Database II

Database Integrity

Muhammad Asghar Khan

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Database Integrity (1/5) 
A database must be designed to store the correct data in the correct way without that data becoming damaged or corrupted  We can think of data integrity in different aspects as  Physical Aspect of Data Integrity
‡ Also called Relational Integrity or Integrity Constraints

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Can be implemented using DBMS features such as domains and data types Most relational DBMS products provide the following types of constraints:
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Database Integrity (2/5)
‡ Primary Key constraints (Entity Integrity)
‡ According to entity integrity in a base relation, no attribute of a primary key can be null

‡ Referential constraints (Referential Integrity)
‡ The foreign key value must match a candidate key value of some tuple in its home relation or foreign key value must be null

‡ Unique constraints
‡ An attribute value can have null values but no duplicates are allowed

‡ Check constraints
‡ Applies a condition to a column value where that value must evaluate to TRUE ‡ A condition can be of the form columnA = 5 3

Database Integrity (3/5) 
Semantic Aspect of Data Integrity
‡ It relates to meaning of the data ‡ It is more difficult to control and less easily defined ‡ An example of semantic integrity is the quality of the data in the database ‡ Procedures and practices need to be in place to ensure data quality. ‡ For example, a customer database that contains a wrong address or phone number in 25% of the customer records is an example of a database with poor quality ‡ Data quality is encouraged through proper application code, sound business practices, and specific data policies
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Database Integrity (4/5) 
DBMS Internal Aspect of Data Integrity
‡ The DBMS relies on internal structures and code to maintain links, pointers, and identifiers ‡ Internal DBMS integrity is essential in the following areas: ‡ Index consistency
‡ An index is really nothing but an ordered list of pointers to data in database tables

‡ Pointer consistency
‡ Sometimes large multimedia objects are not stored in the same physical files as other data. ‡ Therefore, the DBMS requires pointer structures to keep the multimedia data synchronized to the base table data
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Database Integrity (5/5)
‡ Backup consistency
‡ ‡ Some DBMS products occasionally take improper backup copies that effectively cannot be used for recovery It is essential to identify these scenarios and take corrective actions

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