William Pain - The Builder's Companion (1762)

THE

BUILDER's COMPANION,

AND

WORKMAN's GENERAL ASSISTANT:

D E M 0 til S T RAT INC,

After the moil eafy and practical Method, ALL THE

PRINC]PAL RULES of ARCHITECTURE,

FRO M

The' P LAN to the 0 RNA MEN TAL FIN ISH; Illuflrated with a greater Number of ufeful and familiar Examples than any Work of that, Kind hitherto publifhed j

W J T H

C1ear and ample INSTRUCTIONS annexed to each Subject: or Nuraber.s on the: fame PLATE j

Being not only ufefu1. but· neceffary to all MASONS, BRICKLAYERS, PLASTERERS.

CARPENTERS, JOINER~,and others concerned in.thefeveral Branches of Bcn.prxc, &" .

The Whole eorredly engravcfi on 102 Folio COHill-PLATE!,

Containing upwards of Sl!VEN HUNDRED DESI,GNS on. the following SUbje¢ts, &c.

1. Of Fosndations Walls, and their Diminutions, Fitnefs of Chimneys, and Proportion of .Light to Rooms, with the due Scantlings of Timber to be cut for Building, &c.

JI. Great Variety of Geometrjcal, Elliptic, and Polygon Figures, with Rules for their Formation. Cen- 1erilV.s of ~II Sorts fot- Groinds, Brick and Stone Arches, &c. both Circular and Splay'd, a1[0 with Circular SOhtS in a Circular Vf all: Many Examples for Clewing and V aneering, N iches, &c.,with Rules for tracing the Cover of Curve-Line Roofs, Piers, Vafes, Pedeflals for Sun-dials, Bufts, &c. and their moll faitable Proportions,

PI. General Directions for Framing Floors and Partitions, Trufs- <oofs, &c. and Methods to find the Length and Backing of Hips, Ilrait or curve Lines 'to any Pitch, Square or Bevel.

IV. Of Stair- Cafes, varioufly conflruded ; the Methods of working Ramp and Twifl-Rails-c-Profils of Stair.

tofhew the Manner offetting CarrJages fur the Steps. alfo the framing of String-Boards4nP R,ails; and hkewife of fixing them.

V. The Five Orders of Architeaure from Paila:lio, wl;th the Rule for gaugil,ig Flutes and Fillets on a di!"~~i!h'd Column, by a ~ethod extremely eafy, and intirely new.

VI. Doors/Windows, Frontifpieces, Chimney-pieces.

Cornices, Mouldings, .&c. truly proporriou'd, in a plain and geneel tafle,

V If. Sacred Ornaments, vi:>:. Altar-pieces,,ipulpits,

Monuments, &c. -

VlIf. Gothic Architedure, being a various ColleClion of Columns, Enrablatures, Arches, Doers Windows, .Chimney-Pieces.,. and other Decorations in that prevailing Taite-And it may be noted.of thefe, a! of all the foregoing Examples, that they are immediately adapted to Workmen, and may be executed by the meanefl Capacity.

By W ILL lAM PAl N. Archltetl anct J orner.

LON 1J 0 N:

Printed for the ~UTHOR, and ROBERT SAYER, at <the Golden Buck in Ftcet-Street.

MDCGLXl[.

Facsimile oj Original Title Page

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Jo REPRO DUCT 10 N of Copper-plate engraving by WILLI A M FA I N, Architect and Joiner PUBLISHED IN LONDON, 176z

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S in all Things Order is to be oblerved, [0 efpecial1y in this excellent Art of Architecture it is requilite that every Part and Member have its right Order and due Proportion. There have been m~ Mailers who with great Care and Induflry have brought this Art to a great Perfection, among whom the famous

PALLADIO deferves to be placed in the highefi: Rank by all judicious Artifi:s ; therefore for the Benefit of Workmen, and that it may be made more ufeful for all Artificers in Building and Lovers of this mofi: noble Art, I have laid down the five Orders of Architecture according to PALLADIO by an intire NEW SCALE, to proportion the Orders to any given Height, and to find the Model or Diameter of the Column, with every Part of the Orders by the faid Scale; and for the better underftanding of which, the Reader is deiired to take notice, that by the Model is fignified the Meafure of the whole Diameter of the Column: As for Example; Let the Diameter be twelve, fifteen, or eighteen Inches for the Model, to be divided into fixty Parts or Minutes, as may be feen by the Scale oil the Diameter of the Column in Page 32, that Scale meafuring every Member in the Order, which will be proportionable one to another; this dividing of the Diameter into fixty Parts or Minutes, muft be ufed in all the Orders, in which I have, with my utmoft Endeavours, rendered it very intelligible, with a great Number of other ufeful Things for the Benefit of Workmen.

The Tuscan Order

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THE BUILDER'S COMPANION PART ONE

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The Proporuon orDoors IIc-Wmdows

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IV o 00

THE

COMPANION,

AND

WORKMAN's GENERAL ASSISTANT:

D E M 0 ~ S T RAT INC,

After the moll: ea(y and practical Method, ALL THE

PRINCIPAL RULES of ARCHITECTURE,

.F ~ 0 M

The P LAN to the 0 RNA MEN TAL FIN ISH; Illuflrated with a greater Number of ufeful and familiar Examples 'than any Work of that, Kind hitherto publifhed j

W J T H

Clear and ample INSTRlJCTIONS annexed to each SubjeCt or Nuraber.sen t1t~ fame PLATE;

Being not only ufeful. but· nec,eif<iry to all MASON's, BR(CKLAYERS, ,PLAS-TERERS, CARPENTERS, JOINER~,'and others concerned in.thefeveral Branches of Bvn.nrxc, f.:je,

The Whole correctly engravefi on 102 Folio COPFill-Ps..ATE!,

Containing upwards of SEVEN HUNDRED DES1,ON'S on. the rollowin~ Subje~s, !dc,

J. Of Fosndarions Wall.,. and their Diminutions, Fitnefs of, Chimneys" and Proportion of ,Light to Rooms, with the due Scantlings of Timber to be cue

for BUilding, &c. .

JI. Great Variety of Geometrjcalv'Elliptic, and Polygon Figllres, with Rules for their Formation. Cenlering of 311 Sorts for- Groinds, Brick and Stone Arches, &c. both Circular and Splay'd, alfo with Circular SOhtS in a Circular VI all: Many Example, for Glewing and Vnneering, Niches, &c.·,with Rules fur tracing the Cover of Curve-Line Roofs, Piers, Vafes Pedeflals for Sun-dials, Bulls, &c. and their moil faitable Proportions.

U I. General Directions for Fra·ming Floors and Partitions, Trufs-xoofs, &c. and Methods to find the Length and Backing of Hips, ftraii or curve Lines 10 any Pitch, Square or Bevel.

IV. Of Stair- Cafes, varioully conflruded ; the Methods of working Ramp and Twift-Rails-c-Profils of Stairs

tofhew the Manner offetting CarrJages fur the Steps, alfo the framing of String-Boards41l1i R,ails; and hkewife of fixing tnem,

V. The Five Orders of Architecture from Paila.l;o, Wl,t~ t~e Rule (or gaugil1g Flutes and Fillets on a di~~?lIh d Column, by a J.Vlethod extremely eafy, and intirely new.

VI. D~ors,Windo~s, Frontifpieces, Chim~ey-pie~e s, Cornices, Mouldings, .&c. truly proportion'd, rn a plain and gen' eel tafte,

V If. Sacred Ornaments, viz. Altar-piecesv-Palpits,

Monuments, &c. -

VIII'. Gothic A.rchitelture, being a various CollectioB of Columns, Entablatures, Arches, Doers Windows, .Chimney-Pieces.,. and other Decorations in th,!! prevailing T'afle-s-And it may be noted.of there, as of all the loregoing Examples, that they are immediately adapted to Workmen, and may be executed: by the meanefr Capacity.

ByW ILL lAM PAIN. Archltea and Joiner.

LON 11 0 N:

Printed for the ~UTIlOR, and ROBERT SAYER, at the Golden Buck in Fleet-Street, MDCGLXlI.

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Ir MCh.. lIUllu;,'r a.tt/'~''I a r.: I/yll/';( 1;' /,N:;/,/ 11IIdjtrc;-«II;"Il, c. rIlld cI. are bl'll .~.'r.1 /1' fhlln.j,IY,'flize

(I;i t l /..

1It'lf/'r 111".'1 {;e /;'11/ J /;(11- 6tll'.j"., II, J ;:d It? 1,~/Iri'.'1 f (0 Ie ,J.,iJt:t,J lilm 4,f/drt.',~' 1/,,/11 /'Il'!'(.-' It>{;e ,It'1/~)

I; M/'Ii. 141/11",. Ib' ;/;';1 111'1' /t~u I':! I ~I /"'11/';' tj/u"';:'CI;'IL,Ik,,/I~'I!lC':tl;'lIl-Id 11';,,1/ d" /1:lIkl'tl!_!/;u-:_~ 1")' __

( . 0.// ? to 1/ I

THE BUILDER'S COMPANION PART TWO

215

'<>
;~ ; 'oj(t
~ ,'" ~
:., 1
<1-
"
1
":. 3
!'I>
.f ,
1 ,,1
,
:~
,
,
,
-,I
Ip ,
'"I-
IU§ ,:~ .. :., 14~
,
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!
i'" I '0<) 1
"
1;'" : /'"
lull : I~
""
"
/J
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>l-
I
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I I'"
I: ..,
" ".
..
11/ / r , ~_\.. ...
.~
?I IL -"I- l!
r-, IJI '1-

'Pedestals for Sun-Dials and Bustos

216

ARCHITECTURAL TREASURES OF EARLY AMERICA

.'Jk~r "/ tk~:?_ /;.41/~?r ?lk .~

I /~

I~

t=:>

,

/ /

J --. _"', L-.

r--

,i1~i

1-----....-.::-+/

.~.- .. c- .

. --...... , ... ~ ..

I· 4 I 4

IR par4J .

}'"

tJUO& ! ':'

'.~. ,

.~

: t

liwell'J"

THE BUILDER'S COMPANION PART TWO

217

The proportion _of Cornices kmargents to. Rooms .

. ~

.~

"
..__
1
f 1~ ~- '.-(0- ...
::.r; 9!'!~" _ -,,-'
~} ~'-" -
'<> . '-:'~"_
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] j ..,
.,
:~ ."
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,j t {
:; "
, ;'
~l: . --- .. .:~ t::::-r f.o----~
~ ,~ ~
_'£rf '---- .. i--
I ,-. • ,
i .. - •. 9bvrr"1'·lra.k Jkrtrj malln~~V<"'I'd~frr Me !'-chlnl;ram oj'lIoqmrl n.~d tit" /''o/'o,.~tJ7t/ ;:I'~ r;.",u·u~7fupm.l

~6Yf«-r1l'f-1r

WdJ:~' _

;%,;, l"o/lDmDn f, fMlU~Lt:I n.;db

jfofrlZn;Y pi"'"<"Fril kt'/I"

;'~"I,h/.y'_'_ "",'lJudlt'~t", IV/'at-t/uy Ivt.lL:l .; t/UoM m" '(~dN

·",,/I.{;rth---' <fld-rrlU_'/

f'aff<fTw_"" ~7q''''IU'~'. ~Jn',." .. __

gq;. h-/""'J'4'"tHn.c,,/ m"",rrt-' ".!lJWUk;~ ft~'_'

~=~ I-

- "'7'"

,

218

ARCHITECTURAL TREASURES OF EARLY AMERICA

1 I .

, ....,'\<t

:'"

'" \

+---~'-- .-r

1 1 1

I~ ~ ,

~ I

<::.., _-11 __ +rr" j( ~r-

"

~ ,
:.~
~ ~ t i"'" ,4
~ ~ "
~ , c 4-

, ,

i

,

!

11

f

, ''''

j ,

THE BUILDER'S COMPANION PART TWO

",~

, ,

1 ... ~

I ... \~

, , '"

: ':1,---~:L___J

'-r----l------l ! J "~====p"'d~

-, p

~\

, ,

I , , , ,

+

,

:""I~

t:"

:"" ....

o :~~'lC:==::i==1

3

4- "I,~ ! r' ~f-'--I

~:

"'1:<, t')

Moldmgs for the pedefral part of Rooms.

.:»

EiojI1'(l11(}rtW,,, Me {7.){M{' alUl t;;nurN Iv flw f0,cIc,dal/tart:rl7ltJ-f:>71t.t .. litjy'lOifC a. &rIl' Ie. ytven

rfferjht-rrI'tlu,/?et-kbl/ta,r!t7/t/tt',r}ffl{w'I,om( Mar//lr;Yltralll'ayd Iv Ie ilti~L'( t~,b.J "{yj,(-/UJrlif fll'uI/

(i I /" '''' ,

(Jive one, and one.t/,t;.{J~ tit' it('{f;ifr>/thl' .':/')!t~u'{ a 111'1111'0 dtr,t Iv liu·£/.JcMe v.f/oU//f/' fl?ldoll'u'j!,M

, c /. /I v

/wdw/'/'" ('Y' o-rfo'mtrtV rj~he v e C)'~cle.IIzti,O 11(/ (lte /,e:j; itf1Mc .C/.Ja./e a ,ttl ~m;(,&I,I[I :Ie ,lti,tdt'd I ~11i' ir.J

lNod IUl dd a.I {d//ja.rr/ at t/'t' lot'/' f~('J. 111r,U ;;Y;t1lld Mt'lIl/1O 1'1;; Iii It' t!t;Ylt7d;( Iv {'ark· 1It<!IJtbt' 7 ,J .: ltet;,/"rol/(!/'7;-d'(f,1/ /7,1 ;!t"y a.rr ;';Ptl'c/;t!tc itN,f;hrhr>m h('O I;r>t- f'lp/'c.'ht,ll'ol It' ;!tNt' kof-:

,/ " ? / t7 t. / / . ~ / --

t ""\. : :loft.C::±:::s::::::j ,,:~

:

, ...

4 ------ -t-----.- ~

! t"'I't. ~

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; \tl ~

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""I1;j :",__-,-".:' ":__-J_

8

~---~

~ old s-- MCiv ~~ ~

... ~ -c :!'

'"

220

ARCHITECTURAL TREASURES OF EARLY AMERICA

5

r:Jr(ouldings at large for the Pedestal parts of Rooms

THE BUILDER'S COMPANION PART TWO

221

F-

I

~
~
~


to


"
,~ ...
.,.
. .:

t
'!:: "

--------t--' .:I '3: -====<S.:::===========::;::r

..9)(~,,(1r tIt('It('~t;ltrft;;(' 2rd(v!n! /lLtv.!l /ttlrf.J rrl/l~r;li'(' f'n('.anti onr 4

4./ 0 7 ... Ii

5

,
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,~ ' . ,~. .(0 tlte J,tb(,,,J-e: 1 and I ! -tv tile "f'!t~uIt f (>r,f o/the..hbi'fl.fe IQ de II(':f;h( <{tlze '1Ja,'c.n/(,!dt~r;:tn (he o/",n /1.<, d' oj'tlU'.iu/,k.;e. tk {l;,uulU!nfJ arc- ,.:;:/'(0/ and f;;do,./~,tk hc~i;;'I.' m Ie r& i.tld '!fir a« IIt1ll! 'I I'M!.' . {M fhey are __ /'/

1!7l(1'd. Ilm! them /tar& dtjfo';d ir Mel mrm.lw' a,';7_'{lurtl. '

'Base and Subbase for the Pedestal parts of Rooms

<')
1! ~ I
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u,e-tlrc/'{trO/ve. J7WJ/bedtv2t;)
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wlheCI'IUCCd, on} tit" 'f''j'it-
... oj/he tPl'7UC&! c1vvule1.;~to
=i , runl<vn,%,/Ulri<1 ad I./:;wrr:,/
: and M<Ve/uvrlt1 ~~u.,;; /{p
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4

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.%u%3rcadM-.{/ .. Ardtti"aVc/ ~£i,!:/;.r~tdivr,y cr-

f:yJ '.__h"ml'.r,UJ h- O,u'7/uk ar one /end:;/ Ih ... ;· !"Cnty .

. P7"rtl_z,:.h"011l.£./IJ1Jl/PIlCTO om~ vdvul.. .. d,;.lu rctpor/W-£!v-c./ jtmlJ dAv-tllktheuOI1IC;/llld brkP;"lCfor ~c ......-fl"ltlt4:;1 ".34-506'

I

3

5

~J:.rmdtUr;uc41 m Lh-allUJ M!w'70rlz:nUi'i1h ll""chdr"O=~:!/£.;:'mL PJ ihe..&;;m:::r: o%dl'",rt;, II1val71t""7iIoJA~Mur:t; rrid!?/t~~"t,.t1UVUlci. /arrCo?daHtd 4'~

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rEt§~~~Itj'h/-M ['7 cft'on ,?to/IO i h~"d;/llt.r: r-§~~

;z :3 .t. 5 6:

THE BUILDER'S COMPANION PART TWO

1rr===1

.,
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dJ~ l.;/lPC~d~ ~k,;thv~or~?UM

~tk~ZdOr/rri;£'

.'1

Illjp~~,

ARCHITECTURAL TREASURES OF EARLY AMERICA

'r"----il

:'<>

THE BUILDER'S COMPANION PART TWO

ARCHITECTURAL TREASURES OF EARLY AMERICA

.... 2)1
"-
-{..'
:!8 2.J
,2 10 12

~ ~-----l~

.. ~

1(/

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. .. '.- ~--. - ... - ........ _

4

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r""------;--i 'l<:-,.--.

L--- ~___._,v

Half if two Supporters for Pulpits at Large,

with the Base and Cornice for the Body if the Pulpits at Large

.- .. -

of ._9n:o 7>~ 07U/ a/Oentar Me otkr ibJ'18a:a<'l.on"v-tMthar/'?£WU and /?f/!uv, and ali th£/Ul/l'Q

~ Irtl~MbJcak ry:et7 rMui $,~, ('t'er_:ll71cm1a<-

a/re'_,:/~ or,;uwt;7a?V5ncb ad M:l M1f1wrd'.

. ./ II! de ;W~0?l.1 an' .. .f"'~ fmm tk~mrd~ f'thrC 1?lfui.-1 ~I.J /1h./ndQ tnd/,edltJIU'

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-_ .. - .. -.--- -_ .------- -
Kl
~ ARCHITECTURAL TREASURES OF EARLY AMERICA

~~tm !kl+--~=rT""TI'7--m-T'T'1~4 '_%71Odtlo~r~R===;~~~~fJ' IYn ;{;:fM.,dLm_,:?

I tt.Ud~tAv p=::::;;===~===:'l--.: !&hmn.t. hbtv..i. ~~===;:=~

I Ik tVr/zgjht ~----..

r-, m h.dvdNVtnro

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