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Module 11: Introduction to Sensation and
I- When we select, organize and interpret our sensation, the process is called perception. II- We hear not just a mix of pitches and d rhythms but a child’s cry of pain, the hum of distant traffic, a symphony. In short, we transform sensation into perceptions. We create meaning. III- Bottom-up processing- analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information. IV- Top-down processing- Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. VII- Thresholds A- Psychophysics- The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them. B- Absolute thresholds- the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time. C-Subliminal Threshold- when stimuli are below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness. D- Difference threshold- minimum differences between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time, also called just noticeable difference. VIII- Signal Detection A- frog feeds on flying insects; a male silkworm moth is sensitive to female sex-attractant odor; and we as human beings are sensitive to sound frequencies that take role of the range of human voice consonants to a baby’s cry.
B- Signal detection theory (SDT) - a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (“signal”) amid background stimulation (“noise”). Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue. XI- Sensory Adaptation A- Sensory adaptation- diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. XII- Selective Attention
A-Selective attention- the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. XIII- Inattentional Blindness A- Inattentional blindness- refers to inability to see an object or a person amidst an engrossing scene. B-Change Blindness is a form of Inattentional blindness, where 2/3’s of the direction giving individuals failed to notice a change in the individual who was asking for directions.