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UAV DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE
Table of content
Summary Introduction UAV fuselage design Aircraft shape and aerodynamics of fuselage Aircraft structure analysis Engine connection Wing connection Material selection UAV Fuselage manufacture Vacuuming forming Conclusion Recommendation Reference Appendix 3 4 6 7 12 12 16 18 22 22 29 30 32 33
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The first part of the report is concentrated on UAV fuselage design. It consists three sections: aerodynamics, stress analysis and material selection. The fuselage shape must be such that separation is avoided when possible. That’s where the aerodynamics of the fuselage design’s core. By designing the ratio and shape of the UAV nose and tail cone, the ultimate goal is to reduce as much drag as possible and provide lifts. We must be convinced that a manoeuvre always involves acceleration, turning, deceleration, all of which will put the UAV under high loads, that’s why the stress analysis is so important here. By referring to the thorough stress analysis, theoretically the UAV is safe to fly under any conditions. Material is always so important for aircrafts that in reality, all the aircrafts has been built by most expensive industrial materials, like carbon fibers, carbon steels, nickels,
molybdenum, etc. For this UAV design, no much vibration, corrosion, noise would be taken into consideration. What’s more, the stress involved is not as high as the real commercial aircraft, so cheaper and realistic materials should be studied. In fact, after a comprehensive study about wood, Styrofoam, plastics, steel and carbon fibers, PVC is finally chosen as the main fuselage material. The second part of the report mainly introduces an industrial process—vacuuming forming and its implementation in this UAV fuselage design. Some advantages and disadvantages are discussed in this part.
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Vacuum forming is one of the methods using thermoforming treatment. Besides the fact that vacuum forming can make exact shape as the mould, it also take less pain to build the station and take less time to produce one piece of prototype. However, several disadvantages exist. The whole process should been monitored very carefully since toxic gas would be produced if the plastic is overheated. Also in lab scale, it is always very hard to build a station large enough for the overall design and the prototype is very hard to modify as well.
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The purpose of this project is to design and manufacture an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV). As a group project, it requires four students to design and/or build wings, fuselage, engine and optimization. This report is the final report for the fuselage design and manufacture. There are numerous interesting books on the history of aircraft development. This section contains a few additional notes relating especially to the history of aircraft aerodynamics along with links to several excellent web sites. (Refer to appendix 1). However, there are very few topics relating to UAV design and manufacture. This report gives students a comprehensive overview and understanding of UAV fuselage design and manufacture. According to the optimization, this UAV is designed to maximize the endurance. In order to achieve the design goal, besides the wing and propulsion, the fuselage gives great contribution as well. The following parts have two main sections: UAV fuselage design and manufacture. In the design part, aerodynamics designs including nose and tail cone together with stress analysis and material selection are elaborated. In the manufacture part, a newly and practical industrial process—vacuum forming is introduced and implemented.
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Ota. the aerodynamic lift of the rear car is greater than that of the front one. the aerodynamic drag and lift decrease with the length of the streamlined nose shapes extending. He found that the nose shape has a strong influence on the turbulence features in the separated and reattached regions and even far downstream from the reattachment point. the aerodynamic drag of the front car of the protruding longitudinal profile is less than that of the concave. When the other parameters are the same. Shu Xin-wei and Gu Chuan-gang (2006) did researches on “numerical simulation on the aerodynamic performance of high-speed maglev train with streamlined nose”.2. and the total aerodynamic lift of the three cars of the protruding longitudinal profile is greater than that of the concave. Further search for “aerodynamic nose fineness ratio” produced 188 from Engineering Village. Terukazu (1983) worked on the project of nose shape effects on turbulence in the separated and reattached flow over blunt flat plates. regularity that its aerodynamic performance changing with its aerodynamic configuration was drawn. They indicated that with comparison and analysis of the results of the five different configurations. 6|P a ge . LITERATURE REVIEW A search for “nose fineness ratio” produced 1240 journals from Engineering Village and 480 from Web of Science. 80 out of these 188 journals have been reviewed. when the length of the streamlined nose shapes is almost the same. while that of the rear car is the contrary. Below are the summary of those researches. the aerodynamic drag of the middle car varies within a small range.
A search for “vacuum forming” produced 820 journals from Engineering Village and 210 from Web of Science. Below are the summary of those researches. Campo. garage doors. 40 out of these 1130 journals have been reviewed. K. and impact strength.Goodson. PVC is a recyclable commodity thermoplastic material of large consumption by the building and construction industry. Fillers are used to reduce the cost. improve dimensional stability. W (1958) wrote of journal named Effect of Nose Length. E. The forebody changes did not alter the angle of attack at which an unstable break occurred in the moment contribution of the T-tail but did alter somewhat the magnitude of the instability. windows frames and profiles. and connectors. They can also improve the heat stability or improve the flame retardancy of the compound. PVC is used in a large variety of end products such as flooring. stiffness. PVC is popular because of its excellent impact. wear. siding. tubing. Alfredo (2008) wrote in his journal “Polymeric Materials and Properties” that all PVC compounds require heat stabilizers to allow processing without degrading and discoloring the polymer. He discovered that the stability for all model configurations showed substantially the same variation with changes in forebody area moment. These products 7|P a ge . and Nose Fineness Ratio on the Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Complete Models at High Subsonic Speeds. Fuselage Length. chemical. Plasticizers are added to increase the flexibility of the compound. and UV resistance.
and Garvin. and paint). mold design. that although several materials can be used for the mold. interlocking. and easy to work with (weld. ft'. Fagence. particularly for long production needs. Here. Decoration and joining by adhesive bonding and HF welding of PVC vacuum formed products were discussed. Wilhelm R (1971) stated in his report “Vacuum forming of thermoplastics”. Heinz (1977) indicated in his journal “Importance of Vacuum Technology for Extrusion of Plastics as Exemplified by PVC Processing” that the processing of powdered thermoplastics . for instance epoxies and silicone rubber. He also stated that a definition of 'large sheet' could be a 'sheet in excess of 16 sq. etc). the extruders are fitted with vacuum-assisted feed hoppers.particularly PVC in the form of compounds including common stabilizers . prestretching. and mold cooling in the large piece of vacuum forming process. W. The more recent development in the sector of PVC film for food packaging has called the attention to compact extrusion lines with small sized calenders.W. single-screw and planetary roller extruders with sheering dies rather than twin-screw extruders are used as plasticizing equipment. Apart from air and moisture. clamping. 8|P a ge . Breuer. metal forms were mostly used. heating. drawing. S.Barry (1973) discussed the machines and their operations (loading the sheets.are commonly available in standard sizes and shapes. repair. For improving the profitability of these techniques as well as the quality of the finished products. low cost.on twin-screw extruders was widely accepted quite some time ago. however.
also permits the removal of other excess gases and vapors and. the main part accumulating in the polymer and being active in intermolecular and intermolecular condensation reactions by which cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene rings embedded in an aliphatic matrix are formed. McNeill. Livia Memetea and William J. when very little HCl and benzene are formed. 9|P a ge . In this stage the polymeric network formed by polyene condensation breaks down in the process of aromatisation of the above C6 rings. between 360 and 500 °C. Cole (1995) discovered in their study of “products of PVC thermal degradation” that PVC shows two stages of degradation: during the first stage. mainly HCl and benzene and very little alkyl aromatic or condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons are formed. It was evaluated that 15% of the polygene generates benzene.the vacuum technology from which the closed system of the vacuum type twinhopper venting unit with the extruder has been derived. not last. Ian C. between 200 and 360 °C. the residual VC content from the PVC melt. Alkyl aromatic and condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons are formed in the second stage of degradation. The mechanism of benzene formation at different temperatures was considered.
the payload requires a fuselage being able to hold a camera. servo.3. This is generally done by selecting a value not too different from existing aircraft with similar requirements. Siniša (2010) Stated that fuselages with smaller fineness ratios have less wetted area to enclose a given volume. something must be chosen. and structures. at the expense of structural weight. In the absence of such guidance. batteries. other considerations are: • • • • low aerodynamic drag minimum aerodynamic instability ease of assembly and disassembly of fuselage structural support for wing and tail forces acting in flight. Except the payload requirement. Hemida. Hassan and Krajnovic. for which such a detailed study has presumably been done. aerodynamics. and targeting ball. The overall dimensions of the fuselage affect the drag through several factors. In this UAV fuselage design. but more wetted area when the diameter and length of the cabin are fixed. The higher Reynolds number and increased tail length generally lead to improved aerodynamics for long. thin fuselages. UAV FUSELAGE DESIGN The design of the fuselage is based on payload requirements. Selection of the best layout requires a detailed study of these trade-offs. which involves simple stress analysis for the entire fuselage 10 | P a g e . but to start the design process. one selects an initial layout that satisfies the payload requirements.
practical nose cones are often blunted or truncated for manufacturing or aerodynamic reasons. as x varies from 0. This requires that the nose and tail cone fineness ratios be sufficiently large so that excessive flow accelerations are avoided. y is the radius at any point x. The aircraft fineness ratios are defined as length divided by diameter. at the tip of the nose cone. Note that the equations describe the 'perfect' shape. The full body of revolution of the nose cone is formed by rotating the profile around the centerline (C/L).1. Aircraft Nose and Tail Cone Design The fuselage shape must be such that separation is avoided when possible. L is the overall length of the nose cone and R is the radius of the base of the nose cone. which including nose fineness ratios and tail cone fineness ratios. In all of the following nose cone shape equations. 11 | P a g e .1. Aircraft Shape and Aerodynamics of Fuselage 3.3. The equations define the 2dimensional profile of the nose shape. to L.1.
the nose and tail cone fineness ratio play an important role in fuselage design as well.5. Below is a simulation graph: drag loss VS 12 | P a g e . But as shown above. parabolic. etc. the drag coefficient increase as well. Cone. Tian Hong-qi and Wang Cheng-yao (2006) wrote in journal “Aerodynamic performance comparison of several kind of nose shapes” that as speed of the plane increases. Tangent ogive. 1/2 Power. ellipsoid. Except the shape of the fuselage. Different type of fuselage shape can give different drag coefficient as well. the shape of the airplane does not give too much difference. below Mach number 0. (Refer to appendix 2 for more details) Liu Tang-hong.There are several shapes available: 3/4 Power.
5cm. R=4. L=18cm.fineness ratio. that other criteria may be taken into account when selecting the shape. Not surprisingly. the elliptical shape has poorer performance than the other shapes. with the nose and tail fineness ratio 2. A 2:1 fineness ratio may be chosen over 3:1 for practical reasons. The profile of current designed shape is one-half of an ellipse. the difference in apogee between the other shapes is so small for the higher fineness ratios. Also there are the thermal considerations in real airplane consideration. but except from that. and perhaps the parabolic shape. 13 | P a g e .
the width. the shape also depends on the manufacturability. As such. In order to make sure the Centre of Gravity is behind the aerodynamic centre.5cm L=18cm In this UAV design. more details would be discussed in the UAV manufacturing part. the nose should be designed so as to have enough space to hold the payloads at the very front. According to the payloads weights. which is design to make sure of the aircraft stability and easily maneuverability. 14 | P a g e . centre of gravity as well as the attribution of the different parts. That’s the main reason of this design. Fineness ratio 2 is restricted by the overall length of the fuselage and diameter of the fuselage. namely the aircraft lateral diameter is no less than 9cm. one of key factors in UAV fuselage shape design is the payload. Besides all these considerations. Any longer fuselage will increase the drag even more. and based on the fact that the tail of the plane is relatively high.R=4. the batteries and camera should be put into the very front to counter the weight.
5cm Ellipse R=4.3. Final UAV designed shape The main function of this UAV fuselage is to protect the payloads during the flight test and actually flying. L=18cm 15 | P a g e .5cm 0. The final design is as followed: design parameters fuselage length nose length tailcone length main cabin length cross section diameter fuselage thickness nose fineness tailcone fineness forward extra space after extra space Fuselage shape design value <36cm 18cm 18cm 0 9cm 1mm 2 2 0. So the priority of the design is to fulfill the payloads’ requirement.2.1.5cm.
87N So there are two main force on steel plate T= 6.m.87Nand M1=T*L1=6.7*9. 3. Aircraft Structure Analysis The main concerns for this UAV design regarding to stress analysis are from connections with engines and wings.87*0.275N.2.2. The following are details of calculation for these two parts. Engine Connection Engine: max thrust T=0.1.5cm*4cm=2cm^2=0.3.04=0.0002m^2 16 | P a g e .81=6. The cross section Area of the steel plate is: 0.
you would get a circle. The way in which this occurs is described by Mohr’s circle.65N/mm^2=1. Such a circle is shown in figure below. the normal stresses and the shear stresses change. So 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = 𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = Z=2. since the section is symmetric about both y and z axis.5mm 1 ∗ 40 ∗ 53 = 417𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚4 12 10 6 𝑁𝑁 𝑚𝑚 2 𝑀𝑀𝑦𝑦 𝑧𝑧 𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 M=0.The equation for thin walled structure is as follow: For this problem. Since Mz=0. Iyz=0.65𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 Let’s suppose we know all the stresses in the normal (x. Mohr stated that if you plot the direct stresses and the shear stresses. When we shift the coordinate system.65× Γ=F/A=3. z)-coordinate system.5×104 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀=0.275N.mm So 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 =275*2. 17 | P a g e .m=275N.5/417=1. y.035MPa Mohr’s Circle = 1.
𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 = 0.42MPa Max shear stress is 0.035MPa.𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = 1. Use the Java applet(4. in compression is 7.65𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀. Γ=0. aoe) to draw the Mohr’s circle: Max normal stress in tension is 1.826MPa 18 | P a g e .65MPa.
So the max stress is 2.48MPa. Here we use the diagram the same RV-9. is far smaller than the upper yield point for steel.5 is given. Since the airspeed is no more than 25 kts. the max stress is 2. According to the V-n diagram below.In aircraft structure design. According to the calculation. the stress strain curve is shown below. 19 | P a g e . Each design of aircraft has its own V-n diagram. so this steel is safe to use. a safety factor of 1. one of the most important factors is safety factor. For steel.48MPa=360 psi.
Each wing contributes 15N. the max lift is 30N in total. Since there are two rods attached to each wing. 20 | P a g e .9MPa Γ=0.5N*50mm=375N.5N. According to Shaoming’s analysis. If the longer rod can bear the loads. We should calculate the longer rod. the load for each rod is 7.2. Wing Connection Now we are going to calculate the structure stress due to wing loading. The length of the rod is 5cm.3.mm r=5mm 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = 𝑀𝑀𝑦𝑦 𝑧𝑧 𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 =1.2.0095MPa The Mohr’s circle is as follow. the shorter one can as well. M2=7.
The max stress is far less than yield strength. Adding safety of factor in 1.The max normal stress is 1. 21 | P a g e . the max stress is 2. Stress strain curve for carbon fibre is as follow. So the aircraft structure is safe by using carbon fibre rod at the wind area.9MPa. The max shear stress is 0.5.85MPa.955MPa.
Comparably large strength allied to lightness. Strong stiffness and toughness for the rear rod.3. sandwich fuselages.3. Since the UAV does not need too much strength. insulation blankets in between the skin and the interior panels. etc. application of damping improving viscoelastic layers. In the real world of aircraft. 22 | P a g e . application of piezo electric elements for active noise control. the main material used is aluminum alloys for all kinds of aircraft. double walls (skin with an interior panel). Cui Degang (2008) conventional stiffened fuselages (skin/frames/stiffeners). are designed and launched to strength the fuselage. Material Selection for Fuselage 3.1. which is pure aluminum mixed with other metals to improve its strength.3. Low cost and weight for all parts. Fracture toughness Crack propagation rate Stress corrosion resistance Exfoliation corrosion resistance Today. only the skin with basic holding structure would be enough. General Selection Choice of materials emphasizes not only strength/weight ratio but also: • • • • • • • • Nose transparency for camera function.
Styrofoam. 23 | P a g e . aluminum sheet. cost. manufacturability. etc. plastics are the best choice. Considering all the factors listed at the beginning of this section. plastics. weight-to-stress ratio. and vacuum forming method is chosen for plastics’ manufacture. and resistant to corrosion or stress concentration. including stress factors.Below is a comparison of material property comparison for different kinds of possible materials for aircraft fuselage. wood. and carbon fibers.
Materials Heating time(S) 10% PS 60 3 ABS 80 2. It has strong.2. good chemical and fire retardant properties and highly resistant to solvents.95 6 2. including PS. 10%. a comparison of various plastics is listed. which are 10%.5 1 3 1. 40%. For each material property.35 3 Cost 10% Formability Strength 40% 40% Total Score Ranking 24 | P a g e . cost. PE.95 6 2 2 2 2.5 3 1. The final scores are calculated for each plastic and we get PVC has the first position which get a score 2. formability. and 40% respectively. A scale from zero to three is given to each of the four properties. PVC and PC. In the following table. heating time.60 (full score is three).5 2. Thicker materials are rigid with good impact strength ideally suited to outdoor industrial applications. ABS. Selection of Plastics For the UAV fuselage.3.05 5 2. PVC is chosen.3. from all the possible plastics.5 PP 100 1 PE 100 2. and strength. PP. four percentages are given.5 1 3 1. tough thermoplastic with good transparency in thinner gauges.
More details about vacuuming forming of PVC would be discussed in the manufacturing section of the later part.5 3 3 2 2.40 2 PVC PC 60 3 120 0.1 PETG 60 3 1 3 2 2.60 1 1 2 3 2.15 4 • The standard thickness for the heating is 2mm. 25 | P a g e .
The trapped air is evacuated with the assistance of a vacuum system and once cooled a reverse air supply is activated to release the plastic part from the mould. In its simplest form the process consists essentially of inserting a thermoplastic sheet in a cold state into the forming clamp area.4. Vacuum forming The whole fuselage requires vacuuming forming as a tool to manufacture two parts: aircraft nose and the tail cone. Vacuum forming has generally been promoted as a ‘dark art’ and best left to companies with sophisticated processing equipment that is able to supply the facility and service. Contact is made between the sheet and the mold creating a seal. about 15 PSI maximum. By using this method. moulds. The air in the cavity is evacuated and atmospheric pressure forces the sheet 26 | P a g e . heating it to the desired temperature either with just a surface heater or with twin heaters and then raising a mould from below. UAV Fuselage Manufacture 4. this is the most common process used for high volume thin gage products. In this process the heated sheet is placed over a cavity mold. vacuum machine and heaters are commonly being used. plastics. Although this force is quite limited.1. Vacuum forming is one of the methods using thermoforming treatment.
5mm for testing 1mm manufacturing Oven Effective working ratio 30*25cm 1:1.5mm 3minutes for 1mm Max mould length 18cm Max mould diameter 9cm 27 | P a g e .against the contours of the cavity. Vacuum box Frame 25*20cm Vacuum cleaner Plastics 0. Most vacuum forming machines include a surge tank which is first evacuated so the forming can occur very quickly in the process. The followings are some key dimensions of this vacuum forming stations with pictures.5 Temperature Time needed 240 degrees 1minutes for 0.
1. it is relatively easy to use vacuum forming method for fabrication. The working station is shown below.4. 28 | P a g e . Since the design of the fuselage has very restricted requirements. vacuum table. For student lab scale. oven. which is one of the key factors in this UAV design. it would be practical to design and build the vacuum forming station. there are only two possible economic ways to do that: clamping and vacuum forming. as shown below. we could make the exact shape as the moulds.1. The practical vacuum forming station is built by a vacuum cleaner. and a frame. although there are some minor defects. Some other tools are being used during the fabricating as well. Secondly. by using vacuuming forming method. Advantages Firstly.
it is not a very time-consuming process. Once the station is settled. the all process for one part would be approximately 10 minutes without assembly. 29 | P a g e .Thirdly.
there are some disadvantages needed to be taken into accounts.2.4.5mm and 1mm PVC are being used for testing and manufacturing.1. The temperature plays a crucial part here. not to melt them. 30 | P a g e . By experiments.2.1.5mm PVC needs 1 minute to been heated to desire soft state and 2mm PVC need 3 minutes. The purpose of heating the plastics is to soft the plastics. Disadvantages and Solutions Despite all these advantages about vacuuming forming process. it is toxic if the plastics are being heated too much. The oven is set to 240 degrees for both two materials. If the plastics are overly heated. 0. it would be dangerous for the operator. Then by different materials. 4. the setup time for the oven to heat up to the desired temperature is 5 minutes.1. (Refer to the appendix for industrial heating time). Toxic gas Firstly. while 0. For this lab experiments. heating time is different.
wall thickness of the product varies depending on the amount of stretching that must occur to create the desired geometry.2. the surface area of the formed section is half a ellipse plus the rest of area.4. however they can be excellent instructional tools for comparing part designs and processes. Linear Draw Ratios and Height-toDimension Ratios.1. This is determined by calculating the surface area of the formed part and dividing it by the surface area of the sheet used to form the part. 31 | P a g e .2. This is the number one disadvantage of the thermoforming process. Non-Uniform Wall Thickness Secondly. Aerial Draw Ratio (ADR) ADR is the overall measurement of stretch of the sheet.1.1.2. Here drawing ratios are introduced. 4. Drawing ratios include Aerial Draw Ratios. There are many design rules as well as process variations to lessen the impact of “stretching. ADR = Surface area of the formed section / Surface area of the sheet used to form the part In this part design. it is Non-Uniform Wall Thickness that comes in during the experiments. Each has advantages but is only grossly representative of sheet thinning.2. Since thermoforming is a “stretching” process.
the area is S2=254cm^2 ADR=S1/S2=1. S1=425cm^2 Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + 1 = 0. b=c=9.L=18cm.6075. This information is helpful to compare the stretching properties of various materials. Maximum ADR’s are shown. 32 | P a g e . R=9cm. p=1.67 . Surface Area A=18.
8+9 18 The maximum LDR for various plastics is shown below. Only the forming area is included in this calculation.2.2.71 33 | P a g e .1.4. Linear Draw Ratio (LDR) This the comparison of the length of a straight line drawn on the sheet before forming as compared to the length of the same line after forming. LDR = Line length on formed part / Line length before forming The drawing of this experiment is The circumference of the ellipse is For the special case where the minor axis is half the major axis.2. we can use: So arc length C=21.8cm So the LDR= 21. = 1.
5 PeterW.1 This experiment is within the range.Dimension Ratio This ratio is simply the height of the formed part divided by the length of the greatest opening of the part. Height –To.4 2. The usefulness of this ratio is limited to simple symmetric parts such as a drinking cup using straight vacuum forming process with a cavity mold. H: D = Height of formed part / Greatest length of opening H: D=9/18=0.2.2.LINEAR DRAWRATIO(LDR) Plastic ABS Acrylic HDPE LDPE PP PVC Maximum LDR 3. 4. It means that this experiment is within range.1 4.1 184.108.40.206.5 7. Klein (2009) stateD that the height-to-dimention ratio for PVC is 6.3 4. 34 | P a g e .
it is the only way to manufacture fuselage by plastics using the ideal design. Despite the disadvantages. which mean the effective working area of the plastics should be more than 47. at last.5. the frame is designed to have only 25*20cm effective working area.1.5cm nose length plus 18cm tail cone length. Size of the Station Thirdly. The required size for the fuselage is 13. not because it is the requirement of this project. it would the size of the vacuum table that has to be enlarged. In fact. some modifications have been made. At first.2. the original oven is finally practical. 35 | P a g e . and the oven has 30*25 effective working areas. frame and the oven! As shown below.25cm. as a commonly used industrial process. The shrinking rate for this process is 1:1. the manufacture process is always restricted by the size of the station.4. vacuum forming. Then it follows the frame. Vacuum table has 20*15cm effective working area. This method is chosen to manufacture the UAV fuselage. It was not possible for the vacuum table. and lastly the oven.3. two identical parts had been divided and glued together. provide a practical way to the fuselage into reality. In order to make the whole piece of nose and cone at one time. but mainly. In order to continue this project with this method. by trying different cutting machine of the mould.
Styrofoam. vacuum forming is discussed. The fuselage design focus on aerodynamics. Based on several researches on nose and tail cone fineness ratio as well as shape of fuselage. Solutions are provided as well. stress analysis and material selection. as the nose and tail cone ratio as 1:2. only 10% of which. it is the desirable raw material. So the fuselage structure is safe to use these materials. carbon fibre. as well as the manufacturability. this UAV fuselage is designed as ellipsoid. 36 | P a g e . in fact. The max stress in the plate and rod is far less than the yield strength. PVC is finally chosen for the main fuselage skin. and so on.5. After comparing the properties of wood. Due to the stress requirement. CONCLUSION This UAV fuselage design and manufacture report has two main parts. In the manufacture part. Several advantages and disadvantages are listed as well. plastics. And the manufacture part focuses on vacuum forming process. Stress is calculated on mainly the steel plate attached to the engine and the carbon fibre rod attached to wings.
one can consider the furnace available in the impact lab locates at EA-01-01 or the material lab locates at E3-04-1.com/watch?v=e5CGfoxnKaQ http://www. with simple procedure and lab-accessibility.com/watch?v=hGBRiYhxRTM http://www. Vacuum forming is specially designed for thermoplastics forming process.com/watch?v=yhajk_IDTUo http://www. two main problems arise. Not only the size of the station restricts the whole experiments for more than a month. In the future. the vacuum station should be designed in the way that can be altered. 37 | P a g e . the toxic gas is another main issue here as well. the fineness ratio cannot be bigger than 2.com/watch?v=Qc_FZcGzYn0&feature=related .youtube.youtube.youtube. For construction of the vacuum forming table. one can try to increase the fineness ratio and better improve the drag loss coefficient. please refer to the video from YouTube: http://www. especially the size of oven and the vacuum table.youtube. During the experiments. RECOMMENDATION Since this fuselage design is restricted by the payloads. If the oven is not available in the market within the budget.6. Students want to do some vacuum forming experiments before setting up the station. In the future. can approach SDE department to get approve of accessing the design workshop in Department of Architecture. for next batch of students.
One should take note of this in the experiments and try to use a mask or do these experiments in a clean room with air pump inside. and existing product refinement. In case of structural failure. Instead of using clay as the ray material for the moulds.files/FormechVacuumGuide. during flight. Since the vacuum forming process requires the plastics to be very soft before put onto the mould and vacuum table. a better surface finishing can be achieved.topic604638. one can take wood or Styrofoam into account. the structure would stand strong stress. Also. FEA may be used to help determine the design modifications to meet the new condition.edu/fs/docs/icb. In addition. It is used in new product design. During the design and experiment. besides vacuuming forming.pdf for more details about industrial vacuum forming process. By using turning for wood block or foam cutter for Styrofoam. it would be necessary to use FEA to analysis the whole body FEA consists of a computer model of a material or design that is stressed and analyzed for specific results.One can refer to http://isites. If the material is wood or Styrofoam. accelerating and turning. It happened four times to this design.harvard. Another problem arises during the experiments is the toxic gas. 38 | P a g e . In fact. it is inevitable that the models crashed. stress analysis can be done using FEA. so the time and temperature control during the heating process is crucial. it is very hard to control the heating time so as to eliminate the toxic gas.
Alfredo(2008). Plast Inst.Barry (1973). Conf. n 6. pp123-125 6. : Zeitschrift fur Flugwissenschaften und Weltraumforschung. 1034-7 2. p 30-33 39 | P a g e . K. n 2. “Polymeric Materials and Properties”. Langley Research Center. China. Campo. William Andrew Publishing. p 316-321 3. W (1958). E. “Vacuum forming of thermoplastics”. n 5. 249 pp 5. v 9. v 40. v 21. Hampton. VA. and Garvin. Wilhelm R (1971). 126-8 4. “Large Size Vacuum Forming”. W. Ota. Terukazu (1983).W. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. n 3. “nose shape effects on turbulence in the separated and reattached flow over blunt flat plates”.7. New Tech in Extrusion and Injection Moulding. ISBN-13: 9780815515517. and Nose Fineness Ratio on the Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Complete Models at High Subsonic Speeds”. “Effect of Nose Length. REFERENCE 1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University. Fagence. Goodson. v 7. Fuselage Length. Shanghai Jiaotong University Press. Plastvarlden. S. “numerical simulation on the aerodynamic performance of high-speed maglev train with streamlined nose”. Shu Xin-wei and Gu Chuan-gang (2006).
Press of Chinese Journal of Aeronautics. Cole (1995). 573-82. Siniša (2010). Morgan & Claypool. McNeill. v 98. Cui Degang (2008). “Fundamentals of Plastics Thermoforming”. Livia Memetea and William J. n 3. 25 11. Klein (2009). “LES study of the influence of the nose shape and yaw angles on flow structures around trains”. Heinz (1977). p 233-240 8. Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica. “Structure technology development of large commercial aircraft”. v 29. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. n 1. PeterW. “Importance of Vacuum Technology for Extrusion of Plastics as Exemplified by PVC Processing”. p 34-46 10. China. Polymer Research. PP12-13 40 | P a g e . Received 3 January 1995 9. Hemida. University of Glasgow. Plastverarbeiter. Ian C. Elsevier. “products of PVC thermal degradation”. Chemistry Department. v 28. Hassan and Krajnovic. Breuer. n 5.7.
airbus.org/chanute/Cha_index.aspx http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_aircraft_carrier http://en.html http://www.boeing.htm http://en.edu/aa241/AircraftDesign.com/en/ http://invention.wrightflyer.com/history/ http://www.edu/ http://spicerweb.org/wiki/UAV http://adg.org/history/wright/first.stanford.aero-web.APPENDIX 1 Historical Website about Aircraft Design http://adg.stanford.msstate.org/ http://www.edu/aa241/intro/history/history.wikipedia.psychology.html 41 | P a g e .
APPENDIX 2 Aircraft Fuselage Nose Shape 3/4 Power Cone 1/2 Power Tangent ogive Parabolic Ellipsoid 42 | P a g e .
APPENDIX 3 moulds Final product 43 | P a g e .
APPENDIX 4 Failed Prototypes 44 | P a g e .
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APPENDIX 6 Processes Mould building 47 | P a g e .
Prepare the plastics Put into the oven Temperature setting 240 degrees 48 | P a g e .
Turn on the vacuum cleaner. put the plastics on top of mould Trimming-final product 49 | P a g e .
Assembly and paint 50 | P a g e .
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