ARAIN PEOPLE

The nucleus of this caste was probably a body of Hindu Saini or Kamboh cultivators who were converted to Islam at an early period. In Delhi, the Arain or Raeen recall their migration, at the time of Akbar, from a place called Montgomery, in Punjab. Traditionally, they were gardeners, but the majority of the Arain have now taken np business or established small-scale industries. They favour modern medicare and family planning. In Punjab, the Arain are called Rain and they are also termed as Baghban. The Raeen, although traditionally a cultivating community, are also in banks, the armed forces, as teachers, and in administrative services. A large number are working in Saudi Arabia as electricians, mechanics, drivers and helpers. Besides their faith in Allah, the Raeen propitiate local deities, like Lakhdata and Khwaja (deity of water). They are interlinked with all Muslim communities through commensal and connubial norms. They have patron- client (jajmani) relationships with the Lohar, Chamar and Nai (Muslim Haj- jam).

People of India
FTT ID: 41495

Identity of the People Alternate name : In Punjab, the Arain are called Rain and they are also termed as Baghban. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion : 408,960 : They were mainly distributed in the , Punjab, Gwalior, Bihar, Orissa and Rajputana. In Punjab, concentrated in the districts of Sangrur, Patiala, Ludhiana and Jallandhar. : Arain is their mother tounge and they use the Bengali script. The Language is Hindi with others. : The community professes Islam They offer their Friday prayers :it tine local mosques and also offer prayers at the tornb of Baba Haider. : The majority are engaged in horticulture and gardening. : They are non-vegetarian, and wheat and rice comprise their staple cereals. : Both parallel and cross-cousin marriages are permissible. The marriage symbol for women is the nose-ring (keel). Divorce as well as the remarriage of the divorced and widowed persons are permitted. : The share wells and other sources of water with the neighboring communities and burial grounds with other Muslim groups. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab - (1,917,743), Haryana - (181,964), Uttar Pradesh - (47,764), Delhi - (12,269), Jammu & Kashmir - (9,280), Chandigarh (2,540), Himachal Pradesh - (2,309)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 1 of 57

ARORA PEOPLE
Aroras (or Aror-vanshis) are an urban mercantile community of the Punjab and Sindh. The Arora people are of similar origin to Khatri in that they are from the Kshatriya caste and are thus of warrior ancestry. They are a group of Indo-Aryans who remained in the Indus Valley throughout most of their history. However, the Arora people were separated from the Khatri in their move to the city of Aror, which is believed to be at the request of the Brahmin community led by Pasurama. The Arora people were originally Hindu, but over their history they have accepted Sikhism and Islam. The Arora community has suffered many divides in its past. After moving to Aror, they were conquered by the Arabs and thousands of Aroras are said to have been slaughtered during the Islamic invasions of India. Aroras suffered extreme violence and massacres during the Partition of India.

People of India
FTT ID: 41280

Identity of the People Alternate name : Arora are also known as Rora Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 3,978,160 : They reside in Punjab (India), Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Jammu, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Gujarat and other parts of the country. : They speak the lndo-Aryan languages Punjabi or Hindi, and use the Devanagari and Gurmukhi scripts. : There are follow Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism. Some of them follow the Arya Samaj faith. : The Arora are employed in private and government service in various capacities. Some are self-employed in business, trade and industry. : They are non-vegetarian in general, but some are strictly vegetarian and avoid onion, garlic and masur dal as well. Wheat, rice and maize form their staple diet. : Vermilion, gold bangles and bindi are the marriage symbols for women, but these are not strictly followed. Intercommunity marriages with the Khatri are common. : Intercommunity linkages exist in the form of the accepting and exchanging of water and food with communities like the Khatri, Bhatia, Bania, Brahman, and Jat. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Haryana - (1,666,943), Gujarat - (396,352), Himachal Pradesh - (304,767), Punjab - (238,623), Uttar Pradesh - (29,866), Chandigarh (13,801), Rajasthan - (13,361), Jammu & Kashmir - (8,255), Maharashtra - (4,973), Madhya Pradesh - (1,816), West Bengal - (1,480)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

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BAIRWA PEOPLE
The BAIRWA are sometimes known as Berwa. The Bairwa are divided into different exogamous clans, namely Mehar, Jatwa, Marmat and Tatwara. They are generally treated low in society. In some places they are said to be both Rajputs and Bhuinhars, and do not rank high among either'. Ancestral property is equally divided among the sons. The Bairwa women enjoy equal status with the men and participate in rituals, and in the religious, social and political activities. A number of them earn and contribute to the family income.A person from their own community acts as the sacred specialist. Social control is maintained by their registered society, the Delhi Bairwa Maha Sabha. All India Berwa Samaj deals with social reforms and publishes a monthly paper. Pitridev is worshipped as a family deity. Boys and girls generally study up to the primary level. The Bairwa avail of the modern medical facilities from health centers.

People of India
FTT ID: 41402

Identity of the People Alternate name : Berwa and Berwar or Birwar Identity : Scheduled Castes Population Location Language Religion : 817,578 : The Berwa are mainly concentrated in Jaipur district, Rajasthan : They speak the Indo-Aryan language Rajasthani. Hindi is also spoken by them and they use the Devanagari script. : Holi, Diwali, Dassehra, Makar Sankrani. They have special reverence for Ram Dev, Beejasan, Inder Raja, Bhainrav, Jujhar, Teja and Paboo. : Agriculture and the domestication of animals, Bairwa serve in government and private organizations. They are specially skilled in making mats and ropes. : They are non-vegetarian but do not eat beef. Rice and wheat are the staple cereals taken. : Adult marriage is practised and polygyny is allowed. Vermilion (sindoor), borla, hari kanthi, bangles (lac) and toerings are the symbols of married women. : They consider themselves lower in the local hierarchy and place themselves in the Sudra varna. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : No

Status of Resources Statewise Population Rajasthan - (794,599)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 3 of 57

BANIA PEOPLE
The Bania call themselves Aggarwal. Some preferred to affix their names to titles such as Gupta, Dalmia, Modi, Singhania, Sriram and Bajaj. The people of other communities refer to them by titles such as ' Bania',' Sahukar', 'Lala', 'Seth' or 'Kirar' and view them as moneyed people as they have originally been the bankers and moneylenders to other communities, particularly the agricultural classes. Bania is a term derived from vanik, meaning a trader, as the community has been traditionally engaged mainly in trade and commerce. Traditionally, women did not have the right over the ancestral property; they were given secondary status compared with their male counterparts in all walks of life. They participate in all the social, ritual and religious activities of the family but do not have any control over money or family assets except some personal ornaments. Women are exceptionally devoted to their husbands and take great pains to ensure their happiness and comfort.

People of India
FTT ID: 41358

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Bania call themselves Aggarwal and comprise a subsection of Vaishya division of Manu's four-fold varna classification (Lakshmanna, 1973). Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 1,277,896 Location : Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, quite a few migrated to far off places and are today found in varying numbers in almost every state of India especially Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Assam and West Bengal. : They speak Punjabi language. Although there may be some regional variation in the dialects of the language spoken at home. : They celebrate their festivals according to the lunar calendar; festivals such as Janamashtami or Krishna Jyanti, Ganesh Chaturthi, the Ramanavami and Navaratri or Dussehra. Diwali is one of the most important religious festivals : They carried on flourishing business there and exercised complete economic domination over the majority of other communities. : They are strictly vegetarian. It has been only a few decades since a few urban males have started taking eggs and sometimes meat. The staple food of the community is chapati made of wheat flour. : They have not specialized in any plastic or graphic art or craft. : The Aggarwal Banias consider Brahmans their religious guilts. They accept them as priests in temples, go-between in marriages and leaders in prescribing and conducting rituals. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Language Religion

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab - (1,277,896)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 4 of 57

BARHAI PEOPLE
The common surnames used by them are Bhardawaj, Vishwakarma and Sharma. The Barhai claim descent from Lord Vishwakarma, son of Brahma. According to their belief, there were five sons of Vishwakarma and were described differently by Vishwakarma. Those who were engaged in the woodwork (carpentry) were known as Barhai; those who were engaged in the ironwork (black smith) were called Lohar; those who specialized in goldwork (gold smithy) were known as Sunar; those who specialized in preparing the metal utensils were called Thatera/Kasera; and the ones who specialized in making earthen pots came to be known as Kumhar. The Barhais perceive that their distribution is at national level. The Barhais send their children for schooling up to the middle class for both the boys and the girls. Boys generally drop out to support the earnings of the family while girls drop out due to social problems and partly because the schools are not available in the localities nearby

People of India
FTT ID: 41249

Identity of the People Alternate name : The common surnames used by them are Bhardawaj, Vishwakarma and Sharma. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 8,727,509 : They are found in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat states. : The Barhais speak Hindi/Hindustani, besides Bhojpuri, within their community as well as with the people of other communities. The script is Devanagari. : The Barhai are Hindu by religion. They worship Hindu avatars and deities. The main emphasis is placed on Vishwakarma and Shankar Bhagwan. : The Barhai are traditional carpenters and are also called Panchali Brahman, Chowrasia, Jangid.Brahman, Khati Koiash, Lite andTarkha. : The Barhai are regular non-vegetarians. Their staple food comprises wheat and rice. : Endogamy at the community level is the marriage rule of the Barhai. Child marriages followed by gauna at the time of puberty still exist.. Monogamy is the general form of marriage. Dowry is taken in cash and kind. : They accept kachcha as well as sidha food from other communities. Kachcha food is accepted from all communities except those which fall below the category of Shudra. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (2,016,841), Maharashtra - (251,285), Madhya Pradesh - (141,157), Orissa - (19,787)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 5 of 57

The Bathudi are mostly cultivators who also work as labourers for contrac¬tors in forest. East Singbhum and "West Singbhum districts of Bihar and of the Midnapore district of West Bengal. Now khiya festivals and worship Kalimuhi. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Language Religion Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population Orissa . Some of them also work as labourers at construction sites. road and irrigation projects.(6. Mangla Thakur is their family deity. Karan and Teti.032 : The Bathudi live in West Bengal. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 6 of 57 . : Adult marriages settled through negotiation or by mutual consent are the norm and bride price is prevalent.643). They use surnames such as Nayak. : The Bathudi work as agricultural laborers for communities like the Utkal Brahman. They also collect gold dust from the Suvarnarekha river. The Bathudi have their own community council (jati samaj) which deals with intercommunity social affairs. : They inter dine with the Brahman and Karan and maintain jajmani relations with the Brahman and Vaishnava. Chowkhiya. Though they are agriculturalists. : The Bathudi follow their traditional belief system as well as Hinduism and worship Sarna (sal grove) or Gramthan. People of India FTT ID: 41580 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Bathudi are also known as Bathdi. Khandai and Sangiya and titles like Nayak. Sitala and Manasa. Rout.119) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. They believe that they are the original settlers of the Bhanjubhum and Keonjhargarh districts of Orissa.(218. Bahutuli or Bathuhuli in Orissa. Pradhan. The forest is their other economic resource. Patra. They now collect and sell forest produce. Giri. They also prepare ropes from the sabui grass. Mundiyar. Bishal. Marriage symbols include vermilion and iron bangles (kattri). : They speak the Bengali language and use its script. Dehri and Dakua. Khawli.BATHUDI PEOPLE According to some the Bathudi were 'a small aboriginal tribe of uncertain origin found in the Tributary States of Orissa'. Some make ropes from grass (sabui). West Bengal . very few are landowners. Rice is their staple cereal. : They are non-vegetarian but do not consume pork and beef. Banson. while others work as casual labourers and petty businessmen. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population Location : 214. DashChatiya. Polygamy is permitted in special cases.

Bhumi Paliha. Bhuinhar Bhumia.(176. Raotia and Gadaria. The literacy rate among the Bharia Bhumia is 6. Angaria. These men were the ancestors of the Bharia. People of India FTT ID: 41539 Identity of the People Alternate name : A forest-dwelling community of Madhya Pradesh. Part of their livelihood is derived from collecting and selling firewood. but eat pork. Bijaria.068) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Chalthia. : Most of the Bharia are landless and therefore are wage earners. and Pando. They also worship most of the Gond deities like Baradeo. Diwali. : They are non-vegetarians who abstain from beef. They are free to marry the daughters of their maternal uncle or paternal aunt. Bhujalia. Amolia. These clans are Bhardia. They use linseed or palm oil for cooking and enjoy drinking tea without milk. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population Madhya Pradesh . Bhumi Paliha. They are free to marry the daughters of their maternal uncle or paternal aunt. Shivratri and Rakhi. Bhuinhar Bhumia. Thakari. According to the historians relate a legend of their origin which says Arjun (one of the Pandavas) produced some men by pressing bharr grass.7 per cent. Historians describe the Bharia as short to below medium in stature and lean in body mass.(1. Orissa . Adult marriage has replaced child marriage and marriages are usually arranged through negotiations. : They are Hindus and worship deities like Hanuman.219 Location Language Religion : The Bharia are mostly distributed in Seoni and Chindawara districts of Chatishgarh state. What and maize are their staple cereals. Buradeo and Nagbaba. : Clan exogamy is observed when entering into a marital alliance.(9. Today they prefer to be called Bharia Thakur. Akhati. they have been identified as Bharia Bhumia. : They speak a local dialect of Hindi both at home as well as with others. Clan exogamy is observed when entering into a marital alliance. they have been identified as Bharia Bhumia.BHARIA BHUMIA PEOPLE A forest-dwelling community of Madhya Pradesh. : The Bharia are closely associated with the Gond and participate in each others festivals and rituals. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 281. Their important festivals are Holi. Bagothia.455). The Bharia have various clans which regulate marriage alliances. Maharashtra . Nahhal. They use the Devanagari script. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 7 of 57 . and Pando. Pachalia.274). They are reluctant to visit government medical facilities fearing the cost of the medicine.

Rajasthan .225).305) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.284 : They were distributed in the United Provinces. There are also white collar workers within the community including doctors. The landholders are cultivators. media. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location : 2. Bihar. media. and engineers. Orissa . but seem to be changing to non-vegetarian. washermen. West Bengal . : They make use of all the modern facilities available to them: education. Haryana and Maharashtra.(643.774). Historians say there is no reason to doubt that they are an offshoot of the Brahmans. : There are both landowners and landless among them. Jammu & Kashmir . : They speak Pahari among themselves and Hindi with others.436). sacred specialists. Their common musical instruments are khartal. potters.(129.(46. Andhra Pradesh . They favor education. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 8 of 57 . gardeners. People of India FTT ID: 41323 Identity of the People Alternate name : Bharata. Himachal Pradesh .413). etc. Maharashtra . electricity and banking.243).701). dholak and chimta. electricity and banking. The Bhat are called Rai and two sub-groups exist – the Brahma Bhat and Jage or Raj Bhat. : Their religion is Hindu.(3.(48. Dasaundhi. Gujarat . Bihar .661). drinking water.536). : Intercommunity linkages are main¬tained with local artisans.(1.BHAT PEOPLE The Bhat are originated in Rajasthan and migrated to the adjoining states after the downfall of the kingdoms. Presently they are distributed in West Bengal. Kablji and Rai are their titles.(129.295).373). There are Muslim Bhat. Western India states. Rajputana. : They used to be vegetarian. drinking water. Chandigarh .105). Hirnachal Pradesh. They use the Devanagari script. communication.(7. Their staple cereals consist of wheat and maize.(201. modern medical care and family planning.(171. Karnataka (11.(40. NT : No Audio Cassettes : No Radio program : No "JESUS" Film : No Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh .660).(61. Haryana . They make use of all the modern facilities available to them: education.(48.113). In Jammu and Kashmir are converts from Hinduism to Islam. Central India. agriculturists and with business communities.093. Madhya Pradesh . communication. teachers. barbers.

barely as cereals. They listen to radio. The traditional caste council does not exist though statutory panchayats exists to plan and implement welfare and development programs Their attitude towards formal education is partly favorable for boys and unfavorable for girls. Boys generally study up to secondary level while girls do not study. kachcha and pucca food from all other Muslims excluding the Shias.(25. : The Bhisti follow Islam. Modern medical care is favored and accepted.(1. but they make use of both modern and traditional medicine. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . : They are non-vegetarians and eat mutton. The mode of acquiring mates is through negotiation. maize. rice. They have faith in Jind Pir. and gram. watch television and visit the cinema.BHISTI PEOPLE The Bhisti trace their origin to those who supplied water during the Holy War as Bhista and Saqqa. People of India FTT ID: 41446 Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion : Muslim .(425.200 : They are mainly found in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.(7. eggs and beef. They avail of the facility of public distribution for essential commodities through fair price shops. Many of them are converts from Hinduism and some persons still follow a combination of Hindu and Muslim practices.260) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.Religious group : 620.484). urad.890). : They speak Urdu and use Urdu script within the family and kin group. Their attitude is not favorable towards family planning. They accept sidha food from Shia Muslims. Junior sororate and junior levirate are permis¬sible.819). They speak Hindi and use Devanagari script with others. jowar. masur.848). They have direct links with the daily market. bajra.(1. Gujarat . peas and beans as pulses. : They have linkages with the people of all other communities in the locality. They accept water. Maharashtra . Rajasthan . chicken. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 9 of 57 . tur. Madhya Pradesh . : Both parallel and cross cousin marriage is in practice. Their sacred specialists are faqir and maulvi who perform all rites. : The Bhisti are a landless community who are traditional water carriers but their present occupations are labour and government service. Their staple food consists of wheat. moong.

They have two subgroups – the Bada and Sana. fish and pork.(388. : They are both a land-owning and landless community. The teachers.The literacy level among the Bhottada in 1981 was 10. ritual and social activities.533) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Their sacred specialist is called pujari or disari and he may belong to their community or another community.(1. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 354. : Political leadership has emerged among them at the national level. In addition to carrying out their household responsibilities. Bhottara and Dhottada. The Bhottada families are usually of the extended type and the sons inherit the property equally upon the father’s death except for the eldest son who inherits a larger portion.761). A nutritional program is functional in most villages. : They are non-vegetarians and eat meat. Groundnut and mustard oil are used for cooking. They have family and village deities. administrators and defense personnel from the community help to forge intercommunity linkages. : The Bhottada profess both their traditional tribal religion and Hinduism. Their children are also wage laborers.53 per cent. religious. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : No "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : No Status of Resources Statewise Population Orissa .BHOTTADA PEOPLE The term Bhottada is derived from the words bhu meaning land and tara meaning chase. Agriculture is their traditional occupation and it continues to be the primary one. Karnataka . The marriage rituals are performed both at the bride’s and the groom’s homes and the marriage feast is hosted by the groom’s family. People of India FTT ID: 41510 Identity of the People Alternate name : The term Bhottada is derived from the words bhu meaning land and tara meaning chase. Rice is their staple cereal. The eldest son also becomes the head of the family. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 10 of 57 . They are also known as the Bhotora. the women play an important role in agriculture. The number of nuclear families has risen in recent years.487 Location Language Religion : The Bhottada may be founding the Koraput and Kalahandi districts of Orissa. Many of the Bhottada depend on private moneylenders and shopkeepers in times of need. : Their mother tongue is Basturia and they speak Oriya and use the Oriya script. however ploygyny is permissible. : Monogamy is the usual practice among the Bhottada. Political leadership has emerged among them at the national level.

Narsinghnath. with a long head. Baralgudha and Ghasim Devi. 20. Rice and wheat are their staple cereals and mustard oil is used for cooking. These days they use Bariha. They are also called Binjliar or Binjhwar after the Vindhya and Satpura hills of Madhya Pradesh Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 141. gathering. : They speak the Sambalpuri dialect of the Oriya language and use the Oriya script both within their group and outside of their group. egg and mutton. : They worship deities like Jagannath.(146. meaning “without”. are common among them. The present practice of dowry in cash and kind has replaced the earlier practice of bride price. Dol. fishing. where they are mainly concentrated. mutual consent and elopement. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Orissa . According to the 2001 census. : Marriage by negotiation. their title. animal husbandry. settled cultivation. their title. A majority of the families are now of the nuclear type and the eldest son inherits the parental property as well as the status as head of the family. Karamsani. etc : They are non-vegetarians who eat fish. as their surname. a broad nose and a short face. Bindhyabashini. meaning “sweat”. Dussehra and Karma are their major festivals. where they are mainly concentrated.BINJHAL PEOPLE The term Binjhal might have been derived from the words bin. and jhal. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 11 of 57 . signifying hard working people. They use both indigenous and modern medicines. : Traditionally the Binjhal have been dependent on hunting. According to historians. as their surname.321) Status of Resources Statewise Population 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. People of India FTT ID: 41648 Identity of the People Alternate name : These days they use Bariha.86 percent of them were literate. Kali Dungran. Rathajatra. : They do not inter-dine with their neighbors accept for uncooked food items from them. Monogamy is the rule of the society. Family programs have had a significant impact on them and they have made use of the nutrition programs for their children. the Binjhal are short of stature. They are also called Binjliar or Binjhwar after the Vindhya and Satpura hills of Madhya Pradesh from where they migrated to their present habitat in the Sambalpur district of Orissa.145 Location Language Religion : Their present habitat in the Sambalpur district of Orissa. Ramji.

they are served food cooked by a Brahman/Rajput . A majority belongs to the Sikh religion. Chandigarh . The Chimba are also known as Chhimba.214) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Some of them also claim to be the descendents of the Suryavanshi Rajput. People of India FTT ID: 41377 Identity of the People Alternate name : Also known as Chhippa. The Chimba are stampers. are almost synonymously identified with the Dhobi (washerman). The Chhimba trace their origin to Baba Namdev. bindi and toe-rings as marriage symbols. but do not eat pork and beef. : They speak Punjabi and use Gururmukhi script.(11. They are currently engaged in cultivation. they have deities like.950). while succession is by the eldest son. Himachal Pradesh . but there are a number of Chimbe who belong to Radha Soami or Namdhari sects.(2. mundri. Rajasthan .(1. Chhimbe.699). All sons get equal shares in the parental property. Nabahi Devi and Hari Devi. the Chhimba were earlier involved in washing clothes and in calico-printing. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 1. : Besides their patron deity. sagan. dyers and tailors. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab . Chhimpi or Tank Kshatriya.They are a little different from the traditional Lallari or Pharera. sagai. Guru Namdev.003. sheep and goats.rearing of cattle.419). Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 12 of 57 . Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Marriage includes the taka. Dumna etc.700).(88. Uttar Pradesh (1. : They are non-vegetarian.333 Location Language Religion : Distributed in Punjab. They maintain putative kinship relations with other communities mental programmes have made a considerable impact on them. Chandigarh & Uttar Pradesh. The Chhimba do not eat and drink with the Chamar.(164. Both Sahajdhari (clean shaven) and Keshdh Chhimba are reported among them. are almost synonymously identified with the Dhobi (washerman). Bihar . Haryana .(1. shantiyajna and duphvea. The Chhimbe.841). : Traditionally. : Since the Brahman and Rajput does not accept water and cooked food from the Chhimba at the latt er’sgatherings.058). : Married women wear vermilion. Julaha. bangles.CHHIMBA PEOPLE The term `chhimba' is derived from `chhippa' or `chhappa' because traditionally they were calieo printers.

Karnataka . The elderly people are respected and the children loved.(97. Tamil Nadu .596).241). irrespective of sex.193. maize.(32.(222.724 Location Language Religion : They believe that they are widely distributed in Azamgarh. The Darzi of Mirzapur attributes their origins to 'Paighambar Mansoor' who was instructed by Allah to create a group of people for sewing of cloth and save others from the cold regions. They believe that Hazrat Idris was a teacher from whom their ancestors learnt the art of tailoring. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 13 of 57 .(1.671). Joking relations are between bhabhi and devar. The term darzi is derived from the Persian word darzan (to sew). People of India FTT ID: 41271 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Darzi. birth and other functions.(7.(398. Rajasthan .(599.000). sawan. The Darzi trace their origin from Hazrat Idris and hence they have started affixing the title Idrisi. Ramzan. they have linkages with the people of all other communities of the village.(24.649).955). rice.DARZI PEOPLE The Darzi. are tailors. West Bengal .219). Punjab . : A majority of the people of this community earn their livelihood by traditional occupations of tailoring : The Darzi are non-vegetarian. They are aware of the family welfare programme but do not accept direct sterilization. Orissa (23. also known as Khayyat.(311. Andhra Pradesh . Bihar .537). Haryana .(345. Gujarat .310).420) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. also known as Khayyat.066). Sons as well as daughters have rights of inheritance in paternal property. Bara-wafat and Shab-e-Barat.728). Id-ul-Zuha.g. mar¬riage. The Darzi are endogamous. kodo. barley and jowar form their staple food. Faizabad. Residence after marriage is patrilocal. sala and salhaj. but polygyny is permitted. Conflicts and contradictions are generally resolved through familial compromises.(6.Religious group Population : 4. They are invited by the people of other communities on different occasions. : The Darzi observe the festivals of Id-uI-Fitr.036). Jaunpur. Sultanpur and Mirzapur districts of Uttar Pradesh. Muharram is of importance for the Shia Darzi. : Since the Darzi are an occupational community. Identity : Muslim .792). : The Darzi here speak Awadhi.(95. and with sail and bahnoi. are tailors. Wheat. Urdu and Hindustani. Assam .(98.106).(1. The term darzi is derived from the Persian word darzan (to sew). etc. e. Dowry is also given but only in kind. Himachal Pradesh .476. Goa . NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . Eldest son gets succession. gram.515). The Darzi are utilizing modern medical facilities available in their area.(6. They eat beef and buffalo meat but not pork. : Monogamy is the general form of marriage. Maharashtra . Madhya Pradesh .

: They speak Chhattisgarhi and use the Devanagari script.(3. gram. pulses. banks. etc.(134. Their modern linkages are with government agencies like the Fisheries Development Corporation. Gujarat (1.(815. Navakhana. etc. They worship their nets on Diwali or Vishwakarma puja. and monogamy is the rule. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Madhya Pradesh . Rajasthan. are their main festivals. Some of them speak Hindi : Their main deities are Mahamai and Mahadev. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 2. The Dhimar utilize modern medicare and have a positive attitude towards family planning.518). Phagun.231). created them. and Kir or Keer also Jalchattri and Jal Kshatriya. Rajasthan. Maharashtra and Bihar. Their staple diet is rice and wheat followed by maize. They participate in the village fairs.(419. the Dhimar live in Madhya Pradesh. etc : They practise adult marriage settled through negotiation.500). The Dhimar women supplement family income by working as maidservants or agricultural labourers. : They receive the services of the Nai (barber). : Both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food habits are reported among them. Dussehra.DHIMAR PEOPLE A prominent community. the consort of Lord Shiva.074). Rajasthan . Agriculture nd cultivation of water-nut are their other occupations. Maharashtra . the word dhimar is a corrupt form of dhiwar which has originated from the Sanskrit word dhiwarasya.(11. : The traditional occupation of the Dhimar is fishing. but girls drop out after the primary level.300).418) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Orissa . People of India FTT ID: 41310 Identity of the People Alternate name : In Rajasthan called Dhivar. the Dhimar live in Madhya Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh . They avail themselves of the facilities of fair-price shops. Dhobi (washerman) and Brahman oriest).372 : A prominent community. Dowrys given in cash and kind. Etymologically. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 14 of 57 . meaning fisherman. Hareli. Maharashtra and Bihar. The Dhimar claim that they are mentioned in tile epics and that Parvati. Those practicing agriculture use chemical fertilizers along with cow dung.538. A few Boys study up to the college level.

They exchange water and cooked food with the Muslim Dholis but do not maintain connubial relation. Gujarat .(16. Harijaris. Monogamy is the prevalent practice. : The Dholis traditionally play the dhoI (the drum). Dhimal (a percussion instrument). are named after their traditional musical instrument called a dhol. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Rajasthan . They are also called Nagarchi (which could be the name of a special drum). Boria (ornamental rings on the anklet) are the marriage symbols for the women : They maintain direct link with the market to produce their daily requirements. They have access to schools. in villages. They abstain from beef.242) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Madhya Pradesh . Meghwals. They trace their origin from the Rajputs. There are temples of Bheru and mati. People of India FTT ID: 41654 Identity of the People Alternate name : They are also called Nagarchi (which could be the name of a special drum). Gujarat. Bheri.(58. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population Location Language Religion : 137.646). Rakshabandhan are their major festivals. : Marriag is arranged by the parents.832).(7. Mode of transaction is cash. West Bengal . change (string instrument) andjirg (brass plates) are their other musical instruments played on various occasion. Assam and West Bengal : They speak Marwari at home and are also conversant in Hindi. Diwali. They take pulses like moong and moth. Now they offer their services on a contract basis. whom they perceive as inferior to them in social order. They use the Devanagari script.. etc. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 15 of 57 . etc.DHOLI PEOPLE The Dholi. Goddess Kali.502). Madhya Pradesh. Assam . Earlier they had brit (patron-client relationship) with Rajputs and other communities and used to live on their patronage. a community of musicians and drummers. Wheat is preferred in summer and maize in winter season.064). Dholis have the social linkages with Rajputs. Polygyny is allowed. Dholis have the social linkages with Rajputs.(109. Holi. Garuda Brahman and many other communities through receiving and rendering of services.(1. Their staple foods are wheat and maize.550 : Rajasthan. Garuda Brahman and many other communities through receiving and rendering of services. panchayat ghat. : Tile Dholi are non-vegetarian in food habit. They avoid commensality with Nayaks. etc. who are worshiped as village deity. : The community profess Hinduism and worship Hanuman.

: Ninety percent of the population in the valley professes Islam of both Sunni and Shia sects. Muslim women wear bunches of earrings. Poonch District. the weight of which is supported by a thick silver chain along with several bracelets and necklaces.596 Location Language Religion : The tribe is spread throughout Circle Bakote. Sardar Tolak Khan who came to Kashmir in the time of first Kashmiri king Budh Saha. : They also indulge themselves in agriculture.DHUND PEOPLE The Dhond Abbasi is a tribe which claims descent from Dhond Khan (a nickname of Shah Wali Khan) and Abbas. an uncle of Muhammad. was known as Zain-ul-Aabedin and settled in Ponch now the Bagh district of Azad Kashmir. They also came to India as traders and merchants from Egypt and then exported commodities like fabrics. Because of this the language of the tribe is sometimes called Dhondi/Kareali Identity : Muslim . an uncle of Muhammad. whey. cattle rearing and other cottage industries. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 16 of 57 . perfumes and diamonds. jungle roots and fruits. : The Dhund speak the Dhondi/Kareali language.(2.Religious group Population : 111. Because of this the language of the tribe is sometimes called Dhondi/Kareali. sheep rearing. : The Dejharoo symbolizes that the Kashmiri Pandit woman is married. : Their nutritious diet consists of maize bread. Bagh (Azad Kashmir) and the Murree Hills area. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population Jammu & Kashmir . They established a colony near Delhi in 1232 AD.840) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. People of India FTT ID: 41707 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Dhond Abbasi is a tribe which claims descent from Dhond Khan (a nickname of Shah Wali Khan) and Abbas.

Bihar. They accept and exchange food and water from and with some communities of equivalent rank. Uttar Pradesh. The community name Domb is said to be derived from the word dumba. Bhojpuri . and Vaishno Devi. meaning devil. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and have 182 segments. bamboo-basketry is one of their traditional occupations.(153. meaning bambooworkers. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 17 of 57 . but their major concentration is in Cuttack district. Bihar. and Leder. : The Dom are landless. Uttar Pradesh. Benbasi. : They accept and exchange food and water from and with some communities of equivalent rank NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Language Religion Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population Jammu & Kashmir . and their traditional occupations are weaving. Bansphor. drum-beating and sweeping. West Bengal. Krishna. scavenging. has got its name. Earlier. : They are non-vegetarian. People of India FTT ID: 41456 Identity of the People Alternate name : They are also known as Domra.(83.715). Magahi. The Dom or Domb are distributed in almost all parts of Orissa. but now they use Ram. The Dom are also called Bhangi or Dhangad. The Dom are believed to be the descendants of Raja Ben or Vena. Rama. they used to marry even within their own gotra.DOOM PEOPLE The Dom are spread in thirty-nine districts of different states like Punjab. Dom was used as the surname.091 : The Dom are spread in thirty-nine districts of different states like Punjab. Their women are engaged in sweeping as well as in weaving mats. : They specially revere Shiv. Orissa. Himachal Pradesh . but they claim to be Bansmalik.477). Orissa. : They speak the Indo-Aryan languages Dogri. from whom one of the Dom groups. 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and have 182 segments. The Dom are landless. West Bengal. Pahari and Punjabi at home. They visit pilgrim centres and worship community deities (kuldevta) stich as Mall Mara and Shibji Jogi. but now marriage wirhin the same gotra is not allowed. The three subgroups among them are Maghaiya or Bansmalik. Dumna and Dombo Identity : Scheduled Castes Population Location : 550. : Reportedly. and rice is their staple cereal. Domahra. Malik and Prasad.

sitting or sleeping on a bed of nails.479).(32. Ramzan. like food grains. : The Faqir are giving up their traditional occupation of begging and collection of charity. Rajasthan . scriptures or verses without ostensibly having any spiritual advancement.411). levitating during bouts of meditation. Gorakhpur. When used referring to somber spiritual miracle-makers.982 : The Faqir are distributed in Azamgarh.473).(7. Barawafat and Shab-e-Barat. Haryana . among the more extreme being the picture of a near-naked man effortlessly walking barefoot on burning coals. The development programmes. : The Faqir. viz. Gurus. Bihar (77.(122. They accept ail sorts of things given to them by the villagers. They do not send their children to schools for modern education. Identity : Muslim . the term is essentially a non-Indian word for Sadhus. Basti. Faizabad. Gujarat . Jaunpur and Sultanpur districts of Uttar Praclesh.059).(511.329).003). Bride-price is taken in kind only.775). for a common street beggar who chants holy names. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . One of the groups of Faqir affix the title Shah. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 18 of 57 . When applied to Hindu mystics. observe the festivals of Id-ul-Fitr. etc. 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.463). scriptures or verses. Their staple food is wheat and rice.FAQIR PEOPLE A fakir or faqir (Arabic: poor' Lit: poverty) The word is usually used to refer to either the spiritual recluse or eremite or the common street beggar who chants holy names.(119. but also Hindu ascetics.. : The mode of acquiring mates is through negotiation. Madhya Pradesh . Swamis. Un : The Faqir are non-vegetarian. Monogamy is the general form of marriage but polygyny is permitted. or "living on air" (refusing all food). It is also used. education. They consume beef (cow as well as buffalo) but do not eat pork. family planning and health facilities have not left any significant impact on the life of Faqir.(81. Many stereotypes of the great fakir exist. clothes and cooked food. Id-ul-Zuha. usually sarcastically.(129.358). It has become a common Urdu and Hindi word for a beggar. or Yogis. Chandigarh . : Since their traditional occupation is begging. they have linkages with the people of almost all communities of the village.Religious group Population Location Language Religion People of India FTT ID: 41283 : 3. Himachal Pradesh .736. : They speak Urdu and Hindi and the script used by them is Urdu. They are turning towards agriculture and other occupations. like other Muslims. Maharashtra . fakir is applied primarily to Sufi.(20. Identity of the People Alternate name : The Faqir are beggars and also known as Sain. Gonda.

T : They practise clan and village exogamy.(395. Bihar .GADARIA PEOPLE In Uttar Pradesh.(1.(383. They live all over the north-western parts of the country and use the title Pradhan. Nai and Mehtar.(4.(3. The name Gaderia is derived from the word gadar. the Gaderia derive their synonym Baghela from the Baghela river which flows at the border of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Their staple cereal is wheat. meaning sheep. Divorce is not permitted.761).(13. Talokpara (clan deity) and Lallanwala Pir (Sakhi Sarwar—village deity).035). such as the Dhobi. : Traditional patron-client (jajmanl) relationships are main¬tained with servicing communities. The Gaderia claim that during the time of Lord Rama they were pushed into the jungles. Only a few are employed in government and private service.440 Location Language Religion : The name Gaderia is derived from the word gadar. People of India FTT ID: 41273 Identity of the People Alternate name : Also referred to as Beghela or Pal. Rajasthan .865). Gujarat . They live all over the north-western parts of the country and use the title Pradhan.345. Haryana .870).(6. Maharashtra . NT : No Audio Cassettes : No Radio program : No "JESUS" Film : No Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . They inhabit all the districts of Haryana. where they took to rearing goat and sheep. the Gadaria are largely shepherds and blanketweavers Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 4. : They are vegetarian. some of them avoid even onion and garlic. while some are involved in animal husbandry. Also referred to as Beghela or Pal.(964. Consanguineous marriages are prohibited. They worship Sati idols.068).000) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. meaning sheep.403). The basic facilities that have been extended to them are made use of.579). In Haryana. The literacy rate among them is low. Tripura . : They are now mainly engaged as labourers in masonry work.323. and use the Devanagari script : Some of them belong to the Radha Soami sect.513). Orissa . The processing of sheep hair to prepare wool is done exclusively by women. : They speak a dialect which is an admixture of the Haryanvi and Rajasthani languages. Madhya Pradesh .(1.725). In Haryana. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 19 of 57 . West Bengal . the Gadaria are largely shepherds and blanket-weavers.(1.

GARASIA PEOPLE According to some the Girasia means the hill-living people (girt means hills. negotiates bride-price etc.946 Location Language Religion : Aravallis. During festival or on any other occasion they dress up with all ornaments. contains knots in the front part at regular intervals instead of buttons.893) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. The principal cereal in their diet is makki (maize). are their deities. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 20 of 57 . : They have a large variety of songs meant for specific occasions. The statutory panchayat is to implement the various developmental programmes. Bhopa is their sacred specialist who is their priest and medicine man.(189. wheat is also consumed. Ambaji etc. Udaipur of Rajathan state. Gujarat . The other common practice is nahoio (marriage by development). According to another the name Girasia is a derivative of the word girahua meaning degraded. Girasias have a typical fernale dress consisting of ghagra and an upper garment called jhuta. sia means dwelling). He settles disputes. People of India FTT ID: 41610 Identity of the People Alternate name : According to another the name Girasia is a derivative of the word girahua meaning degraded.(12. and it goes to his eldest son. : Girasias have their own language in which the speak among themselves. They primarily subsist on agriculture and most of them possess lands. Marriage by negotiation is the common mode of acquiring matchs.315). chicken. Their language does not have a script of its own. Abu Mata (Golden Abu). : Community endogamy and kutum exogamy are the rule. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 169. Pali. The office of patel is hereditary. Sirohi. The patel (headman) is the chief of the ponch. Girasia men also wear silver bangle on one hand. Family among the Girasia is either extended or nuclear. Working as wage Iabourers is their subsidiary : The Girasia are non vegetarian and eat mutton. Post puberty marriage is the practice. It is tied around the waist. : Land is the main economic resource of the Girasias. Interpersonal relation in a family is cordial. pork rabbit and poultries. In fairs and festivals both men and women dance with the accomplishment of drum NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : No "JESUS" Film : No Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Rajasthan . : The Girasiya profess Hinduism and Lord Siva. The offender is either excommunicated or a cash fine is imposed.

Meldimata. : The Garo are strictly vegetarian consuming various kinds of pulses and vegetables available in the market.362).(41. They are a priestly. Some of them are proficient in Hindi also. Garoda. Their staple food is maize. : As a priestly class they attend to the life cycle rituals of lower casts groups but they do not interdine with them.mode of acquiring mates.Ganga. The status of women among the Garo is inferior in comparison to that of men. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Gujarat . Tirgar etc. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 21 of 57 . : Within their kin group and with neighboring people they comnmnicate in Gujarati.(78. higher castes such as Brahman and Rajputs also do not interdine with them. Yanmna etc.GARODA PEOPLE The Garo trace their descent from the great saint Gargacharya.Guru. Laxmi. Traditional attitude towards health and medical care have changed and now a majority of them avail of modern medicare. Turi. the guru of Asur According to them during the time of Aurangazeb when Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam.Chamunda. Garoda. Amba. In turn other. : Marriage by negotiation is the most prevalent . Those who went to the jungle lost their tradition and culture and were now known as Garo. Nadia. Kalka. the brother of Sankaracharya. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 155. People of India FTT ID: 41623 Identity of the People Alternate name : Those who went to the jungle lost their tradition and culture and were now known as Garo. Women assist in supplementing family income. They use Gujarati script. Literacy level is low among them. Kha!pa. : Majority of them do not have cultivable land. Saraswati. : The community has their own clan dieties such as Shitla. Panchmahal etc.220) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Banskanta.Guru. Khodiarmata. Traditionally they do the work of a Brahman priest in the houses of lower castes such as Vankar. rice. and jowar. Guruwa or Pandiya. wheat. They also send their girls to school. Monogamy is the common form of marriage but serial polygyny is also permitted.886 Location Language Religion : They are distributed in the districts of Mehasana. Guruwa or Pandiya. Rajasthan . Chamar. some Brahmans started living in jungle to save their religion and life. Sabarkanta. astrologer community in the service of lower Hindu castes.

The Gauda have a number of surnames. Tripura . the secondary occupations of the Gauda include cow-herding. especially that of Magadha. : Oriya. Magadha. the secondary occupations of the Gauda include cow-herding. Sandha. Nag. supplying water. supplying water. : The Gauda mainly worship Krishna and their sacred centers include Puri. They participate in fairs and in festivals like Dussehra. People of India FTT ID: 41476 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Gauda have a number of surnames.(3. such as Hati. Mainly distributed in Balangir and in the adjoining areas of Orissa.GAUDA PEOPLE A widely distributed community. they have migrated from the Magadharea. Mainly distributed in Balangir and in the adjoining areas of Orissa.230). Andhra Pradesh . A landowning community. and rice is their staple cereal. Women take part in all the agricultural operations except ploughing. Bagarti and Chandan. namely Nanda. Bagarti and Chandan.871 : A widely distributed community. The Gauda use modern family planning methods. in Orissa. Juria and Loria.(7. and agricultural labour. an Indo-Aryan language.123). Brindaban and Harishankar. Assam . in Orissa. West Bengal . Bag. such as Hati. Goa (1.457). : The marriage symbols for women are a vermilion mark on the fore head. Karnataka . Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 22 of 57 . they have migrated from the Magadharea. communication. is their mother tongue.510).421. and agricultural labour. : The Gauda are non-vegetarian. toe-rings and glass bangles. The same language and its script are used for intergroup communication as well.200) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.(32. The community has professionals and political leaders in the legislative assembly. Rathajatra. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 462. Children too work to augment the family income. Karanand Kulta communities NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population Orissa . Naukhia and Ganesh Puja with others.684).(2. Nag. banking & irrigation. Bag.142). Sandha. : A landowning community. They have four subgroups. the Gauda trace their origin to the Jadava bansa.(1. : They accept water and cooked food from the Brahman. as well as the facilities of media.(5.

though others are also employed for this purpose. They confine themselves only to confectionery. raisins and pistachio nuts. mostly from their own community. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Religion Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population West Bengal . inherited by both sons and daughters.e. clarified butter and sugar. i.932). Madhya Pradesh. They are spreact in the states of Bihar.582). : The symbols ot marriage for women are vermilion on the forehead. Their family deity is Krishna. the sweetmeat shop owners employ skilled workers.662). In Bihar. service and are now doctors.(4.(4. social and ritualistic importance. They are Hindu and have a specific role in festivals and festivities as suppliers of sweets.402 Location Language : They were predominantly distributed in Bihar. Orissa and the Uttar Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. : Their mother tongue is Urdu. though others are also employed for this purpose. Their services are of economic. the sweetmeat shop owners employ skilled workers.(502. making and selling of sweets they also practice agriculture. Their attitude towards formal education and traditional and modern medicines is favourable. They speak the Maithili language but are also conversant with Hindi and use the Devanagari script : Their family deity is Krishna. coloured with saffron and flavoured with almonds.(1.HALWAI PEOPLE A community of confectioners and sweetmakers. Traditionally a community business. 'The Halwai take this name from halwa. i. Hindi is used for intergroup communication. Maharashtra (1.e. : The Halwai are an urban based population.853).' The Halwai are an urban based population. At present. People of India FTT ID: 41337 Identity of the People Alternate name : They have several subdivisions with territorial names such as Kanaujia from Kanauj and Jaunpuria from Jaunpur.333). : They are vegetarian. Bihar . Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 1. mostly from their own community. a sweetmeat made of flour.530) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. and their staple cereal is wheat.(502. Orissa .845.417). Uttar Pradesh . Madhya Pradesh . making and selling of sweets. They confine themselves only to confectionery. Awadhi and they use the Devanagari script. Andaman & Nicobar Islands .(507. trade. : At present. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 23 of 57 . engineers and sweetmeat sellers.

: Monogamy is the rule for marriages which are negotiated by the elders. : There are both vegetarians and non-vegetarians among them. they inhabit various northern states of the country. Haryana .639). agriculuture and road-construction labour. Diwali. : They accept and exchange food and water . but these days they prefer to call themselves Kashyap Rajput. Baisakhi. Delhi . In Punjab. Sheranwali Mata is specially revered : In Jheewar mostly subsist on running flour mills (chakki) and fishing. fish and carry out many other miscellaneous jobs.(46. Holi. who received customary dues and performed customary service.926. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 24 of 57 .101). Dhiwar. The females have tattoo marks on their body.(124.(51.with all ides except the Chamar. Jammu & Kashmir . According to some. Himachal Pradesh .603).(36. Divorce and widow remarriage are discouraged by these people. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population Punjab . Industrialization in the area has offered new job opportunities to them. Chuhra and Dhobi. a Jheewar was a 'true village menial'. but these days they prefer to call themselves Kashyap Rajput. : They speak Punjabi and use the Gurmukhi script though many of them are conversant with Hindi and use the Devanagari script. Kahar.444 Location Language Religion : They inhabit various northern states of the country. Jheewar have utilized various development programmes concerning education. Dussehra and Gurupurab. Like Punjab.418) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. : They celebrate the local festivals of Lohri. Jhinwar. health and family planning. Kahar.JHIWAR PEOPLE They also called Dhiwar. Kashyap Rajput and Mallah. Now they have taken up other occupations like stone-cutting. Jhinwar. Kashyap Rajput and Mallah. the Hindu and the Sikh Jheewar. The Jheewar trade in mutton. In Punjab. Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. they are further divided into clans.809).(596. People of India FTT ID: 41334 Identity of the People Alternate name : Also called Dhanwar. the Jheewar are also known as Mehre. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 1. such as supplying baskets to the cultivators and drinking water to the men in the fields at harvest time and other occasions. the Jheewar are also known as Mehre. They are divided into two broad religious divisions.

303. Murao.156) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Orissa . Maharashtra . Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 4. The widow gets a share of her husband's property. Traditionally.827). People of India FTT ID: 41278 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Kachhi are called by different synonyms such as Shakya. rice and maize. : A majority of them are pure vegetarian.(388. Dowry is given in cash and kind. Some of described them as a tribe of opium-growers and market gardeners. : Land is the main natural resource and agriculture is the major economic activity. : About 90 per cent of them follow Hinduism. Sindurznd bichhia are the marriage symbols. After marriage. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . Maharashtra and Orissa.(7. Tube wells and canals are the source of irrigation. Murai and Koeri. : Inter-community relations in various socio-economic sectors are governed by factors like hierarchical status.119. Cow dung cakes and fuel wood are the main fuels used for cooking. Murao. : They speak Hindi and the script used is Devanagari. and the rest Buddhism. Murai and Koeri. occupational specialties. : Monogamy is the general form of marriage.(1. they had maintained the joint family system but now they prefer nuclear family. Their staple food is wheat.125 Location Language Religion : Most of the Northern states like Uttar Pradesh.(2. Gujarat (3. Madhya Pradesh. the ruler of Kapilvastu.199). Majority of the people of this community are engaged in cultivation (specially vegetables). Among pulses. the wife resides at her husband's house. Vishahari Devi is the main village deity. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 25 of 57 .629. arbarand red gram is commonly used. The daughters also get the share in the property except in agricultural land. Bihar .(4.430). The rule of inheritance goes in favor of male children and property is equally divided among sons. Madhya Pradesh .423).(3.KACHHI PEOPLE The Kachhi are called by different synonyms such as Shakya. They are believed to be the descendants of King Ichhvaku. They use both modern and traditional Medicare. But the succession is in favor of eldest member of the family.729).123). Rajasthan . Rajasthan.

is their mother tongue. They take fish.437 : They are mainly found in northern part of Andhra Pradesh state. : The traditional and present occupation of the Kampa is agriculture. At the time of marriage. Some of their lineages are Telkunchi. The Kampa belong to Nagasa gotra and have a number of lineages which regulate their marriage alliances.KAMPA PEOPLE Kampa denotes a “bush of thorns”. and meat besides all seasonal vegetables and fruits. In fact. Karan. Komuti and Gouda. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 26 of 57 .(130.437) Statewise Population 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. : Oriya. Their traditional caste council helps in the maintenance of traditional customs and norms. an Indo-Aryan language. and establish putative kinship ties like mita and maker with people of equal social status. Choudhury. they are also engaged in business and service in government private organizations. eggs. : Being Kampa by religion. Besides settled cultivation. Their traditional caste council helps in the main tenance of traditional customs and norms. Some of them have responded favorably to the loan facilities and various developmental programs launched by the government. The Kampa use surnames such as Pradhan. and Patra. the name Kampa is derived from the word Kapu meaning a watchman. They engage the services of a priest from the Panda Brahmau for performing their life-cycle rituals. the priest ties the hands of the bride and the bridegroom in front of a sacred fire amidst the recitation of mantras : They forge traditional intercommunity linkages with the Brahman. mother's brother's daughter or elder sister's daughter. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Orissa . The same language and its script are used for intergroup communication as well. : The Kampa are non-vegetarian. Duguri and Sapari. : A man can marry his father's sister's daughter. Duguri and Sapari. Bodam. Padhi. Although they prefer indigenous medicines. People of India FTT ID: 41666 Identity of the People Alternate name : Some of their lineages are Telkunchi. they are gradually adopting modern medicines and family planning methods. Dondari. Bodam. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 130. Dondari. the Kahar worship all gods and goddesses of the Hindu pantheon. from whom they accept water and food.

Assam .KHANDAIT PEOPLE A community living in Orissa and West Bengal to be famous for their past glory as great fighters. Some of them participating activities. Orissa was formerly divided into khandas or and each khanda was governed by a headman called kham subsequently corrupted into khandai. though the traditional occupation of the community is agriculture. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 27 of 57 . They took an active part in the Paik or Chur rebelled. little impact on them. Dowry.074 : Their traditions aver thai their immigration from Orissa they were in possession : They speak Oriya. The common titles used by them are Raut Roy or Rout Roy and Samant Roy while Singh.363.776). The community is divided into a number of clans (gotra) like Nagashwa. in both cash and kind. The Khandait belong to and are the descendants of people who formed the landed ancient rajas of Orissa. Baliar and Marathi are the surnames used. They avail themselves of the advantage planning programmes. West Bengal .(1. Andhra Pradesh . Employment and self-employment scheme. However. People of India FTT ID: 41262 Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : : 5. : : Cultivation is the primary occupation of the Khandait.(280. Bengali. lot high. : Marriage through negotiation at an adult age is most preferred. In Orisss the Kshatriyas who fought against the British with the sword are those who are excellent in fighting with the sword. they never touch the plough and engage labour to cultivate their lands. The Khandait widows abstain from a non-vegetarian diet.620). and use the Oriya script. : They are non-vegetarian and consume rice and wheatas their staple cereals.675.(6.950) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.969). NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Orissa . : They traditionally do not accept water and cooked food from any other community. Kashyapa and Suklaswa. Their literacy rate is.(9. uncooked food and vegetables are accepted from all. and kanyadan are prevalent among them.

Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 4.(262. Himachal Pradesh. Jammu & Kashmir . Maharashtra . : The Khatri were linked with other communities by jajmani or interrelationships.557).(27.(98. in over 132 districts in the having 241 segments. Uttar Pradesh . Punjab . The Khatri claim to be Rajput and believe that lmunity name is a corrupt form of Kshatriya.549).695).781).652).(1. : Monogamy is strictly There are no symbols of marriage among the Sikhs Khatri.030) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. . The lifecycle rituals are observed according to the Hindu or Sikh traditions depend on their religion.KHATRI PEOPLE They originated in Punjab. There are many theories in merchantile activities including various kinds of business. Himachal Pradesh . but they identify themselves Kshatriya and claim their descent from one Karta Virya Arjuna. Sonappa and Bojagiri. Presently. Jammu and Kashmir. and finger-rings are the identification marriage for the Hindu women. they are working in all the fields. The Khatri are also known as Patnulkaran latriya and are divided into exogamous septs such as Sulegar. Gujarat. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Andaman & Nicobar Islands .020. In Punjab. Delhi. a dot on the forehead (bindi). Delhi . : The Khatri profess Hinduism. : Their business pursuits range from being village shopkeepers to being traders.242). Their staple cereals are wheat and maize supplement rice.(37.216 Location : They are widely distributed in Punjab.859). in over 132 districts in the having 241 segments.(81. : They are vegetarian but occasionally take vegetarian food. Chandigarh . All the sons inherit parental property equally.(49. the Khatri called Putnulkaran by other castes.140). Madhya Pradesh . The Khatri are a trading caste of bankers and moneylenders and are engaged in agriculture. n. Delhi. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Rajasthan (54. : Punjabi and use the Gurmukhi script. Himachal Pradesh.(658. bangles. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Statewise Population Haryana . Bihar.958). the Khatri are one of the major communities who trace their origin to one segment of the Kshatriya of Manu's varna system.(645.(52. Bihar. However.(52. Jammu and Kashmir. Uttar Pradesh. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 28 of 57 . Gujarat . Gujarat.770). and are widely distributed in Punjab. People of India FTT ID: 41279 Identity of the People Alternate name : By reason of their inter-connection with the silk industry. Uttar Pradesh.159).

355). Divorce is permitted and remarriage : Traditionally they accept and exchange and food with the Sahariya.KIRAR PEOPLE The Kirar claim to have originally belonged to Kiser kot or Kiradu-kot of Jaisalmer and were a soldier group during the reign of Lord Shri Krishna. Earlier a hunting group. They also accept the Brahman. All sons inherit parental property equally. In Rajasthan they are distributed in theKota. Birojia. Haroda. they are a community as inferior or degraded Rajput. the present-day primary occupation of the Kiraris agriculture.179). These people avail themselves of the free education.665). Wankhedia. Among these subgroups there are 136 clans. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : 899. Rajasthan . namely Dhakar. The form of marriage is monogamy. Jain and Rajput. Sujonia. Uttar Pradesh . Their regional organization.(781. Jata and Gujar.(26. Chauriya and Karod. Khandyat. Choura and Kathoria are some of their clans (kul). The rule of residence after marriage is patrilocal. named Akhil Bhartiya Kirar Kshatriya Sabha. and banking. but they also speak Hindi and use the Devanagari script. : They practice child marriage and acquire spouses through negotiation. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 29 of 57 . (All India Kirar Mahasabha) is headed by the adhyaksh. which provides assistance to the council (jati panch).(53. Bhdhneria. The Kirar are a landowning community whose primary occupation is settled cultivation.PureviaGangolia. : Brajbhasa is their mothertongue. Some of them are employed in salaried jobs in government and other agencies. : They are largely engaged in agriculture.323 : They are distributed in Rajasthan. jowar and rice supplemented with pulses. Khojar. health and employment schemes. The Kirar are divided into three endogamous subgroups. People of India FTT ID: 41393 Identity of the People Alternate name : Also known as the Kirar or Kirad. Meena. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Bundi and Bharatpur districts of the state.(51. Maharashtra . NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Madhya Pradesh . : The Kirar are non-vegetarian and their staple food consists of wheat.244) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. : They are Hindu by faith.

. : In traditional inter-community linkages. People of India FTT ID: 41349 Identity of the People Alternate name : They prefer to call themselves Rayeen Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion : 1. They do not take food with the Khatik. etc. The name of the community is probably derived from the Sanskrit word kunj.(308.KUNJRA PEOPLE The Kunjra are green-grocers who sell mainly vegetables and fruits. and they offer them sweetmeat and fruits. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 30 of 57 . divorce. They generally study upto intermediate level. they share food and water with their Muslim brethren except the Mehtar and other menials. they are basically non-vegetarian and consume beef (buffalo) too. The panchayat plays a vital role resolving social issues.813 : They perceive their distribution to be medium range and scatterd throughout the state of Uttar Pradesh. They prefer to call themselves Rayeen and claim their migration from the Rayee mountains of Arabia. In the villages. which means 'a bower' or an 'arbour'. : Marriages are usually monogamous. who are Hindus and engaged in the occupation of selling vegetables and fruits. and also settles the disputes in the family. etc.542) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. It unites the community memebrs for help to each other. Marriages are settled through negotiations. The Kunjra have their traditional panchayat headed by a chaudhary. Children get their wages in cash.580. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . : In their food habits. : They speak Urdu and Awadhi (a dialect of Hindi) and use Persian and Devanagari scripts in day-to-day activity. viz. The main occupation of the community is selling vegetables and fruits. They supplement their diet by taking milk and mik products. but polygyny is also permitted. marriage. The consumption of fruits and vegetables is much. the panchayat gives punishment too. Formal education is favoured for both boys and girls. : The Kunjra are Muslims and belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. It is said that the verdict of their panchayat is valid in the court of law. Their deities are Ghazi Mian and Pachon Pir. : The Kunjra are a landless people. Child-labour exists among the Kunjra.. but some of them go for higher studies upto postgraduate level and also for professional degrees.

635). Punjab . the Machhi are also known as Mima Machhi.407). medical facilities. Mitna and Patel. Kharva or Kharvi. They also revere N. Toddytapping. rice and fish. family planning. meaningfish. Their traditional occupation is fishing.(138.(2. People of India FTT ID: 41425 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Machhi derive their name from the word machhi. : They are non-vegetarian and their staple includes jowar. Kharva or Kharvi. Social control is regulated by their traditional caste council. Fishing and and salt-making are the traditional as well as the presentday primary occupations of the Machhi. Patel. Some of them are conversant with Hindi also.MACHHI PEOPLE The Machhi derive their name from the word machhi. drinking water. the Machhi are also known as Mima Machhi. Koli. They receive the services of the Dubla and Mangela during fishing operations. : Fishing and seamanship are the traditional as well as the present-day primary occupations of the Machhi.(173. Marriages are settled through negotiation. communication.(230. electricity. In Maharashtra. ration and banking.(188. Maharashtra . dos remedious (Lady of Remedy). Dhodia. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Haryana . Their sur-names are Macchi.047) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.688). They are also called Tandel. In Maharashtra.100). They enjoy the benefits of various developmental programmes pertaining to education. the Machhi are migrants from Mehri and Bharooch of south Gujarat who settled in the coastal areas of Daman about 200 years ago : Gujarati is their mother tongue and they use the Gujarati script. They are also called Tandel.471 Location Language Religion : In Daman and Diu. Toddy-tapping. running wine shops and services. : They traditionally accept both cooked and uncooked food from the Brahman. There are no hierarchical divisions within the community. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 716. Momin and Christian. meaning fish. : The Machhi are Hindu and worship Sangliya Mata as their lineage deity. Dubla. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 31 of 57 .S. the Machhi Mahajan Samaj. running wine shops and service in different government offices are their subsidiary occupations. : Marriage with one's mother's brother daughter or mother's sister's daughter is permitted and junior levirate and junior sororate are allowed. Gujarat . Chandigarh . one of the shrines of the Catholic Christian whom the Machhi since the Portuguese period.

Petty rovision shops and government service are their other means of livelihood.528).(133. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 32 of 57 .259 : They are distributed in Bhagalpur. Their boys and girls le post-graduate and higher levels. Mallik is used as a title by the Sayeed group who are descendants of Sayeed Hazarat Ibrahim. : They traditional commensal relationship with other Muslim communities excepting goor.(1. West Bengal . gonai and Watal. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Statewise Population Gujarat . Their attitude towards modern favourable but not so for family planning. They have both nuclear and extended families a them. People of India FTT ID: 41673 Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes : Muslim .280). are a small localized endogamous mainly in twenty-seven villages of the Thasra taluk in the Kheda district. Nalanda and Patna districts. neers and members in the defence services.(2.MALLIK PEOPLE They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. Munger. : The traditional occupation of cultivation is still primary source of subsistence followed by agricultural labour. Also in Maharashtra and Gujarat state. Their traditional community council consists of nine members who elected by a voice vote for a period of one year Intra-community dispute are settled by the community council. A married woman wears a nose-studt symbol of a marriage.467). teachers. : They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. : They speak Urdu and Magahi and use the Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts. Bihar . Maharashtra . They traditional communal relationship with other Muslim communities excepting goor. gonai and Watal. : Cross-cousin marriages are practised. Orissa . also called Malek.808).Religious group : 128. businessmen. The Malik have commensally relationship with other Muslim communities and participation of the Malik is confined mostly to regional-level politics. : The Malik are non-vegetarian and bajri or wheat roti forms their tie equigeniture is the rule of inheritance.(127.(210. They also work as skilled labourers.426) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Gaya. The Malik have scholars. The Malik.

(1.200).513 : The Muslim Lakhera known as Manihar are distributed in the Jaipur. Gujarat. : Married women wear as symbols of them marital status. but due to the non-availability of ivory ( now make bangles from plastic with jerry covering.e.d in poultry farming under various welfare schemes. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . Chum and Ajmer districts of Rajsthan.400). they migrated from the Sindh region. In Gujarat. They also work in glass and make tin foils. precious stones. The Manihar. They have a local caste panchayat a the Manihar pursue their traditional occupation of selling cosmetics and tikli. also known as Maniar or Chudigar.MANIHAR PEOPLE A community distributed in Rajasthan. also known as Maniar or Chudigar. The term manihar is derived from ‘mani’ meaning a precious stone and kara meaning maker.(8. People of India FTT ID: 41396 Identity of the People Alternate name : Manihar. : The Manihar e Sunni sect of Islam. : Urdu is their mother tongue a Hindi and use both the Devanagari and Perso-Arabic script . : They in general. : The traditional occupation of the bangles from ivory. Sikar. Manihar and Lakhere Manihar. The Manihar have two subgroups.(1. Some of them are self-employed as tailors. Kachchi is their mother tongue.883). rickshaw. They use both modern medicines. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes : 875. but intercommunity marriages are prohibited. i. are non-vegetarian but are prohibited from consuming staple food items include cooked rice and wheat.(428.923). Bihar . or which is taken from the biradari panchayat.100) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Madhya d Uttar Pradesh. Their attitude towards formal education is curable for boys and unfavorable for girls. Rajasthan . Madhya Pradesh . : They accept water and food from other munities.(45. Divorce is allowed. West Bengal . Mehar is promised for future he rule of residence after marriage is patrilocal. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 33 of 57 . The Manihar are Sunni sect of Islam.

They exchange food and water with other Muslim groups. namely Halai Memon. wheat and rice are their staple cereals. Very few depend upon agriculture. Maharashtra . Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 34 of 57 . : The Memon continue to have occupational relations with other communities including other Muslim communities. drinking water. The Memon participate in local and regional politics. They profess Islam.391 Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : They inhabit Gujarat and Karnataka.413). Identity : Muslim .MEMON PEOPLE A well-known community. they are the descendants of the Lohana of Sindh who accepted Islam in the middle of the fifteenth century. Memon is a corrupt form of the title Momin (meaning a strong believer in Islam) given by the saint Yusuf-ud-din. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Gujarat . In Gujarat.(2. Facilities of formal education.799). media and communication are being utilized. Surti Memon. : They speck Gujarati among themselves and Urdu and Kannada with others. Tamil Nadu . : The traditional occupation of the Memon is petty business followedservice. Jalwadi Memon. : The Memon take bajra. They perceive a lower status for themselves than the Patel and Lohna but higher than other Muslim communities exchange food and water with other Muslim groups. Divorce is allowed on grounds of maladjustment and remarriage both widows and widowers is permitted. : They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam.Religious group Population : 544. They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. modern health care.000) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. : First cousins are preferred as spouse wear nose-ring and nose-pin are the symbols of married women and mehar is instantly. They inhabit Gujarat and Karnataka.(433. Community councils or jamats managed by an executive committee at the local level. are affiliated to the National Memon Federation at Bombay. People of India FTT ID: 41459 Identity of the People Alternate name : Memon is one of the title Momin (meaning a strong believer in Islam) given asuf-uddin.(281. the Memon are divided into five endogamous.

do not claim to be proficient in any specific occupation.(15.(90. Siyyad.(136.(7.(23. Bihar . whereas in towns. Mughal and Pathan. These people consider all mazars of saints. etc. English. viz. bank and post office facilities and public distribution system. Jammu & Kashmir .Religious group Population : 1. : The Mughal are non-vegetarian. People of India FTT ID: 41360 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Mughal is one of the four social divisions of Muslims. Pork is. Gujarat .. Mecca and Madina as sacred places and pilgrim centres.(168. They have taken up variety of works as economic activity. own orchards. wearing of juniper (blouse or loose shirt) and garara or sari. : The Mughal maintain community linkages generally at economic sphere only.410). It is an immigrant group which is said to have entered India along with Babar who laid the foundation of Mughal rule in India in the fifteenth century. The community has no organized councils or panchayats for social control. beef and small birds. without any reservation.987). to some extent.327 Location Language Religion : They got spread over different parts of northern India.(45. they do some agriculture.(5. Boy's people initiate the proposal. Karnataka .257). Identity : Muslim . for example. The Mughal believe that their community has originated after intermixing of Iranians and the Russians.(18.(203.080)..823). Siyyad. i.e. Haryana .872). The symbol for married women in general is the dress.279. however.016. even in villages the Mughal use electricity.055). Sheikh. viz. West Bengal . They eat mutton. Their social linkages with other communities is limited to exchange of greetings.398).122).041). Madhya Pradesh .(130. Orissa . Andhra Pradesh . Urdu is their mother tongue and the script is Persian. They got spread over different parts of northern India during the period of Humayun and Akbar. Sheikh.078) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Goa .(11.234). Maharashtra . etc. These people use all public facilities available. : The Mughal follow Islam religion.MOGHAL PEOPLE The Mughal is one of the four social divisions of Muslims. is a taboo. profession or skill. Mughals can be both Sunni as well as Shia by sect affiliation. The Mughal. Hindi and. they are engaged in trade. Rajasthan . : Marriages are negotiated at parents' level. dargahs. Since they belong to both Shia as well as Sunni divisions of Muslims. Mughal and Pathan.459).(69. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . Some of the older people know Persian also. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 35 of 57 .. who were once known as soldiers of the Mughal army. : They have taken up variety of works as economic activity.836). handicrafts. : The Mughal speak Urdu.(1. specially mango orchards. In villages. Tamil Nadu .

(23. People of India FTT ID: 41508 Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion : Muslim . ultimately.437) Status of Resources Statewise Population 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.” : The Mussalli speak the Urdu language. which is unique to this sphere of music making in Punjab. where they make up a majority of those who were historically considered “untouchables. Their instruments include an hourglass drum called dauru. : Rice and meat is the staple diet of them. the 12th century saint Gugga. Bards of Gugga maintain a unique repertoire of devotional hymns and legends from the life of the saint. defiling occupations were cleaning and scavenging. ultimately. : The Dejharoo symbolizes that the Kashmiri Pandit woman is married. Muslim women wear bunches of earrings. where they make up a majority of those who were historically considered “untouchables. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Punjab . The non-Mussalli public patronizes this music during the monsoon months and the saint’s festival.MUSSALLI PEOPLE The so-called Mussalli are found all throughout the Punjab and India generally.” Their hereditary. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 36 of 57 . and. defiling occupations were cleaning and scavenging. which is a concoction of green tea leaves brewed in the samovar and enriched with pounded almonds. : Ninety percent of the population in the valley professes Islam of both Sunni and Shia sects. : Their hereditary. the weight of which is supported by a thick silver chain along with several bracelets and necklaces.Religious group : 361. The tea that the Kashmiris drink is called Kahva.029 : The so-called Chuhra are found all throughout the Punjab and India generally. and. The Mussalli's distinctive music is tied to the worship of their patron diety.

Sharma. Thakur. They also work as agricultural labourers. They follow Vaishnavism. : They are non-vegetarian. Lakshmi:bhuja and all other Hindu gods and goddesses. Thakur. : Monogamy is the prevalent type of marriage but second marriage is allowed in some exceptional cases like barrenness or death of first wife. The Nai has a vital role in birth. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 4. Sharma. So they have. are offered as gifts : Traditionally all the castes accept water from them. : The traditional occupation of the Napit is cutting hair. fridge.Nai generally worship sen bhagat. Furniture’s. a saint of their own castes. but abstain from taking beef.693 Location Language Religion : They have a widespread community and distributed in all the districts in the state. they worship Ganesh. such asen. Khawas. such ashen. Verma etc. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh .NAI (HINDI) PEOPLE Nai is either a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word 'napika'. a saint of their own caste.693) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. They have several hair-dressing centres and receive payment in cash. Though women in the Nai community have taken to education and service. The Nai are also known as the followers of Sen Bhagata.Bride price is paid in the form of gifts to the bride. : The community profess Hindu religion. etc. or it is derived from the word 'nahna' meaning a person who acts at will or does not refuse to act. They use different titles with their name. : Hindi is their language and the Devanagari script is used by them.(4. Shitalamata. close interaction with all the communities. This is follow by the occurrence of nuclear family type. Hanuman. utensils.201. Intercommunity marital exchanges are not prevalent among them. Verma etc. marriage and death. Extended type of family is common among them. People of India FTT ID: 46264 Identity of the People Alternate name : They use different titles with their name. Khawas. The eldest son succeeds his father. meaning one who deans nails. The Nai are regarded as a low caste community due to their occupation. they have no voice regarding any dispute or problem their own community.201. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 37 of 57 .

There is acceptance of literacy and education among the Nai. Shitalamata. Hanuman. Verma etc. They are very particular and keen to send their children for education. At the village level. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 243. a saint of their own castes.999) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. they worship Ganesh. Verma etc. such asen. They also work as agricultural labourers. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 38 of 57 . : They are non-vegetarian.Bride price is paid in the form of gifts to the bride. The authority in the family rests with the male. : Marwadi is spoken and the Devanagari script used. fridge.(243. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Rajasthan . a saint of their own caste. utensils. they have no voice regarding any dispute or problem of their own community. : The community profess Hindu religion. etc. Shartna. They have several hair-dressing centres and receive payment in cash.999 Location Language Religion : They have a widespread community and distributed in all the districts in the state. Sharma. Their attitude towards modern medicare is positive. Their women have a status lower than their men. They follow Vaishnavism. such as Sen. are offered as gifts : Traditionally all the castes accept water from them. but abstain from taking beef. Though women in the Nai community have taken to education and service. They collectively discuss the disputes and make efforts to settle the same. : Monogamy is the prevalent type of marriage but second marriage is allowed in some exceptional cases like barrenness or death of first wife. Intercommunity marital exchanges are not prevalent among them. They use different titles with their name.Nai generally worship sen bhagat. A few of them have come up as professionals such as doctor and engineer. Extended type of family is common among them. Thakur. This is followed by the occurrence of nuclear family type. Khawas. Khawas. Furniture’s.NAI (MARWADI) PEOPLE The Nai are also known as the followers of Sen Bhagata. : The traditional occupation of the Napit is cutting hair. People of India FTT ID: 46287 Identity of the People Alternate name : They use different titles with their name. Thakur. they have caste panchayat which is constituted by the elderly members of the community. Lakshmi:bhuja and all other Hindu gods and goddesses.

Sharma. : Punjabi or Hindi is spoken and the Gurmukhi or Devanagari script is used : The community profess Hindu religion. are offered as gifts : Traditionally all the castes accept water from them.156.(1. a saint of their own castes. such asen. They are distributed throughout the state. Thakur. etc. Lakshmi:bhuja and all other Hindu gods and goddesses. They follow Vaishnavism. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 1. water sources. meaning one who deans nails. : Monogamy is the prevalent type of marriage but second marriage is allowed in some exceptional cases like barrenness or death of first wife. They do not have any caste council (jati sabha). Deha. Traditionally they do not accept water and food from the Chura. they worship Ganesh. Kuleen Brahman. and crematoria with other communities. Banmeru. Nai is either a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word napika.116 Location Language Religion : They have a widespread community and distributed in all the districts in the state. Earlier. the Nai are fondly called Rajaji. Furniture’s. Khawas. Bazigar. etc. Some of them Stammen Raja.Nai generally worship sen bhagat.116) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Intercommunity marital exchanges are not prevalent among them.156. They also work as agricultural labourers. not favoured for girls.NAI (PUNJABI) PEOPLE In Punjab. Lagi. or it is derived from the word nahna meaning a person who acts at will or does not refuse to act. fridge. A very few educated ones among them work as clerks in banks. Literacy rate of the community is slowly improving. Verma etc. but abstain from taking beef. . NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab . Hanuman. They have several hair-dressing centres and receive payment in cash. Savita Samaj Nau. Some are petty shopkeepers. utensils. but this rigidity is no more observed. they did not do hair-cutting for the scheduled castes.Bride price is paid in the form of gifts to the bride. : The traditional occupation of the Napit is cutting hair. or Hajjam (Muslim). Shitalamata. : They are non-vegetarian. yet formal education is still. Dom. and Muslim. Chamar. People of India FTT ID: 46278 Identity of the People Alternate name : They use different titles with their name. Mochi. They share the same religious shrines. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 39 of 57 . by and large.

There is acceptance of literacy and education among the Nai. Their women have a status lower than their men. Verma etc. Sharma. Furniture’s.Bride price is paid in the form of gifts to the bride. Intercommunity marital exchanges are not prevalent among them. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 1. but abstain from taking beef. : The traditional occupation of the Napit is cutting hair. : The Nai speak the Urdu language. : They are non-vegetarian. Sharma. They have several hair-dressing centres and receive payment in cash.NAI (URDU) PEOPLE The Nai are also known as the followers of Sen Bhagata. Hand pump and piped water supply are the sources of drinking water. They are particular and keen to send their children for education. They also work as agricultural labourers. Verma etc. Khawas. a saint of their own castes. such asen. Hanuman.Nai generally worship sen bhagat. fridge. Some of them have come up as professionals such as doctor and engineer. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 40 of 57 . They use different titles with their name. They do not have any right of inheritance parental property. Though women in the Nai community have taken to educati and service. : The community profess Hindu religion. a saint of Zneir own caste.772) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. This is follow by the occurrence of nuclear family type. Thakur.772 Location Language Religion : They have a widespread community and distributed in all the districts in the state. People of India FTT ID: 46273 Identity of the People Alternate name : They use different titles with their name. Khawas. Their attitude towards modem medicare is positive.(1. It is said that the Nai are the offspring of a Brahman father and a Sudra mother. Extended type of family is common among them. etc. The authority in the family rests with tile ma. such as~en. Lakshmi:bhuja and all other Hindu gods and goddesses. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . They follow Vaishnavism. are offered as gifts : Traditionally all the castes accept water from them. utensils. they worship Ganesh.819. Thakur. they have no voice regarding any dispute or probIem their own community. : Monogamy is the prevalent type of marriage but second marriage is allowed in some exceptional cases like barrenness or death of first wife. Shitalamata.819.

or Kapadia Nayaka. : Very few of them speak their mother tongue. Andhra Pradesh .(30. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Statewise Population Karnataka .499). Saura.NAIKDA PEOPLE The Nayaka also describes themselves as Naikda in some parts of Gujarat. rice and gram. economic and religious activities. People of India FTT ID: 41318 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Nayaka also describe themselves as Naikda in some parts of Gujarat. : They are monogamous. Their women can be seen taking part in social.(14.678 Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes : They are found in Gujarat.831).(507. the Nayaka and Dhodia are the descendants of Rupak-hatri and Dhanakhatri. They continue to depend on traditional medicines.203).(1.(98. which settles social disputes. in fact the majority of them speak Gujarati : They are Hindus. Naikdi.049) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. they are notified as Naika. Bhedanga and Phasale. Wagh.82 per cent. : Agriculture is the major occupation of the community at present : The Nayaka of Gujarat are non-vegetarian. Their women can be seen taking part in social..624). a chief or governer who execise command over a group of people. Pardhi. Lahange. In Gujarat. Cholivala Nayaka. Rajasthan . The alternative name 'nayaka' mean a leader. they also call themselves as 'kakkari' a term derived from the word 'kathori' which mean 'animal hide'. Nayaka. The Nayaka have community council at certain places. They mostly eat bajra. Maharashtra . Gujarat .696.268. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 2.916).(1. Madhya Pradesh .The Naikda have shown a literacy rate of 18. like Pawar. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 41 of 57 . The Naikda are divided into several clans. Maharashtra and Karnataka states. According to a legend. Ardi or Arde. etc. economic and agricultural labourers.

they have 115 segments. traditional intercommunity linkages are now cordial. government service and the learned professions. Staple food is rice. : Rice and coconut are the major crops. Tamil Nadu .497). Kanakkar. the marriage of the Nayar is denoted by the term kalyanam or vivaham. At present the Nayar community includes a number of sub castes that were considered to be military classes in ancient time.(5. pepper. meaning ‘a leader of the people’. Kidavu. Menokki. The marriage proposal usually starts from the bridegroom's side through some intermediary or direct. media. employment. They now accept and exchange water and food with other communities.(42. : The Nayar profess Hinduism but practise it with a lot of difference. : Generally. Various pulses. Valiyathan and Nambiar Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 6. They avail themselves of the welfare facilities related to healthcare. Hindi and Tamil languages with outsiders. Formal education for either sex is favorable. They are distributed in 38 districts of the country. the Nayar are also reported from Tamil Nadu. the Nayar are non vegetarian and abstain from eating beef and pork. Kaimal. Mainly found in Kerala and Tamil nadu. Tampi. and agricultural methods. Kurup. and Maharashtra. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Kerala .352). Menon.469 : Sevewral staes of India. Karnataka .285) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. : Among the Nayar. They are also engaged in business. though in North Malabar. trade.138. Each family has its own para (bharai] governing deities like 'Vettakkorumakan'. : The language spoken and script used at home and with others is Malayalam. various forms of goddess Bhagawati. In Tamil Nadu the Nair have the synonym of Nayammar. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 42 of 57 .578. Their concentration is in Kanyakumari district. Naga (snake). : Now. cardamom and rubber. In Nagpur city three associations work for their welfare which are responsible for socio-religious activities. Karta. the Nair speak Malayalam with family members and converse in English. ancestors and heroes. People of India FTT ID: 41257 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Nayar use the titles such as Pilla. Panikkar.NAYAR PEOPLE Nayar is an honorific plural of the word ‘nayan’ derived from ‘nayaka’. Unnithan.(148. Pondicherry. With concentration in Kerala. The educated and the employed are fluent in English and Hindi also. In Maharashtra. roots and tubers are consumed.

courtship and mutual consent (rajikhusi). A few of them have embraced Christianity. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Orissa . Dom and Ghasi. Maharashtra. while some practice animism. Andhra Pradesh. The Parja interpret their name a derivative of the Sanskrit term Parja means ‘subject’. Intercommunity marriages exist among them. West Bengal and Assam. Modern method of treatment are accoassionally used. Madhya Pradesh. People of India FTT ID: 41494 Identity of the People Alternate name : Variously known as Paraja. They are non-vegetarian who eat pork : Parja is the only clan who do marriages between cross cousins as well as between maternal uncle and niece are allowed. The Oriya and they use Devanagari scripts : They are Hindu. They depend upon the local moneylenders to a great extent. Some of them have received government assistance in the area of rural employment generation. : They traditionally do not accept food from the Tanti. : The traditional occupation of the Parja in was agriculture. Presently their men and women are employed on permanent or temporary basis for plucking tea-leaves. Maharashtra. : Rice is their staple food. For drinking water they mostly depend on wells and well steams. Paternal property is inherited equally by all the sons and the eldest son succeeds. West Bengal and Assam. Madhya Pradesh.105 : The Paroja are distributed in the states of Orissa. They mostly use traditional method of medicine. Porja or Poroja. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population Location Language Religion : 409. Marriages are generally settled through gabra). are derived from the Oriya words. Nishani Munda is the common sacred centre for them. The term Paroja and Poroja. Parja.802) Status of Resources Statewise Population 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.PAROJA PEOPLE Variously known as Paraja.(410. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 43 of 57 . Parja. Parja is the only clan who do marriages between cross cousins as well as between maternal uncle and niece are allowed. : They speak the Oriya language and are also conversant with Hindi. ‘po’ meaning ‘son’ and ‘raja‘ meaning ‘king’. Porja or Poroja. Andhra Pradesh. the Paroja are distributed in the states of Orissa. The artitude toward formal education is not positive.

Now they are primarily engaged in agriculture. Maharashtra .(259. Orissa . Their main concentration is in Dungarpur district : The Pathan speak a Urdu dialect and Hindi.082). They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. Delhi .(576. Sacred specialists are from other Muslim communities who Muslim brethren.603).(42.810).268.098).248).(1.(7.(16. Haryana .140). Karnataka .(3.428). Jammu & Kashmir . Bunedi and Bagodi. Their staple food includes wheat and maize. Tuse Khan as a surname and females use Khanam or Bibi.558).(233.096). Mehar is promised in marriage and the amount of mehar is recorded in the name of bride at the time of carriage. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 44 of 57 .889.(97. Traditionally. they used to render service in the army of native rulers.089).(732. : : The main source of income of Pathan is through service in government and non-government firms. Goa . : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population West Bengal .024. : Marriage alliances are made "'rough negotiation. Identity : Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage : 12. They traditionally served as soldiers and guards of the rulers (durbar). Banswara. Kerala .793) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. but for girls only partially. Tamil Nadu . Monogamy is the common form but polygamy is allowed in some cases.(1. According to the Pathan narration their ancestors migrated from Afghani and worked as defenders of forts in the hills during the regime of Maharaj Ranjit Singh and claimed the stock of Mughal Pathan and Kabuli Pathan. Rice is used occasionally. Andhra Pradesh .022). Assam . : The Pathan are non-vegetarians.412). Andaman & Nicobar Islands . Jaipur.315).440). also known as Khan as well as Bahadur (brave). Bihar .749 : They are distributed in Dungarpur. The community favors formal education for boys.494. Madhya Pradesh .466).(1. Bharatpur and Udaipur districts. There is no community council as such.(420. People of India FTT ID: 41237 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Pathan have three divisions mainly Swadi.(26.PATHAN PEOPLE The Pathan.(140. Ajmer. They use Devnagari script.503).265). Punjab . They make full use of modern medicare. Gujarat . Himachal Pradesh .(4.(322.(278. mass media and communication network. but to uphold community norms and to resolve social issues from time to time an ad hoc body of elders is formed.

the Pondara are also known as Bartiya. They have migrated from Orissa. A statutory grampanchayat exists to look after the development of the village and resolve the problems. They are also called 'Pondari'.164 Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Orissa . Other welfare measures have yet to reach them. It is customary among the Pondara to take an acre or two of land and share the plots to grow vegetables and contribute to the prescribed rent jointly. People of India FTT ID: 41646 Identity of the People Alternate name : In Orissa. They are non-vegetarian. they also work as daily wage laborers. the Pondara are also known as 'Bartiya'. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 45 of 57 . The term is derived from the words.328) : They are distributed in the districts of Srikakulam and Vizianagaram. which is locally called Pomla bhasha. meat and egg. : Monogamy is the form of marriage.PONDARA PEOPLE In Orissa. the Pondara are also called Pondari. In Andhra Pradesh. They grow vegetables through out the year. : The Pondara are traditional vegetables growers and horticulturists. 'bar' meaning land and 'tiya' meaning self-prepared. Vermilion and glass bangles are the symbols of married women.(82. : They consume fish. Besides the practice of horticulture. : The Pomla are Hindu. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 144. They use both modern and indigenous medicines for treatment. : Their mother tongue is a dialect of Gujarati. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Statewise Population 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. and they also practise agriculture. Formal educational is not encouraged and most of them discontinue their studies. They have a traditional caste council.

: They are non-vegetarian people and eat meat two or three times a week.QASSAB PEOPLE Qassab are also known as 'Buz Qassab' in Persian buz means 'a goat and qassab an Arabic word means-'to cut' or Chikwa. Rajasthan .699).943). Women in the community get respect and are treated at par with men.Religious group Population : 1. Besides pirs other religious saints are also given due importance and reverence. Elderly women play a vital role in family disputes.(65.(3.(845. Marital unions are mostly monogamous. Bride-price in the form of mahr is fixed according to the status of the family. college and university level. West Bengal .805). : The Qassab speak Urdu and use the Persian script.486.193) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.912). They also perform religious rites. They generally make use of the facilities available in an area. They also take seasonal vegetables and fruits. They get formal modern education up to school. Bihar .412). Identity : Muslim .174). The other Muslim communities. Gujarat . Madhya Pradesh . Recently they have begun to use the surname Qureshi. are also found to be associated in the rituals of the Qassab. Punjab . etc. : Traditional inter-community linkages are found mainly with Sheikhs.796).(26. They are consulted in all family matters. the frequency going up when there is some meat left unsold. Girls have started going to school.022 Location Language Religion : Sevaral states in India. Bakar Qassabs belong to the Sunni sect of Islam.(5.(26. Nai and Dhobi. : Major economic activity of the community is business and trade of meat. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . the members speak Hindi and use Devanagari script in their business transactions. : Marriage is performed according to the Hanafi school of Muslim jurisprudence. : Qassabs belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. Their major sacred centres are Mecca and Medina. Maharashtra . Haryana . sale and purchase or slaughter and export of fresh meat and hides. go in for higher education due to social reasons.(1. however. These days. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 46 of 57 .563). The general pattern of family among the Bakar Qassab is nuclear. They do not. Besides pirs other religious saints are also given due importance and reverence. People of India FTT ID: 41353 Identity of the People Alternate name : Bakar Qassab/Chikwa/Quresh are also known as Buz Qassab (in Persian buz means 'a goat1 and qassab an Arabic word means-'to cut') or Chikwa. In some cases. the extended type is also prevalent. The Bakar Qassab make use of facilities of drinking water available in the area.(20.(1.

They rarely adopt family planning measures. : Landholders and agriculturists are very few among the Qazi.868). literally meaning judge. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Bihar .(1. West Bengal .Religious group Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : 1. they have entered into connubial relations with the Sayyed and Sheikh. Madhya Pradesh .(472.201. : The Qazi are non-vegetarian. the word qazi has come to mean imam. They conduct marriages and act as the chief member on the death of a Muslim.(3. They ate conversant with Gujarati also. They utilize both banking facilities and public distribution system. the Qazi are a community of Gujarat. Both the PersoArabic and Gujarati scripts are used. : The Qazi are Sunni Muslims and follow the Hanafi school. The Qazi of Wadhawan also participate in the Hindu festivals and observe fast and take cold food on the satharn and ashtam of Shravan month (July—Aug). Polygyny is permitted but it is rare.844). the Qazi are a community of Gujarat Identity : Muslim . Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 47 of 57 . : marriages are allowed amongst them. : The Qazi have commensal relations with all Muslim communities and in certain places. The community people consider themselves as higher than the Sheikh but lower than the Sayyed. Gujarat . They are strict in praying five times a day and in observing fasts during the month of the Rarnzan. Traditionally the Qazi worked as judges but after the end of the Muslim rule they began to teach in madrasas and act as imams in dargahs. Now.032). The Qazi have commensal relations with all Muslim communities and in certain places.(11. : Urdu is their mother tongue. they have entered into connubial relations with the Sayyed and Sheikh. Some of the Qazi are expert medicine-men and they give talisman to protect the people from evil spirits and cure the ill.009) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI.QAZI PEOPLE QAZI. The Qazi are Sunni Muslims and follow the Hanafi school. Quite a large number of the Qazi are literate.572 : All over Gujarat State and north of Bihar state. People of India FTT ID: 41367 Identity of the People Alternate name : Literally meaning judge. Bride-price and mehar are fixed.

Jalandhar. : This community maintains very cordial relationship with the scheduled castes and other artisan and sendee castes of the nearby villages. succession pattern follows male primogeniture rule. Divorce and remarriage are permitted in their society. even in case of people who migrated from the same village in Pakistan. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population Location : 114. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 48 of 57 . They perform marriage rites according to the Sikh religion. Karnal and Kurukshetra districts. the Rai Sikh were earlier called Mahatm and Sirkiband. the Rai Sikh are spread in the Hissar. : They are followers of Sikh religion. Minthumari and Sargodha areas of Pakistan. : They speak Punjabi and use the Gurumukhi script. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. People of India FTT ID: 41700 Identity of the People Alternate name : In Punjab. Formal education is partially favored for boys and girls. : Marriages take place between the Rai Sikh. Ludhiana and Kapurthala. the name Rai Sikh. Village exogamy is strictly observed. : A large number of them are working as agricultural and non-agricultural laborers. They take advantage of the health and medical care and family planning programme. In Haryana.669 : They have settled all along the banks of the Sutlej river in the districts of Ferozepur. Mahatm and Sirkiband. Sons inherit the parental property and get equal shares. Animal husbandry is their secondary occupation : They are non-vegetarian who avoid beef. They had migrated from the Layalpur. One of the perceptible changes that has taken place during the last ten years is a strong tendency to follow the religious teachings of Radha Soami. The Rajput are also known as Rai and hence. their staple food comprises rice and wheat. The community is divided into thirty-six clans.RAJ PEOPLE The Rai Sikh claim that they are the descendants of those Rajputs who became Sikh during the reign of Mughal emperor Aurangazeb. This has brought a tremendous transformation in their way of life as most of them have stopped taking alcoholic drinks and have become strictly vegetarian.

They speak Haryanvi in Haryana. The Jatia Chamar mainly live in the Faridabad and Gurgaon districts. The Chamars in Punjab have embraced sikhism and are called ramdasis after Guru Ramdas. Each of these groups is divided into gotras. They may at times be also referred to as ‘julaha’ meaning a ‘weaver’ in punjabi and hindi. Hissar and Jind districts.905).(213.696) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. while rice is eaten occasionally.679).(111.371). Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. : The Ramdasi. Jatia and Raigar do not intermarry. Kataria and Kaira. Golia or Raigar. Maharashtra . whose main function is to regulate marriage alliances. The former are sikhs and the later are hindus and follow bhagat rav das. the Chanaur in the Mahendragarh. Haryana . while the Julaha Chamar are thinly distributed all over the statearyana : They speak Punjabi. Bhangi. : The Raidasi worship the Hindu gods and Guru Ravidas. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 49 of 57 . : Wheat is their staple cereal. : They do not accept food from the Sapera. Arya samaj movement succeded in converting some chamars. Delhi. Chandigarh .RAMDASIA PEOPLE Ramdasia sikh is a people in India. Members of this community were engaged in the profession of weaving. and use the Gurmukhi script. Kauldhar. The raindasis are different from the radidasi(rabdasi¡)chamars.652).358). Jammu & Kashmir . Jatia. The total population of this community is about 505. Khatik and Sirkiband communities. The Sikh Light Infantry draws its man power from the Mazhabi and Ramdasia elements amongst the Sikhs.(3. 80% of which reside in Punjab alone. an Indo-Aryan language. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 941. such as Sidhu. collect cowdung and fuelwood.722).(42.336 Location : Mainly in Punjab. The terms ravidasia and ramdasia are not synonymous and hence should never be used interchangeably. : The women tend domestic animals. cut grass and work as labourers. The Ramdasi are different from the Raidasi (Rabdasi) Chamar. Uttar Pradesh . NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Language Religion Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population Punjab . Ravidasi. Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan .000. Rajasthan. Some of the Chamar work as labourers either on daily wages or on an annual contract (sanjhi).(8. The remaining 20% are found in the states of Haryana.(1. while the Sikh worship the Guru Granth Sahib. People of India FTT ID: 41387 Identity of the People Alternate name : They are also known as Jatav.(5.

also known as 'Sachchari'. Earlier. Fruits. and Scavenging. People of India FTT ID: 41622 Identity of the People Alternate name : Also known as Sachchari.234 Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : They are distributed in ten out of thirteen districts of Andhra Pradesh.820).845) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Chachati or Relli Chachadi. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Andhra Pradesh . economic.(11. They are also conversant with Telugu and use its script. The Relli generally do not send their girls to school. bulrush millet (gantelu). Hence. : Cross-cousin marriage. Paroja and while none accept cooked food from them. A few of them have embraced Christianity. rice and wheat. : The Relli are predominantly Hindus. : Main occupations are Selling. the name Relli. ritual and such as scavenging and other petty jobs in public or private organizations. they identify himself or herself as Sapris or Sapru. and their chief occupation was to sell grass. They have made comparitively attitude towards modern medical care and family planning is favourable. though not common. Karan. : The Relli are non-vegetarian. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 159. Their staple food comprises finger millet (ragi).RELLI PEOPLE Relli. Their literacy rate according to the census is 16. Seeds. they lived on the hills. The term ‘relli’ means a kind of grass in the Telugu language. is practiced : The Relli traditionally accept cooked food and water from the Brahman. Boys study only up to primary level owing to various economic reasons. 'Chachati' or 'Relli Chachadi'. Bhottoda. : Their mother tongue is the Oriya language.26 per cent. they identify himself or herself as Sapris or Sapru.(129. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 50 of 57 . The Relli women participate in all the social. And. Orissa . They are predominantly hindus though a few of them have converted to chiristianity. Benefits of development programmes have reached to some of them.

The children.536). administrators.865 : In Punjab.(26.(230. festivals and visit religious shrines with other communities. both boys and girls. occupational and educational levels. Social divisions exist in the community.SAINI PEOPLE The Saini are also known as Mali outside Punjab.(1. : Both men and women are non-vegetarian. : Marriages are monogamous and are arranged through negotiation. They make full use of modern medicare and both sexes accept modern family planning techniques. bangles. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh .(439. Chandigarh . : Land is the main source of economy for the rural section of the Saini in Punjab.(4. economic. : The Punjabi language and the Gurumukhi script are used : The Saini primarily follow Slkhism and Hinduism. The Saini share water sources.(7. A few amongst them follow the Nirankari sect of Sikhism as well.356).816) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. trade.382). The members of the Saini community are employed in business and white-collar jobs and as teachers. rice and maize are the staple cereals.308). Wheat.792). Jalandhar and Gurdaspur. doctors and defense personnel. They are also engaged in animal husbandry. They call themselves Shoor Saini or Brave Saini. the Saini are living in the districts of Ropar. : The community has good relations with other communities. crematoria. get good education up to college level. They affix Saini as a surname. a finger-ring and ear-rings. Maharashtra .430). They call themselves Shoor Saini or Brave Saini. Hoshiarpur.(18. which help to regulate marriages and indicate social status. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 51 of 57 . Their attitude towards savings is positive. People of India FTT ID: 41335 Identity of the People Alternate name : They are also known as Mali outside Punjab.(2. They recognize the varna system and consider themselves Kshatriya. They observe exogamy at the village and gotra levels. Jammu & Kashmir . Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 1. The Saini are an endogamous community. Punjab . Himachal Pradesh .546). Madhya Pradesh . They affix Saini as a surname.(321. The marriage symbols include vermilion (red in the part of the hair). bindi (dot on forehead). religious. Bihar (10. lawyers.712). Differentiation exists at social. Haryana .435). Rajasthan . They are enjoying all the benefits of development activities.884.

service and in a wide variety of white-collar professions such as medicine.486) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Muharram. Punjab (201. etc. Baqrid. law and teaching.(9. viz.097. Mughal and Pathan. : They observe major Muslim festivals like ld-ul-Zuha. : They are fond of non-vegetarian food.(2.(553. Rajasthan . respectively.360). Karnataka .(614. The staple diet of the Sayyads consists of wheat.(1. Both the Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts are used.358 : The Syed in Uttar Pradesh are distributed throughout the state : They speak Urdu. Health care clinics are provided even in remote areas. Sheikh.(374.SAYYID PEOPLE The Syed in Uttar Pradesh are distributed throughout the state. service and in a wide variety of white-collar professions such as medicine. Bihar .(67. : Cousin marriages are preferred.(297. The Sayyads occupy the foremost position among the four major classes of Muslims.(414.400).621). Orissa . : The Sayyads are in different pursuits like agriculture.100). Haryana . engineering. SAYYAD the word ‘seelavanthula’ denotes pure being. Delhi . : The Sayyid community has socio-economic and religious relations with all the surrounding Hindu and Muslim communities. Andhra Pradesh .185). Muta too was a popular form of marriage among the followers of Shite tenet but now it is rarely practised..721.(51. West Bengal . Jammu & Kashmir .936).042). Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 52 of 57 .(837. The community derived its name from their Muslim brethren is their traditional occupation. masur and seasonal vegetables. Madhya Pradesh .116).126). Sayyad. yet in practice there has been a hierarchical grading among them. Health is another aspect which has received their attention.503).(791. rajmah. Though all are equal. Tamil Nadu . Gujarat . Shab-eBarat. People of India FTT ID: 41270 Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion : Muslim . The Hindi language is spoken with the non-Muslim communities.702).405). NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . engineering.(232. Only men can divorce. maize.705). Maharashtra . The Sayyads are in different pursuits like agriculture. mall. pulses of chana.(59.Religious group : 4. women can seek separation (khula or fariqhkhati) only by foregoing their right of mehar.650). business. law and teaching.104. business.

The word sheikh in Arabic language connotes a person who does justice. Identity : Muslim . : They observe major Muslim festivals like ld-ul-Zuha. Muharram. Mass media. respectively.' astomangala (a non-Islamic trait).Religious group Population : 1.488) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. communication and transport have helped these people enormously in maintaining relationship with the Muslim spread all over. etc. : The Sheikh community has socio-economic and religious relations with all the surrounding Hindu and Muslim communities. A male takes a share double than that of a female in his own generation. Faruqi and Abbassi.cousins are permitted in the community. The attitude of the Sheikh towards development programmes is quite positive but it is not possible for them to always take advantage of the same due to poverty. Assamese is the script used. naming and circumcision. Baqrid.488 Location Language Religion : All over Assam state. : Consanguineous marriages between parallel.(1. Dowry is given in cash and mehar is promised to be paid in future. namely Siddiqi. some are self-employed too. Family planning measures have not spread uniformly as they are supposedly against the tenets of Islam. : They are non-vegetarian who take both beef and buffalo meat.707. People of India FTT ID: 46184 Identity of the People Alternate name : The word Sheikh is a general term of courtesy equivalent to the English term of esquire belonging mainly to the three branches of Qureshi family. : The Assamese language spoken with an influence of Urdu and Arabic is their mother tongue. : The traditional occupation is agriculture and now are settled cultivation. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Assam . Shab-eBarat. business and government service. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 53 of 57 .707. They perform aqiqa. consent and agreement on den mohar. Their staple food is rice. reception of barat. The eldest son succeeds to the authority.SHAIKH (ASSAMESE) PEOPLE SHEIKH/SHAIK are a community largely distributed in two hundred and fifty-four districts of the country. The important marriage rituals observed are lagan.

The word sheikh in Arabic language connotes a person who does justice. Baqrid. Siddiqi. Shab-e-Barat. : The Sheikh traditionally accept water and food from all other communities except the Bhangi. : The traditional and primary occupation of the Sheikh is cultivation. They are non-vegetarian who eat buffalo meat. Bene Israel.176) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. : The community comprises both the Shia and Sunni sects. Usmani. The community has businessmen.SHAIKH (URDU) PEOPLE SHEIKH/SHAIK are a community largely distributed in two hundred and fifty-four districts of the country. with others they speak Hindi. They rear buffaloes.851. cows and goats too. Faruqui. : They professes Islam and they are Sunni by faith. etc. Alvi. Faruqi and Abbassi. The community includes twentyeight subgroups like Abbasi. weaving. doctors and engineers.851. Qidwai. scholars. Both the Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts are used by them. teachers. Jafari. advocates. Jafari and Qureshi. Alavi. People of India FTT ID: 46159 Identity of the People Alternate name : They are Abbasi. Ansari. Identity : Muslim . They came to India during the reign of Shahjahan. trade.Religious group Population : 44. Business. Differentiations are on the basis of Ashrafand non-Ashraf status which regulate their marriage alliances.Qureshi) Siddiqui. Sulaimani and Usmani. They were the first people who embraced Islam on the advice of prophet Mohammad and so were given the title of Sheikh. government service. Muharram. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 54 of 57 . Hashmi. : Their staple food is rice and wheat supplemented with pulses. Faridi. Namely Siddiqi.(44. A good number of their boys and girls have received higher education.176 Location Language : In Uttar Pradesh : They speak Urdu with their kin members as well as with other Muslim communities. and political leaders at the national level. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Religion Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Status of Resources Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh . Faruqi. They observe major Muslim festivals like ld-ul-Zuha.

650). Their staple food consists of wheat and rice. In kind. : They speak Gujarati within their kin circle as well as with outsiders. referring to the string used either in joining planks or in planning and measuring". tur.SUTAR PEOPLE "The name Suthar or Sutar appears to be a corruption of the Sanskrit word suthradhara meaning a holder of string. : The Sutar are vegetarian in food habits.376). Some married women also put vermilion in the parting of hair. : The traditional occupation of the Sutar has been carpentry. urad. Mistari and Viswakarma.(250. Bhangis and Chamars etc NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Maharashtra . Dowry is given in both cash and kind. masur etc. Ganesh. school. Maharashtra and Gujarat state. Bania.127). goddess Lakshmi etc. Madhya Pradesh . the main item is gold. Karnataka . of the wider Hindu pantheon.(238. The symbol of marriage for women is marigalsutra. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion : 2. The community has a favorable attitude towards formal education for both boys and girls. There is some rise-in the formation of nuclear families due to the impact of modernization. panchayat office etc with members of other communities. They worship lord Viswakarma. The activities of the Mandal is a potent source for the upliftment of the community. : Monogamy is the common form of marriage.(41. Andhra Pradesh .They share the facilities of well and other water sources.(458.612 : They live in Madhya Pradesh.(393.339). Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 55 of 57 . Gujarati script is used. The Suthar are also called Sutar. A majority of them are landless. Kunbi but they never accept any food from the hands of Vankars. : Traditionally. : The Sutars profess Hindu religion. They use all kind of pulses like gram.461) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. moong. Gujarat . roads. Mistari and Viswakarma. People of India FTT ID: 41314 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Suthar are also called Sutar. The eldest son succeeds as head of the family.484. they accept both cooked and uncooked food from the communities like Brahman. lord Siva. Both nuclear and mixed extended families are found.

: Punjabi language with their community members and in Hindi with non-Punjabis. : The traditional and primary occupation of the Tarkhan is carpentry and agriculture. : The Tarkhan freely participate with members of other neighbouring communities in all kinds of social. : Traditionally. they are mainly concentrated in Shastri Nagar. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 56 of 57 . : The Tarkhan are Sikh. They visit both Hindu temples andgurudwaras. Most of them have come to Delhi after partition.(789. Lajpat Nagar etc. Shahdara. the Tarkhan are vegetarian but at present. Moti Nagar. also known as Takhan.346).719).(2.475. Rajasthan . The Tarkhan women suffer secondary status compared to that of men in all walks of life. Maharashtra . The men wear a pyjama and kameez and women wear a salwar.(43. In Delhi. Thirkhan or Tikhan in the Punjabi language. West Bengal . Safdarjang.(81. Tilak Nagar. The majority of boys have received either primary or middle school education. However. The Tarkhan usually live in joint families.457). Haryana .(5.(13. Madhya Pradesh .495). shirts or bush shirts. kameez and dupatta.TARKHAN PEOPLE The Tarkhan. especially among the men. but in practice they practice a combination of Hinduism and Sikhism. ritual.154). ritual and religious activities along with their men folk. Nuclear families are very few in Delhi. a few women have started wearing a sari and blouse and the men western-style pants.452).(20. Jammu & Kashmir . political and occupational activities. A tendency to ask for dowry has been observed among some affluent families. political and occupational activities NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Language Religion Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab . They participate in all kinds of social. which may be due to their common business.(85. : Monogamy is the common form of marriage. is an occupational caste engaged in woodwork. is an occupational caste engaged in woodwork.843). However. People of India FTT ID: 41312 Identity of the People Alternate name : The Tarkhan. Uttar Pradesh . They use Gurmukhi script. Identity : Population Location : 2.(4. also known as Takhan. Faizabad. at present. Delhi .372 : Their original home is in Punjab. Chandigarh ..829). a tendency towards consumption of non-vegetarian food has been observed. The Tarkhan freely participate with members of other neighboring communities in all kinds of social. in Delhi.(385.(11. while the majority of them are still engaged in the traditional occupation of carpentary.(44.125) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Himachal Pradesh .394). ritual. Thirkhan or Tikhan in the Punjabi language. Married women do not use any marriage symbol. Gujarat .014). but it is considered wrong for them not to wear earrings. Their attitude towards the education of boys and girls is favorable.649).

Astor. Astor. Tagir. cattle rearing and other cottage industries. Talil and Soro. Yasin. the weight of which is supported by a thick silver chain along with several bracelets and necklaces. The Şiņs preferably marry within the ranges of their own castes. The tea that the Kashmiris drink is called Kahva.291) 11-Sep-07 Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI. Darel. In Kohistan. Boristi and so on.Religious group Population : 230. Chhilas. Ishkoman and Chitral. Gurez.YASHKUN PEOPLE It is unanimously believed about the YaŜkuņ that they are related with Aryan. Ishkoman and Chitral. Boristi and so on. which is a concoction of green tea leaves brewed in the samovar and enriched with pounded almonds. the Şiņs are in majority. Gurez. Borish. Dorshak. Punial. Kolkotta and Census of India 2001 Page 57 of 57 . Punial. Dras. People of India FTT ID: 41568 Identity of the People Alternate name : People call them differently in different areas. Gultari. Dras.291 Location Language Religion : They are in majority in Giglit. Dorshak. They are in majority in Giglit. : Rice and meat is the staple diet of them. They migrated via Hindu Kush to the Northern Pakistan. Tumar. Gultari. : The Dejharoo symbolizes that the Kashmiri Pandit woman is married.People call them differently in different areas. In reality. For instance. In the history. Chhilas. Talil and Soro. Identity : Muslim . Harban and Sazin. there is no up and low in terms of their castes as Şiņ and YaŜkuņ both are counted as "Ulsia" ( subjects. Yasin. In Kohistan. : They also indulge themselves in agriculture. Their many other branches are found in Chhilas. sheep rearing. Muslim women wear bunches of earrings. For instance. : Kashmiri is spoken and the Devanagari script used. : NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : No Status of Resources Statewise Population Jammu & Kashmir . Borish. YaŜkuņs came via Pamir to the sub-continent before the Şiņ tribes.(230. : Ninety percent of the population in the valley professes Islam of both Sunni and Shia sects. bonafied residents.

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