1 | P a g e

Quantum Mechanics Summary

Blackbouy Rauiation Foimulaǣ
ݑሺ݂ǡ ܶሻ ൌ
ͺߨ݄݂

ܿ


ͳ
݁
௛௙



െ ͳ

Photoelectiic Effectǣ
ܧ
௄ǡ௠௔௫

ͳ
ʹ
݉

ݒ



ൌ ݄݂ െԄ
ൌ ev


Compton Effectǣ
ߣ

െߣ


݄
݉ܿ
ሺͳ െ ܿ݋ݏߠሻ
Some useful equationsǣ
ߣ ൌ
݄
݌


݄
݉ݒ

ܧ


݌

ʹ݉

The Bohi atomǣ
ͳ
ߣ
ൌ ܴቆ
ͳ
݊



ͳ
݊



ݎ

ൌ ݊

ܽ


ܽ




ସగ

௞௘

ൌ ͲǤͲͷʹͻ݊݉
ܧ

ൌ െ
ଵଷǤ଺


ܸ݁
Nattei Wavesǣ
߱ ൌ ʹߨ݂ǡ ߱ሺ݇ሻ ൌ
݄݇

Ͷߨ݉
Ƭ ݇ ൌ
ʹߨ
ߣ

ue Bioglie wavelength
Emitteu Wavelengths
Rauii of Bohi oibits in B
Bohi iauius
Eneigy levels of B
2 | P a g e

ݒ

ൌ ݂ߣ ൌ



ݒ


ௗఠ
ௗ௞
ȁ


ൌ ݒ

ȁ


൅݇
ௗ௩

ௗ௞
ȁ



ݒ

ݒ

ൌ ܿ


Beisenbeig 0nceitainty Piincipleǣ
ο݌

οݔ ൒
݄
Ͷߨ

οܧοݐ ൒
݄
Ͷߨ

0uantum Nechanics in 0ne Bimensionǣ
ܲሺݔሻ݀ݔ ൌ ȁߖሺݔǡ ݐሻȁ

݀ݔ
ܲሺݔሻ ൌ ȁߖሺݔǡ ݐሻȁ

ൌ ߖሺݔǡ ݐሻ
כ
ߖሺݔǡ ݐሻ
න ȁߖሺݔǡ ݐሻȁ

݀ݔ ൌ ͳ

ିஶ

Noteǣ
ߖሺݔǡ ݐሻ
כ

This is calleu the wave functionǯs conjugateǤ
Wave function foi a fiee paiticleǣ
ߖሺݔǡ ݐሻ ൌ ܣ݁
௜ሺ௞௫ିఠ௧ሻ

ߖሺݔǡ ݐሻ ൌ න ܽሺ݇ሻ݁
௜ሺ௞௫ିఠሺ௞ሻ௧ሻ
݀݇

ିஶ

Schiouingei Equation foi a fiee paiticleǣ
݄݅
௕௔௥
߲
߲ݐ
ሺߖሺݔǡ ݐሻሻ ൌ െ
݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
߲

߲ݔ

ሺߖሺݔǡ ݐሻሻ
Time Bepenuent Schiouingei Equation ሺTBSEሻǣ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
߲

ߖ
߲ݔ

൅ ܸሺݔሻߖ ൌ ݄݅
௕௔௥
߲ߖ
߲ݐ

Time Inuepenuent Schiouingei Equation ሺTISEሻ Ȃ to finu ɗሺxሻǣ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
݀

߰
݀ݔ

൅ ܸሺݔሻ߰ሺݔሻ ൌ ܧ߰ሺݔሻ

Phase velocity
uioup velocity
Boin Inteipietation
Plane Wave
Wave Packet
3 | P a g e

Time pait Ȃ to finu Ԅሺtሻǣ
݄݅
௕௔௥
݀߶
݀ݐ
ൌ ߶ሺݐሻܧ
׵ ߖሺݔǡ ݐሻ ൌ ߶ሺݐሻ߰ሺݔሻ ൌ ݁
ି௜ఠ௧
߰ሺݔሻ
Asiueǣ
Stationaiy State ֜ ȁߖሺݔǡ ݐሻȁ

ൌ ȁ߰ሺݔሻȁ
Paiticle in an Infinite Squaie Wellǣ
݀

߰
݀ݔ

ൌ െ݇

߰
݇


ʹ݉ܧ
݄
௕௔௥


ܧ


݊

ߨ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉ܮ


߰

ሺݔሻ ൌ ට


ݏ݅݊ ቀ
௡గ௫


Paiticle in an Finite Squaie Wellǣ
݀

߰
݀ݔ


ʹ݉
݄
௕௔௥

ሺܷ െܧሻ߰ሺݔሻ
ߜ ൌ




್ೌೝ
ඥଶ௠ሺ௎ିாሻ

ܧ







್ೌೝ

ଶ௠ሺ௅ାଶఋሻ


߰ሺݔሻ ൌ ܣ݁
ାఈ௫

߰ሺݔሻ ൌ ܤ݁
ିఈ௫

߰ሺݔሻ ൌ ܥݏ݅݊ሺ݇ݔሻ ൅ܦܿ݋ݏሺ݇ݔሻ
ܣ ൌ ܦ
ܥ
ܦ

ߙ
݇

ߙ
݇
cosሺ݇ܮሻ െ sin ሺ݇ܮሻ
ߙ
݇
sinሺ݇ܮሻ ൅ cos ሺ݇ܮሻ
ൌ െ
ߙ
݇

The 0uantum 0scillatoiǣ
0ሺxሻ ൌ


݉߱

ݔ


Ͳ ൏ x ൏ L
Ɂǡ Penetiation uepth
x ൏ Ͳ
x ൐ L
Ͳ ൏ x ൏ L
4 | P a g e

݀

߰
݀ݔ


ʹ݉
݄
௕௔௥


ͳ
ʹ
݉߱

ݔ

െܧ൰ ߰ሺݔሻ
߰ሺݔሻ ൌ ඨ
݉߱
ߨ݄
௕௔௥

݁
ିఈ௫


ߙ ൌ
݉߱
ʹ݄
௕௔௥

ܧ

ൌ ൬݊ ൅
ͳ
ʹ
൰ ݄
௕௔௥
߱
ܣ ൌ ට

್ೌೝ
௠ఠ

Expectation valuesǣ
ۃݔۄ ൌ ׬ ݔȁȲȁ

݀ݔ

ିஶ

οݔ ൌ ඥۃݔ

ۄ െۃݔۄ


0bseivables anu 0peiatoisǣ

ۃܳۄ ൌ ׬ Ȳ
כ
ሾܳሿȲ݀ݔ

ିஶ




0bseivableǣ Symbol 0peiatoi
Position x x
Nomentum
p

݄
௕௔௥
݅
߲
߲ݔ

Potential Eneigy 0 0ሺxሻ
Kinetic Eneigy
K


݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
߲

߲ݔ


Bamiltonian
B


݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
߲

߲ݔ

൅ܷሺݔሻ
Total Eneigy
E

݄݅
௕௔௥
߲
߲ݐ

Amplituue of 0scillation
Expecteu value
0uantum 0nceitainty
0peianu
0peiatoi
5 | P a g e

Noteǣ
ሾܳ

ሿ߰ሺݔሻ ൌ ሾܳሿሾܳሿ߰ሺݔሻ
Eigenvalues Ƭ Eigenfunctionsǣ

ሾ0ሿ Ȳሺxǡtሻ ൌ q Ȳሺxǡtሻ


Ǧ A shaip obseivable 0 is when theie exists an eigenvalue qǡ when the opeiatoi ሾ0ሿ acts
on ȲሺxǡtሻǤ

Commutation Relationǣ
Sayǣ
ሾAሿሾBሿ ൌ ሾBሿሾAሿ Ȃ Then ሾAሿ anu ሾBሿ is commuting

In geneialǡ two opeiatois B0 N0T commuteǣ
iǤeǤ
ሾAሿሾBሿ ് ሾBሿሾAሿ

The uiffeience between ሾAሿሾBሿ Ƭ ሾBሿሾAሿ is calleu a Ǯ commutatoiǯ

ሾܣሿሾܤሿ െ ሾܤሿሾܣሿ ൌ ൣሾܣሿǡ ሾܤሿ൧

Noteǣ the commutatoi itself is an opeiatoiǤ

0uantum Tunnellingǣ
The squaie baiiieiǣ
ߖሺݔǡ ݐሻ ൌ ቐ
ܣ݁
௜ሺ௞௫ିఠ௧ሻ
൅ ܤ݁
௜ሺି௞௫ିఠ௧ሻ
ǡ ݂݋ݎ ݔ ൏ Ͳ
ܥ݁
ିఈ௫
݁
ି௜ఠ௧
൅ ܦ݁
ఈ௫
݁
ି௜ఠ௧
ǡ ݂݋ݎ Ͳ ൏ ݔ ൏ ܮ
ܨ݁
௜ሺ௞௫ିఠ௧ሻ
ǡ ݂݋ݎ ݔ ൐ ܮ


Eigenfunction
Eigenvalue
0uantum 0nceitainty
6 | P a g e

NBǣ
ߙ ൌ ඨ
ʹ݉
݄
௕௔௥

ሺܸ െܧሻ

Tiansmission Coefficient ሺTሻǣ
The tiansmission coefficient is the piobability that the paiticle will penetiate the
baiiieiǤ

ܶ ൌ
ߖ
்௥௔௡௦௠௜௧௧௘ௗ
כ
ߖ
்௥௔௡௦௠௜௧௧௘ௗ
ߖ
ூ௡௖௜ௗ௘௡௧
כ
ߖ
ூ௡௖௜ௗ௘௡௧

ȁܨȁ

ȁܣȁ



ܶሺܧሻ ൌ ቈͳ ൅
ͳ
Ͷ

ܷ

ܧሺܷ െ ܧሻ
቉ ݏ݄݅݊

ሺߙܮሻ቉
ିଵ


Reflection Coefficient ሺRሻǣ
The ieflection coefficient is the piobability that the paiticle will be ieflecteu f iom the
baiiieiǤ

ܴ ൌ
ߖ
ோ௘௙௟௘௖௧௘ௗ
כ
ߖ
ோ௘௙௟௘௖௧௘ௗ
ߖ
ூ௡௖௜ௗ௘௡௧
כ
ߖ
ூ௡௖௜ௗ௘௡௧

ȁܤȁ

ȁܣȁ



NBǣ This holus foi all casesǣ
T ൅ R ൌ ͳ
ueneial Baiiieiǣ
ܶሺܧሻ ൌ ݁ݔ݌ ቎െ
ʹ
݄
௕௔௥
ξʹ݉ න ඥܸሺݔሻ െܧ݀ݔ









Only in the classically forbidden
region, where E<V(x)
7 | P a g e

0uantum Nechanics in ͵Bǣ
Ȳሺxǡ tሻ ՜ Ȳሺܚǡ tሻ
ȁȲሺxǡ tሻȁ

ui

ൌ Piobability of ϐinuing the paiticle within the volume ui


͵B veision of the TBSEǣ
݄݅
௕௔௥
߲
߲ݐ
ߖሺ࢘ǡ ݐሻ ൌ െ
݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
׏

ߖሺ࢘ǡ ݐሻ ൅ܸሺ࢘ሻߖሺ࢘ǡ ݐሻ
׏

؝
߲

߲ݔ


߲

߲ݕ


߲

߲ݖ


ߖሺ࢘ǡ ݐሻ ൌ ߰ሺ࢘ሻ݁
௜ఠ௧

͵B veision of the TISEǣ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
׏

߰ሺ࢘ሻ ൅ ܸሺ࢘ሻ߰ሺ࢘ሻ ൌ ܧ߰ሺ࢘ሻ
Paiticle in a ͵B boxǣ
Insiue Boxǣ
ݔǡ ݕǡ ݖ א ሺͲǡ ܮሻ
ܸሺ࢘ሻ ൌ Ͳ

0utsiue Boxǣ
ܸሺ࢘ሻ ՜ λ

In this case ɗሺiሻ is sepaiableǡ iǤeǤǣ
ɗሺܚሻ ൌ ɗ

ሺxሻɗ

ሺyሻɗ

ሺzሻ
The TISE foi this pioblem isǣ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
׏

߰ሺ࢘ሻ ൌ ܧ߰ሺ࢘ሻ
Which becomesǣ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉
׏

ɗ

ሺxሻɗ

ሺyሻɗ

ሺzሻ ൌ ܧɗ

ሺxሻɗ

ሺyሻɗ

ሺzሻ


8 | P a g e

Which Simplifies toǣ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉

ͳ
ɗ

ሺxሻ
μ

ɗ

ሺxሻ
μx


ͳ
ɗ

ሺyሻ
μ

ɗ

ሺyሻ
μy


ͳ
ɗ

ሺzሻ
μ

ɗ

ሺzሻ
μz

ቇ ൌ ܧ
These can be inuiviuually solveuǡ since each come uown to constants Eͳǡ Eʹ Ƭ E͵Ǥ
݅Ǥ ݁Ǥ ܧ ൌ ܧ

൅ܧ

൅ ܧ


Soǣ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉

ͳ
ɗ

ሺxሻ
μ

ɗ

ሺxሻ
μx

ቇ ൌ ܧ



݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉

ͳ
ɗ

ሺyሻ
μ

ɗ

ሺyሻ
μy
ቇ ൌ ܧ



݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉

ͳ
ɗ

ሺzሻ
μ

ɗ

ሺzሻ
μz

ቇ ൌ ܧ


These uiffeiential equations aie of the same foim of those foi a ͳǦB infinite squaie well
pioblemǤ
So
ɗሺܚሻ






ൌ Asinሺk

xሻsinሺk

yሻsin ሺk

zሻ
Wheieǣ
݇


݊

ߨ
ܮ

݇







݇


݊

ߨ
ܮ

ܣ ൌ ൬
ʹ
ܮ




Nomentumǣ

݌

ൌ ݄
௕௔௥
݇


݊

݄
௕௔௥
ߨ
ܮ

݌

ൌ ݄
௕௔௥
݇


݊

݄
௕௔௥
ߨ
ܮ

݌

ൌ ݄
௕௔௥
݇


݊

݄
௕௔௥
ߨ
ܮ


Eneigyǣ
E ൌ Eͳ൅Eʹ൅E͵

ܧ ൌ
ȁ݌

ȁ

ʹ݉

ห݌



ʹ݉

ȁ݌

ȁ

ʹ݉

n
1
,n
2
,n
3
Z
>0
These are quantum numbers
9 | P a g e

ܧ ൌ
ߨ

݄
௕௔௥

ʹ݉ܮ

ሺ݊


൅ ݊


൅ ݊



Begeneiate Eneigy Levelsǣ
When uiffeient states ሺeǤgǤ ɗʹͳͳǡ ɗͳʹͳǡ ɗͳʹͳሻ have the same eneigyǡ then this eneigy level is calleu
uegeneiateǤ
This uegeneiacy comes fiom the box being a cubeǡ wheieas if any uimension was changeuǡ then
this uegeneiacy woulu be iemoveuǤ

Spheiical Cooiuinatesǣ
Cential Foiceǣ
This is wheie the stiength of the potential is only uepenuent on the iauial uisplacement Ǥ
iǤeǤ
vሺiሻ ൌ vሺiሻ
Foi conseivative cential foicesǡ the eneigy of the paiticle is constantǤ
Angulai momentum in 0Nǣ
0peiatoiǣ
ሾࡸሿ ൌ ൫ሾܮ

ሿǡ ൣܮ

൧ǡ ሾܮ

ሿ൯
It is impossible to measuie two components of the angulai momentum simultaneouslyǡ
sinceǣ
ቂሾܮ

ሿǡ ൣܮ

൧ቃ ൌ ݄݅
௕௔௥
ሾܮ


But we can simultaneously measuie the size of the angulai momentum ሺȁLȁሻ anu one
componentǡ sinceǣ
ൣሾࡸ

ሿǡ ሾܮ

ሿ൧ ൌ Ͳ
The ͵B wave function in spheiical cooiuinatesǣ
߰ሺ࢘ሻ ൌ ߰ሺݎǡ ߠǡ ߮ሻ ൌ ܴሺݎሻ߆ሺߠሻߔሺ߮ሻ

Laplacian foi spheiical cooiuinatesǣ
׏

؝
߲

߲ݎ


ʹ
ݎ
߲
߲ݎ

ͳ
ݎ


߲

߲ߠ

൅ܿ݋ݐߠ
߲
߲ߠ
൅ ܿ݋ݏ݁ܿ

ߠ
߲

߲߮



׊ ݅ ൌ ݔǡ ݕǡ ݖ
Spherical Harmonics
10 | P a g e

Spheiical haimonicsǣ
߆ሺߠሻߔሺ߮ሻ ൌ ܻ
௟ǡ௠

ሺߠǡ ߮ሻ
TISE foi ȣ Ƭ Ȱǣ
݀

Ȱ
݀߮

ൌ െ݉

Ȱሺ߮ሻ
݀

ȣ
݀ߠ

൅cotሺߠሻ
݀ȣ
݀ߠ
൅ ݉


ܿ݋ݏ݁ܿ

ሺߠሻ߆ሺߠሻ ൌ െ݈ሺ݈ ൅ ͳሻ߆ሺߠሻ

Noteǣ The solution to the spheiical haimonics is the same foi ALL cential foice
pioblemsǤ

What is Ǯlǯ anu Ǯmlǯǫ
L is the oibital quantum numbei ሺl Ԗ Ͳǡ ͳǡ ʹǡ ǤǤǤ ǡ n Ǧ ͳሻ
Nl is the magnetic quantum numbei ሺml Ԗ ሼǦlǡ Ǧl൅ͳǡ ǤǤǤ ǡ Ͳǡ ǤǤǤ ǡ l Ȃ ͳǡ lሽ

Fiistly letǯs uefine the angulai momentum opeiatoisǣ
ሾܮ

ሿ ൌ ݄݅
௕௔௥
൬sinሺ߮ሻ
߲
߲ߠ
൅ cotሺߠሻ cosሺ߮ሻ
߲
߲߮

ൣܮ

൧ ൌ െ݄݅
௕௔௥
൬cosሺ߮ሻ
߲
߲ߠ
െcotሺߠሻ sinሺ߮ሻ
߲
߲߮

ሾܮ

ሿ ൌ െ݄݅
௕௔௥
߲
߲߮

ሾࡸ

ሿ ൌ ሾܮ



൅ ൣܮ



൅ሾܮ




So by applying opeiatoi ii Ƭ iv we getǣ
ሾܮ

ሿܻ
௟ǡ௠

ሺߠǡ ߮ሻ ൌ ݄
௕௔௥
݉

ܻ
௟ǡ௠

ሺߠǡ ߮ሻ
ሾࡸ

ሿܻ
௟ǡ௠

ሺߠǡ ߮ሻ ൌ ሺ݄
௕௔௥


݈ሺ݈ ൅ͳሻܻ
௟ǡ௠

ሺߠǡ ߮ሻ
So oui eigenvalue foi ii Ƭ iv impliesǣ
ܮ

ൌ ݉

݄
௕௔௥

ȁܮȁ ൌ ඥ݈ሺ݈ ൅ͳሻ݄
௕௔௥


11 | P a g e

Now to look at Rሺiሻǣ
The TISE foi Rሺiሻ isǣ

ሺ݄
௕௔௥


ʹ݉

݀

ܴ
݀ݎ


ʹ
ݎ
ܴ݀
݀ݎ
ቇ ൅
݈ሺ݈ ൅ ͳሻ
ʹ݉ݎ

ܴሺݎሻ ൅ ܸሺݎሻܴሺݎሻ ൌ ܧܸሺݎሻ
This is uefineu as the ǮRauial Equationǯ

The Byuiogen ሺƬ Byuiogen likeሻ Atomǣ
Coulomb Potentialǣ
ܸሺݎሻ ൌ െ
ͳ
Ͷߨߝ

ܼ݁

ݎ

Ȳሺiǡtሻ foi a hyuiogen atomǣ
Ȳ
୬ǡ୪ǡ୫

ሺܚǡ tሻ ൌ R
௡௟
ሺiሻ ܻ
௟ǡ௠

ሺߠǡ ߮ሻ݁
௜ఠ௧

Wheie n ൌ Piinciple quantum numbei ሺn Ԗ Z൐Ͳሻ
Foi an exampleǡ the wave function of a Byuiogen atom in the giounu state ሺɗͳͲͲሺiሻሻ isǣ
ɗ
ଵ଴଴
ሺܚሻ ൌ R
ଵ଴
ሺiሻY
଴଴
ሺɅǡ ɔሻ
ൌ ൬
ݖ
ܽ




ʹ݁
ି
௭௥

೚ ȉ
ͳ
ʹξߨ


ͳ
ξߨ

ݖ
ܽ




݁
ି
௭௥













12 | P a g e

Siue Notesǣ
Ǧ Nax Planck was convinceu that in a black bouy cavityǡ the black bouy iauiation was
piouuceu by billions of submicioscopic electiic chaiges ሺhe coineu them as iesonatoisሻǤ
Be fuithei stateu that each of these iesonatois shoulu emit iauiation at the same
fiequency at which they vibiateu atǤ Be also stateu that each iesonatois eneigy has to be
an integial multiple of ǮhfǯǤ

Ǧ Youngǯs uouble slit expeiiment is an expeiiment wheie the waveǦpaiticle uuality of light
anu Ǯpaiticlesǯ can be obseiveuǤ If two slits aie maueǡ an inteifeience pattein emeiges
showing a wave natuie to what is passing thiough the slits anu if one slit is closeu this
wave piopeity is uestioyeuǤ
The Boin inteipietation of the expeiiment is that let Ȳͳ be the wave function foi the
Ǯpaiticleǯ to entei thiough slit one anu Ȳʹ be the wave function foi the Ǯpaiticleǯ to
entei thiough slit twoǤ So the piobability uistiibution of wheie it will lanu is given
by ȁȲͳȁ
ʹ
൅ ȁȲʹȁ
ʹ
Ǥ









Ǧ The fiist pictuie ሺaሻ shows a paiticle tiavelling at velocity vͲ anu the next pictuie ሺbሻ
shows the ǮwaveǦpacketǯ veision of the paiticleǤ This wave packet is maue up fiom the
supeiposition of many inuiviuual mattei wavesǤ
The Ǯgioup velocityǯ is the velocity at which the wave packet movesǡ so vg is the
exact same as the paiticleǯs velocity ሺvͲሻǤ
The Ǯphase velocityǯ is the velocity at which the waves Ǯinsiueǯ the wave packet
moveǤ This velocity is geneially fastei than the gioup velocity anu thus the waveǦ
packet will uispeise ovei time implying that the localisation of the waveǦpacket
will become moie ǮfuzzyǯǤ
13 | P a g e

Special Relativity:

Postulates of Special Relativityǣ
iǤሻ The laws of physics aie the same in all ineitial iefeience fiames that move unifoimly
with iespect to one anotheiǤ
iiǤሻ The speeu of light in a vacuum is always the same foi all obseiveis moving at
constant velocitiesǤ
Bopplei Effectǣ
݂
௢௕௦

ඥͳ ൅ ሺ
ݒ
ܿ
Τ ሻ
ඥͳ െ ሺ
ݒ
ܿ
Τ ሻ
݂
௦௢௨௥௖௘

Noteǣ
Ǧ If the souice is going awayǡ then fobs ൏ fsouice
Ǧ If the souice is getting closeiǡ then fobs ൐ fsouice
So pick v to be negative if the object is going away anu pick v to be positive if the object
is getting closeiǤ
Ǧ Relativistic Bopplei shifting can be fiom eithei time uilation oi the change in iauial
uistanceǤ
uamma ሺɀሻǣ
ߛ ൌ
ͳ

ͳ െ ቀ
ݒ
ܿ



Time Bilationǣ
ݐ

ൌ ߛݐ

Length Contiactionǣ
ܮԢ ൌ
ܮ
ߛ


Relativistic Nass Incieaseǣ
݉

ൌ ߛ݉

Where:
- t͛ is time measured in S͛
- t is time measured in S
Where:
- L͛ is length measured in S͛
- L is length measured in S
Where:
- m͛ is mass measured in S͛
- m is mass measured in S
14 | P a g e

Loientz Tiansfoimationsǣ
ݐ

ൌ ߛ ቀݐ െ
௩௫



ݔ

ൌ ߛሺݔ െݒݐሻ
ݕ

ൌ ݕ
ݖ

ൌ ݖ

velocity Tiansfoimationsǣ
ݑ



ݑ

െ ݒ
ͳ െ
ݑ

ݒ
ܿ


ݑ



ݑ

െ ݒ
ߛ ቀͳ െ
ݑ

ݒ
ܿ



ݑ



ݑ

െ ݒ
ߛ ቀͳ െ
ݑ

ݒ
ܿ



SpaceǦTime Inteivalǣ
οݏ

ൌ ሺܿοݐሻ

െ οݔ

െοݕ

െοݖ


Ǧ οݏ

൐ Ͳ ݅ݏ ݐ݅݉݁ െ ݈݅݇݁
Ǧ οݏ

ൌ Ͳ ݅ݏ ݊ݑ݈݈ െ݈݅݇݁
Ǧ οݏ

൏ Ͳ ݅ݏ ݏ݌ܽܿ݁ െ ݈݅݇݁
So if foi two events ȟs
ʹ
൐ Ͳ ሺiǤeǤ timeǦlikeሻ then theie has passeu enough time foi them to have a
causeǦeffect ielationshipǤ
Relativistic Kinematicsǣ
Nomentumǣ
݌ ൌ ߛ݉

ݒ
Kinetic Eneigyǣ
ܶ ൌ ܿ

ሺ݉ െ ݉


Nomentum to mass ielationǣ
݉


ܿ

ൌ ݉

ܿ

െ ݌


Eneigy to Nass ielationǣ
ܧ

ൌ ሺ݌ܿሻ

൅ ሺ݉

ܿ




Sǯ is moving away fiom S at a velocity v
So foi Sǣ ሺxǡyǡzǡtሻ
Foi Sǯǣ ሺxǯǡyǯǡzǯǡtǯሻ
15 | P a g e



Noteǣ
Nomentum anu eneigy auu as usualǡ but mass uoesnǯtǤ

    Šƒ•‡˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ”‘—’‡Ž‘…‹–› ‡‹•‡„‡”‰…‡”–ƒ‹–›”‹…‹’Ž‡  —ƒ–—‡…Šƒ‹…•‹‡‹‡•‹‘   ‘–‡  Š‹•‹•…ƒŽŽ‡†–Š‡™ƒ˜‡ˆ—…–‹‘ •…‘Œ—‰ƒ–‡  ƒ˜‡ˆ—…–‹‘ˆ‘”ƒˆ”‡‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡      ‘”.

–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘   Žƒ‡ƒ˜‡  ƒ˜‡ƒ…‡– …Š”Ú†‹‰‡”“—ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘”ƒˆ”‡‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡  ‹‡‡’‡†‡–…Š”Ú†‹‰‡”“—ƒ–‹‘       ‹‡.

†‡’‡†‡–…Š”Ú†‹‰‡”“—ƒ–‹‘ .

  –‘ˆ‹†  š  2|Page .

‹‡’ƒ”– –‘ˆ‹† –   •‹†‡   –ƒ–‹‘ƒ”›–ƒ–‡  ƒ”–‹…Ž‡‹ƒ.

ˆ‹‹–‡“—ƒ”‡‡ŽŽ      ƒ”–‹…Ž‡‹ƒ ‹‹–‡“—ƒ”‡‡ŽŽ     š     ‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘†‡’–Š š    š   š    …‘• Š‡—ƒ–—•…‹ŽŽƒ–‘”  •‹ •‹    …‘•  š   3|Page .

   š’‡…–ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ—‡•     ’Ž‹–—†‡‘ˆ•…‹ŽŽƒ–‹‘ š’‡…–‡†˜ƒŽ—‡ „•‡”˜ƒ„Ž‡•ƒ†’‡”ƒ–‘”•  ’‡”ƒ–‘”   ’‡”ƒ†     —ƒ–—…‡”–ƒ‹–›  „•‡”˜ƒ„Ž‡  ‘‡–— ‘•‹–‹‘ ›„‘Ž  ’ š ’‡”ƒ–‘” š   ‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‡”‰› ‹‡–‹…‡”‰› ƒ‹Ž–‘‹ƒ ‘–ƒŽ‡”‰›     š            4|Page .

‘–‡  ‹‰‡˜ƒŽ—‡• ‹‰‡ˆ—…–‹‘•      ‹‰‡ˆ—…–‹‘ ‹‰‡˜ƒŽ—‡    š –  “ š–  •Šƒ”’‘„•‡”˜ƒ„Ž‡‹•™Š‡–Š‡”‡‡š‹•–•ƒ‡‹‰‡˜ƒŽ—‡“ ™Š‡–Š‡‘’‡”ƒ–‘”  ƒ…–• ‘ š –  —ƒ–—…‡”–ƒ‹–›        Š‡  ƒ†  ‹•…‘—–‹‰  ‘—–ƒ–‹‘‡Žƒ–‹‘  ƒ›  .

‰‡‡”ƒŽ –™‘‘’‡”ƒ–‘”•…‘—–‡  ‹‡        Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡„‡–™‡‡       ‹•…ƒŽŽ‡†ƒ …‘—–ƒ–‘”       ‘–‡ –Š‡…‘—–ƒ–‘”‹–•‡Žˆ‹•ƒ‘’‡”ƒ–‘”  —ƒ–——‡ŽŽ‹‰  Š‡•“—ƒ”‡„ƒ””‹‡”      5|Page .

  Š‡–”ƒ•‹••‹‘…‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–‹•–Š‡’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–Šƒ––Š‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡™‹ŽŽ’‡‡–”ƒ–‡–Š‡ „ƒ””‹‡”    ”ƒ•‹••‹‘‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–      Š‡”‡ˆŽ‡…–‹‘…‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–‹•–Š‡’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–Šƒ––Š‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡™‹ŽŽ„‡”‡ˆŽ‡…–‡†ˆ ”‘–Š‡ „ƒ””‹‡”    ‡ˆŽ‡…–‹‘‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–       Š‹•Š‘Ž†•ˆ‘”ƒŽŽ…ƒ•‡•  ‡‡”ƒŽƒ””‹‡”           Only in the classically forbidden region. where E<V(x) 6|Page .

—ƒ–—‡…Šƒ‹…•‹   š– †” ‡”•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡  ”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ ‹†‹‰–Š‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡™‹–Š‹–Š‡˜‘Ž—‡†”   š–  –  ‡”•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡.

  ƒ”–‹…Ž‡‹ƒ „‘š    .

•‹†‡‘š             —–•‹†‡‘š    .

–Š‹•…ƒ•‡ ” ‹••‡’ƒ”ƒ„Ž‡ ‹ ‡  Š‡.

ˆ‘”–Š‹•’”‘„Ž‡‹•  Š‹…Š„‡…‘‡•     š › œ   š › œ š › œ  7|Page .

Š‹…Š‹’Ž‹ˆ‹‡•–‘  š š š Š‡•‡…ƒ„‡‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽŽ›•‘Ž˜‡† •‹…‡‡ƒ…Š…‘‡†‘™–‘…‘•–ƒ–•  ‘  š › œ š › œ  › › › œ œ œ     š › œ    Š‡•‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹ƒŽ‡“—ƒ–‹‘•ƒ”‡‘ˆ–Š‡•ƒ‡ˆ‘”‘ˆ–Š‘•‡ˆ‘”ƒ ‹ˆ‹‹–‡•“—ƒ”‡™‡ŽŽ ’”‘„Ž‡  ‘  •‹  š •‹  › •‹  œ             Š‡”‡   n1.n2.n3 Z>0 These are quantum numbers ‘‡–—     ‡”‰›   8|Page .

Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡–•–ƒ–‡• ‡ ‰  †‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‡   ‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‡‡”‰›‡˜‡Ž•     Š‹•†‡‰‡‡”ƒ…›…‘‡•ˆ”‘–Š‡„‘š„‡‹‰ƒ…—„‡ ™Š‡”‡ƒ•‹ˆƒ›†‹‡•‹‘™ƒ•…Šƒ‰‡† –Š‡ –Š‹•†‡‰‡‡”ƒ…›™‘—Ž†„‡”‡‘˜‡†  ’Š‡”‹…ƒŽ‘‘”†‹ƒ–‡•      ‡–”ƒŽ ‘”…‡  ‹‡ Š‹•‹•™Š‡”‡–Š‡•–”‡‰–Š‘ˆ–Š‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹•‘Ž›†‡’‡†‡–‘–Š‡”ƒ†‹ƒŽ†‹•’Žƒ…‡‡–   ”   ”  Šƒ˜‡–Š‡•ƒ‡‡‡”‰› –Š‡–Š‹•‡‡”‰›Ž‡˜‡Ž‹•…ƒŽŽ‡† ‰—Žƒ”‘‡–—‹  ’‡”ƒ–‘”  ‘”…‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹˜‡…‡–”ƒŽˆ‘”…‡• –Š‡‡‡”‰›‘ˆ–Š‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡‹•…‘•–ƒ–  .

–‹•‹’‘••‹„Ž‡–‘‡ƒ•—”‡–™‘…‘’‘‡–•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—Žƒ”‘‡–—•‹—Ž–ƒ‡‘—•Ž›  •‹…‡  —–™‡…ƒ•‹—Ž–ƒ‡‘—•Ž›‡ƒ•—”‡–Š‡•‹œ‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰—Žƒ”‘‡–—  ƒ†‘‡ …‘’‘‡– •‹…‡   Š‡ ™ƒ˜‡ˆ—…–‹‘‹•’Š‡”‹…ƒŽ…‘‘”†‹ƒ–‡•        Spherical Harmonics ƒ’Žƒ…‹ƒˆ‘”•’Š‡”‹…ƒŽ…‘‘”†‹ƒ–‡•    9|Page .

    ’Š‡”‹…ƒŽŠƒ”‘‹…•  .

ˆ‘”             …‘–  ‘–‡ Š‡•‘Ž—–‹‘–‘–Š‡•’Š‡”‹…ƒŽŠƒ”‘‹…•‹•–Š‡•ƒ‡ˆ‘”…‡–”ƒŽˆ‘”…‡ ’”‘„Ž‡•  Šƒ–‹• Ž ƒ†  Ž  ‹•–Š‡‘”„‹–ƒŽ“—ƒ–——„‡” Ž         Ž‹•–Š‡ƒ‰‡–‹…“—ƒ–——„‡”  Ž  Ž  Ž        Ž  Ž  ‹”•–Ž›Ž‡– •†‡ˆ‹‡–Š‡ƒ‰—Žƒ”‘‡–—‘’‡”ƒ–‘”•  •‹ …‘– …‘• …‘• …‘–  •‹    ‘„›ƒ’’Ž›‹‰‘’‡”ƒ–‘”‹‹ ‹˜™‡‰‡–         ‘‘—”‡‹‰‡˜ƒŽ—‡ˆ‘”‹‹ ‹˜‹’Ž‹‡•         10 | P a g e .

Š‡.

ˆ‘” ” ‹•  ‘™–‘Ž‘‘ƒ– ”     Š‹•‹•†‡ˆ‹‡†ƒ•–Š‡ ƒ†‹ƒŽ“—ƒ–‹‘   ›†”‘‰‡Ž‹‡ –‘   –  ”    ” ‹•   ‘—Ž‘„‘–‡–‹ƒŽ  Š‡ ›†”‘‰‡ ” – ˆ‘”ƒŠ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‘  Š‡”‡ ”‹…‹’Ž‡“—ƒ–——„‡”    ‘”ƒ‡šƒ’Ž‡ –Š‡™ƒ˜‡ˆ—…–‹‘‘ˆƒ ›†”‘‰‡ƒ–‘‹–Š‡‰”‘—†•–ƒ–‡ ”                11 | P a g e .

 ƒšŽƒ…™ƒ•…‘˜‹…‡†–Šƒ–‹ƒ„Žƒ…„‘†›…ƒ˜‹–› –Š‡„Žƒ…„‘†›”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘™ƒ• ’”‘†—…‡†„›„‹ŽŽ‹‘•‘ˆ•—„‹…”‘•…‘’‹…‡Ž‡…–”‹……Šƒ”‰‡• Š‡…‘‹‡†–Š‡ƒ•”‡•‘ƒ–‘”•  ‡ˆ—”–Š‡”•–ƒ–‡†–Šƒ–‡ƒ…Š‘ˆ–Š‡•‡”‡•‘ƒ–‘”••Š‘—Ž†‡‹–”ƒ†‹ƒ–‹‘ƒ––Š‡•ƒ‡ ˆ”‡“—‡…›ƒ–™Š‹…Š–Š‡›˜‹„”ƒ–‡†ƒ–  ‡ƒŽ•‘•–ƒ–‡†–Šƒ–‡ƒ…Š”‡•‘ƒ–‘”•‡‡”‰›Šƒ•–‘„‡ ƒ‹–‡‰”ƒŽ—Ž–‹’Ž‡‘ˆ Šˆ  ‘—‰ •†‘—„Ž‡•Ž‹–‡š’‡”‹‡–‹•ƒ‡š’‡”‹‡–™Š‡”‡–Š‡™ƒ˜‡ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡†—ƒŽ‹–›‘ˆŽ‹‰Š– ƒ† ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡• …ƒ„‡‘„•‡”˜‡† .

ˆ–™‘•Ž‹–•ƒ”‡ƒ†‡ ƒ‹–‡”ˆ‡”‡…‡’ƒ––‡”‡‡”‰‡• •Š‘™‹‰ƒ™ƒ˜‡ƒ–—”‡–‘™Šƒ–‹•’ƒ••‹‰–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡•Ž‹–•ƒ†‹ˆ‘‡•Ž‹–‹•…Ž‘•‡†–Š‹• ™ƒ˜‡’”‘’‡”–›‹•†‡•–”‘›‡†   Š‡‘”‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‡š’‡”‹‡–‹•–Šƒ–Ž‡– „‡–Š‡™ƒ˜‡ˆ—…–‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ –‘‡–‡”–Š”‘—‰Š•Ž‹–‘‡ƒ† „‡–Š‡™ƒ˜‡ˆ—…–‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡ ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ –‘ ‡–‡”–Š”‘—‰Š•Ž‹––™‘ ‘–Š‡’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–›†‹•–”‹„—–‹‘‘ˆ™Š‡”‡‹–™‹ŽŽŽƒ†‹•‰‹˜‡ „›        ‹†‡‘–‡•        Š‡ˆ‹”•–’‹…–—”‡ ƒ •Š‘™•ƒ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡–”ƒ˜‡ŽŽ‹‰ƒ–˜‡Ž‘…‹–›˜ ƒ†–Š‡‡š–’‹…–—”‡ „  •Š‘™•–Š‡ ™ƒ˜‡ ’ƒ…‡– ˜‡”•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ Š‹•™ƒ˜‡’ƒ…‡–‹•ƒ†‡—’ˆ”‘–Š‡ •—’‡”’‘•‹–‹‘‘ˆƒ›‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽƒ––‡”™ƒ˜‡•   Š‡ ‰”‘—’˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ‹•–Š‡˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ƒ–™Š‹…Š–Š‡™ƒ˜‡’ƒ…‡–‘˜‡• •‘˜‰‹•–Š‡ ‡šƒ…–•ƒ‡ƒ•–Š‡’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡ •˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ˜   Š‡ ’Šƒ•‡˜‡Ž‘…‹–› ‹•–Š‡˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ƒ–™Š‹…Š–Š‡™ƒ˜‡• ‹•‹†‡ –Š‡™ƒ˜‡’ƒ…‡– ‘˜‡ Š‹•˜‡Ž‘…‹–›‹•‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ›ˆƒ•–‡”–Šƒ–Š‡‰”‘—’˜‡Ž‘…‹–›ƒ†–Š—•–Š‡™ƒ˜‡ ’ƒ…‡–™‹ŽŽ†‹•’‡”•‡‘˜‡”–‹‡‹’Ž›‹‰–Šƒ––Š‡Ž‘…ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡™ƒ˜‡ ’ƒ…‡– ™‹ŽŽ„‡…‘‡‘”‡ ˆ—œœ›   12 | P a g e .

Special Relativity: ‘•–—Žƒ–‡•‘ˆ’‡…‹ƒŽ‡Žƒ–‹˜‹–›  ‹ ‹‹ Š‡Žƒ™•‘ˆ’Š›•‹…•ƒ”‡–Š‡•ƒ‡‹ƒŽŽ‹‡”–‹ƒŽ”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡ˆ”ƒ‡•–Šƒ–‘˜‡—‹ˆ‘”Ž› ™‹–Š”‡•’‡…––‘‘‡ƒ‘–Š‡”  Š‡•’‡‡†‘ˆŽ‹‰Š–‹ƒ˜ƒ…——‹•ƒŽ™ƒ›•–Š‡•ƒ‡ˆ‘”ƒŽŽ‘„•‡”˜‡”•‘˜‹‰ƒ– …‘•–ƒ–˜‡Ž‘…‹–‹‡•   ‘’’Ž‡”ˆˆ‡…–  .

ˆ–Š‡•‘—”…‡‹•‰‘‹‰ƒ™ƒ› –Š‡ˆ‘„•  ˆ•‘—”…‡  .

ˆ–Š‡•‘—”…‡‹•‰‡––‹‰…Ž‘•‡” –Š‡ˆ‘„• ˆ•‘—”…‡ ‘–‡  ƒƒ ‡Žƒ–‹˜‹•–‹…‘’’Ž‡”•Š‹ˆ–‹‰…ƒ„‡ˆ”‘‡‹–Š‡”–‹‡†‹Žƒ–‹‘‘” –Š‡…Šƒ‰‡‹”ƒ†‹ƒŽ †‹•–ƒ…‡    ‘’‹…˜–‘„‡‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡‹ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…–‹•‰‘‹‰ƒ™ƒ›ƒ†’‹…˜–‘„‡’‘•‹–‹˜‡‹ˆ–Š‡‘„Œ‡…– ‹•‰‡––‹‰…Ž‘•‡”  ‹‡‹Žƒ–‹‘    Where: t is time measured in S t is time measured in S ‡‰–Š‘–”ƒ…–‹‘    Where:  L is length measured in S L is length measured in S ‡Žƒ–‹˜‹•–‹…ƒ••.

…”‡ƒ•‡    Where: m is mass measured in S m is mass measured in S 13 | P a g e .

‘”‡–œ”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘•      ‹•‘˜‹‰ƒ™ƒ›ˆ”‘ƒ–ƒ˜‡Ž‘…‹–›˜ ‘ˆ‘”  š › œ –  ‘”  š › œ –    ‡Ž‘…‹–›”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘•       ’ƒ…‡ ‹‡.

–‡”˜ƒŽ          ‘‹ˆˆ‘”–™‘‡˜‡–• •    ‹ ‡ –‹‡ Ž‹‡ –Š‡–Š‡”‡Šƒ•’ƒ••‡†‡‘—‰Š–‹‡ˆ‘”–Š‡–‘Šƒ˜‡ƒ …ƒ—•‡ ‡ˆˆ‡…–”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’  ‘‡–—  ‡Žƒ–‹˜‹•–‹…‹‡ƒ–‹…•   ‹‡–‹…‡”‰›  ‘‡–—–‘ƒ••”‡Žƒ–‹‘  ‡”‰›–‘ƒ••”‡Žƒ–‹‘       14 | P a g e .

  ‘–‡  ‘‡–—ƒ†‡‡”‰›ƒ††ƒ•—•—ƒŽ „—–ƒ••†‘‡• –   15 | P a g e .