Wind Enregy | Wind Turbine | Wind Power

Wind Energy

Submitted by : Eng . Omar Keshk

Submitted to : Dr. Ahmed Farouk

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ History Principles of wind energy Wind Energy Technology wind turbine Principles of operation Wind turbine components Calculations Types of wind turbines ± HAWT ± VAWT Turbine placement Environmental effects Advantages & Disadvantages Wind energy statistics

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‡ Humans have been using wind power for at least 5,500 years to propel sailboats and sailing ships, ‡ And architects have used wind-driven natural ventilation in buildings since similarly ancient times.

‡ The use of wind to provide mechanical power came somewhat later in antiquity. ‡ The Babylonian emperor Hammurabi planned to use wind power for his ambitious irrigation project in the 17th century BC. ‡ The ancient Sinhalese utilized the monsoon winds to power furnaces as early as 300 BC .


The first practical windmills were later built in Sistan, Afghanistan, from the 7th century.

A Sail Boat uses wind energy for its motion .

Ancient Wind Farms 6 .

Early ³WINDMILL´ in Afghanistan (900AD) 7 .

8 .

Smith-Putnam Turbine Vermont. 1940's 9 .

1980¶s California Wind Farm Older Technology + Lower Elevations + Poorly Sited = Bad News! 10 .

. different surfaces (for example. This in turn causes portions of the atmosphere to heat differently. Hot air rises. water and land) absorb or reflect heat at different rates.Principles of wind energy ‡ Wind energy is a converted form of solar energy. The result is wind. and cooler air is drawn in to replace it. Also. reducing the atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface. The sun's radiation heats different parts of the earth at different rates during the day and night.

Principles of wind energy ‡ Land-sea breezes created by temperature differentials ‡ Winds also stronger near shore because of long unobstructed travel ‡ Sea breeze typically strongest late in the afternoon .

sawing.Principles of wind energy ‡ Air has mass.the "farm windmill" can also be used for many other purposes like grinding grain. etc. pushing a sailboat. . ‡ Wind electric turbines generate electricity for homes and businesses and for sale to electricity grids. Some portion of that energy can be converted into other forms such as mechanical force or electricity. and when it is in motion. contains kinetic energy. ‡ Mechanical energy is most commonly used for pumping water in rural or remote locations.

Wind power plants are "modular. the most common method of exploiting wind energy is to use wind turbine driven generators to produce electricity." which means they consist of small individual modules (the turbines) and can easily be made larger or smaller as needed. ‡ Wind plants can range in size from a few megawatts to hundreds of megawatts in capacity. ‡ ³Wind power plants´ or ³Wind farms´ are groups of wind electric turbines in groups of large machines (~660 kW and above).Principles of wind energy ‡ Today. .

which spin a shaft connected to a generator that generates electricity.Wind Energy Technology At it¶s simplest. which feeds power to the electrical transmission system. Large turbines can be grouped together to form a wind power plant. 15 . the wind turns the turbine blades.

How does a wind turbine work? 16 .

Conversion of Wind Energy to Electricity 17 .

How does a wind turbine work? ‡ A wind turbine converts the kinetic energy of the wind to rotary motion (or torque) that can do mechanical work. . ‡ There are two basic designs of wind electric turbines: vertical-axis and horizontal-axis machines. ‡ Horizontal-axis wind turbines are most common today.

The horizontal wind turbine .

The horizontal wind turbine .

Since the blades of a wind turbine are constrained to move in a plane with the hub as its center. lifting the aircraft off the ground. the lift force causes rotation about the hub. this force causes the airfoil to rise. . In an aircraft wing.Principles of operation The pressure differential between top and bottom surfaces results in aerodynamic lift.

How Wind Works ? LIFT AND DRAG ‡ Old-fashioned windmills use DRAG ‡ DRAG devices are pushed by the wind ‡ Modern wind turbines use LIFT ‡ LIFT devices work like airplane wings .

We want to make this force BIG. low medium ‡ The Drag Force is parallel to the direction of motion. We want to make this force small. High!! .Lift & Drag Forces ‡ The Lift Force is perpendicular to the direction of motion.

Principles of operation ‡ The wind passes over both surfaces of the airfoil shaped blade but passes more rapidly over the longer (upper) side of the airfoil. ‡ In addition to the lift force. thus creating a lowerpressure area above the airfoil. ‡A prime objective in wind turbine design is for the blade to have a relatively high lift-to-drag ratio. a drag force perpendicular to the lift force opposes rotor rotation. The pressure differential between top and bottom surfaces results in aerodynamic lift. .

Lift vs. Drag ‡ Lift force ± Perpendicular to flow direction (airplane wing) ‡ Drag force ± Parallel to flow direction ‡ ³Drag Machines´ less efficient .

and shut down to prevent storm damage at 25 m/s or above (90km/h). . generate maximum rated power at around 15 m/s (55 km/h).Principles of operation ‡ Most wind turbines start generating electricity at wind speeds of 3-4 meters per second (about 12 km/h).

‡ Controls. ‡ Tower that supports the rotor and the drive train. ‡ A ³yawing´ system to always orient the rotor to head wind. ‡ Automatic rotor parking (arresting) system to protect against high winds. ‡ A drive train including a gear box and a generator.Wind turbine components ‡ A rotor with blades of aerofoil section to convert wind energy to shaft power. electrical cables. . ground support equipment and interconnection equipments.

Blades materials .

flexible. cheap.Blade Composition Wood Wood ± ± ± ± ± Strong. . light weight. abundant.

Blade Composition Metal ‡ Steel ± Heavy & expensive ‡ Aluminum ± Lighter-weight and easy to work with ± Expensive ± Subject to metal fatigue .

inexpensive.Blade Construction Fiberglass ‡ Lightweight. strong. good fatigue characteristics ‡ Most modern large turbines use fiberglass .

sections .Towers ‡ Monopole (Nearly all large turbines) ± Tubular Steel or Concrete ‡ Lattice (many Medium turbines) ± 20 ft.

the wind could pass though the turbine without being hindered at all. lower will be the velocity with which wind leaves the turbine. . since this condition also prevents wind from entering the rotor of the turbine. ‡ If we tried to extract all the energy from the wind. i. ‡ In the other extreme case. In that case we would not extract any energy at all. the wind will be slowed down as it leaves the turbine. In this case also we would not have extracted any energy from the wind.e. That is. the air would move away with zero speed.Coefficient of performance and Betz¶ limit ‡ Higher the kinetic energy extracted from the wind. the air will not leave the turbine.

Coefficient of performance and Betz¶ limit ‡ Betz' law (formulated by the German physicist Albert Betz in 1919) says that we can only convert less than 16/27 (or 59%) of the kinetic energy in the wind to mechanical energy using a wind turbine. V2 Stream tube V1 ‡ V1 is the velocity at entry and V2 is the velocity at exit of the turbine. consider a wind turbine to be placed inside a ³stream tube´. . ‡ To prove Betz¶ theorem.

5 * A V1 * V12 P0 = 0.(5) .(2) ‡ The power extracted from the wind.5 * A V13 ----.5 * m * V12 = 0. P0 = 0. let us compare the result with the total power in the undisturbed wind flowing through exactly the same area A. with no rotor to block the wind.(1) ‡ Mass of air flow through the rotor per second m = Area * Density of air * velocity of flow m=A* * Va ----.5 * m * (V12 ± V22) ----.The Betz¶ Law ‡ Average speed of wind through the rotor = (V1 + V2)/2 = Va ----. we get P = 0.(4) ‡ Now. P = 0. according to Newton¶s second law is.(3) Substituting for m from equation (2).25 * * A *(V1 + V2) (V12 ± V22) ----. Let this power be Po.

6 / 0. / 0. 0. we get * A * (V1 + V2) (V12 ± V22)} / {0. 0. 0.33 ‡ We can see that the function reaches its maximum for v2/v1 = 1/3.The Betz¶ Law ‡ The ratio of power extracted from the wind to the power in the undisturbed stream is (Equation 4 / Equation 5): (P/Po) = {0.59 ‡ The rati ( / 0) is kn wn as the coefficient of performance of a wind turbine. 0.59 or 16/27 of the total power in the wind. . and that the maximum value for the power extracted from the wind is 0. 0. Betz¶ limit. 0 0 0. 0. 0. 0.5 * A V13} « ¨ V ¸ 2 » « ¨ V ¸» P «1» ! ¬ ¼ ¬1  © 2 ¹ ¼ ¬1  © 2 ¹¼ P0 ­ 2 ½ ¬ © V1 ¹ ¼ ­ © V1 ¹½ ª º ­ ª º ½ 0.6 0. Velocity ratio.25 * simplifying.8 .

air density is ~1. Therefore.23 kg/m3.5 r2v3 Watts = Density of air in kg/m3 r = Radius of wind turbine in m v = Velocity of air in m/s .Calculation of wind power ‡ The kinetic energy of wind is = 0.5 * Mass * Velocity 2 ‡ At sea level. the theoretical wind power is.5 x swept area x Air density x Velocity 3 Where. P = 0. Swept area = r2 r being the outer radius of the turbine rotor Therefore. the mass of air striking a turbine per second is: Mass/sec (kg/s) = Velocity (m/s) x Area (m2) x Density (kg/m3) ‡ The power (energy/second) in the wind striking the turbine with a certain swept area is: Power = Mass flow rate of air x Kinetic energy = 0.

the power output will also double. . ‡ The power output of a wind generator is proportional to the cube of the wind speed . the power output will increase by a factor of eight (23).Calculation of wind power ‡ The power output of a wind generator is proportional to the area swept by the rotor . if the wind speed is doubled.i.i. if the swept area is doubled.e.e.

At ground level the speed is low and turbulent and at higher altitudes. ‡ As the power generated is proportional to the velocity cubed. there is an advantage in locating the turbine on some form of tower. typically in the range 30 to 80 metres high. . This is due to friction as wind passes across the earth's surface. it is faster and smoother.Wind speed ± Effect of height ‡ Wind speed varies with height.

Power in wind y The output from the wind machine depends upon following factors: y Wind velocity y The cross-sectional area swept by the rotor y Overall efficiency of the wind power unit. .

.Size ‡ Larger turbines enjoy higher wind speeds.

there is an optimum tip-speed R ratio R R TSR = Where. Because angle of attack is dependant on wind speed.Tip-Speed Ratio Tip-speed ratio is the ratio of the speed of the rotating blade tip to the speed of the free stream wind. There is an optimum angle of attack which creates the highest lift to drag ratio. = rotational speed in radians /sec V R = Rotor Radius V= Wind ³Free Stream´ Velocity .

Cp for Various Configurations .

there are innumerable variants as shown on following slides.Types of wind turbines Basically there are two types of wind turbines: ‡ Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines ‡ Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Depending upon the wind conditions available and ingenuity of design. Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Vertical Axis Wind Turbine .

Types of Wind Turbine ‡ Turbines can be categorized into two classes based on the orientation of the rotor.Vertical Axis 2.Horizontal Axis . 1.

Types of turbine ‡ Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) ‡ Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower. . ‡ Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) ‡ VAWT have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically and turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. and must be pointed into the wind.

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Three Blade Two Blade Single Blade Classic modern horizontal axis wind turbines .

Rotor Solidity Solidity is the ratio of total rotor planform area to total swept area R Low solidity (0.10) = high speed. high torque Solidity = 3a/A .80) = low speed. low torque a A High solidity (>0.

and wildlife impacts ‡ Captures 10% less energy than two blade design . visual.Number of Blades ± One ‡ Rotor must move more rapidly to capture same amount of wind ± Added weight of counterbalance negates some benefits of lighter design ± Higher speed means more noise.

Two ‡ Advantages & disadvantages similar to one blade ‡ Need teetering hub and or shock absorbers because of gyroscopic imbalances ‡ Capture 5% less energy than three blade designs .Number of Blades .

.Number of Blades . less noise .Three ‡ Balance of gyroscopic forces ‡ Slower rotation ± increases gearbox & transmission costs ± More aesthetic.

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Classic µDutch style¶ wind mill Highway mounted wind turbines. use the turbulence created by passing vehicles (Concept by University of Arizona) Examples of Classic and Innovative Designs .

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Proposed giant turbine on top of 600m sky scraper in Dubai Wind turbines at the Bahrain World Trade Centre Examples of Innovative Designs .

‡ Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. . Additionally. the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower.

Active vs. Passive Yaw ‡ Active Yaw (all medium & large turbines produced today. & some small turbines from Europe) ± Anemometer on nacelle tells controller which way to point rotor into the wind ± Yaw drive turns gears to point rotor into wind ‡ Passive Yaw (Most small turbines) ± Wind forces alone direct rotor ‡ Tail vanes .

The tall tower base allows access to stronger wind in sites with wind shear. Allowing the angle of attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater control.HAWT advantages ‡ Variable blade pitch. every ten meters up. so the turbine collects the maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season. ‡ . In some wind shear sites. the wind speed can increase by 20% and the power output by 34%. which gives the turbine blades the optimum angle of attack.

HAWT disadvantages ‡ The tall towers and blades up to 90 meters long are difficult to transport. ‡ HAWTs require an additional yaw control mechanism to turn the blades toward the wind . ‡ Tall HAWTs are difficult to install.

Vertical-axis wind turbines fall into two major categories: ‡ ‡ Savonius Darrieus .Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Vertical Axis Wind Turbine In this type of wind turbine the axis of rotation is perpendicular the ground .

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines The Savonious wind turbine: ‡Invented by the Finnish engineer Sigurd J Savonius in 1922. ‡Because they are drag-type devices. . Savonius turbines extract much less wind power than other similarly-sized lift-type turbines. they are drag-type devices. ‡ Aerodynamically. consisting of two or three scoops.

Croatia Savonius wind turbine .12 m Windmill with rotational sails in Osijek.

. ‡This makes Darrieus wind turbines much better suited to electricity generation rather than water pumping and similar activities. Therefore a small Savonious rotor is fitted to start the turbine.Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Darrieus turbine Savonious rotors to start Darrieus turbine The Darrieus Wind Turbine: ‡A Darrieus wind turbine can spin at many times the speed of the wind hitting it. ‡ Hence it generates less torque than a Savonius but it rotates much faster. and then when it has enough speed the wind passing across the aerofoil's starts to generate torque and the rotor is driven around by the wind. ‡ Darrieus wind turbines are not self starting.

30 m Darrieus wind turbine in the Magdalen Islands .

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Helical wind turbine µJelly Fish¶ micro wind turbine Examples of Innovative Designs .

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Variants of Darrieus wind turbine Examples of Innovative Designs .

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines µWind side¶ wind turbine µAerofoil¶ wind turbine Examples of Innovative Designs .

magnetically levitated wind turbines ± several in operation in China Examples of Innovative Designs .Vertical Axis Wind Turbines µMaglev¶.

Lift vs Drag VAWTs Lift Device ³Darrieus´ ± Low solidity. cup shapes are pushed by the wind ± At best can capture only 15% of wind energy . aerofoil blades ± More efficient than drag device Drag Device ³Savonius´ ± High solidity.

A VAWT can be located nearer the ground.VAWT advantages: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Designs without yaw mechanisms are possible with fixed pitch rotor designs. Typically. VAWTs may have a lower noise signature. VAWTs have lower wind startup speeds than HAWTs. . they start creating electricity at (10 km/h). VAWTs may be built at locations where taller structures are prohibited. making it easier to maintain the moving parts.

‡ Have never been commercially successful. . ‡ Centrifugal force stresses blades.VAWT disadvantages ‡ Rotors generally near ground where wind poorer. ‡ Requires support at top of turbine rotor. ‡ Overall poor performance and reliability. ‡ Poor self-starting capabilities.

‡ and environmental impact of construction and operations. ‡ cost of land acquisition. other factors include: ‡ the availability of transmission lines. ‡ land use considerations.  Aside from the availability of wind itself. .Turbine placement:  Good selection of a wind turbine site is critical to economic development of wind power. ‡ value of energy to be produced.

Environmental effects .

and has no emissions directly related to electricity production. steel. ‡ Wind power plants consume resources in manufacturing and construction. aluminum and other materials will have to be made and transported using energyintensive processes. mercury particulates. as fossil fuel power sources do. sulfur dioxide. . ‡ Operation does not produce : ± ± ± ± carbon dioxide. During manufacture of the wind turbine. concrete.‡ Wind power consumes no fuel for continuing operation. or any other type of air pollution. generally using fossil energy sources.

10 million per year are killed by cars alone. However. about one bird is killed per turbine per year. in the UK. studies show that the number of birds killed by wind turbines is negligible compared to the number that die as a result of other human activities such as : ± ± ± ± ± traffic. hunting. ‡ For example. power lines and high-rise buildings and especially the environmental impacts of using non-clean power sources. where there are several hundred turbines. .Dangerous for birds: ‡ Danger to birds is often the main complaint against the installation of a wind turbine.

The Massachusetts Cape Wind project was delayed for years mainly because of aesthetic concerns. although the noise of large turbines is far less than of smaller turbines. ‡ Aesthetics: ± Aesthetics have also been a concern. .‡ Noise: ± The noise created by wind turbines is often cited as an issue.

the product is not like oil that has to be transported on tankers to the far regions of the earth. ‡ Wind energy is available in many remote locations where the electrical grid doesn't reach. distribution and building of turbines for the initial costs. ‡ Wind energy is cheap and is largely dependent upon the manufacturing. Farms. ‡ Wind energy is creating jobs that are far outpacing other sectors of the economy. Wind turbines can also share space with other interests such as the farming of crops or cattle.Advantages of wind energy ‡ Wind energy is a renewable resource meaning that the Earth will continue to provide this and it's up to people to use it and harness it to best advantage. mountain areas and third world nations can take advantage of wind energy. . ‡ Wind energy doesn't have to be used solely on a commercial scale as residential wind turbines are now gaining ground in many communities. ‡ Wind energy replaces electricity from coal-fired power plants and thus reduces greenhouse gases that produce global warming. ‡ Wind farms on average have a smaller footprint than coal-fired power plants. ‡ Wind energy is available worldwide and though some countries may be "windier" than others.

Wind Energy Benefits No air emissions No fuel to mine. transport. or store No cooling water No water pollution No wastes .

‡ The wind doesn't blow well at all locations on Earth. tax breaks and long-term costs may alleviate much of this. ‡ The storage of excess energy from wind turbines in the form of batteries. ‡ Transmission of electricity from remote wind farms can be a major hurdle for utilities since many time turbines are not located around hurdle . or other forms still needs research and development to become commercially viable.Disadvantages of wind energy ‡ Wind is an intermittent source of energy and when connected to the electrical grid provides an uneven power supply. noise pollution may be a factor for those living or working nearby. . Wind maps are needed to identify the optimal locations. ‡ Utility scale wind turbines can interfere with television signals of those living within a mile or two of the installation. ‡ The initial cost of a wind turbine can be high. which can be frustrating for homeowners. Some places may have too strong winds during hurricane season that may damage wind turbines. though government subsidies. ‡ Some people object to the visual site of wind turbines disrupting the local landscape. ‡ Depending upon the type of wind turbine. ‡ Even though costs of wind energy have come down dramatically it still has to compete with the ultra low price for fossil fuel power plants.

Wind energy statistics .




Growth of wind energy power capacity - Top 5
Growth of wind energy power capacity 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2005 2006 2007 Year Ger any pain hina ndia 2008 2009

nsta ed capacity x 1000

± Wind-Energy-Basics
‡ By : Paul-Gipe.

± Non-conventional energy resources
‡ By : D.S.Chauhan and S.K. Srivastava.

± Wind electrical systems
‡ S.N.Bhadra, D.Kastha, and S.Banerjee. ± ± .scribd.Sources ‡ Websites : ± www.

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