... 90.. 9-22(T)...... 96(F)....... 91(F)....................... Natural aging.. 7 definition ................ 105........ traffic........ definition .............. 2–3....................................... 72 Airbus ......................... 90........ 187 Aging.................... Age hardening........... 107....... 1 applications..... industrial .. 2–3........ 61–62 Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Designation Systems (ANSI H35..... 110...................................... 111 Aluminum-lithium alloys....... 96..... 102(F).. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www........... 93(F) weldability ................................... 101(F) cryogenic applications ............................. See also Artificial aging...... 103(F).............. 117 AFS..................... 117 Alclad............. 97–102 properties .......... 90.............. 95–97...................................................... All Rights Reserved......... 96 marine industry alloys .......... 90........ 37 H temper designation of wrought alloys ...............................................1) ............... 89–90 properties ..... 91(F) automotive industry applications ... 9 Aluminum advantages ........... 100–101(F).................. 96 weldability ............................. See Lamination........ 188 Alligatoring....... 9–22(T) Aluminum Association Technical Committee on Product Standards (TCPS) ............... 89.. 103(F) container applications ..................................... 92(F) aircraft industry applications ............ 109(F).... 112(F).... 96 Aluminum-magnesium casting alloys castability ...... 101(F) construction industry alloys .......... 97–102........ 188 Alloy and Temper Registration Records ........ Alloy..... 9 Aluminum Casting Technology ............... 90 Aluminum-copper casting alloys mechanical properties .............. 99 mechanical properties ............ 1........................... 105(F).......................................... alloys used .................... See American Foundrymen’s Society................... ........................ 194(F) Aluminum alloys applications ...... 96....... definition ........................... 2.................. 101(F) properties ..................... 99(F).............. 96 packaging industry alloys ........... 110(F).................... aerospace industry applications ................. 184(F) welded to steel ........................... 100(F) mechanical properties .................. 84–85 percent aluminum content .......... 187 Age softening......... 72–73 address for ............. 16...............org Subject Index A Abrasion............ 37 designation systems ............................................................ 100(F).... 97(F)............... 96. 103–104............. 107(F) weldability ........... 24–25 heat treatment .. 89–90 railroad industry applications ........ 92(F)............... 6 experimental alloys ... 92(F) Aluminum-magnesium alloys automotive industry alloys .. 90...................... Aerospace industry alloys used ................

...... 141(F) partial ...................... 167(F).... 135(F) microstructure .......................... 4................... 188 hot rolled sheet .................. 1–2............................ .............................. See also Aging............... 93 soldering ..... 123(F).............................. definition .. 22............... 169(F).. 115 Alusuisse Alucoban ........................... 93 properties .......................... Artificial aging... 114(F) weldability .. anodizing................... 37. 102–105 properties ... 93–96(F)..... 87 Aluminum-tin casting alloys mechanical properties ....... 18(T)....... definition ........................ arbor. Applications...................... definition ..... 105.......... .................................................. 7 Anodizing ....... 115 properties .............. 93 Aluminum-silicon alloys brazing ................... 113(F)... 188 Angulation. 98–99. 29...... 112 properties ...................... 110(F) weldability ......................................... 93–95 soldering ........................ 109(F)............................. 127(F)................... 114(F) Aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys mechanical properties .G.......... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 226 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www......... 74 of extrusion......... 115 definition .......................... 40 partial... 107(F)............. 93–95(F)........ 93 weldability .. 188 .. 94(F) beverage can application ............. microstructure affected by ........... 103–104........ 129(F)................... and Environment (D...... 188 Annealing cold rolled sheet ............ 114.............................. 90................. 112 Aluminum-silicon-copper casting alloys................. 188 ASME..... 132(F).. See American National Standards Institute......... See Sheet.. 111–112(F).............. 138(F) sheet ... 95(F) mechanical properties ............... 109(F) mechanical properties ........................ 93 chemical industry alloys ........ 90............... Altenpohl) . 93 for heat exchangers ............. properties .... 152(F) microstructure of plates .............................. 114(F) Aluminum-silicon-magnesium casting alloys.................© 2000 ASM International......................... 93 properties ...................... 101(F)...................... arbor.............. 115 Aluminum-zinc alloys aircraft industry alloys ............. Arbor break...................... 22...... 188 Backup roll................... definition ................ 21(T)............... 26.................... 73 AMS. 73...................... 70–72 As-cast condition....asminternational........................................... 164(F)................ 93.............. 8–9.......... 128(F) temper designations ...... 21(T) wrought alloys .. 164(F)................................ 143(F) temper designation ......... 102–105.... 80 American National Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for Aluminum ................................ 111–112(F)........... 93 culinary industry alloys ....... All Rights Reserved..... 27........... 103 Aluminum-zinc casting alloys mechanical properties .................. See Mark......... 73 1998 metric standard units .................... 2.. 19–20................ 112 mechanical properties .... 3.................. 137(F) definition ...... 102(F) American Foundrymen’s Society (AFS) .......................... 136(F) precipitates in microstructure ....................... 180(F) definition ..... 22 Annual Book of ASTM Standards . 188 Anodizing sheet......... 27 aluminum-magnesium alloys .... 77. 90. 187 Angularity........................... 96(F) Aluminum-silicon casting alloys construction industry alloys .... definition ............... 93..... 95(F) brazing ................... 65–68...................... Arbor mark....... 170(F) microstructure of closed-die forgings ................... 187 B Back-end condition (coring) .. definition ...................... 94(F) mechanical properties ........................ 139(F) microstructure of castings ............ 128(F)............... 131(F)..... 39............ 111–112(F).......... 124(F)....... 188 plate ... 91(F). 108(F). 130(F) microstructure of forgings ............ 93........ 84 casting alloys ................... 112 marine alloys .......................................... 93 construction industry alloys ............ 93 weldability . 16-17... 93........................................... 166(F)........... 8 Aluminum: Technology................ definition ....... definition ........... 113(F)................... properties ..... 113(F).. 135(F).. 1. 11–13(T)................. 7.......................... 60.......... See Buckle........... 115 properties ...................................... 187 Automotive industry alloys used ...... ANSI.... 112 for office machine housings ......... 140(F)............... 111 Aluminum Standards and Data ...org Aluminum-manganese alloys as automotive alloys ....... 1 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ... 83 AWS......... 112–114(F) investment casting of engines ..................

........................................................... 180(F) of joints........ 191 Bus bar .. 4 Brazing rod.. See Mark.... bristle.. 191 Butt-seam tube....... 14(T)..................... See Tube............... 190 Bright sheet......................... definition .. 15–16(T) applications for alloys and tempers ................... 190 Buffing................... definition ................. 189 Blast cleaning.................... See Scratch....... 163(F) wrought alloys ......... definition .... See Streak........ definition ...................... 190 Broken matte finish....................................... 189 rolled... burnish......................... definition ....... 93...................................... 189 definition .. broken... 189 definition . 189 Bolting....................................... definition .................................. 190 Buff streak................... Cast aluminum alloy............ 108–115(F) artificial aging ..... See Edge........... 189 Bleed out. 190 edge. open-seam.. 27 aluminum-manganese alloys ..... definition .............. 13(T)........... carbon............... 163(F) definition ... definition ....... Bruise.......... See Two-tone.................................... as alloying element ....... 8 ............... 189 Bow definition ................................................................. 13–16(T)................................ Buckle arbor................................. tension.. 189–190 lateral........................ 14(T). 188 extruded ............. 30(T) physical properties ............. 29(T) Billet.......... 190 transverse.................... 189 Bismuth as alloying element ................... Burnishing................................................................... See Bow...................... C Cadmium mechanical properties ......... definition ......................................... 4 Boron..................... See Streak... 189 coating......................... 29(T) Camber..... 189 Blistering ....................... 190 definition .......... 189 Bottom draft...................... 190 longitudinal... See Buckle........ definition .. 189 Blow hole. 87 definition ................................... definition .............. 77–78 Binder............................................. definition ................. definition ..................................................... 190 Brazing sheet ....... 15–16(T) corrosion .... definition .................... Burr..... Broken edge... 162(F)............................. definition ...... 189 saw-plate..................... trapped.. 189 Base box............... 15(T) Boss..... 15(T) mechanical properties .............. definition ......................... 124(F) Block mark................. quarter......................... definition .. wrought alloys ........................... definition ..................... Carbon mark................. definition ..................... 74 composition .......................... 151(F) extruded.. definition ............................. (1SBMF)............................ Belly... definition ............................. 6 Casting alloys advantages ............... 190 Broken surface................... definition ..... Blister bond..................... definition ........................... 34(T) cracking .. 190 trapped.......................................... See also Mullen test................................. 189 cold-finished extruded.......... 32–37(T) elongations ................ 5 Belled edge.................© 2000 ASM International............ general....... All Rights Reserved... 189 Billet casting ................ 11........................................................... 29(T) Blank... 14 alloying elements ........................... definition ............................................................ 190 Brazing wire......................... definition ..... See Edge......... See Mark.. 13(T) mechanical properties ...... roll bruise.............. 34(T) alloy group ......... 88(F) definition ................... Broken eie....... definition .................... definition . definition .................. 14 alloying element in greatest mean percentage .... lateral............. 190 dip . 190 center....... 190 Brazing .............................. definition ................ definition .................................. 93 aluminum-silicon alloys ... See Crazing.................. See Sheet.... (S1SBF)... See Two-tone............asminternational........................... microstructures ..................................... definition . 162–163(F) microstructure of sheet . 191 Bursting strength.......................... definition .............. Burnish streak................. 30(T) physical properties ................................. 190 oil can..................... definition ........ 189 core.......... belled.. 49–57(T) wrought alloys ................ and (S2SBF)......... 12(T). definition ... 95(F) commercially pure aluminum ........ 189 Bearing applications ... See also Blister...........................org Subject Index / 227 Bar cold-finished........ Bloom... 34(T) designation system ...... 30(T) physical properties ........................ See Mark........................... 40–49(T) Bristle mark........... 189 Beryllium as alloying element ............................... Brinell hardness casting alloys ................................ definition ................. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www... 189 cold-finished rolled.....

definition ...... 192 high or low........ 63 Collapse. definition ...... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 228 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www.................... definition ........................... See Coil set.. Chemical industry............. 192 counterclockwise (anticlockwise) coil........ 74 product form ........................................................... definition ........... 192 Coating conversion... 152(F).............. See Blister................ 123(F)....... 104 microstructure of sheet ........................... 192 Coating drip... 132(F)................ 192 Commercially pure (CP) aluminum advantages ............... 14(T) container and packaging applications . 34(T) joining ............................ 88(F) definition .................. 15–16(T) mechanical properties ................... 192 definition .............................. 193 Cold-shut void .... 192 Coil set differential.... 153(F).... definition ...... 29(T) Cobble............. Cobalt mechanical properties ............ 14 properties ............ 128(F)............................... Coating streak............................................ See Streak........ definition . 5 definition ........ 80–84 Casting strains........................................ definition ......... 34(T) unit conversion .................................. 61–62...................... 127(F). 34(T) mechanical properties ......... traffic.... 126(F) Clad sheet................................. See Sheet........................................ 26..................... See Mark.... 191 Chromium as alloying element .... 134(F).............................................. 30(T) physical properties .. definition ............... 83 Center................................................ Coating buildup.......................... 89....... definition .. 151(F).................... 129(F) Cold working ... 108................... See Sheet............................................. 91(F) aluminum-silicon alloys as material ............................... 192 Coating blister................. 177(F) Cold upsetting........... 8 UNS alloy designation system .................................. 34(T) fluidity ............. 193 Coloring.................. 164–180(F) minimum aluminum percentage ................ 191 Chafing....... Chatter mark....... definition .......................... coiled....................... 191 Chip mark..... All Rights Reserved.... 193 Combination die (multiple-cavity die)........................ 118 Chill....... 152(F) Cold rolling ......................... 191 Center buckle............................................ casting alloys .............................................................................................. 40 compressive ................. definition ................. Coiled sheet................ 77–78. See Scratch.............................................................. See Dirt....... definition .. 37 variations in designations .... definition ...... Circle.......... chatter.................. See Dent............................ 191 Cast parts ............. 74–75 tightness ..... clad.... definition ......................................... 67 definition .................... 192 reversed........ 144(F)... 192 Coil set definition ....... 154(F) microstructure of sheet......................... 35 weldments . 191 Casting processes ....... 49–57(T) microstructures . 191 Cinching.................................... 73–75 temper subdivisions ..... 192 Cladding aluminum-copper alloys ..... 12–13(T)................................................................................................... Chop............................. definition ............................... 5 purity ...... See Buckle................ 95 aluminum-zinc alloys ..... coating......... repeating............................................... See Mark........................... 191 Casting (verb)..... 20 of wrought alloys .... definition ........................... 29(T) Chucking lug.............................. 137(F) Cold-shut ...... microstructure of rivet ....© 2000 ASM International. definition ..... See also specific casting processes............ tension.. 80–84 Casting yield.............................................................. 80–84 Cavity halves or parts ................................................. 110 finishing ......................org Casting alloys (continued) family designated .......... 78–79 microstructures of plate .................. 193 temper designation ..... 14 natural aging .... 19......... 30(T) physical properties ............... definition ...... Coil orientation clockwise coil......................................... definition ................................ microstructure of forgings ........ 93.......................... 34(T) limitations ........... 136(F) microstructures of sheet ....... 74 strengthening mechanisms ............ heat treated .......... 5–6 ...................... 26 aerospace alloy ...... 81 definition ......................................................... 191 processes ........................ 14 solution heat treatment .... 181(F) Casting (noun)........................ 173(F) definition ..... 192 Coil curvature...... Centrifugal casting ... 34..... coating......................................... 192 Coating oven trash........... 132(F)........................... 117 casting alloys . 136(F)..............asminternational............................... definition .. 192 Cold reduction.......... Cleaning......... 33–34 temper designations ...................................................... 32–33 fatigue .......... 30...... definition .................. alloys used ................................

.................................. wrought alloys ............. 91(F).... 194 Corrosion resistance aluminum-copper alloys ........... definition . 149(F) pitting..... 34(T) Crazing.................... 102(F)..... 163(F) in castings .. definition ................... 89 casting alloys ............ 184(F) CO2 process........... 7–8 Convexity....... 120(F)........... 10(T).... definition ... effect on casting structure fineness .. 194 stress-cracking....... 193 Coring...... 15–16(T) as alloying element....... 98............................. 89–90................... 193 Corrosion aluminum-copper alloys .. 94.............................. 113–114 aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys .... 23........ 194 D Deep drawing..............................org Subject Index / 229 designation system .................... 157(F) of brazed joint in sheet ............. wrought alloy applications .......... 93 aluminum-silicon alloys .............. casting alloys . wrought alloys .. definition .. 66 Corrugating................ Crown............ titanium in ingot ... alloys used ..... 10(T). See Corrosion............. 193 Copper as alloying element ... definition ............ definition ..... 93. 194 Coupon...................... definition .... 105(F)...... 88(F) electrical properties .................... 89 aluminum-magnesium alloys .......... 193 rigid.. 193 Conversion coating.... 112(F)........... definition ........... wrought alloys . 88(F) Continuous casting........ definition ......................... 150(F)................................ 136(F)......... 193 Condensation stain.................... 29 mechanical properties ......... 193 fretting .......................... 194 Crease...................................... See Convexity................. 151(F) galvanic.......................... Cryogenic toughness................. 87........................... 30(T) physical properties ................. 137(F) Density. 194 Cutoff. 114(F) as alloying element......... See Telescoping......................... Conversion of units . definition .... 194 Dendrite arm spacing (DAS). 88 in wrought alloy designation system .....© 2000 ASM International.......... conversion.. definition ................. 104–105 commercially pure aluminum . definition ............. 25–26(T) as telescopic mirror material ...... 162(F)... 12–13(T). 87..... 166(F)............... 104(F)................... definition ............ wrought alloys ...... 169(F) Dendrites ............... 11 limitations ..... 34 as alloying element........... 100–101(F)................................ 28............... See Coating................. ....... casting alloys .. 87–88(F) sheet metal work ............. 34(T) definition .. 193 Concentricity........... 4 Curl............... definition . See also Mark......... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www..... definition ............. See Blister........ 28........................ definition ......... 193 Coned-out coil.. 90. 97......................................... 121(F) properties ............... 96........ Core (for casting)......................................... 90(F) Compressive cold working....... 93(F) as alloying element........ definition ................ definition .......... definition .................................... 26–27.. 114.. 87–88 microstructure due to solidification .......... definition .............. 4 commercially pure aluminum .. 152(F) exfoliation.... 194 pitting ...... water stain........asminternational.... wrought alloys ...... 26 mechanical properties ........... 33(T)..... 140(F) Contour.......... 40 temper designations................. casting alloy applications ......... 99(F).............. 194 Cracking.................... definition ............................... 168(F).... 116 Container and packaging industry ....... 92(F). definition ........... All Rights Reserved............. 113(F)......... 28–29(F) Dent.......................................... 194 Defect......... 27.................... 71 wrought alloys ................................... 168(F).......... 194 Cross hatching........ microstructures ...... definition ............................ See Back-end condition....... 24 electrical applications ............ definition ......................... 14(T)..... 194 Covering area. definition . 112.................. 107(F) aluminum-manganese alloys ... definition ...................... 194 intergranular........... 179(F) Dendritic segregation.... 109–111(F)......... 193 Conduit definition .... 104–105...... 195 ......... 67 Concavity. 112 aluminum-zinc alloys ........ can ends............................ 169(F) in sand casting ................ 98........... 194 water stain..... 103(F)............................. 106(F).. 88 temper designation .................... 29(T) welded to aluminum ...... 11...... 108.... Corner turnup........................................ handling.... 193 Core (for rolled products).... 88........ 192 Core blister......... 136(F)..................... 25(T)......... definition .. 193 exfoliation ....... Construction industry............ 121(F) microstructures ...................... 96. See Crazing........ 193 Controlled cooling. 3.. core...... Condenser tube...... 88 strengthening mechanisms ........ 101.......

......................................................... 176(F).... 24–25 casting alloys ......................................... 196 Ductility definition .................. 53(T)........ belled....... definition ..... definition .. Dimensional stability........ 196 Dynamic recrystallization .. definition ...................... edge... definition .......... 196 Dropped edge.. See Streak.............................. 195 Die line. definition ......................................................... 196 Drag mark................. 27 Duct sheet................. 107 wrought alloys ................ 179(F) Die casting (verb) cold chamber. definition . 134(F) E Earing......... See Edge................... 30 definition ...... See Scratch....... tool.... 196 Double shear notch...... Dry surface............ 197 8xxx series . 110. 32(T) experimental alloys ........ 88 definition .......................................... See Two-tone.......................... 49–57(T) definition .................. definition ................................................. 196 Ears............ 162(F) of sheet ....... Draw and iron-can bodies........... permanent mold casting ........ 99..... 195 vs.................. See Buckle.................. 197 liquated.......................... 195 hot chamber...... 196 Drawing ..... 113 aluminum-silicon alloys . See also Low-pressure casting process....... Elastic limit............ All Rights Reserved.................. 87.................... 40–49(T) Embossing........ 174(F).............org Dent (continued) expansion............ High-pressure molding........... 57(T) microstructure ........... See Lube... 197 Edge band. definition ............................... 196 Dry sheet........ 195 Diffusion processes .......... 81 Die forgings ......... definition ......... definition .......... definition .............................. 31 variations . definition ......................... definition ........................... 80 Die (in casting)............. 88(F)........................ dropped........ 23–32(T) Die Casting Development Council ............... definition ........... 49–57(T) definition . 197–198 wrought alloys ............................ 196 Disc... definition ............ See Buckle.. 195 repeating.... 195 definition ........................... definition .... Dry sand molding.......................... drawn-in............................................. Drawn product...... 155(F)....... 131(F) Dirt........................ definition ......... 109 Elongation casting alloys ....... Draft....... 4 Electrical resistivity.... 83–84 aluminum-magnesium alloys .. 195 mechanical properties ..© 2000 ASM International...... definition ....... definition ...... See Notch.. 198 ........asminternational.... 197 Eccentricity. 180(F) Direct castings.... 196 Drawn-in scratch..... 112. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 230 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www................................... definition .... 131(F) Diffusion streak.. 198 Endurance limit casting alloys ........... 195 Designation systems .... 197 rippled......... 24–25 temper........ 25 wrought alloys ...... definition ........ definition ........................ 158(F).............................................................................. 159(F) Electrical conductivity commercially pure aluminum ........... low...... See Rub................. wavy..... diffusion.. definition ................................................. 195 Die number....... 89 aluminum-copper casting alloys .............................. 107................................................ 106............ 39–40 UNS alloy ......................................... definition ........ 197 Electrical and electronic industry alloys used ............................ 1–2......... microstructure ............. 112 aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys ........ See Edge....... 196 Drawing stock..... double shear.................. 196 Dip brazing ......................... for wrought alloys ............. 111 compositions for commercial uses . definition ............ cross reference chart ........ 36–37(T) comparison of previous and current systems ...................................................... definition ................ 181(F) of plate .............. definition .. 173(F).................................................................. belled.......... 88(F) Electrical beam welding of investment casting .. 195 gravity....... damaged...... 197 dropped............. 35 definition ........................... 177(F).... definition ... 197 broken (cracked). 37 Die casting (noun) ................ 196 wrought alloys ............ definition ....... definition .................................. 32–37(T) casting alloys............................. pressure.... 32(T) capital letters used for alloys ............................................................... definition ............... 172(F)..................................... 197 Elevated temperatures aluminum-copper alloys ................. 31............................ 195 Die (in forging or extrusion)......................... 178(F)... 26..... 195 pressure. 106... 197 built-up......................................... 171(F).... 156(F)......... edge. 115–116 commercially pure aluminum applications .................

. 148(F)... See Back-end condition.............. temper designation .............. 188 hard.......... 105(F)........... 108............... 173(F)............. 89(F). 130(F)... 8 Equivalent round........ 199 chemically cleaned... definition .......... 79 microstructures ..... See Reroll stock........................................ 103(F)... definition ... 199 Flange..... 199 Fluidity.... definition ...... definition ..... 199 Flag........................ definition .. All Rights Reserved. 161(F) indirect ................ 109(F) conform ................... 78–79 for food products industry ................................ definition ............ 200 flashless. definition .......... 200 Forge casting .................................... 199 Flat-rolled products ..... Flash.. definition ................... 79 Extrusion billet... definition ..................... 145(F) definition ........... 5 definition ........ 16.......... 95(F).. 199 Flatness. definition ...................... definition ................ 199 Flow through.................................................... 200 Food products industry.......... 178(F) definition .......... 198 Finish casting alloys ......... 200 hand..... 150(F)....... for food products .................. 40–49(T) Feeder................. definition ............................. 4 English/engineering units .................................................. 128(F)..... 145(F)............ Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www............ 57–58 Fatigue aluminum-silicon alloys ..... 161(F)........... wrought alloys ................................................... 106(F)... 184(F) aluminum to steel ................. 112 casting alloys ........ 177(F)........... definition ................. casting alloys ....... definition ... 34(T) Foil annealed........... 88........................................................... definition . 200 press........ 152(F) no-draft. 200 packaging applications........................ 79 definition ...... 199 Flaking............ definition .... 198 Experimental aluminum alloys .......... 174(F)....... 78–79 Flow lines ............ 200 draftless............... definition ............ 200 die............................................... 198 direct ...... Fold .......... See Streak............................................................ 123(F)...... 96............. definition ....... 135(F).. 139(F)............ 34(T) Fin stock.. definition .org Subject Index / 231 wrought alloys . See Forging......... 24–25 Explosive welding aluminum to copper . 199 bright two sides... 108(F) aluminum-zinc alloys .............................................. 141(F) cold-coined.© 2000 ASM International.............. 172(F)..... definition .............. draftless.................... 79 gas tungsten arc welding ............ definition .. F Fabrication.................. definition ..... 200 rolled ring ................. 30................. Feed line..... 199 Flash line........... 199 embossed............................................. 79 aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys ................................. 148(F)...................... definition ............... 97–102. grain structure ........................ 129(F)..... 40–49(T) Energy absorption capacity. 93...................... definition ......... 199 fabrication ....... fayed sheet .................. definition .................... 49–57(T) wrought alloys .............. Fillet......... 198 Extrusion seam................................. definition ...................................... definition ... 84 Forging ....................... definition .......................... definition ..... 124(F)............ 104(F). 89(F) scratch brushed................ 16................................................. 198 Eyehole..asminternational............. 110 definition .......... 141(F).... 199 intermediate temper... 200 Foil stock...................... 146(F).. 107(F)........ definition .................................. definition . 79–80 blocker-type..................................... 200 upset............... 184(F) Extrusion .................. precision......... definition .............. See Rib...................... 105.......... 198 Extrusion butt end defect..... 198 Expendable pattern casting... 199 Fish mouthing.. definition ........ 199 Finishing.......... 144(F)..... 130(F)........................... 103(F) Forgeability.................. 145(F)..... 199 etched........................... Feed in...................... definition .............. 101(F) Foresmo Bridge ... See Riser................... definition ............... 147(F).... 80 rolled ring.... 151(F) reverse ....... 138(F)............................... 198 Extrusion log....................................................................... definition ................................. 200 ................ alloys used for packaging and utensils ............. casting alloys .... definition ....................................... definition ................................... 198 test.......... grinding....................... 198 Fin....... 199 mechanically grained.................... 199 mill finish (MF).... 200 microstructures ........ 200 definition .......................... 149(F)... 199 matte one side (M1S)..................................... 88(F).................... 199 definition ............. 200 closed-die.............. definition ........ See Holiday............... 200 hammer......... 151(F) Fatigue limit casting alloys ......

....... definition . 161(F) of plate .................................. 81....... 111 aluminum-tin casting alloys .. definition ............... definition .. 89 aluminum-copper permanent mold castings .... 200 Fracture brittle ..... 11 casting alloys . 4 of wrought-to-cast alloys .......... 200 Forging plane.. 201 H Hair................... 8 Hardener........... 201 Grain refiners............. 4 Gas porosity ............................................................................................................................................ 176(F).... definition .. 90 commercially pure aluminum .... 201 rolled in............ 95 wrought alloys ... Full center.............. Hard conversion .......................... 113 aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys ........................ See Scratch............... 201 Gating ........................................................................... of investment casting ... 202 Hardness casting alloys ..... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 232 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www. 148(F)................ 177(F) definition ............. 106 G Gage...... grease..................asminternational................. center..................... 84–85 aluminum-copper alloys .......... definition .... 201 Gated system........................................... 181(F)..... 88 definition ................ 98 aluminum-silicon alloys .... definition ................................................. 40–49(T) Heat streak...................................... slitter... definition ........................ 200 wrought alloys ........... 80 Handling mark... Friction scratch. 85 Fretting...... definition .....© 2000 ASM International................................................................................................. handling.......... 94........... 94......................... 202 8xxx series ............ 161(F) of sheet .. 201 Gate area .. 109 aluminum-magnesium alloys .......................... 173(F) Gating system................................... Heat treatable alloys .........org Forging billet............ 177(F) Gated patterns.... 105(F) ............ 172(F).... 65–68 Heat treatable aluminum alloy............................................................ See Pickup........ 95 of extruded tube ................................ See also Aging.......... 5 definition ........................ 103 aluminum-zinc casting alloys .................... Gold mechanical properties ................................................... definition ............... definition ............................ Green sand ........ definition ...... 157(F)... 168(F) Grain size....................... See Mark.. 97.................... 160(F)............... See also Scratch................... 201 Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) aluminum-copper alloys ............................. 159(F) of wrought alloys .......... 4 Fracture toughness testing ............ 115 by nonproducer ............... 90 aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys ........ 49–57(T) definition ............. 29(T) Gouge............ 201 Grease streak.... 174(F)........... 30(T) physical properties . 151(F) of extrusion ........ definition . 151(F) ductile ..... 200 Formability aluminum-manganese alloys .. 156(F)............ 158(F).................................... See Buckle............. All Rights Reserved.... 182(F) Gate ....... 40 definition ....... 93..................... 176(F)...................................................... 109 aluminum-copper sand castings ............... heat.. 115 aluminum-zinc alloys ... definition ......................................... traffic. definition ..... 201 Grain flow............................... Glaze........................... 90 aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys .................................... 100............................ See Streak............................ 98 aluminum-silicon alloys . See also Scratch....... 96 casting alloys ..... 201 Green sand molding. 6 Heat treating.................................. See Mark........... 112 aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys ......... 155(F)............................................................. 149(F) parting-plane fracture in forging ......... definition .......................... rolled in............................. 98 aluminum-silicon alloys ...................... 144(F) Fracture toughness aluminum-magnesium alloys .... 202 8xxx aluminum series ............................... 202 Hand forgings ........... Solution heat treating.... 201 Geodesic domes .............. rolled-in................................................. See Streak................................................ 201 Gas tungsten arc repair welding.. 102(F).................... 82 definition ............................... 94............ 200 Forging stock.. 106 wrought alloys .......... aluminum alloys ... roll................. 182(F) Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 102...................... 202 temper designations ...... effect on casting structures ... 82 definition ... 33–34 definition .............................. friction............... 104(F)..........................

....... 133(F).... fabricating........ 203 stringer.. knock-out.... 204 Insert. See Weld...... All Rights Reserved................. 134(F).............. 88 Investment casting . definition ........ Ingot. extrusion.................................................................... definition ..................................... Hot rolling ........ 134(F) microstructure of plate ................................ 90 aluminum-manganese alloys ............. herringbone..................... definition ....... definition ...... See also Ingot.......... 203 extrusion... 203 rolling.............. 122(F)...................... See Lot..... definition . Knock-out mark. Ingot....... definition ....... definition ... 205 Lacquering............... Ingot........ See Pickup........... See Tear... 131(F)............ 14 Impurity limit ....................... of plate ........................ 112........................... definition ............... definition .................... 128(F)........ 203 Incomplete seam.................... 94....... See also Ingot............ 149(F) Interleaving.. 12(T)..................... 204 forging....... 181(F). 73 International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) ................... roll................. 10(T).......................... 135(F)......... extrusion.... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www.. 90 aluminum-silicon alloys ... 29 mechanical properties ... 13(T)........ ..... 204 rolling.. definition ................... 204 Iron as alloying element ........................... 109.......... See also Ingot................ 17 Lamination...... ... remelt. 204 Inoculant......... 15–16(T) as alloying element..................asminternational. 25(T)............ 203 Impurities .................. 134(F). rolling....... inspection..... 204 Injection............ 131(F)....... 202 Holiday..... J Joining aluminum-copper alloys .......... wrought alloy applications .......... definition ..................... oil.. 78–79 microstructure of ingot .org Subject Index / 233 Heat treat lot..... definition . 182(F) Investment molding... definition ..................... See Mark.. See Lot......... Heat treat stain........ speed.......... 166(F)...................... definition ....... 95(F) aluminum-zinc alloys ........... See Streak.................................... 11.. 204 International Accord on Alloy Designations ........ 203 Hot tear...... definition ..... rolling..... 203 Hot cracking. 203 Impregnation.... 24 in casting alloys . 142(F)...... See also Ingot...................................... Ingot. incomplete.... definition .. 142(F) definition ........ 204 microstructure ........................ 110 aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys ..... 180(F)... High-pressure casting ........ definition .............. 34(T) wrought alloys . 138(F) Hot shortness............. definition ................. definition .. 203 Hot isostatic pressing (HIP). 82–83.................. Ingot............ 111 definition ... 167(F)...... 143(F) microstructure of sheet ........... See also Stain.......... 30(T) physical properties .. forging............ 93......... 84 High-pressure molding......... 29(T) I Impact.............. L Lacquer........ See Mark...... 202 Herringbone.......................... temper designation .... extrusion....... Ingot.......................................... definition .. 205 ......... 202–203 Hook............ 102 casting alloys ... definition . 10.... definition ........... casting ........ 106–107 as alloying element........ 9.............................................................. 11..... definition . 4 K Kink........................ 30............. 136(F)... fabricating............ heat treat....... 137(F).................. definition ............. fabricating................... fabricating... Intergranular corrosion.... 203 Hot line pickup............... 114(F) aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys ........... Hot working...... 204 Inspection lot.... definition ........ 110........................................................... Ingot..... See also Bow............. 202 High-toughness alloys aluminum-copper casting alloys ... 142(F)...... wrought alloys ... 111 Holding temperature...................... 77–78 definition ... 202 Hole......... definition . 204 microstructure ... forging.............© 2000 ASM International.... 14 Inclusion definition ........ definition ...................................... 205 Knife mark...... 202 Homogenizing ........ 203 Hot spot... 149(F) remelt................... 203 fabricating........ knife.......

10(T)....... See Streak............... 10(T)........ 207 drag.......... 23........................ 207 bearing.... definition ......... definition . Leveler mark. 205 roller. 117 Mark arbor... 205 tension........ 100(F)......................................................... See also Vacuum casting process....... definition .................. 207 definition ..... 114(F)........... Lueders................ Longitudinal direction...... 101....... 207 inclusion......... 27 mechanical properties ........... 30(T) physical properties ............. wrought alloys ..... casting alloys ................ 11......... 15–16(T) as alloying element........... 28 Magnetic levitation (Mag-Lev) train ...© 2000 ASM International........ definition . 206 low.................... 29(T) Magnesium silicide ...... liquated...... 115 aluminum-zinc alloys .............. 207 bristle. definition ................. definition ..................... 205 Lueders..... 97(F)....... See Rub.............................. 207 . 205 Light poles ..... longitudinal.......... 30(T) physical properties ......................... 29 mechanical properties ........... stringer.................. See also Inclusion.. 110(F) as alloying element................ definition . 205 stretcher. 207 bite.... wrought alloy applications .......................... Liquation......... 10(T)........... All Rights Reserved........................ definition ..................................................... See Wrap......... 112.asminternational.................. 207 handling......... 6–7 Looper line... definition ... definition . 108(F) as alloying element............. See also Longitudinal direction......... 146(F).................... definition ........ 147(F) M Machinability aluminum-tin alloys ......................... Lateral bow......... See Bow.......... definition . definition .... Leveling definition ........ See Edge........... repeating............ 105(F)........... 206 Low-pressure casting process....................... definition ......... definition ................................... definition .............. 33(T).... 15–16(T) as alloying element.. wrought alloys ...... 207 knockout . definition .......... definition ..... 25(T)...... 23......... wrought alloy applications ................. 206 Lueders line. definition ...... 29 mechanical properties ........ definition . 95–101(F)... definition .................. leveler................. 99(F)...................................... lateral........... 205 looper..... 207 chatter (roll or leveler).............. 106(F).. See Bow.. Layout sample........... inclusion... 206 Longitudinal orientation....... See Line...................... definition .... 113–114......... 30(T) physical properties .................. 93............. wrought alloy applications ......................................... See Fold.......... looper...................... 29(T) Marine industry. 90.... 83 knock-out....... 107(G).... See Dent.......org Lap......... 29(T) Leveler chatter... 159(F) in castings ..... 170(F) in wrought alloys .... 27–28........................ 103(F)... 34 as alloying element... 205 thermal.. 26...................................................... 113(F)..... extrusion. definition . 206 inspection.... 94(F). wrought alloys ... 6 Long transverse direction............. .......... alloys used .................. 206 Lot heat treat.. definition ..... 102(F)... 207 carbon. Leveler streak.............. 115 as alloying element.......... 106–107.......... 13(T) mechanical properties .. 11...... See Line................... 100–101. 4 Lithium as alloying element........ 98(F)... definition ........ 11. 205 weld. 23.. 106(F) Manganese as alloying element .. 152(F).................. 14(T)........ definition .......... definition ........... 206 Lube high........... 207 knife... See Extrusion log........ Loose wrap........... tool...... 205 Lead as alloying element ......... 29(T) Lock............ definition .................. See Mark. Lost foam casting...................... definition . 111–112(F)..... Lug ......................... 25(T). See Seam............... 206 Log.... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 234 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www...... 207 heat treat contact........ chatter (roll or leveler)...... edge follower.... 12–13(T)....... 95(F) as alloying element....... 206 Long transverse orientation..... 104(F)..... 115 Magnesium as alloying element ................. 12(T)............ 26... definition .......................... Longitudinal bow...... 107(F) Line flow........... loose..... 96................. 12–13(T)....... Liner.......... definition .................... definition ... 205 Liquefied natural gas tankage .. 205 Liquated edge...... 26. 30(T) physical properties . definition . casting alloy applications .....

.............. See also Telescoping................. definition .................. definition .................... definition .. snap....... definition ........... Nickel as alloying element .... definition ... 208 Microscopy ... definition ......... See also Aging................ See Mark...... 209 Modulus in tension....... See Stain....... 208 Master alloy.......................... mike... 4 Natural aging.....................208 stretcher jaw......... See Scratch.............. definition . 21(T) wrought alloys ...... 26............ definition .... wrought alloys ................. See also Mark... definition . definition ................. definition . definition ...... 134(F) N Nailing......................... Mean diameter...................... definition ... See Scratch..... 15–16(T) as alloying element............................................. 3 Metallography and Microstructures .... 209 Necking .....org Subject Index / 235 leveler chatter........ 209 Mullen test..... definition ...................................... 12–13(T).... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www....................... 30(T) physical properties ........ 60....... See Mark............. 207–208 roll bruise. 65...... 209 Non-heat-treatable alloy casting alloys ............. 208 Melting temperature........ 210 Parent plate. snap..... 124(F) temper designation .................... mike.............................. chatter (roll or leveler).. 106–107 mechanical properties .......... 84 casting alloys .......... 37 Nonfill............... arbor............. heat treat.......... 27............... 33–34 definition ........................ 208 snap................................. 208 Mechanical properties. 29–30(T).............. Minimum residual stress (MRS)..... See Hardener. 7 Microstructure........................................................................................... alloys used .. traffic...................... 30 wrought alloys ........... 68. 28.......... tension..... 10.................... rolled products... repeating........................... definition .............. 209 Non-Ferrous Founders’ Society (NFFS) ............... 74 temper designations ........ 208–209 Mismatch........... definition ... wrought alloys ....... tail........ 30(T) physical properties .. 209 Offset.... 27. definition .... 60–64(T) slab casting ............................ 151(F) Nick extrusions................ 210 Painting.................. definition. definition ...asminternational......... 49–57(T) definition ............................ 26... 78 temper designations.............................. 78 strip casting ................ 208 rub.... Overaging microstructure ................................................. 28 Notch............ See Buckle................ Orange peel..... roll..................................................... definition . 100(F) Oil stain.. 209 H temper subdivisions .............. definition ............. 71 Oxide discoloration. definition .............................. 209 measurement method (ASTM E 111) .. alloys used .... of alloys .... 29(T) Nondestructive testing.... 209 Mold cavity............................... ... 208 stop.......... 66............................... oil.. definition . 58 wrought alloys ............................................. 40–49(T) Mold................ See also Mark...... 8 Microporosity...... 209 O Off gage..... definition .......... 59.................... 210 Ovalness..... 208 whip.................. 118 Pack rolling. See Quality.. See also Mark....................................... handling................. roll...... 19............................ 119–184 Mike mark................. See Mark... wrought alloys ............... 210 ......... definition ..... temper designation ........ definition ....................... definition . 208 tab................ 210 Out-of-register...... wrought alloy applications .....© 2000 ASM International........................ See Stain..... Oxide stringers .. metal-on-roll........................ 99... roll bruise...... roll bruise............ take-up............. See Mark............... double shear............. 209–210 Oil and petroleum industry....................... 119 Metric/International Standard units ............... See Crease... 210 Oscillation..... 40–49(T) Modulus of elasticity casting alloys ... definition ............ All Rights Reserved....... definition . 207 pinch........... ........... 208 roll skid...... wrought alloys . 20 wrought alloys .......................... 68 P Packaging industry..... See Dent.... snap........ 17 Parent coil............... 29(T) Mottling..... pressure........ 209 Molybdenum mechanical properties ..... definition ....

definition ........ 211 Pitting. 210 Permanent solid castings... 213 of dies ........ 149(F). See also Aging... 133(F).. definition .... 166(F)... definition ............... 158(F)............... 166(F)............... 134(F)............................ definition ............. See Dent......... 211 Precipitation hardening......... definition ............ definition .................. 161(F)............................................. definition ................ 212 pinion hollow...... definition ................. 113 aluminum-silicon alloys ....................... 137(F) effect on extruded tube ......... 212 class 3 hollow extruded......... pressure.......... 180(F) heat treatable ........... definition ........................... ............... See Buckle.. 212 extruded............. Plate alclad.... 129(F)..... 141(F) effect on extrusion ..................... 165(F).................. 136(F)........................................ 212 class 2 hollow extruded........... 211 structural............. 211 Porosity... See Corrosion.. 212 cold-finished extruded............................. Pressure welding .. .. 51–53(T).... See Mottling................ 127(F).................................... 84 temper designation ..................... 135(F).. ..................................................... 142(F) effect on plate microstructure . 142(F) Polygonization ............... 27.. See Annealing. 212 helical extruded............................................... 112 aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys .. 135(F)............................ 212 flute hollow. .... definition ......................... 212 cold-finished rolled.................. 211 Pressure mottling......... 20 wrought alloys ........ All Rights Reserved........ 111 aluminum-tin alloys ................... 211 Pipe definition .. quarter. definition ................. 211 Pinch mark.................. 40.......................... definition ....... definition .................... definition ..... 213 tapered extruded........... 212 streamline hollow........... definition ............... 211 Polarized light effect on annealed plate ... 211 fabrication ............. 135(F) effect on ingot .... 136(F) effect on cold rolled sheet ..... See Crease....................... 212 cold-finished............. 142(F).. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 236 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www................... See also Streak..... definition ....... 210 Pattern........ 60.............. definition ..... 213 Quarter buckle.... 74 definition . definition ....... 109 Permanent mold casting (verb) ............. Peening ....... 211 Pickoff.................... 212 semihollow........... 211 seamless....... 84................ 212 definition ............................................................... coating........... 28......................... 132(F)... See Commercially pure aluminum............. definition ............. definition ........ 143(F). See Back-end condition. See Aging...................... 211 extruded............................................................................. definition .......................................................... 211 definition .................... 211 Pickup definition ... 80–81 aluminum-magnesium alloys .. 26....... repeating.......... 211 repeating.... 175(F)... 154(F) Product forms.......... 137(F)...... definition ..................................... definition ...... 40 Profile class 1 hollow extruded....... 78–79 microstructures ........... microstructure ............................. 212 lip hollow.... definition .... definition ..........asminternational...................................... 82–83 Preheating................. definition ..................org Partial annealing. 55–56(T) Permanent mold casting (noun) microstructure ...................... definition .............. 115 aluminum-zinc casting alloys . 212 solid.............. Q Quality. 212 rolled................ identified by temper designation ... stepped extruded............ definition ........................ 213 Pure aluminum..................... 65–66 Precipitation heat treating............................ definition ............. See also Profile.............. definition ............................. 152(F) Permanent mold casting alloys........................ 115 definition .... 212 stepped extruded........................ 213 structural....... definition............ definition ................ 179(F)..... 162(F) Plate circle.............. Parting line.................... Quenching ........ definition .. 85 casting alloys ............. 170(F) Physical properties............. See Embossing.......... definition ......................................© 2000 ASM International.......... definition .................................. 212 hollow................. 124(F)...... definition . 167(F). definition .................. 211 Piping..... partial.................................... 212 drawn.... Pinhole......... mechanical properties ....... 124(F) extruded tube ........... 210 Patterned sheet....... 141(F) Pop (solvent).............. Pit........... roll.......... 211 drawn............... 160(F)....................... 136(F)........ Precision casting ...... 85 ..................

. 214 cold-heading.... 215 Runner.............. definition ........org Subject Index / 237 modifications identified by temper designations ....... 215 Sand casting ..... 215 handling. definition .......................... Rod alclad... Rolled-over edge. See Back-end condition... definition ............ chatter (roll or leveler)... 9 Reheating......................................................... 4 Redraw rod.. See Wire.................................. 88........... 215 heat treatable ............. definition .................................... 215 machine.... tension....... 214 cold-finished........................ 2 Recrystallization dynamic ...... 134(F) microstructure of sheet ............................. rolled-in.. 214 rivet... definition ........... 71.... 215 Saw-plate bar....... 111 aluminum-tin casting alloys .. definition .......................... 82 Sand casting alloys....... permanent mold casting ................ 214 cold-finished rolled..... handling............... definition ................. 213 Radiography. 214 Roll chatter................................... 216 slippage...................... rolled... 154(F) Reynolds Wrap ........ cold heading... Rolling slab........ 67–68 Resistance spot welding ..................................... 89(F) Rib..................... definition .......................................... 179(F)....................... definition . roll........ All Rights Reserved... RCS.. See Mark.... 117–118 Razor streak............. 214 Rolling coating.... Recommendation: International Designation System for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys .............. 213 Reflector sheet........... Roofing sheet.......... 214 Riser gating..................................... 68 wrought alloys .. Rolled ring..................... 215 Roundness. cold-heading........ rub................. 113 aluminum-silicon alloys . 215 Roping.....................© 2000 ASM International... rolled ring...... definition . 214 Rolled-in scratch....... 214 cold-finished extruded.................................... See also Mark...................... Rub (tool).... 213 References ............ liquated. 53–55(T) Sand castings definition .......... 215 Runner system.............................................. 167(F). definition .......... definition ................. definition ..................... 132(F).... 215 Rub mark.....................0 from scrap .................. 215 Scratch.............. definition ...... 214 Residual stresses minimized by quenching . 213 Rear-end condition........... See Mark......................... definition ........... 112 wrought alloys ............................ 134(F) microstructure of closed-die forgings .......... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www.... See Mark..................... definition ..................... definition .... See Scratch........... 213 Reoil................ rub.................. 136(F). definition ...... definition .......................................asminternational.......... 70... 214 definition .. of alloys ....... definition ................... definition ............ 68 temper designations ...... Scalping.... alloys used .................. 216 rolled-in.. definition . 138(F). 215 oscillation....... definition .. definition ................. ............ 215 oven.................. 112 aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys ........ See Rod................ definition ............................. 72 Quenching crack................... 215 drawn-in.. See Scratch.................... 153(F)..... 115 aluminum-zinc casting alloys ......... 130(F) microstructure of extrusions .... 213 R Radiographic inspection...... Roll pickup........ 215 S Sample....... coating........ 180(F) Sand mold..... 216 ..... definition ............. 185–186 Refined aluminum.. 214 Rivet...................... 213 Rail transportation industry....... tension.... See Edge..... definition .......................................................... definition ......... 214 extruded... 168(F). definition .............. saw-plate.. See Forging.... definition .................. definition ............ 150(F) microstructure of plate ................. 214 Roll mark............... definition ......................... 115 vs............ See also Mark.............. See Bar...................... 213 Registration process... 215 friction........... Rolled-in metal........................................ 164(F)......... 131(F)................. mechanical properties ... 81–82 aluminum-magnesium alloys ....................................... 109 microstructure ....... definition .... definition . 123(F)........................................................... 137(F) Recycling casting alloy 332................. definition ........ Roll grind................................................ definition ................. 214 Reroll stock. See Pickup....... definition ........ See Inclusion....... 214 Riser .. roll...... definition .. 49–51(T)........................................ definition ........ definition... 82 definition ...... See Streak............... 128(F)......... stringer............... 81................

............... 158(F)... 7 Shrinkage ....................................................................... definition ................... 27 aluminum-manganese alloys ........ 124(F).. 217 Short transverse direction. 138(F)............ 165(F).................. 29(T) Silver as alloying element ....................... 217 one-sided bright mill finish (1SBMF).................... 108(F) as alloying element... 217 microstructures . 40–49(T) Sheet alclad.. 97–102.......... 26.. definition ....... 170(F)... definition .. 14(T)...... 84 casting alloys ................ .................... 129(F)...... definition ................ 162(F)....................... 217 standard two sides bright finish (S2SBF)..... 6 Specimen................... 129(F) microstructure of sheet . definition ......... 166(F)...... 152(F) microstructure of plates .. definition ........ 128(F).... definition ........... definition ...... 29(T) Skip......... 217 Slab casting ............ 143(F). 26.......................................... 10(T)...... incomplete............... 132(F)....... 184(F) aluminum welded to steel ....... 130(F) microstructure of forgings ....... definition ..... definition . tension.. 172(F). 126(F).. 111–112(F).. See Smudge.... 71... 216 Seam (extrusion)............... 105(F).......... 217 definition ................................... slitter.......... 93 aluminum-silicon alloys .............. 21(T)..................... 152(F)........ definition . wrought alloys ..................................... 108...... 151(F). 28....... definition .......... 218 microstructure of castings . 218 .................... 93-95(F)........ 125(F)............................................................ broken (cracked). 130(F)......... See Scratch.................................................................. 216 aluminum welded to copper ......... 96(F)........ 49–57(T) definition ............ temper designations .. 25(T).... 146(F) definition ....... 34 as alloying element. 169(F)......................... Shell molding..... 131(F)... 184(F) anodizing.... 163(F) mill finish (MF)............ 27....... 5 mechanical properties ........... 159(F).. See Edge............ 123(F).......... 15(T) mechanical properties ... 29 content effect on castability . definition ..... 60........................ 78–79 flat circles....... 70.... 164(F)................. 216 Section number.......... definition .............. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 238 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www................ 93 commercially pure aluminum ... 30(T) physical properties .......................................... See Hair.. Snaking......................... definition ........ definition ...... definition ......................... 103(F).......... 216 Sensitization ........ temper designation . 217 Silicon as alloying element . 27...... 174(F) Slug..... 218 Smut.............. 66..... 126(F) temper designations .......... wrought alloy applications ........... 216 wrought alloys .. 144(F)........... Side set................... casting alloys .......... 123(F)....... definition ......... ................. 216 clad............ 4 Solid-solution melting ...... 216 embossed.. 136(F)...... 26 Specification limits.................. casting alloy applications .............. See Reroll stock. 217 temper designation ... 125(F)............ All Rights Reserved........... 17................................................... definition ......... 72 Solution strengthening ............ 106(F).. definition ................. 151(F) Solution heat treating .................................. 157(F)..... definition .. 19–20..................... 34.. 217 coiled circles.. 181(F) microstructure of closed-die forgings .© 2000 ASM International............................................ 217 Side crack. 217 Short transverse orientation.. 74 definition ...................................... definition . 8 Soldering ..... 33(T). 217 flat........ 217 Smudge................................. definition .... 64 fabrication .............. 30(T) physical properties ......... 11............................. 20(T) Sheet stock... 216 Seamless.............................. 15–16(T) as alloying element............... definition ........ 68..... 173(F)......... 218 Soft conversion ......................................... 216 Shear strength casting alloys ......... See Snaking....asminternational.... 180(F)..... 23.................... 64 Serpentine weave................................ 217 painted....... 104(F)..... See also Weld............ definition ........... 217 Shell mold process.. 28 to stress-corrosion cracking ...... definition .... 87 wrought alloys ........................ 127(F) microstructure of rivets .................................. definition .... 64(T) standard one-side bright finish (S1SBF)................... ............ 129(F).................... 217 coiled.... 113(F)......... 78 Slippage scratch.. 107(F)... definition ......... 167(F)... 217 pattern. Sliver... Shape. definition ........................ 154(F)... 114(F) as alloying element........org Seam defect......... 28...... definition ...................... 11... 12–13(T)..... 155(F).. Slitter hair.. 59 wrought alloys ... 217 coiled cut to length........ 217 Sludge .... 171(F)...

.......................................... 218 oil........................... definition ...................... 19–20............. 17..... definition ...... 220 designating residual stress relief of heat treated products . See also Oscillation......... See Corrosion...... 17.......................... 6 Strain hardening aluminum-magnesium alloys . 60–64(T) temper designations ........... 219 grease.. speed........................ See Tear.......... 220 Tear testing ............. 165(F)................................... 100............. roll bruise... 68 ....................... speed ...... 220 Strip casting .................. Suck-in..... of commercially pure aluminum ............. 28 Stress relieving ......................... 73–74 annealing treatments . definition . 219 (stripe).. stress-cracking ....... 71............................................................................ 85 Telescopic mirrors................. 219 grinding............ 21(T) cold worked ... 96 aluminum-manganese alloys .................... 20 wrought alloys .................................... welded to aluminum ................ definition . See Line................... See Streak............................. 184(F) Sticking... 21(T) wrought alloys .................................................. 39–40 designations identifying modifications in quenching .... definition ..... Tear... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www..... definition .... 11.............................................. 40 definition ................ definition ........ 90(F) Telescoping................................................ 58–59 wrought alloys . 134(F) microstructure of cold rolled sheet ............................... 105(F) Sprue.. 219 heat.......... 26........................................ 78 Structural streak............................ pickup............................................ 19............ 219 cold............................................................ definition ...... definition . 219 coating.............................................................. 87 definition ..................... 22 annealed...................... Speed tear....... 128(F) microstructures of sheets ...................................... 218 Steel......... See also Corrosion............... 18............................ 93 commercially pure aluminum .... 218 Strain-hardenable aluminum alloy........ 58 artificially aged . 111 Stabilizing ........ 111 definition ............. Stretching .......................... definition ............ 67–68 Stretcher strain......................... water stain........asminternational.................... 218 microstructure of castings .................. Spheroidization ................ structural..... 219 herringbone. temper designations ................................................ 88... casting alloys ........ 5 Strength/weight ratio........... 70 designations... 218 Squeeze casting ....................................... definition ......... definition .............................................................. roll....... ..... diffusion...... 40 definition .............. See Mark................... 67–68 designation identifying additional cold work between quenching and aging .................................................. definition ....... See Streak............. 127(F).......... 219 H temper subdivisions for non-heat-treatable alloys ....... definition .......... definition .................. See Streak.................................... wrought alloys ... definition .... 219 structural.. coating....... 126(F) wrought alloys ..... heat. definition ..........................................org Subject Index / 239 Speed crack..................... 218 Strain........... 219 leveler....... definition ........ 72 microstructures of plates ......... 21(T)..... definition ... 4 Stress.. definition ...................................................................................... See Tear........................... 84....... 220 Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC).. 219 buff.......................................... 131(F) Splice........... 220 Strip........© 2000 ASM International.. 22... 66. definition ............. 218 Spruce Goose ... casting alloys ......... 218 Spot (lube).......... 65 wrought alloys........... Starvation......... definition ........... definition ................................ 167(F) temper designations .................................................... definition ....... All Rights Reserved....... 218 saw lubricant........... 218 water...... 147(F) wrought alloys .............................................................. definition ....................................... Lueders.................. 219 mill buff..... 218 Squeeze/forge casting ........ See also Residual stress............................................ 220 T Tail mark...... 11 Streak bearing........................ 220 Surface tear....... 67 Striation..... speed..... 18(T)....... 219 Strength......... definition .. for wrought alloys ... 220 Temper annealed ..... roll................... 219 Streak burnish....................... 16–17............... 20 corrosion resistant designations .................................... 136(F) temper designation ....... 218 Straightness........ definition ..... 219 bright.. 218 Squareness............. 180(F) definition ..................... 219 dirt... 104–105............ 71 definition ..... 108–109... definition .............. 220 microstructure of cold rolled plate .. See Streak.................. definition............................ 68 Stain heat treat........... definition ...... definition .................. definition ................... definition .........

....... 19–20.................................. 58–59 stress relieved .... Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 240 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www... 57–73(T) fabricated ....... definition ...... 84.............. Test directions.. 17.............. 136(F).............. definition ..... 70 lacquered .... casting alloys ................................ 221 arc-welded.............................. wrought alloys .. 19(T) thermal treatment ............ definition ................................... 170(F) Tightness.............. 40–49(T) Tension scratch...... 222 ................................................. See also Tube... casting alloy applications ............................ 9–22(T) Tempers for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Products (Registration Records Series) ............. definition ... 221 drawn..... definition .................. seamless. weldment ..... 221 extruded..... definition .© 2000 ASM International............. 222 microstructure of extrusion .......... definition .... definition .................. 34(T) Tin as alloying element ....... See Tube stock............................. 3 Thermal treatment.............................. 29(T) Titanium as alloying element .................. 222 Two-tone........................................... 73.. 222 sized......................... 221 definition .................. 220 Tooling pad............................ electrical metallic.... 17–22(T) subdivisions of H temper for non-heat-treatable alloys ...... 22......... definition .............. of casting alloys ....... 222 redraw............ 220 Torn surface............... tension................... definition ...... 221 fluted...... 57–73(T) heat treatable alloys subdivisions of T temper ...................... 74 thermal treatment for stability ..... 161(F) finned... definition . 221 embossed.............. 21(T) subdivisions of designation system . casting alloys .................... 15(T)........................................................... definition ... 20 painted ........................................................... 71–73 stabilized ........ 17.... definition ......... All Rights Reserved..... 76 Temper designation system .. definition ...... 222 structural.............. 6 Thermal conductivity..... See Bow.............. 57–58 fabricated............. 17.... definition .......................................... 111............................................ 221 brazed.................. definition ....................... 221 extruded... 11...... 137(F) mechanical properties ............................. 221 Tread plate..... definition ........................................org Temper (continued) designations indicating heat treatment by user ........ 220 Traffic mark......... 59–60 Thixocasting ..... See Tube stock.. 94(F) heat-exchanger............ 33(T).......... 14(T)......... 16.......... 222 Twist.............. 220 temper designations ................................ 73–75 for wrought alloys ............. 17....................... 21(T) overaged .......... 18(T)........... 18....................................................... 75 Tensile strength casting alloys ....... definition ... 112(F) microstructure of parts ...... 220 Tool................ See Scratch............... definition .. definition .............. 65–68 identifying cold work following aging ................................................... 222 Tubing............................................................ definition ................................ Transverse bow................... 19–20 understanding importance of designations . 10(T)................. 221 lap-welded.. 16–22(T).. 59–60 thermal treatment................. 222 welded.................... 16(T) as alloying element........................... 222 Tube bloom.......... 20 solution heat treated ...... definition ............................................ 222 Tubular conductor. 21(T)............. definition .. 60–64(T) tensile strength .............. 222 lock-seam........................................... definition ... 19(T) wrought alloys ... 15–16(T) dendritic segregation in ingot .... 221 Tube alclad.......... 141(F) open-seam. 12–13(T).......... See Automotive industry........ Tube stock........... 221 helical-welded.................. 17 natural aging ..... 19–20..................... 30(T) physical properties ................ 115 as alloying element..................... definition ..... 17.... temper designations .. 17 precipitation hardened ................. definition ............. See Chucking lug............ 221 Trim inclusion. 222 stepped drawn... definition ....... 220–221 Transportation industry. 49–57(T) definition .......................... definition ............ definition ................... 93............... 1......................... 34 mechanical properties .................................................asminternational............ 73 for aluminum pattern sheet .. definition ................ 68–70 designation systems ........... 20 strain hardening .............. 221 heat-exchanger........... 59 special or premium properties designated ....................... 221 butt-welded.... casting alloys ............ definition ... Transverse direction.... 29(T) Tolerance... definition .. definition .............. 20(T) for casting alloys ......... 2........... 30(T) physical properties ..................... 18(T)... Tooling plate............................ transverse.. 19.............

... definition ............. definition ... 25 Vent mark.......... 35 in alloy compositions ....... 224 cold-heading......................................... 12–13(T) corrosion resistance ............. 60........................................ definition ........................ 110 aluminum-magnesium alloys .......... 223 Voids ....... 28 density .... All Rights Reserved....... 223 Welding wire....... See also Wrought alloys index....................... 7-8 Units ............................... 26–28 mechanical properties ........ 87 8xxx aluminum series ...... incomplete................................... 112 aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys .... slitter.................... See Oscillation...................... 66... 223 Weld line. 4 drawn..... definition ......... definition ....................... 96.................................. 65.............. See also Tensile strength........... 10–11(T)................... See Wire....... 27 elongations ...................... 223–224 definition ..... See Hair....... Wrought alloys........ 223 Weldability aluminum-copper alloys ....... 29–30(T)...... 106 wrought alloys .. Wrap (loose).......... See Mark................... 12(T). 49–57(T) commercially pure aluminum . See Seam......... 65–68.... 180(F) W Water stain.org Subject Index / 241 U Ultimate shearing strength casting alloys . 223 Weld................. 70–72 brazeability .... See Buckle edge............................ 7-8 UNS number .................... 152(F)........ 223 cold-heading...... explosive welding .................. See Corrosion............. definition ........... 98 aluminum-manganese alloys . 26–28....................................... microstructure ...... Weldments aluminum-copper............. 23–32(T) designation system of Aluminum Association . 59.......... Weave......... 65–68.. See Strain hardening........................... 68 non-heat-treatable ........ 26–28....... Workability definition ................. 224 flattened........... definition ......... 102.............................© 2000 ASM International.... 87 composition ........ 223 Whip marks.. explosive welding ........ 27....................... 27............. 12–13(T) ductibility ...................... definition ........................ 60...... 224 Wrinkle..................................... 90 aluminum-silicon alloys ..... 60........ 223 Welding rod... 70–72 alloying elements .. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) www... 184(F) casting alloys .................. wrought alloys ........... cold-heading......... 4 Welding........... aluminum-copper alloys .... 28 ................. definition .......... whip....... water stain................. 177(F).............. 4 Work hardening. 89 aluminum-magnesium alloys .... definition .... 174(F).................. extrusion.................................................... 37 Unit conversion ............ definition ............................... Whisker...... 103 wrought alloys ............... 129(F) cold-heading...................... 113 aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys .. 31 V Vacuum casting process................................................... 87 microstructures ... 15(T) Variations castings alloys ..... 224 rivet.... 93–95(F)....................... definition ............................................................... 224 extruded................... as alloying element ..................... 111 aluminum-tin alloys ... 8 limitations ......................... 40–49(T)................................ 93 aluminum-silicon alloys .. Web..asminternational.............. definition ............................................... 224 flattened and slit-flattened.. definition ...... 96 aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys ....... 96(F) aluminum-silicon plus copper or magnesium alloys .............. 26.............. Wire alclad............... 10–11(T)................. 115 casting alloys ............ 26–28 aging ..... 28–29(T) designation system ... 27............................................. 25–26(T) artificial aging ............................ 93...... 184(F) aluminum-steel................. 98 aluminum-manganese alloys ............... 40–49(T) Ultimate tensile strength.................. definition ................................. 106 Unified Numbering System (UNS) alloy designation system ............. advantages ..... 111 aluminum-zinc alloys ................... 26.... 40–49(T)............... 224 wrought alloys ...... See Crease...................... 115 aluminum-zinc alloys . 31 for casting alloys ............... 153–162(F) Wettability test...................... 29–30(T) natural aging . 89 aluminum-copper casting alloys ................................ 223 Vanadium........................ 49–57(T) wrought alloys .. 120–163(F) modulus of elasticity ........ 181(F) of wrought alloys .................... Wavy edge..............

................................... 68 stress relieving ...................................... 109(F)....... 8 properties ..... 33(T). 60–64(T) overaging ..... 65–66 product forms ............................. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G) 242 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers www....................................... temper designations ..................... H temper subdivisions ................ 26–28................ 153-162(F) Wrought aluminum alloy.................. 87 solution heat treatment ............. 30(T) physical properties ............. 68................... casting alloy applications . 25(T)..... 71 physical properties ... 34 as alloying element....... 30 product units ........................... 224 definition ....... 29(T) Zirconium as alloying element .................... 14(T).... casting alloys .................................. 26........ 115 as alloying element..... 30–31 weldability ...... 29(T) Y Yield strength casting alloys ........ 6 Wrought product....... 66....... 28–30(T) precipitation hardening .. 102–105..© 2000 ASM International.......... 29 mechanical properties ...... 13(T).. 224 wrought alloys ........ All Rights Reserved.......... 70–72 stabilization treatment ........org Wrought alloys (continued) non-heat-treatable alloys.............. definition .. 15(T) mechanical properties .......... 8 variations .................. 15–16(T) as alloying element... 68. 60......... 110(F) as alloying element......asminternational................................. 12–13(T)....... 28......................... 49–57(T) ............................................ 65 stress relieving............... 26–28.............................. 12(T)... 3–4 solderability ....................... 11.................... definition ........ 10(T)....... wrought alloys .... 87 weldments ...................... wrought alloy applications .. 66.......................... 4... 23...................................................................................... 30(T) physical properties . 11......... 40–49(T) Z Zinc as alloying element ................ 67–68 unit conversion ..... 60................................

and nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent. USA Email CustomerService@asminternational. or as a defense against liability for such infringement. use. As with any material. Ohio. specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. All rights reserved. process.org American Technical Publishers Ltd. In Europe United Kingdom Telephone: 01462 437933 (account holders). composition.co.ameritech. Tokyo 182 Japan Telephone: 81 (0) 424 84 5550 Terms of Use. or trademark. are given in connection with this publication. In Japan Takahashi Bldg. ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. including. 01462 431525 (credit card) www. at their sole discretion and risk. express or implied. Publication title Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers To order products from ASM International: Online Visit www.org This publication is copyright © ASM International®. Materials Park. Hitchin Hertfordshire SG4 0SX. warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. copyright. Nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture. a worldwide network dedicated to advancing industry. Other use and distribution is prohibited without the express written permission of ASM International. or trademark. ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill. No warranties. This publication is being made available in PDF format as a benefit to members and customers of ASM International. Wilbury Way. Materials Park. evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential.asminternational.ASM International is the society for materials engineers and scientists. technology. Ohio 44073-0002. and applications of metals and materials.uk Neutrino Inc. ASM International..org/bookstore Telephone 1-800-336-5152 (US) or 1-440-338-5151 (Outside US) Fax 1-440-338-4634 Mail Product code #06180G Customer Service. sale. product. or reproduction. Chofu-Shi. ASM International 9639 Kinsman Rd. in connection with any method. USA www. You may download and print a copy of this publication for your personal use only. 27-29 Knowl Piece. 44-3 Fuda 1-chome. without limitation. copyright. . Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM's control. or system. apparatus. whether or not covered by letters patent. Therefore.asminternational.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful