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HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
TERM PROJECT
Submission Date: January 8, 2010
In a chemical process, engine oil at a flow rate of 40 kg/s and at a temperature of 120°C is
sent to the tube side of a heat exchanger in order to cool it down to 70°C. For this purpose, tab
water at a flow rate of 20 kg/s and at a temperature of 20°C enters the shell side of the heat
exchanger as coolant. Total pressure drop in the tube side and shell side of the exchanger
should be lower than 0.9 bar and 0.5 bar respectively. Considering these requirements, as an
engineer, you need to design a shellandtube heat exchanger with the constraints given in
order to achieve an efficient cooling with a minimum total cost. The total cost is defined as
sum of fixed costs and operating costs.
Design a shell and tube heat exchanger based on given conditions and determine the
following parameters for each case you estimated.
1) Inside diameter of the tube (m)
2) Outside diameter of the tube (m)
3) Tube pitch (m)
4) Tube length (m)
5) Number of tubes
6) Number of passes
7) Number of baffles
8) Baffle spacing (m)
9) Velocity of both shell and tube side fluids (m/s)
10) Reynolds Number of both shell and tube side fluids
11) Heat transfer coefficients of both shell and tube side fluids (W/m
2
K)
12) Pressure drop through tube side and shell side (Pa)
13) Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
K)
14) Outside area of the unit (m
2
)
Report your result including following information:
Do not forget to check the pressure constraints for the material that you used in heat
exchanger design. After calculating the heat exchanger parameters optimize your design
according to total cost by selecting just one of the design parameters, which are listed from 1
to 8 in the list above. Show your optimization results by drawing selected design parameter
versus total cost plots. Tabulate all design parameters and total cost for each trial. Show just
one sample calculation for a set of design. Show the physical properties of the material you
picked in a tabulated form with the references.
The physical properties of the fluids are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Physical Properties
Water Engine Oil
Specific Heat 4180 j/kg K 2177 j/kg K
Dynamic Viscosity 0.000907 Ns/m
2
0.00189 Ns/m
2
Thermal Conductivity 0.610 W/mK 0.122 W/mK
Density 998 kg/m
3
786.4 kg/m
3
Fouling Factor 0.0001 m
2
K/W 0.00053 m
2
K/W
Note A: TOTAL COST CALCULATION
Total cost of the heat exchanger is calculated by summing fixed costs and operating costs. To
calculate the total cost use following equation:
C
T
= A
o
K
F
C
Ao
(1+ S
F
) + W
U
H
Y
C
U
+ A
o
E
i
H
Y
C
i
+ A
o
E
o
H
Y
C
o
Where;
C
T
: Total cost for heat exchanger and its operation ($/year)
C
Ao
: Installed cost of the heat exchanger per unit of outsidetubeheat transfer area ($/m
2
)
C
U
: Cost of utility fluid ($/kg)
C
i
: Cost for supplying 1 Nm to pump fluid flowing through tubeside of unit ($/Nm)
C
o
: Cost for supplying 1 Nm to pump fluid flowing through shellside of unit ($/Nm)
A
o
: Outside heat transfer area of tubes (m
2
)
K
F
: Annual fixed charges including maintenance expressed as a fraction of initial cost for
completely installed unit (dimensionless)
S
F
: Installation cost (dimensionless)
W
U
: Flow rate of utility fluid (kg/h)
H
Y
: Hours of operation per year (hour/year)
E
i
: Power loss inside tubes per unit of outside tube area (N/ms)
E
o
: Power loss outside tubes per unit of outside tube area (N/ms)
Costs:
• C
Ao
: You can select one of the following material for heat exchanger construction.
Purchased cost per outside heat transfer area for these materials are as follows:
Carbon steel: 275 $/m
2
Type 304 stainless steel: 325 $/m
2
Type 316 stainless steel: 355 $/m
2
• S
F
: Installation cost ; 15 % of the purchased cost
• K
F
: Annual fixed charges including maintenance equal 20 % of installed cost.
• Cost for cooling water is 0.1 $/ton.
• Cost for energy supplied to force the cooling water and engine oil through the
exchanger is 150 $/MWh.
• Unit operates 7000 h/year.
Note B: Determination of Optimum Design Parameter
• Select two design parameters and do the heat transfer calculations for these
parameters. Tabulate all your results regarding h
i
, h
o
, U, A, ∆ P, and total cost .
• Then select another value for the design parameter and repeat the calculations.
• For each value of design parameter, plot h
i
vs. design parameter or h
o
vs. design
parameter or ∆ P vs. design parameter.
• For each value of design parameter, calculate the total cost with the equation given
above.
• Continue to change the value of selected design parameter until you observe a
minimum in the total cost function as shown below. At the point where the total cost
is minimum, your design parameter is optimum. According to the figure the cost is
minimum when the value of the parameter is about 7.8. This means the optimum
value of the chosen design parameter is 7.8.
Note: Show just one sample calculation for the selected value of the design parameter.
However, DON’T FORGET to construct following tables.
Explain the reasons of your decision for choosing the design parameter.
Available Equations/Correlations:
A) Calculation of Correction Factor F
The correction factor F used in the calculation of ΔTlm can be determined from the
following equation:
a) If N
s
= Number of shell passes =1 and R=1, then
Where :
i o
o i
t t
T T
R
−
−
·
(Eqn. 1)
i i
i
t T
t t
P
−
−
·
0
(Eqn. 2)
) ( P P N N
P
P
s s
x
+ −
·
(Eqn. 3)
]
]
]
]
+ − − −
+ + − −
−
+
·
1 1 ) / 2 (
1 1 ) / 2 (
ln
1
1
2
2
2
R R P
R R P
P
R P
F
x
x
x
x
(Eqn. 4)
b) If N
s
= Number of shell passes =1 and R>1, then
s
s
N
N
x
P
RP
R
P
RP
P
/ 1
/ 1
1
1
1
1
1
]
]
]
−
−
−
]
]
]
−
−
−
·
(Eqn. 5)
]
]
]
]
+ − − −
+ + − −
,
`
.

−
−
,
`
.

−
+
·
1 1 ) / 2 (
1 1 ) / 2 (
ln
) 1 (
) 1 (
ln
1
1
2
2
2
R R P
R R P
RP
P
R
R
F
x
x
x
x
(Eqn. 6)
c) If N
s
= Number of shell passes ≥ 2 and N
t
= Number of tubes ≥ 4, R<1, then
[ ]
[ ] ]
]
]
]
+ − − − + − −
+ + − − + − −
,
`
.

−
−
,
`
.

−
+
·
1 ) 1 )( 1 ( ) / 2 ( 1 ) / 2 (
1 ) 1 )( 1 ( ) / 2 ( 1 ) / 2 (
ln
) 1 (
) 1 (
ln
) 1 ( 2
1
2
2
2
R PR P P R P
R PR P P R P
RP
P
R
R
F
(Eqn. 7)
A) Calculation of Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient, h
i
;
If 2100 < Re
t
< 10000 then
X= Re
t
/1000
[ ]
256 . 0
) 10 / ( 1
3 2
. 10
) 02185 . 0 32567 . 0 075 . 3 08 . 3 (
X
i
L
ID
x X X X B
−
,
`
.

− + + − ·
(Eqn. 8)
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
33 . 0
1 . 16
k
C
k B
ID
h
p
i i
µ
(Eqn. 9)
If Ret
> 10000 then
33 . 0 8 . 0
.
027 . 0
.
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
k
C
G ID
k
ID h
p
t i
µ
µ
(Eqn. 10)
If Ret
> 2100 then
3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1
.
86 . 1
.
,
`
.

,
`
.

,
`
.

·
L
ID
k
C
G ID
k
ID h
p
t i
µ
µ
(Eqn. 11)
B) Calculation of Tube Side Pressure Drop:
If Ret
< 1000 then, tube side fraction factor is, f
t
:
9853 . 0
Re
45 . 0
t
t
f ·
(Eqn. 12)
If Re
t
>1000 then, tube side fraction factor is, f
t
:
2514 . 0
Re
0028 . 0
t
t
f ·
(Eqn. 13)
Tube side pressure drop, ΔP
t
:
) (
. . . . 504 . 0
2
ID
n L G f
P
t t
t
ρ
· ∆
(Eqn. 14)
G
t
: kg/m
2
.s ID : m
: ρ
kg/m
3
ΔP
t
: Pa
The pressure drop of return losses, ΔP
r
:
2
25 . 1
t r
V n P ρ · ∆
(Eqn. 15)
V
t
:m/s
: ρ
kg/m
3
ΔP
r
: Pa
Total pressure drop: (Pa)
r t total
P P P ∆ + ∆ · ∆
(Eqn. 16)
C) Calculation of Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient, h
0:
Equivalent diameter, D
e
, for a square pitch:
OD
OD P
D
T
e
.
) 4 / ( 4
2 2
π
π −
·
(Eqn. 17)
P
t
: m OD : m
Equivalent diameter, D
e
, for a triangular pitch:
OD
OD P
D
T
e
.
) 5 . 0 ( 72 . 1
2 2
π
π −
·
(Eqn. 18)
Clearance between the tubes, C:
C=P
t
OD (Eqn. 19)
C : m
Shell flow area, a
s
:
If N
s
≥ 2 and N
t
≥ 4 then
T
shell
s
P
B C ID
a
. . 5 . 0
·
(Eqn. 20)
For all other cases:
T
shell
s
P
B C ID
a
. .
·
(Eqn.21)
a
s
: m
2
ID
shell
: m C : m B : m P
t
: m
Shell side heat transfer coefficient, h
o
:
,
`
.

,
`
.

,
`
.

·
33 . 0 55 . 0
0
36 . 0
k
C
G D
k
D h
p
s e e
µ
µ
(Eqn.22)
Shell side friction factor, f
s
:
If Re
s
<500 then
59246 . 0
Re
11183 . 0
s
s
f ·
(Eqn. 23)
If Re
s
>500 then
18597 . 0
Re
1159 . 0
s
s
f ·
(Eqn. 24)
Shell side pressure drop:
s
e
B shell s s
s
N
D
N ID G f
P
,
`
.
 +
· ∆
.
) 1 )( (
* 51 . 0
2
ρ
(Eqn. 25)
G
s
: kg/m
2
.s D
e
: m
ρ
: kg/m
3
Pa P
s
: ∆
NOMENCLATURE
T
i
: Inlet temperature of hot fluid
T
o
: Outlet temperature of hot fluid
t
i
: Inlet temperature of cold fluid
t
o
: Outlet temperature of cold fluid
N
s
: Number of shell passes
N
t
: Number of tubes
Re
t
: Reynolds number on the tube side
k : Thermal conductivity
C
p
: Specific heat
µ : Viscosity
ID : Inside tube diameter
OD : Outside tube diameter
ID
shell:
Inside shell diameter
L : Length of the tube
G
t
: Mass velocity of the tube side fluid
G
s
: Mass velocity of the shell side fluid
N
B
: Number of baffles
n : Number of tube passes
ρ
: Density
V
t
: Velocity of the tube side fluid
P
t
: Tube pitch
f
t
: Tube side friction factor
f
s
: Shell side friction factor
B : Baffle spacing
D
e
: Equivalent diameter
C
T
: Total annual variable cost for heat exchanger and its operation
C
Ao
: Installed cost of the heat exchanger per unit of outsidetubeheat transfer area
C
U
: Cost of utility fluid
C
i
: Cost for supplying 1 Nm to pump fluid flowing through tubeside of unit
C
o
: Cost for supplying 1 Nm to pump fluid flowing through shellside of unit
A
o
: Outside heat transfer area of tubes
K
F
: Annual fixed charges including maintenance expressed as a fraction of initial cost for
completely installed unit
W
U
: Flow rate of utility fluid
H
Y
: Hours of operation per year
E
i
: Power loss inside tubes per unit of outside tube area
E
o
: Power loss outside tubes per unit of outside tube area
REFERENCES
• Perry Eds.R.H., Green D.W., Maloney J.O. “Perry's chemical engineers's handbook”
McGrawHill,1984.
• Incropera, F. P., DeWitt, D. P., “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer”, John Wiley
and Sons, 1981.
• Fraas, A.P. “Heat exchanger design”, John Wiley and Sons, 1989.
• Peters, S., Timmerhaus, K, “Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers”,
McGraw Hill, 1991.
CHE 311 HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
TERM PROJECT REPORT FORMAT
The report should include the following sections:
Title: The report’s title, author’s name and the date on which the report was submitted must
be written on the cover.
Abstract: The aim of this Project should be mentioned along with brief statements of your
results and your overall conclusions.
Introduction: Provide some background information about heat exchangers and their use. Do
not write any unnecessary information. (You have designed a shell and tube heat exchanger,
so do not write details of plate or compact heat exchangers.)
Calculations and discussion:
• List any assumptions that you make in the calculations.
• Write down, step by step, the algorithm you used for the calculations.
• Provide sample calculations.
• Present your results in labeled tables and figures. Each table and figure must be
numbered, and given a short descriptive title. The content of each table and figure
should be described in a paragraph using a few descriptive sentences
• Compare your result with values from the literature and comment on these results.
Conclusions: in one to two paragraphs, briefly state the conclusions of your project.
References: make sure that each reference is cited (by the author’s name and date) in the body
of the report. Internet references should also be cited and written in your own sentences, not
copypaste
Format
• The report should be typed using 1.5 line spacing, 2.5 cm margins (top, bottom, left,
right) and 12 point Times New Roman.
• Justify your body text and center the tables and figures.
• All pages should be numbered consequently, excluding the title page.
To calculate the total cost use following equation: CT = AoKFCAo(1+ SF) + WUHYCU + AoEiHYCi + AoEoHYCo Where. ho. • Unit operates 7000 h/year. Note B: Determination of Optimum Design Parameter • • Select two design parameters and do the heat transfer calculations for these parameters. A.1 $/ton. Then select another value for the design parameter and repeat the calculations. CT : Total cost for heat exchanger and its operation ($/year) CAo : Installed cost of the heat exchanger per unit of outsidetubeheat transfer area ($/m2) CU : Cost of utility fluid ($/kg) Ci : Cost for supplying 1 Nm to pump fluid flowing through tubeside of unit ($/Nm) Co : Cost for supplying 1 Nm to pump fluid flowing through shellside of unit ($/Nm) Ao : Outside heat transfer area of tubes (m2) KF : Annual fixed charges including maintenance expressed as a fraction of initial cost for completely installed unit (dimensionless) SF : Installation cost (dimensionless) WU : Flow rate of utility fluid (kg/h) HY : Hours of operation per year (hour/year) Ei : Power loss inside tubes per unit of outside tube area (N/ms) Eo : Power loss outside tubes per unit of outside tube area (N/ms) Costs: • CAo : You can select one of the following material for heat exchanger construction. 15 % of the purchased cost • KF : Annual fixed charges including maintenance equal 20 % of installed cost. • Cost for cooling water is 0. U. ∆ P.Total cost of the heat exchanger is calculated by summing fixed costs and operating costs. and total cost. Purchased cost per outside heat transfer area for these materials are as follows: Carbon steel: 275 $/m2 Type 304 stainless steel: 325 $/m2 Type 316 stainless steel: 355 $/m2 • SF : Installation cost . . • Cost for energy supplied to force the cooling water and engine oil through the exchanger is 150 $/MWh. Tabulate all your results regarding hi.
1) R= Ti − To to − ti (Eqn.• • • For each value of design parameter.8. DON’T FORGET to construct following tables. then Where : (Eqn. calculate the total cost with the equation given above. At the point where the total cost is minimum. design parameter. Note: Show just one sample calculation for the selected value of the design parameter. 2) P= t0 − ti Ti − t i . However. Explain the reasons of your decision for choosing the design parameter. design parameter or ho vs. your design parameter is optimum. This means the optimum value of the chosen design parameter is 7. Available Equations/Correlations: A) Calculation of Correction Factor F The correction factor F used in the calculation of ΔTlm can be determined from the following equation: a) If Ns = Number of shell passes =1 and R=1. Continue to change the value of selected design parameter until you observe a minimum in the total cost function as shown below. According to the figure the cost is minimum when the value of the parameter is about 7.8. design parameter or ∆ P vs. plot hi vs. For each value of design parameter.
4) Px R 2 + 1 1 − Px (2 / P ) − 1 − R + R 2 + 1 x ln (2 / Px ) − 1 − R − R 2 + 1 F= b) If Ns = Number of shell passes =1 and R>1. 5) RP − 1 1− P −1 Px = 1/ Ns RP − 1 R− P −1 1/ Ns (Eqn. then (Eqn. 7) R 2 + 1 (1 − P ) ln 2( R − 1) (1 − RP ) F= (2 / P ) − 1 − R + (2 / P ) (1 − P )(1 − PR ) + R 2 + 1 ln (2 / P ) − 1 − R + (2 / P ) (1 − P)(1 − PR ) − R 2 + 1 [ [ ] ] . then (Eqn.(Eqn. 6) R 2 + 1 (1 − Px ) ln R − 1 (1 − RPx ) F= (2 / P ) − 1 − R + R 2 + 1 x ln (2 / Px ) − 1 − R − R 2 + 1 c) If Ns = Number of shell passes ≥ 2 and Nt = Number of tubes ≥ 4. 3) Px = P ( N s − N s P + P) (Eqn. R<1.
08 + 3. If 2100 < Ret < 10000 then X= Ret/1000 (Eqn.33 If Ret > 10000 then (Eqn. hi.Gt = 0.Gt = 1. 13) ft = 0. 12) ft = 0.A) Calculation of Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient.ID Bi = (−3.32567X 2 − 0. tube side fraction factor is. 11) hi .25 6 (Eqn.0028 Re t0. 9) 0.1 C p µ hi = Bi k ID k [1−( X / 10) ] 0.33 If Ret > 2100 then (Eqn.ID ID. 8) 10.9853 If Ret >1000 then. ft: (Eqn. ft: (Eqn. ΔPt: .2514 Tube side pressure drop. 10) hi .02185X 3 ) x L 16. tube side fraction factor is.027 µ k 0.075X + 0.86 µ k 1/ 3 Cpµ k 1/ 3 ID L 1/ 3 B) Calculation of Tube Side Pressure Drop: If Ret < 1000 then.ID ID.45 Re t0.8 Cpµ k 0.
for a square pitch: (Eqn.n ρ ( ID) ID : m 2 t Gt : kg/m2.5 IDshell .L. C: C=PtOD C:m Shell flow area. 18) De = 1.C.5πOD ) π . 15) ∆Pr = 1.504.72( P − 0. ΔPr: (Eqn. De.OD Pt : m OD : m Equivalent diameter. for a triangular pitch: (Eqn. 17) De = 4( PT2 − πOD 2 / 4) π .(Eqn. h0: Equivalent diameter. 19) as = 0. f t .25nρVt 2 Vt:m/s ρ: kg/m3 ΔPr : Pa Total pressure drop: (Pa) (Eqn.s ρ: kg/m3 ΔPt : Pa The pressure drop of return losses. 14) ∆Pt = 0. De. 20) (Eqn.OD 2 T 2 Clearance between the tubes. as: If Ns ≥ 2 and Nt ≥ 4 then (Eqn. 16) ∆Ptotal = ∆Pt + ∆Pr C) Calculation of Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient.G .B PT .
23) fs = 0.For all other cases: (Eqn. ho: (Eqn.B PT IDshell : m C:m B:m Pt : m as : m2 Shell side heat transfer coefficient.22) h0 De D G = 0. fs: If Res<500 then (Eqn.59246 s If Res>500 then (Eqn.1159 Re 0.C.s De : m ρ : kg/m3 ∆Ps : Pa NOMENCLATURE Ti : Inlet temperature of hot fluid To : Outlet temperature of hot fluid ti to : Inlet temperature of cold fluid : Outlet temperature of cold fluid .36 e s µ k 0.De Gs : kg/m2.55 µC p k 0.51* s s ρ . 24) fs = 0.11183 Re 0. 25) f G 2 ( IDshell )(N B + 1) N s ∆Ps = 0.21) as = IDshell .33 Shell side friction factor.18597 s Shell side pressure drop: (Eqn.
Ns : Number of shell passes Nt : Number of tubes Ret : Reynolds number on the tube side k : Thermal conductivity Cp : Specific heat µ : Viscosity ID : Inside tube diameter OD : Outside tube diameter IDshell: Inside shell diameter L : Length of the tube Gt : Mass velocity of the tube side fluid Gs : Mass velocity of the shell side fluid NB : Number of baffles n : Number of tube passes : Density ρ Vt : Velocity of the tube side fluid Pt : Tube pitch ft : Tube side friction factor fs : Shell side friction factor B : Baffle spacing De : Equivalent diameter CT : Total annual variable cost for heat exchanger and its operation CAo : Installed cost of the heat exchanger per unit of outsidetubeheat transfer area CU : Cost of utility fluid Ci : Cost for supplying 1 Nm to pump fluid flowing through tubeside of unit Co : Cost for supplying 1 Nm to pump fluid flowing through shellside of unit Ao : Outside heat transfer area of tubes KF : Annual fixed charges including maintenance expressed as a fraction of initial cost for completely installed unit WU : Flow rate of utility fluid HY : Hours of operation per year Ei : Power loss inside tubes per unit of outside tube area Eo : Power loss outside tubes per unit of outside tube area .
“Heat exchanger design”. P. “Perry's chemical engineers's handbook” • • • McGrawHill. The content of each table and figure should be described in a paragraph using a few descriptive sentences • Compare your result with values from the literature and comment on these results. Fraas. 1989.. step by step. Conclusions: in one to two paragraphs. “Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers”. so do not write details of plate or compact heat exchangers.R. (You have designed a shell and tube heat exchanger. the algorithm you used for the calculations.P.O. not copypaste .. Green D. Timmerhaus. John Wiley and Sons. Maloney J. Each table and figure must be numbered.1984. Provide sample calculations. Write down. S.. briefly state the conclusions of your project. Present your results in labeled tables and figures. A.) Calculations and discussion: • • • • List any assumptions that you make in the calculations. DeWitt. 1981. Peters. 1991. Incropera. P.H. Introduction: Provide some background information about heat exchangers and their use. K. Do not write any unnecessary information. McGraw Hill..W.REFERENCES • Perry Eds. References: make sure that each reference is cited (by the author’s name and date) in the body of the report. Internet references should also be cited and written in your own sentences. CHE 311 HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER TERM PROJECT REPORT FORMAT The report should include the following sections: Title: The report’s title. F. and given a short descriptive title.. John Wiley and Sons. author’s name and the date on which the report was submitted must be written on the cover. “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer”. Abstract: The aim of this Project should be mentioned along with brief statements of your results and your overall conclusions. D.
5 cm margins (top. excluding the title page. All pages should be numbered consequently.5 line spacing. bottom. . right) and 12 point Times New Roman. Justify your body text and center the tables and figures.Format • • • The report should be typed using 1. left. 2.
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