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1. A Prescon cable, 18.00 m long is to be tensioned from one end to an initial prestressed

of 1040 MPa immediately after transfer. Assume that there is no slack in the cable, that

the shrinkage of concrete is 0.0002 at the time of transfer, and that the average

compression in concrete is 5.50 MPa along the length of tendon. E c = 26.2 GPa; Es = 200

GPa. Compute the length of shims required, neglecting any elastic shortening of the

shims and any friction along the tendon. Ans: 100.98mm

length of shims

Fig. 1 shortening of concrete

elongation of steel

end of beam after transfer

18.00 m

Solution:

f s L 1040 (18 x10 3 )

∆s = = = 93 .6mm

Es 200 x10 3

δD = = = 3.61 mm

8 EI 8(27.5 x103 )(2.278x109 )

∆T = ∆ s elastic + ∆c + ∆c

shrinkage elastic = 93.6 + 3.6 + 3.78 = 100.98mm

prestressed with 516mm2 of high tensile steel wire which is anchored to the bulkheads

of a unit stress of 1040 MPa. Assuming n = 6, compute the stresses in the concrete and

steel immediately after transfer. Ans: fc = 8.575 MPa; fy = 988.55 MPa

Fig. 2 200

300

Qi Qi

Solution:

Exact Method

Qo 516 x1040

fc = = = 8.575 MPa

Ac + ( n − 1) As ( 200 x300 ) + ( 6 − 1) 516

1 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

Approximate Method

by:

Qo 516 x1040

fs = n = (6) = 53 .664 MPa

Ag 200 x300

fc = = net = = 8.482 MPa

Ag Ag ( 200 x300 )

Approximations introduced:

1. using gross area instead of net area

2. using initial stress in steel instead of the reduced stress

with 516mm2 of high tensile steel wire which is anchored to the bulkheads at a unit

stress of 1040 MPa. The c.g.s. is 100mm above the bottom fiber. Assuming n = 6,

compute the stresses in the concrete immediately after transfer. Ans: fT = 0.00 MPa; fB =

+16.918 MPa

200

Fig. 3

cT

initial cgc

300

e ys

cgs cB

100

Beam Section Transformed section

Solution

Exact Method

( n −1) As = (6 −1)( 516 ) = 2580 mm 2

Ag = 200 x300 = 60000 mm 2

e = (300 / 2) −100 = 50 mm

Summing up moment at initial cgc:

AT y o = A1 y1 + A2 y 2

A1 y1 + A2 y 2 (200 x300 )( 0) + 2580 (50 )

yo = = = 2.06 mm

AT 60000 + 2580

c B = (300 / 2 − y o ) = 147 .94 mm

cT = (300 / 2 + y o ) = 152 .06 mm

e = c B −100 = 47 .94 mm

Compute transformed section moment of inertia:

2 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

1

IT = bh 3 + Ag ( y o ) 2 + (n − 1) As y s

12

200 x300 3

= + 60000 ( 2.06 ) 2 + 2580 ( 47 .94 ) 2 = 4.562 x10 8 mm 4

12

Fiber stresses:

Qi Q ey 516 x1040 (516 x1040 )( 47 .94 ) y

f = ± i = ±

AT IT 60000 + 2580 4.562 x10 8

= 8.575 ± 0.056393 y

Top fiber stress:

f T = 8.575 − 0.056393 (152 .06 ) = 0.00 MPa

Bottom fiber stress:

f B = 8.575 + 0.056393 (147 .94 ) = 16 .918 MPa

Approximate Method

Loss of prestress:

nQ i 6(516 x1040 )

f sL = = = 53 .664 MPa

Ag 60000

Net prestress:

f sn = f si − f sL = 1040 − 53 .664 = 986 .336 MPa

Qnet = f sn As = 986 .336 (516 x10 −3 = 508 .949 kN

Fiber stresses:

Qnet Q ey

f = ± net

Ag Ic

508 .949 x10 3 508 .949 x10 3 (50 ) y

= ±

60000 200 (300 ) 3

12

= 8.48248 ± 0.0565498 y

Top fiber stress:

f T = 8.48248 − 0.0565498 (150 ) = 0.00 MPa

Bottom fiber stress:

f B = 8.48248 + 0.0565498 (150 ) = 16 .964 MPa

Approximation introduce:

1. using approximate values of reduced prestressed

2. using the gross area of concrete

4. A post-tensioned beam has a mid span cross-section with a duct of 50mm x 75mm to

house the wires. It is pretensioned with 516mm2 of steel to an initial stress of 1040

MPa. Immediately after transfer, the stress is reduced by 5% owing to anchorage loss

and elastic shortening of concrete. Compute the stresses in the concrete at transfer.

Ans: fT = 4.829 MPa, fB = +23.913 MPa

200

Fig. 4

yo

300

50x75

cgs cgs

75 75

Beam Section

Solution

Ac = Ag − Aduct = 200 x300 − 50 x75 = 56250 mm 2

3 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

Aduct (75 ) (50 x 75 )( 75 )

yo = = = 5.00 mm

Anet 56250

y s = 75 + y o = 75 + 5 = 80 mm

cT = 150 − y o = 150 − 5 = 145 mm

c B = 150 + y o = 150 + 5 = 155 mm

Compute the moment of inertia of net section:

bh 3 b ' h' 3

I = + bh ( y o ) 2 − − b' h' (80 ) 2

12 12

200 x300 3 50 x 75 3

= + 60000 (5) 2 − − 3750 (80 ) 2 = 4.527 x10 8 mm 4

12 12

Total prestress in steel:

Q = η( As f s ) = 95 %( 516 x1040 ) x10 −3 = 509 .808 kN

Fiber stresses:

Q (Qe ) y 509 .808 x10 3 509 .808 x10 3 (80 )

f = ± = ± y

Ac I 56250 4.257 x10 8

= 9.063 ± 0.095806 y

Top fiber stress:

f T = 9.063 − 0.095806 (145 ) = −4.828 MPa

Bottom fiber stress:

f B = 9.063 + 0.095806 (155 ) = 23 .913 MPa

f = ± = ±

Ag I 200 x300 1

( 200 x300 3 )

12

= 8.4968 ±12 .7452

Top fiber stress:

f T = − 4.2484 MPa

Bottom fiber stress:

f B = 21 .242 MPa

If eccentricity does not occur along one of the principal axes of the section, it is

necessary to further resolved the moment into two components along the two principal

axes.

Q Qe x y Qe y x

f = ± ±

A Ix Iy

immediately after prestressing which eventually reduces to 1330 kN. The beam carries

two live loads of 45 kN each in addition to its own weight of 4.40 kN/m. Compute the

extreme fiber stresses at mid-span:

a) under the initial condition with full prestress and no live load

b) under final condition after all the losses have taken place and with full live load.

Ans: Initial condition: fT = 2.234 MPa, fB = 15.10 MPa; Final condition: fT = 13.803 MPa, fB

= 0.975 MPa

45kN 45kN

Fig. 5

4.50m 3.00m 4.50m

300

4 G. P. Ancog

600

175

Mid span section

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

Solution

grouting, after which the transformed section should be considered.

Section Properties:

Ag = bh = 300 x 600 = 180000 mm 2

1 1

Ig = bh 3 = (300 x 600 3 ) = 5.4 x10 9 mm 4

12 12

Initial condition

wL 2 4.4 x12 2

M = = = 79 .2 kN − m

8 8

f = ± o ± = ± ±

Ag Ig Ig 180000 5.4 x10 9 5.4 x10 9

= 8.667 ±10 .833 ± 4.40

Top fiber stress:

Final condition

M L = Pa = 45 ( 4.5) = 202 .5 kN − m

wL 2 4.4(12 2 )

MD = = = 79 .2 kN − m

8 8

Stresses:

Q Qey M T y

f = ± ±

Ag Ig Ig

f = ± ±

180 x10 3 5.4 x10 9 5.4 x10 9

= 7.389 ± 9.236 ±15 .65

5 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

Note:

For pre-tensioned beam, steel is always bonded to the concrete before any external

moment is applied. Values of A, y and I should be computed on the basis of transformed

section. For approximation, gross area of concrete can be used in calculation.

For post-tensioned and bonded beams, for any load applied after the bonding has

taken place, transformed section should be used.

For post-tensioned unbonded beams, the net concrete section is the proper one for

all stress calculation.

45 kN

C

β α

T

0.976 MPa

C = T, M = Cα = Tα

M M 281 .7 x10 6

α= = = = 211 .8 mm

C T 1330 x10 3

β = α − e = 211 .8 −125 = 86 .8 mm

Stresses:

C Cβy

f = ±

A I

1330 x10 3 1330 x10 3 (86 .8)( 300 )

= ±

180 x10 3 5.4 x10 9

= 7.389 ± 6.413

6 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

f My

ε= =

E Ec I

My

∆=∫ dx

Ec I

1 My

εave =

L ∫EcI

dx

MyE s n My

f s = E s ε ave = ∫ dx = ∫ dx

LE c I L I

6. A post-tensioned simple beam on a span of 12 m carries a superimposed load of 11.00

kN/m in addition to its own weight of 4.40 kN/m. The initial prestress in the steel is 950

MPa, reducing to 830 MPa after deducting all loses and assuming no bending of the

beam. The parabolic cable has an area of 1612.9mm2, n = 6. Compute the stresses in

the steel at mid-span assuming:

a) the steel is bonded by grouting

b) the steel is unbonded and entirely free to slip.

Ans: Bonded condition: fs = 845.258 MPa, Unbonded condition: fs = 838.137 MPa

wT = 11.00+4.40=15.40 kN/m

Section properties:

I = bh3/12 = 300(600)3/12 = 5.4x109 mm4

Mo

M c = h/2 = 600/2 = 300 mm

x

Parabolic moment diagram

y yo

Parabolic y diagram

Solution 1:

Moment at mid-span:

wL 2 15 .4(12 ) 2

Mo = = = 277 .2kN − m

8 8

Moment at mid-span due to prestress:

7 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

fc = = = 2.543 MPa

I 5.4 x10 9

n My

L∫ I

fs = dx

x 2

M = M o 1 −

L 2

x 2

y = y o 1 −

L 2

2

n L 2 x 2

fs =

LI ∫−L 2 M o y o 1 − L 2 dx

L/2

nM o y o 2 x3 x5

= x − +

LI 3 ( L 2 ) 2 5( L 2 ) 2 −L 2

8 nM o y o 8

= = (15 .258 ) = 8.137 MPa

15 I 15

.85fc’

ε c = 0.0034

a/2

C a = β 1c c

d

z

T ε s

C As f s '

a= =

.85 f c ' b .85 f c ' b

z = d −a 2

M = As f s ' ( d − a 2 )

wires for an initial stress of 1040 MPa. The cgs of the wires is 100mm above the bottom

fiber. For the tendons, fs’ = 1650 MPa, fc’ = 34.4 MPa. Determine the ultimate resisting

moment. Ans: Mu = 637.05 kN-m

8 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

Solution

C =T

.85 f c ' ba = T

T 1546 .875 x10 3

a= = =176 .34 mm

.85 f c ' b .85 (34 .4)( 300 )

Ultimate moment

M u = As f su ( d − a 2 )

= 1546 .875 ( 500 −176 .34 2 ) x10 −3 = 637 .05 kN − m

picked up at its mid-span point. Compute the critical fiber stresses. If the top fiber

cracks and the concrete is assume to take no tension, compute the bottom fiber

stresses. If the beam is picked up suddenly so that an impact factor of 100% is

considered compute the maximum stresses. Ans: Case 1: fT = -6.566 MPa, fB = 23.90

MPa; Case 2: fB = 27.905 MPa; Case 3: fB = 35.39 MPa

Solution

Section properties:

A = 300 x 600 = 180 x10 3 mm 2

1

I = (300 )( 600 ) 3 = 5.4 x10 9 mm 4

12

600

c= = 300 mm

2

wL 2 4.4(6) 2

M =− =− = −79 .2 kN − m

2 2

Q Qey My

f = ± ±

A I I

3

1560 x10 1560 x10 3 (125 )300 79 .2 x10 6 (300 )

= ± ±

180 x10 3 5.4 x10 9 5.4 x10 9

= 8.667 ± 10 .833 ± 4.4

f T = 8.667 −10 .833 − 4.4 = −6.566 MPa

f B = 8.667 +10 .833 + 4.4 = 23 .9 MPa

9 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

e = 50.77

Q 372.69

C

124.23

Triangular Stress Block

Locate center of pressure, C:

M = Qe

M 79 .2 x10 6

e= = = 50 .77 mm

Q 1560 x10 3

1

T = C = f c by

2

2T 2(1560 x10 3 )

fc = = = 27 .905 MPa

by 300 (372 .69 )

MT 158 .4 x10 6

e= = = 101 .538 mm

Q 1560 x10 3

From bottom : 175 −101 .54 = 73 .46 mm

Assu min g a triangular stress block :

y = 3(73 .46 ) = 220 .38 mm

2T 2(1560 x10 3 )

fc = = = 47 .19 MPa

by 300 ( 220 .38 )

Assu min g a rec tan gular stress block :

y = 2(73 .46 ) = 146 .92 mm

T = C = f c by

T 1560 x10 3

fc = = = 35 .39 MPa

by 300 (146 .92 )

9. Determine the total dead and live uniform load moment that can be carried by the

beam with a simple span of 12m:1. for zero tensile stress in the bottom fibers. 2. for

cracking in the bottom fibers at a modulus of rupture of 4.13 MPa and assuming

concrete to take up tension up to that value. Ans: Case 1: wT = 16.21 kN/m; Case 2: wT

= 20.34 kN/m

13.853

4.13 18.534

0 4.13

4.13

291.78 kN-m 74.34 kN-m 366.12 kN-m

10 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

Solution

Section properties:

1 1

I = bh 3 = (300 )( 600 ) 3 = 5.4 x10 9 mm 4

12 12

h 600

c= = = 300 mm

2 2

Prestress Q:

Q = As f s = 1562 .5(830 ) x10 −3 = 1296 .8 kN

Q Qey My

fB = + − =0

A I I

1296 .8 x10 3 1296 .8 x10 3 (125 )( 300 ) Mx 10 6 (300 )

0= + −

180 x10 3 5.4 x10 9 5.4 x10 9

M = 291 .78 kN − m

8M 8( 291 .78 )

w= 2 = = 16 .21 kN / m

L 12 2

Q Qey My

fT = − +

A I I

3

1296 .8 x10 1296 .8 x10 3 (125 )( 300 ) 281 .78 x10 6 (300 )

= − +

180 x10 3 5.4 x10 9 5.4 x10 9

= 13 .853 MPa

2. For cracking in the bottom fibers.

∆M = = x10 −6 = 74 .34 kN − m

c 300

M T = M 1 + ∆M = 291 .78 + 74 .34 = 366 .12 kN − m

8M 8(366 .12 )

w= = = 20 .34 kM / m

L2 12 2

10. A concrete beam of 10m simple span is post-tensioned with a 750mm 2 of high tensile

steel to an initial prestress of 965 MPa immediately after prestressing. Compute the

initial deflection at the mid-span due to-3 prestress

Q = 965(750)x10 = 723.75 kNand the beam’s own weight assuming

Ec = 27.5 GPa. Estimate the deflection after 3 mos. Assuming creep coefficient of cc =

1.8 and an due

Moment effective prestress of 830 MPa at that time. If the beam carry a 45 kN

723.75x25

concentrated

to prestressload applied at mid-span when the beam is 3 mos. old after prestressing,

723.75x150

what is the deflection at mis-span? Ans: After 3 mos. δ = 0.5579mm upward; When 45

kN is added after 3 mos. δ = 14.407 mm downward.

wL2/8

Moment due

to beam weight

11 G. P. Ancog

PL/4

Moment due

to load P

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

Solution

Section properties:

1 1

I = bh 3 = (300 )( 450 ) 3 = 2.278 x10 9 mm 4

12 12

The parabolic tendon with 150mm mid-ordinate is replaced by a uniform load acting

along the beam.

wP L2

Qh =

8

8Qh 8(723 .75 )(150 ) x10 −3

wP = 2 = = 8.685 kN / m

L 10 2

δU = = = 11 .462 mm

384 EI 384 (27 .5 x10 3 )( 2.278 x10 9 )

12 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

δD = = = 3.61 mm

8 EI 8(27 .5 x10 3 )( 2.278 x10 9 )

δP = − = − 3 9

= 14 .44 mm

384 EI 8 EI 384 8 ( 27 .5 x10 )( 2.278 x10 )

δ DL = = = 6.59 mm

384 EI 384 (27 .5 x10 3 )( 2.278 x10 9 )

1. loss of prestress

2. creep effect which tend to increase deflection

f 830

δ f = δ P s + δ DL ( c c ) = 14 .44 − 6.59(1.8) = 0.5579 mm , upward

f so 965

PL 3 45 (10 3 ) x10 12

δ LL = = = 14 .965 mm , downward

48 EI 48 (27 .5 x10 3 )( 2.278 x10 9 )

11.A double cantilever beam is to be designed so that its prestress will exactly balance the

total uniform load of 23.5 kN/m on the beam. Design the beam using the least amount

of prestressed assuming that the cgs must have a concrete protection of 75 mm. If a

concentrated load P = 65 kN is applied at the mid-span, compute the maximum top and

bottom fiber stresses. Ans: F = 1410 kN; fT = 14.934 MPa, fB = -2.40 MPa

13 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

Solution

Section properties:

A = bh = 300 x 750 = 225 x10 3 mm 2

1 1

I = bh 3 = (300 )( 750 ) 3 = 1.0546875 x10 10 mm 4

12 12

In order to balance the load on the cantilever, the cgs at the tip must coincide with

the cgc with a horizontal tangent. To use the least amount of pretsress, the

eccentricity over the support should be a maximum. Assume a gross cover of 75mm,

emax = 750/2-75 = 300 mm.

65 kN

w = 23.5 kN/m

300

e h e

750

The prestress required:

6.00 m 15.00 m 6.00 m

wL 2 wL 2 23 .5(6 2 )

Qe = ;Q= = = 1410 kN

2 2e 2(300 x10 −3 )

In order to balance the load at the mid-span, using the same prestress Q, the sag of

the parabola must be:

wL 2 wL 2 23 .5(15 2 )

Qh = ;h= = x10 −3 = 468 .75 mm

8 8Q 8(1410 )

The result will be a concordant cable and under the action of the uniform load and

prestress, the beam will have no deflection any where and will only have a uniform

compressive stress.

Q 1410 x10 3

fc = = = 6.267 MPa

A 225 x10 3

PL 65 (15 )

M = = = 243 .75 kN − m

4 4

f = = = 8.667 MPa

I 1.0546875 x10 10

Q Mc

fT = + = 6.267 + 8.667 = 14 .934 MPa

A I

Q Mc

fB = − = 6.267 − 8.667 = −2.4 MPa

A I

12. A hollow member is reinforced with 4 wires of 62.5 mm 2 each pretensioned fsi = 1030

MPa. If fc’ = fci = 34.4 MPa, n = 7, determine the stresses when the wires are cut

between members. Determine the moment that can be carried at a maximum tension of

0.5√(fc’) and a maximum of fc = 0.45fc’. If 240 MPa of the prestressed is lost (in addition

14 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

to the elastic deformation) determine this limiting moment. Ans: when the wires are

cut, fs = 936.98 MPa; Limiting moment, MT = 9.665 kN-m

200

(n-1)As = (7-1)(62.5)

100 = 375 mm2

200

100

open

Transformed Section

Solution

Transformed section:

IT =

1

12

[ ]

200 4 − 100 4 + 4( n − 1) As (70 2 ) = 1.3235 x10 8 mm 4

Initial prestressing force, Qi before transfer:

Qi 257 .5 x10 3

fc = = = 8.175 MPa

AT 31 .5 x10 3

∆f s = nf c = 7(8.175 ) = 57 .225 MPa

f c = 8.175 MPa

f so = f si − nf c = 1030 − 57 .225 = 972 .775 MPa

f t = 0.5 f c ' = 0.5 34 .4 = 2.93 MPa

f = ;MT = t = x10 −6 = 9.665 kN − m

I c 100

15 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

- =

Allowable value Initial concrete Additional

of stress stress concrete stress

Net stress in steel: level of steel

70

f sn = f so ± nf cs = 972 .775 ± 7 7.305 = 972 .775 ± 35.7945 .1135

100

Top steel:

Bottom steel:

Qi 197 .5

fc = = 8.175 = 6.27 MPa

AT 257 .5

f se = f snet − nf c = (1030 − 240 ) − 7(6.27 ) = 746 .11 MPa

f = ;MT = t = x10 −6 = 12 .17 kN − m

I c 100

16 G. P. Ancog

Prestressed Concrete Practice Problems

- =

Allowable value Initial concrete Additional

of stress stress concrete stress

17 G. P. Ancog

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