RESOURCE B@KS OR F TEACHERS

series editor A l a nM a l e y

Rinvolucri M John organ Mario I

OXTORD

Vocabulary

Titles in the Resource Books for Teachersseries
Beginners Peter Grundy Dynamics Classroom Jill Hadfield Conversation and Rob Nolasco LoisArthur Teaching !earner-based Colin Campbell Hanna and Kryszewska Letters Levy, Burbidge, Gray, Peta Sheila andMario Nicky nvol Ri ucri Listening Goodith White

Awareness Cultural Stempleski Literature BarryTomalin and Susan Alan and Maley Duff Alan Dictionaries Wright Jonathan Drama Wessels Charlyn Exam Classes Peter May and Music Song Murphey Tim Newspapers Peter Grundy ProjectWork edition 2nd

D r a n a .t n e 0 - b o o l n L Film BarryTomalin Pronunciation and Susan Stempleski Laroy Clement Global lssues

Hillyard and Ricardo Sampedro Susan Dictation Grammar Wajnryb Ruth Homework Painter Lesley TheInternet David ScottWindeatt, Hardisty, David Eastment and Primary Resource Books with Children Art andCrafts AndrewWright

Role Play Porter Gillian Ladousse 2nd Vocabulary edition Morgan Mario and Rinvolucri John Writing Tricia Hedge

with Learners Proiects Young Dunford Phillips, Bunruood, Helen Sarah and Diane

Young Learners Assessing with Storytelling Children and Pavlos AndrewWright loannou-Georgiou Sophie ravtou Learners VeryYoung with Children Creating Stories Vanessa and Reilly Sheila Ward M. AndrewWright Writing with Children Drama with Children Sarah Phillips Games Children for Bedson Lewis Gi.inther Gordon with Learners TheInternet Young and Gordon Lewis Reilly Vanessa Reilly Jackie and Young-Learners Phillips Sarah

Resource for Books Teachers series editorAlanMaley Vocahulary Second edition M John organ Mario Rinvolucri OXTORD IJNIVERSITY PRESS .

in any form or by any means.OX.FORD \JNIVERSITY PRESS Great Clarendon Street. Oxford oxz 5op Oxford University Pressis a department ofthe University ofOxford. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced. A11 stored in a retrieval system. bufthis permission does not extend to additional schools or branches Under no circumstances may any part ofthis book be photocopied for resale Any websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only' Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content rsBN o 19 4421864 Printed in China . scholarship' and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford NewYork Auckland Bangkok BuenosAires CapeTown Chennai DaresSalaam Delhi HongKong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi SioPaulo Shanghai Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto oxFoRD and oxrono BNGLISHare registered trade marks of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries @ Oxford UniversitY Press zoo4 The moral rights ofthe author have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First published zoo4 rights reserved. Individual marked purchasers may make copies for their own use or for use by classesthat ihey teach. You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose tltis same condition on any acquirer Photocopying The Publisher grants permission for the photocopying ofthose pages 'photoiopiable' according to ttle following conditions. It furthers the University's objective ofexcellence in research. School purchasers may rnake copies for use by staffand students. or transmitted.

Acknowledgements

from We should like to thank the following people:stLrdents Cambridge,the New School,Cambridge,and Davies's/Eurocentre who have suppliedus Pilgrims, Canterbury;the many colleagues where possible; with ideas,who are individually acknowledged Michael Rundell,for inspiration and practical guidancein using who edited the first edition of the book, corpora;Yvonnede Henseler, who solvedmany of the problems thrown and Simon Murison-Bowie, up by the second;our families in their participation in writing and testing. The authors and publisher are grateful to thosewho havegiven permissionto reproducethe following extractsand adaptationsof copyright material: m rces.comfor Bereavement Publishing, (www.bereave entsou Inc. ) permissionto reproducethe poem 'The Elephantin the room' by TeryzKettering. Blackrazell Mott for permissionto reproducean extract from and GrooksllbyPietHein. and BloomsburyPublishing,McClellandand Stewart(Canada), House(Alfied Knopf) for permissionto reproduce Random 'Fugitivepieces'by Anne Michaels. Committee on Povertyand the Arms Tradefor an extract from Bombs by forBreakfastpublished CampaignAgainstArms Tradein 1978. of CedricRobinsonand David Charlesfor an extract flom SandPilot (79801. MorecambeBay Daniella Cammackfor an extract fiom an email. for David HighamAssociates permissionto reproducean extract Pilgrim'byJohn Le Carr6. 1990DavidCornwell. @ from'The Secret Publishedby Hodder & Stoughton,1991. rNhitsunWeddingsby Faberand Faberfor an extract from The Philip Larkin. Farrar,Strausand Giroux, LLC,and Faberand Faberfor permissionto by cte reproduce'Home is so Sad'fr om Colle d Poems Philip Larkin. Philip Larkin. of Copyright@1988,1989bythe Estate newspaperfor 'Viaduct rescue'published in the The Guardian dian,23 February1980. Guar 'You Guy Browning for permissionto reproducean extract from section,9 June talking to me?'published in the GuardianWeekend 2001,@GuyBrowning. Acknowledgements Iv

Hodder and Stoughtonfor an extract fromTheSecretPilgrimby John Le Carr6. for Julius Nyerereand Oxford University Press an extract from Ujamaa (1e68). 'Drive-thru destroyedby Group for an extract from Kent Messenger 15 inferno' ftom Kmt Messenger, March 2002. Little, Brown and Co.and Mclntyre Managementfor permissionto reproducean extract ftomGridlockbyBen Elton. NicholasBrealeyPublishingfor permissionto reproducean extract fromBreakingthroughCulhreShock:lNhatyouNeedtoSucceedin byElisabeth Marx. @ElisabethMarx 1999. InternationalBusiness Publishedby NicholasBrealeyPublishingLimited in 1999. andl SheilaHocken and Victor Gollanczfor an extract fromE;rnrna (79:77\. for'Charlie Cairoli the clown diesaged70' Times Newspapers 1980. February publishedin TheTimes,l8 Although every effort has been made to trace and contact copyright holdersbefore publication, this has not been possiblein somecases. We apologize for any apparent infringement of copyright and if notifled, the publisher will be pleasedto rectify any errors or omissionsat the earliestopportunity.

vi I Acknowledgements

Contents

The authors and series editor Foreword Introduction
Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) Page

I Pre-text activities 1.1 What'sinthetext? Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced 20-30 Tomotivatestudentstoreadatextby 13 getting tospeculate them beforehand about content. its towork from 15 out To encourage students the ofunfamiliar words. context meanings Toreviewareasofvocabularywithwhich 16 thestudents already some have familiarity, in areas more sothat items these can new in'and easily be'slotted remembered; to interesta dull in text. stimlate focus students' To the attention the on 19 words ways associate bymeaning they or onthe context, especially positive and negative connotations have words and forthem. To encourage students toexplore their 20 preconceptions particular about words before meeting ina context, them so reading more that their becomes directed and critical attention how on To focus students' the words, on they toremember and how try context influence memory. might their Tomotivate focus students' and the the readinga text first of by exploring ' personal ofsome connections ofthe words ohrases and used. 22

1.2 Predicting meanings 1.3 Predictingwords

'10-20

Intermediate 2O-25 to advanced

1.4 Criminalrecords

Elementarv to advanced

30-40

gender 1.5 Ungrammatical

Intermediate to advanced

30-40

1.5 Look,remember, and completethe set 1.7 Wordson a map

Elementary to advanced lntermediate to advanced

30-40

20-30

23

Contents vii I

especially thatwillbeused the one as basis discussionessay-writing. how can expressed and they be by definitions orparaphrases. 2. for or 25 2 Working with texts 2.5 Huntthe misfits 2. personal overcome dislikes. about and.8 Cardson the table Intermediate to advanced qet To thestudents toclarifv ideas their about topic attitude a or before reading a text.1 Customizing text a Intermediate to advanced 20-30 focus students' 1 To the attention by 28 giving a specific rather them task.7 Ghostdefinitions Intermediate to advanced 20-35 Elementary 20 to intermediate Elementarv to advanced Elementary to advanced Beginner to advanced Beginner to advanced Elementary to advanced 2040 20-30 2.4 Deletingwords Post-beginner 15-20 to advanced Intermediate to advanced 20-45 2. To make vocabulary new memorable by linkinqto imoortant it memories inthe students'own lives. To and scan re-contextualize text fragments. Tousecreativeword-associationasan 42 aid memorv. the 2 To encouragethem closely tolook atwords phrases and incontext.11 Towardslearningatext by heart (b) 2.12 Cross-associations 15-40 Toencouragestudentstoremember 40 contextswell single as as words and phrases.10 Towardslearningatext by heart (a) 2.5 Marginalia 2. Togivestudentsachancetosharetheir 30 feelings vocabulary perhaps.9 Thewords in your past 2.2 Favouritephrases Beginnerto advanced Elementary toadvanced 15-30 2. 38 39 2. Toencouragestudentstoremember 41 contextswell single as as words and phrases. to 15-30 15-25 viii I Contents . toexpress and their own understandings meanings ofspecific and connotations. To focus whether on is a word necessary33 ornotasa way exploringmeaning of its incontext.8 Patchwork text 2.Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) 20-30 Page 1.3 Cotrecttheteacher 25-35. get To studentslook to closely at 33 vocabulary incontext. To develop students' awareness 34 critical of meanings incontext To focus the on exact meanings oflexical 37 items. 45-60 1 Togiveatask-basedfocustolistening 31 2 Toencouragestudentstobuildupa wider ofvocabulary set choices. telllng to than simply them read text.

3 Addingwords to a story 30-40 Elementary to intermediate 10-1 Lower-intermediate5 to advanced give an to To thestudentsopportunity creativelv a safe.Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) 30-40 Page else 2.14 Email language Intermediate to advanced get about and 43 To students thinking words phrases cultural/historical context.13 Be someone 2. anaid memory on and spelling.1 Invisible Elementary to advanced 10-20 get toreflectand on use To students 'known' from vocabulary.4 Culturalkeywords Elementary to upperintermediate Intermediate to advanced 15-20 40-50 54 40-50 Lower-intermediate to advanced of 55 the resonance To explore cultural and ways which in specific vocabulary. of 57 deduce meaningtarget-language the To context.3 Focusing difficulty on 4. others vocabularya in newlv-learnt Topractice of and widerange contexts situations 47 3. To students native-speaker texts unconected Upper-intermediate 40-50 to advanced 3 Writing activities writing 3.2 The oracle 15-20 Lower-intermediate to advanced 49 3.the important items represent vocabulary can of aspectsa culture get tovisualize look a the of 56 To students as to word thepage.5 How many letters in the word? 4.4 Expanding sentence a 50 4 Bilingual texts and activities 4. through associations themother to use The students encouraged all are inthis. their senses practice glve incontrastive To guided translation. controlled give studentsopportunity to an To the writing creatively a safe. within start writinq fiame. controlled 49 3. provoke awareness of To contrastive intwo vocabulary languages 53 4.6 Two-language texts 10-20 Beginner to intermediate All 15 Contents ix I . within start frame. words a mother-tonque from 4.1 Sensory vocabulary choices 40-50 Lower-intermediate to advanced words 52 To make target-language more byevoking personal strong memorable tongue. to learn and what and each other reading discussing by have written. intheir get 45 tolearn from'informal'.2 Changing order of the the words 4.

9 Onthe walls Beginner to elementary Elementary to advanced. 5 Using corpora and concordances verb phrases 5. 5.10 Translationreversi 20-30 62 Touseasimpleboardandsomepieceso inwhich card avocabulary as exercise.1 Reciprocal 5. and words can used that be homophones. 59 Toexplorelexical ambiguityinafocused way.7 learning by associating 4.2 'Tend to': using with concordances students 'tend to': using 5. 10-15 Upper-intermediate to advanced 4. of and present practise language 67 and the To patterns words associated particular with and Phrases.6 Workingwith student texts 2C-4:5 the 5. at butamusing looking homonyms.8 Two-facingwords Beginner to elementary way students practical of 58 toa Tointroduce quickly ontheir learning vocabulary own. studentslearn words 78 to how To encourage phrases used searching are by the and lnternet examDle tor texts.4 Whichword are we after? Elementary to advanced 5. and 68 40-60 5. to oreoare 20-40 73 Touseacorpustofindoutwhichoftwoor toa more apparent synonyms isappropriate context. the To work a corpus discover wlth to patterns with language associated particularwords phrases. 15 4.nakedtruth Intermediate to advanced Elementary to advanced 10-20 To show corpora concordance 71 how and (and software help can teachers students) classroom materials. parts asdifferent ofspeech. Darticular software To show concordance can 76 how own to beused thestudents' texts with of discover orhighlight featuresvocabulary and style. can most theplayeiwho translate has chance of accuratelythebest wtnntnq.7 Quarrying lnternet for words Intermediate to advanced 30-60 x I Contents . practise 61 To skimming scanning and for of target-language equivalents texts mother-tong ue expressions.Activity Level Aims Time (minutes) 15-20 Page 4.5 Barefacts.3 More on a corpusand softwarein class 30-40 Upper-intermediate to advanced Intermediate to advanced Intermediate to advanced 3G40 can 65 To show corpus how analysis highlight patternsgrammar meaning.

use.6 Coinsspeak Beginnerto intermediate Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Beginnerto advanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced 20-30 30-40 40-50 15-30 15-25 6.5 Exploring vocabulary kinaesthetically 5.13 Fishy adjectives 30-40 96 5. and the then ask and to for learn specific they vocabularyneed.83 provide and visual kinaesthetic of 84 ways To presenting learning vocabulary. anaid as to memory. To encourage todiscover students forthemselvestoteach and it vocabulary toothers. people. and of vocabularythrough movement 87 To learn Toexplorethespatial andhierarchical88 associations ofwords. most strongly Toreviewandrecallvocabulary. memorable way. etc).14 Objectsroundthecircle Beginnerto 10-12 upper-intermediate Toencouragestudentstoexpress 98 meaning way suits inany that them (visually. that adjectives describe 94 95 5.10 OHPlists 5.7 Picturegallery 35-50 5. meet head-on challenge the oflinking 91 To ofwords their with visual themeanings and auditory representations.12 Filling landscape a Elementary to advanced 15 Upper-intermediate 10-20 to advanced Beginnerto advanced Beginner to intermediate Beginner to advanced Intermediate to advanced 10-15 10-15 3. oflists to practise words the To saying using full vocal range.3 Machines and scenes 6.11 Words roundthe circle 5.15 Picturing wordsand phrases Elementary to advanced 20-30 . and learn get towrite that texts other 2 To students students want read. visualization 99 To detailed. To ina creative.8 Listeningincolour 6. through movement.Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) Page 6 Words and the senses 5.9 Getas muchwrongas you can 5. understanding and (or get 1 To studentsuse to known half.10 5. new and 85 Toencouragepeer-teachingbothof subject-matter lexis.1 Wordsandoutsenses Lower-intermediate 25-40 to advanced Tomakestudentsawareoftheirown 82 preferences the through words sensory they they choose the and texts respond to. use creative to words associate theEnglish the with students learninq. T o b r e a k u p t h e o r d e r a n d v i s u a l9 3 monotony asanaid memory. innew known) to vocabulary each from other.4 Elephants 6. are Contents xi 6. will to T o l e a r n v o c a b u l a r y t h r o u g h s p9 0 i f l c ec visual associations.2 Notionpictures 6.89 vocabulary situations.

or 107 Upper-intermediate 20-30 toadvanced Beginner to intermediate Beginner . Collecting collocations 7. 30-'45 2540 20-35 Tomotivatestudentstolistento. To expand students' understanding 105 and acquisition ofabove-the-wordvocabulary. word as To organize sets a hierarchy. Toencouragestudentstogroupwordsi 103 imaglnative memorable and ways. memorable categories. provide To a simple 110 research for tool students studying English-speaking inan environment and living host in families.day-to-dayvocabular 115 personally conversations.7 Theegg exercise 7. to advanced Beginnerto advanced 10 7.11 A hierarchy association Intermediate of to advanced I Personal Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to upperintermediate 5-10. insodoing consider and to how for effectivethem categorizations such are inorganizingremembering and vocabulary.Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) Page 7 Word sets 7. 112 7. a personal. memorable way. To differentiate ina'word items field'. relevant xii I Contents . get To studentslook to closelythe at 107 semantic situational and associations ofa firmly.3 Chains 7.30-40 To expand students'understanding and 104 ofabove-the-word acquisition vocabulary. 20-30 Post-beginner 15-20 to advanced 20-35 7. such as'How strongly this does word belong to itsset?'. 7.1 Intelligencetest Beginnerto intermediate Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Intermediate to advanced 10 Toexploretheideaofa'wordset'and 102 different inwhich themanv wavs one can categorize vocabuiary.4.3 Turnoutyourpockets Topractiseandsharevocabularywhich 114 personally important.2 Unusual word families 7. thus new and fix vocabulary To explore various the meanings and associations ofaword phrase.1 Yougivemytalk 8.5 How strongis the collocation? 7.2 lifekeywords 8.10 Mapping one'smood Beginnerto advanced 2-3. Tousepractical.9 Wotdsfrom the homestay family 7. To encourage studentsgroup to words 102 in unusual.and 113 learn each therefore from. 111 which easily confused each may be with in other.8 Prototypes 20 20-30 Togetstudentstoconsiderhowword108 sets built byasking questions are up.5 Diagonalopposites 10 20 5. word. other. 8.

3 Definitions 9. 126 9.2 Theprefix game 30-40 dictation 9. of 120 Togetstudentstodiscoverandusenew things are words express that important to tothem now 8.8 Phrases like I 15-25 Lower-intermediate to advanced 15-20 8. 118 Theprivateconnotationsawordor phrase have bevery strong may can 'definition'. uses 'buried' other in words 132 words To discover text.4 Crosswords Intermediate to advanced Intermediate to advanced 20-30 20-30 9.5 Wordsmy neighbour knows 8. other learn each 116 8.5 Hidingwords 9. each students toteach To encourage and from other.5 Aletterfromtheteacher 8. l . especially preparing examination foran forstudents such FCE as orT0EFL.1 Circlegames Beginnerto advanced Intermediate to advanced 10-1 5 T o p r o v i d e a b a n k o f g a m e s w i t1 2 1 a r i e t y hav purposes can played in that be oflearning players.7 Thesecretdictionary 20 Post-beginner 10-15 to advanced Elementary to advanced 15. orsurrounding words the identifying with Topractise help ofdefinitions. 10-15 117 Topresentvocabularytostudentsina direct.'l-Thou'context. practise relating tocontext.4 SCarS Elementary to upperintermediate Intermediate to advanced lack to To motivate studentsovercome of 115 when vocabulary narrattng. to circlesthree seven of negative and 123 on various To work the prefixes pejorative inEnglish.8 Storyboard 20-30 Lower-intermediate to advanced 10-20 Lower-intermediate to advanced Intermediate toadvanced Elementary to advanced 10-20 20-30 and 131 semantic To explore different the grammatical ofwords. game using 125 Touse guessing topractise a definitions studentsEnglishto Tointroduce ways crosswordsshow in and language and which can adapted made they be more creative. words To 133 135 LOnlents I x||l .9 Whathaveyougottenof? Beginnerto lower-intermediate 9 Word games 9.7 Treasure hunt 9.5 Pivotwords 9.Activity Level Aims Time (minutes) 40-60 Page 8. as a to strong enoughexpress to a wider 119 studentsacquire To encourage choice expressions.

2 Fromword to word Elementary to advanced Intermediate to advanced Elementary to advanced 15-25 15-25 135 Tofamiliarizestudentswiththestru and ofdictionaries. uses. comparing attention 152 To concentrate thestudents' under revision byfocusing onthe words own.4 Whatdolmean? 10-1 5 1G-l5 Lower-intermediate to advanced Intermediate to advanced 20 139 Tointroduceandpractisewordsand phrases indefining explaining used and meanrngs. get and To studentslink to words visual 155 imaqes. subjective reactions. using and. limitations give practice use 137 inthe of To further with onthe dictionaries. used definitions language inthe elementto Toaddastrongpersonal dictionary Practice.1Word dip 10.5 Borrowedwords 20-30 10. 140 Toshowhowwordscanchangeform across and meaning languages.theemphasis given. a 154 Togetstudentsto'draw'wordsas but way simple creative ofremembering vocabulary visually. meaning.1 Opencategorization 11.2 Guidedcategorization to Beginner advanced Beginnerto advanced 15-20 15-20 students tocategorize To allow inany they vocabulary way want.5 Leapingwords 10-15 11.4 Lexical 15-20 11.8Thesauri 11 Revision exercises 11. introduce and practise a thesaurus. to word and ofwords deepen understanding by their categorizations.3 Writeyourself 10. Toexplorewordswithahistory 141 more with To explore words a history. 142 recent on with emphasismore the c0lnages.Activity Level Aims Time (minutes) Page lO Dictionary exercises and word history 10. to and used disguise distort 10.7 Datingwords 15-30 Upper-intermediate to advanced 30-45 Upper-intermediate to advanced 10. 143 Toshowhowwordsmaybegroupedby to and meaning context. 149 149 Togetthestudentstoforminteresting and memorable groups. 138 in 10. can to show howwords be incidentally. 11.3 Wordson a scale Intermediate to advanced Elementary to advanced Beginnerto advanced Beginner to advanced 15-20 furniture 11.6 Commemorativewords Upper-intermediate to advanced 10. ontheir 153 by To vocabulary fix inmemoryvisualizing with obiects and connections familiar olaces.6 Findthe word a picture 20-40 xiv I Contents .

also which focuses pronunciation and spelling.15-20 Togetstudentstovisualizewordsasa means remembering of them. to 155 158 11. interactivelyinnew and 151 Touseoral storytellingtoreviewwords. reviewwords energetic.f 1 Forced choice I f . ll. review 159 ff.7 Rhyming review Elementary to advanced Beginnerto advanced Elementary to advanced Beginnerto adJanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Beginnerto intermediate Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced 156 Toprovideasimpleauditoryreviewof on vocabularv. 15-30 20 157 Toreviewwords. auditorily 164 Toencouragestudentstoextractas much meaningthey from as can words they bylimiting number are the allowed use.f 2 Question and answer ll. revise linguistically. 158 Toreviewvocabularyandatthesame orimprove rapport time establish to a within group. generate To conversationfast bya and energetic ofwords.9 fl.l3 It.8 ll.l0 Drawtheword Matchingwords Giftwords 156 5.focusingonmeaning and context.15 Comparing random words f 1-f 6 Multi-sensory revision a somewhat way surreal of 162 Toprovide words reviewing'hard-to-remember' get whether to 162 To studentschoose to kinaesthetically. orvisually.17 Writingto rule 30-40 lrnotated Her bibl iography Contentsxv I . inan To way non-wordy 161 t1.l4 Wordstostory Wordrush 15-25 15-25 20-30 10 5.15 30-40 practise vocabulary review 160 To the under contexts.Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) 20-30 Page ll.

co. and lexicographer. Mario Rinvolucri is founder member of the Pilgrims netvvork and e dits IIum anisingLanguageTe aching. He has writtenLiterature. At present he divides his time between teacher training and setting crosswords.and Drama Techniques Language (all with Alan Duff). and China. Cambridge. u k. OUP. a webzine for teachers.tttj o u r n a l.T h ea u t h o r s n ds e r i e e d i t o r a s John Morgan has worked in EFLsince 1966. He has been associated with Pilgrims English Language courses since rgZS. and as Regional Representative in South India (Madras).htt p ://www.serving as English Language Officer in Yugoslavia.Sounds Interesting. UsingtheMother Tongue zooz).as well as Challenge Thinklwith Berer and Frank.as a teacher.co.Sounds Learning in Variationson a Theme. France. h It m a g . coursebook and resource book writer. contributor t o TheTe and. and from 1999 to zoo3 he was Director of the Graduate Programme at Assumption University.inthis Intnguing. With Mario Rinvolucri he has written )nceupon aTime and TheQBook. Italy. series. teacher trainer. TheMind's Eye(with Franqoise Grellet and Alan Duff ). TheLanguage Theauthors and series editor | 1 . BeyondWords. From 1988 to r99g he was Director-General of the Bell Educational Trust. A frequent to acherTrainer. h tt p ://www. Mario's most recent publications arc Ilumanising your Coursebook (both with ETp-Delta. Ghana. In addition to this title. Moulding).and Shortand Sweet. Learning to Listen and Poeminto Poem (with Sandra Teacher's Voice. Mario has co-authored Letters andVideo in the ResourceBooks for Teachersseries. From 1993to 1998he was Senior Fellow in the Department of English Language and Literature of the National University of Singapore. u k. Alan Maley worked for the British Council from 196z to 1988. with Sheelagh Deller.r98z). He is currently a fieelance consultant.as well as contributing to many Pilgrims publications. Bangkok. Words.

It is 'depth of processing' that matters most. based in large parl on the analysis of computer corpora. AlanMaley Foreword| 3 . has emphasized the importance of collocation. The authors have retained their freshness and originality of approach. Words hang together in typical clusters rather than exist in splendid isolation. Bilingual associations in vocabulary in particular clearly have a part to play. have different preferred modes of learning.Learners apprehend the world differently. multiple intelligences. some of the ideas it presented seemed outlandish to many teachers. The activities included here all seek to promote the key quality of engagement. as evidenced through work in learning styles. Another trend has been the revival of interest in the role of the mother tongue in the acquisition of a second language. Vocabularyhasplayed its part in the more general movement towards giving greater prominence to the teaching of vocabulary that has taken place since its initial publication. and therefore the fact that vocabulary is largely phrasal. and neurolinguistic progrumming (NLP). Altogether we are now better placed to understand the nature and functions of vocabulary what it means to know a word. This new edition should be at least as influential as the old one was. Lexico-grammar-the zone where syntax and lexis cooperate to forge meaning-has become a key consideration in the way vocabulary is taught. Perhaps the other single most important development has been the recognition of learner differences. and have again challenged teachers to renew themselves. Current thinking. and how best to acquire vocabulary. It is a measure of the successof the book that these ideas have now entered 'way the mainstream. this has tended to reinforce the beliefs of the authors tfrat learning takes place through the personal associations formed by learners.Foreword 'vVhen the first edition ofVocabulary appeared in 1986. What was then considered out' now forms part ofaccepted practice. This new edition builds on its former strengths by incorporating activities based on the ideas outlined above. If anything. and therefore need learning materials which take account of these differences.

which is influenced increasinglyby new thoughts. This book has grown out of our attempts to work with that process. 'vVhyshould this be so?Whenwe 'do' a reading passageor a listening comprehension with our students. \Mhether it develop their or. and teachers have bought the 1986 edition of this book since publication. too. however. methodologies for making words stick. institutions. There seemed to be an assumption that it was enough for teachers to specify which words wete to be learnt-the when and the how was up to the students. surely we are teaching vocabulary? Sadly. But first. Introduction 5 | . but learning words-particular words that they needed in everyday life-came a very poor third. We greatly welcomed. t986 is a long time ago. 'understanding' a word are seldom enough.Introd uction Forty thousand schools. what was our thinking behind the first edition of Vocabulary?When we asked students back in the r98os about their feelings on learningvocabulary two-thirds of them said theywere not taught enough words in class. and new disciplines. the invitation to revise and update this book. new practices. in many classrooms this is not the case. especially in a fast-changing field such as language teaching and learning.Attention must be paid not to a generalized view of learning but to the variety of the individual process of learning. indeed. depth and interaction are necessary if the encounter is to be meaningful and memorable.Teachers seemed keen to teach grammar and pronunciation. as Encountering and when we meet people. Many teachers will have used it. therefore.Many students.rrn is that of listening to successivenews broadcasts on television or keeping words in matchboxes-examples we cited in the introduction to the first edition of this book-students intuitively bring to bear the commonsense understanding that for something to be effective it must be effective for them. which means that several million students will have experienced actMties from its pages. and will have brought its approaches into their own teaching of vocabulary.and this second edition seeksto incorporate new understanding of the factors that influence it. If teachers have not always recognized the need to devote time to the teaching of vocabulary students themselves feel a very real need to devote time and effort to the process.

or somethingin the setting can influence our flrst impressionsof a person. and still hold to our view that vocabularylearning is best carried out interactively within the classroom. is one that would alsowork adequatelyand maintain a reasonable level of interest among studentsif done in their mother tongue. and nose when sayingthe word .then the languageclassroom beginsto be an interesting place.the kinetic sensationofthe lungs. mouth.Many new theoriesand insights have emergedwhich have direct impact on what it is to 'know' a word.so our perception of a word can be affectedby.its speedof enunciation . tongue.its pitch .You words a relational is could describethe process as making We friendswith thewordsof thet argetlanguage. It is much more than that.Making new Howhave things changed.while another word. for example: . If a word is simply a label.its tune . A relationship with words Another principle that underpins this book is the realization that Iearning process.We alsofeel that a good Lz activity.its sound . met at the sametime and place. whywill secondlanguagelearnerspick up and remember one word apparently effortlessly. in the two decades that separate the editions of this book?We still seea need for practical activities of the kind offered here. a movement. do not sub scrib e to the view that a word is merely a 'signifier' that actsasa label for a 'signif. at leastfrom elementarylevel up. and someof the new chaptersin the book continue to stem from this newthinking.that a good secondlanguageexercisewill offer the student an experience that is to someextent new that they have never found themselves doingin their Lr. When this kind of freshness and element of surprisecropsup in lessonafter lesson.ed' in the real world. we no but longer feel tlat we are mapping uncharted waters.This is why you should put this book in the handsof the teachersof tJe mother tongue in your staflroom. To stick with a nautical metaphor. throat.will be refuseda placein their mind?Just asa look. a chanceremark.the other word companyit keeps(collocatingability and breadth) 5 | Introduction . aswe did twentyyears ago.then.we havein the past sailedbefore the wind of many new trends and ideas.We strongly maintain. a tone of voice. Onereasonwhy somestudentsexperiencelanguagelearning asa chore is because they find themselvesaskedto do againand again what they are alreadyable to do with their eyesshut in their mother tongue.

its shape on the page or screen . then meeting a word is a process of befriending.The associationsand vibrations depend on our own past and present felt experience. We expand our understanding of word meanings by interchanging and sharing them with others: . It is easy. rather than a solitary one. as little packets of meaning. while mainstream teaching has been influenced by work on a host of theories: multiple intelligences. All these factors play a part in'learning' a word. rather than to be incorporated within the subject-the learner. self-standing reality. to forget. New trends In the years between the flrst edition of this book and today. of coming to terms with a complex. These are some of the factors that have informed the updating of this book. but associatively. a social process. The computer explosion and the Internet have transformed the environment in which language is used and learning takes place.and so on. not a purely intellectual. We would like to round offthese opening paragraphs with a paraphrase of part ofAlan Maley's foreword to the 1986 edition: The acquisition ofvocabulary is: o a branching process rather than a linear one. We will conclude this introduction by summarizing under three headings how they have advanced our understanding ofthe teaching ofwords. An over-intellectual approach causesthe language to be seen as an object. . an intensely personal process.literary associations ('pail of water' in the context ofJack andJill) . the fact that back in the r98os computers had yet to have a major influence on our thinking. If you take them all into account.conventional associations: semantic and syntactic categories to which the word appears to belong .the associations the word has for the individual learner .too. Introduction 7 | . but an experiential hands-on process too. neurolinguistic programming (NLP)..the circumstances of meeting the word.its spelling . or not take account of. This has fed into curricula and coursebooks. . there has been-as we have already suggested-signiflcant work done which impacts upon the lexical component of language. Words are not learnt mechanically. effortful process. learning styles.

you flnd the exercises this chapter useful and would If in like somemore. (ELTeCS-L Digeston the British Council website http ://www.asa learner of other languages myself I find it necessary times to clarify a point of at vocabularyor grammar in English. held by proponentsof the Direct Method. consult the large vocabularysectionin Deller and Rinvolucri zooz. and ignore the many rich and valuablepoints of comparisonthere maybe with their own.e. zipped-up synthesisof all his thoughts and feelingssurrounding the conceptof house.When we look back.) 8 | Introduction . the one hand you haveinfluential writers like On Professor Guy Cook from ReadingUniversity writing articleswith titles like 'Is there Direct Method in our Madness?'( ELGazefi. There is a growing revolt againstthe belief. writingwhat follows: I can't seethe problemwith judicioususeofthe students' mother tongue-especially at lower levels. and linguistically effi..19gqand on the other Andrew Morris. hastalked increasinglyof the major importance of the mother tongue in the learning of a secondlanguage.It is absurdto operateall the time in a new secondlanguage. inevitable.The relationship of the mother tongue to the foreign language Overthe pastten yearsthe EFLcommunity.To take an example:a rz-year-old Turk meeting the Englishwordhouse will not go direct fiom his feelings about his home. celebratethe lifting of the Direct Method ban on the mother tongue by offering you some exercises that we hope will pleasethose of your studentswith strong linguistic intelligences.the UK EFLvoiceswho haverecently advocated sensibleuse of the mother tongue include university academics and practisingteachers. that the mother tongue shouldbe excludedfrom the secondlanguage classroom. Theselearnersnaturally referencenewwords in Lz via the mother tongue..We paid little attention to our own natural. This is natural. Interestingly. our view this revolt is common sense.cient.we In Chapter4..org) b 'Bilingual texts and activities'.(See Annotated Bibliographyat the end of this the book. ritishcouncil.sinceevis for him a brilliant. the caseof In In adolescents adults. we are amazedthat we only included a coupleof exercises the first edition of this book in which included the use of the student'smother tongue.the mother tongue is the launch pad for the and secondlanguage.he will go fiom the conceptand feeling to the Tirrkish word evand from there make an equivalence with house.Isste 239. from the sightsand soundsof his home tohouse.againespeciallyat beginner level. a teacherin Bangladesh. particularly in the UK. contrastiveway of learning other languages.

the weather. This awarenessleadsto a slew of emotionally apt activitiesin the courseofwhich studentsdiscovera whole new area of themselvesand their relationship to words. point. Iflew offthehandle. others know her through bodily feeling. (Herewe chosean auditory representationof the classroom process. If you want to expressthe idea that you got angryyou might say: I suwred.or did you seeit asan external picture? As we use our mother tongue we are continually making unconscious lexical choicesbasedon sensorypreferences that come from our deepprogramming. (visual) (kinaesthetic) Ilostmy rag. (auditory) I reached screarrnng All the abovephrasescar4rthe intended meaning.for example.plenty of abstractwords in the languagethat are only etymologicallysensory$ituation.but they do soin sensorilyvery different ways.sounds? he looked out.To expressourselves language.as they discoverthat their friend's sensoryprocessis different from theirs. At a later stagein this exercise studentscomparetheir sensory.for example. Takethis sentence: The manwenttothewindow andlooked out.hearing. the temperature that da12Or was it night? Were there backgroundnoises. of course.) There are.from the Latin word situsmeaningplace) the cuffent meaning has cometo mean but Introduction |9 . dictate a set ofwords tfrat the students have alreadv studied and ask them to classify them into four columns: eye ear feeling bodily taste/smell With the word sock. a Wasyour flrst or sound?What sort ofwindowwas it?\ /hat sort of house?Wherein the world did it happen?Did you get a feeling of the light. a picture. a feeling. in we haveno choicebut to make continuous sensorychoicesaslarge areas ofthe languagesystemare basedon seeing.in which of thesecolumnswould you get your first representation? And the word mother? Somepeople hear their mother. So. 'representation'of the man. what was outlike? As Were you inside the 'space'of the scene.sometimesamazedvoices. orfeeling through the body.Thesensorybasis and ofboth experience vocabulary Work with the technology offered by neurolinguistic programming hasmadeus much more awarethan we were before of the fact that it is through the flve senses that we experiencethe external world and the internalworld ofwords.for example.while othersget a mental picture of her.categorization the words dictated of and the room is fllled with animated.

)Accordingto the British National Corpus.uk. are Accordingto one large corpus.this time fiom Michael Rundell:his article zoozlshows onlytheyd askeda linguist' (http://www. for analogues or illustrations ofabstract concepts. and we can do this on a massive realize how this hectaresof text. He went on to add that corpusstudy had led him to doubt the accuracy introspection about words.(In zoozit decidedto go back to calling itself 'The Royal is Mail'.which in turn originally meant something similar to ciramntance.ned insights.Let us take the verb to cause. We consciously scaleand across their meaning.we were assurprisedashe saidhe had been at flrst. of native-speaking 'If Another example. The discoveries made by corpus linguists The growth of corpuslinguistics over the pasttwenty-five yearshas led us to new waysof understandingwords.To flnd out more.lt coloursand changes turns out that this is not the neutral unbiasedword you might think. 'It is almost impossibleto flnd a singlecontext in appearsin a positive light'. if you go to 6.given by Ron Carter. But around). Indeedthe LK PostOfflce which consign 10 | Introduction . PostOff.It is in this way that we 'domesticate'what is abstractinto our own personal reality.15you will flnd an activity in whatstands which the teacher dictatesabstractwords and the studentsdo a quick drawing for each.cewas to re-nameitself 'Consignia'some how wrong the UK yearsago.the verb consign association: massivelynegativethrough collocational dustbin(6% alloccurrences.ninety per cent ofthe things caused negative: to cause embarrassment havoc to cause to cause chaos to cause distress pain to cause to When we first heard thesefactsduring a presentationin 1999.of which half were the of consigtrtothe dustbinofhistory) (5%) consign oblivion to the consignto scrap-heap $%) amuseum(3%) consignto Rundellwrites.co.After the first shock of being askedto studentsfind they can easilyvisualize visualizea word llke integritry. seeO'Connorand Seymour1990.hltmag.We can now study them in their collocationalenvironment. Neurolinguistic programming has a great dealto sayabout languageand words that goeswell beyond the sensorysystembut in ourselves this small areaof NLP's to this bookwe have confi.

com/elVteacher/rbt.shouldhave consulteda linguist before renaming themselves with one of the most negativelycollocatingwords in the language! In Chapter5 we offer two types of exercise: one where students work with evidencefrom corpora. If you would like to share your ideas and experiences. Web addresses sources and sites relating to dictionaries. our readers.co m/e lVg Io ba l/teacherscIu b/.co m/e lVteacherlrbt. All the materials in this book are offered as suggestions for exploration and modiflcation by the teachers and students who might use them. We hope on the other hand to provide a rich sourcebook of ideas to be dipped into. and we welcome your feedback. competitions.This chapterinvites you into the vast new thinking spacethat corpus linguists havebeen creating over the pasttwentyyears. transformed. The inclusion of Aims for each activity should 'old favourites'have been further facilitate this process. corpora. John Morgan Mario Rinvolucri I n t r o d u c t i o|n1 1 .Some of the updated with new texts and examples. o u p. This has enabled us to present the activities in a clearer way and we recommend a close study of the table of contents as a way of flnding what you want. We aim neither to present a method to be rigorously followed.to be found at http://www. o u p. and the otherwhere the studentslearn to use concordancing programssothey can make their own discoveries from raw data. And one other thing . extra activities. And there is more still at the OUP Teachers' Club at http ://www. and the like. too. etc. please contact us via http ://www. nor to specifywhat to teach. This book is among the first to be supported by a website devoted to the Resource Books for Teachersseries. though we cannot of course guarantee that all these unrs will remain valid. The Internet also provides us with an opportunity to establish a dialogue with you. and is divided into eleven chapters instead of seven.set out on the pagein front of them.. downloadable worksheets. The development of the Internet has led to the inclusion of some net-related activities and to a number ofvariations and additions to (unrs) have been provided for software others. Other changesto this edition Readers of the flrst edition will notice that the book is now considerably longer. and added to.oup. There you will find. author articles..

'keywords' that would closelytypify the main nor Pre-text activities 13 | . and in countless other ways. etc. in their beliefs.)Thevocabularyitems shouldbe neither 'contextfree' (for example. It should be remembered that they concentrate onvocabularyuse and acquisition. they will learn vocabulary from the text placed in fiont of them.Pre-text activities Although vocabulary may be learnt flom many sources. Learners differ in their experience of life. in their attitude to themselves and others. 1 .structurewords. to form the basis for student assessment and grading. and to get them to review and organize their thoughts and language resources before reading. to present a steady progression of grammar and vocabulary to be learnt. Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. Preparation Choose and make copiesof a text and from it selectflve to eight items the of vocabularyfor presentationasa 'word rose'. in their aspirations. not on furthering good reading habits. neutral or very general adjectives). Many of these differences will be reflected in how and to what extent. in their'learning style'. for the 'reading passage'found majority of students the in the coursebook or supplied by the teacher is the most usual. 1 What'sin the text? Level Elementary advanced to Time 20-30minutes Aims To motivate studentsto reada text by getting them to speculate beforehandabout its content. even among those who are the same level'. The activities in this chapter have two principal aims: to motivate the students to read the text. and that an actMty that is powerful enough to enable the students to learn language from a dull text may also interfere with or swamp the reading ofa rich text. they cannot address the huge variety 'at of individual student needs. Such texts have the advantage that they can be speciallywritten or adapted to suit curriculum needs. On the other hand.(See sampletext below for the kind of text that would be appropriateat upperintermediate level.

pretend not to know. 3 Ask them. ever do FRUSTRATIoN with a road sign is give permission.the one thingyou can never. However. This a phraseis straight out of the era of coaches and horseswith an If undercurrent of gentle submission. language Signswith writing on are particularly at risk because changes lot fasterthan pictures. Procedure 1 Put up the word roseon the blackboard. BRAKENow. This sign shouldtherefore be updated to No wAY. Thesedays. srow DowN quICKry. on 4 Give out copiesof the text for comparisonand discussion. but it's very diff.cult to think of what elseit couldbe called. Example An example a wordrose. Duer cannrAcEwAyis anotherdesignaiion straightout of the r8th century. to speculate the content of the text. forget or simply ignore. in groups of four. We all know what one is.For example. this sign were at a polite cocktail party it would sayswooN. a bit oxymoronically. BRAr(E. that you can go fast.Sadly. Punctuation can also drift past its sell-by date. and for a sign that is a fate worse than death.no one givesway unlessthey absolutelyhaveto. This should be updated to slow DowN Now or.and sounds like a driving instructor's instruction. BRAI(E It's an unnecessarysign.meaning of the text: the airn should be to allowthe studentsa reasonable chanceof coming closeto the text without restricting their imagination. Maybe we could have them in sequence:srART BRAKTNG Now. One of the most common all-purpose signs is the exclamation mark.there is a problem with signs. Dousrn IANE or src noao?The AHEAD clearlycHANcETo is metatextof ouer cARRTAGEwAv oVERTAKE SuNney DRIVER AHEADoI FASTLANEAHEADoT END oF AHEAD. This is clearly the 14 | Pre-text activities . ron Gop' s sAI(E.Orjust No. Even nnrucE spEEDNow is suspect.and that is that most of them havebeen around for so long that we're beginning not to notice them. Telling people to ! slow down because there's something in their way is getting perilously close to teaching them to suck eggs. 2 Tell the sflldentsthat they are going to read a text in which these in words appear(not necessarily the order presented).Americansthink it is asquaint aswe think their turnpikes are quaint.crvE wev. of based thesample below: on text srgns polite ignore writing updated driver carriageway oermrssron Sample text Thelanguage road-signs of Signsare a greatway of telling peoplethings they don't know. or even imply.

Tell them that by by the words they write can be suggested sound. carry on with 3 and 4 above. Giveout the text. Preparation Selectfiom the text that you have choseneight to ten words that you think will not be familiar to your students. then ask the classto shout out anywords suggested by the words you have written up. and then in the right-hand column write three or four other words that are suggested eachleft-handword.in groups of three or four. Sample text Magweta After World War II. Procedure 1 Put up the unfamiliar words on the blackboard.spelling. 'You talking to me?'.before checking with you or their dictionary. add them to the words already on the blackboard. Ask the students.same as cosH ! It implies that something moderately interesting **! Or could happen ifyou're easilyinterested. Pre-text activities 15 | .ndsitself with a small foreign exchangesurplusand rudimentary armed forcesand police force. When you hear words that are in the text. June zoor) Variation Followr and z above. or in any other way. to comparewhat they havewritten. 2 Predicting meanings Level Elementary advanced to Time 10-20minutes of Aims Toencourage students work out from contextthe meanings to unfamiliar words. g (Guy Browning. As the studentsread.possible meaning. Magwetafi.encoutagethem to work out from the contextwhat the unfamiliarwords mean. 2 Tell the classthat you have selected words fiom a text that they the are about to read and give them a briefoutline ofits content. say. What is needed is . Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent.The sampletext below is an example of the kind of textyou might choose. Ask them to take a sheetof paper and rule it into two columns.They shouldwrite dovrn eachof the words on the blackboardin the lefthand column. rv\Ihenyou have written. 1 . twenty more words on the board. TheGuardianWeekend.#@&! Becausethat's what we something flom Captain Haddock like all say when we round a bend at 7o miles an hour and flnd a modern art installation in the middle of the road.

the most vigorousyoung peopleleavethe and land to move into the urban areaswhere most of the wealth is Rural societydeclinesand shantytowns grow in the concentrated.basingits appealon nationalistic sentiment amongst the people. Materials 16 | Pre-text activities . someof which were previouslyfarmed under the traditional system. Employment in traditional agriculture stagnates. a steadydeclinein the price of cashcrop exports. Although there is a short-termimprovement helped by somedirect foreign investment. they set the paceby purchasingcars.rmsand converted to producemore cropsfor export. predominantly small farms run by one family. Severallarge tracts of land.3 Predicting words Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20-25minutes Aims To review areasof vocabularywith which the studentsalready havesomefamiliarity. shadowof the westernisedcities.Exportsare and a major effort is madeto expandthe production of encouraged cashcropsthrough the use of improved agricultural techniques.flood the market. To transform the country the ruling group startsto import large quantities of machinery including small amounts of arms.are bought up by a few individuals and fi.r98r) for 1.The politicians make patriotic which justify the expansionand re-equippingof the speeches military. restrictions are placedon imports in order to stimulate local Selective productionbut arms imports continue to increase.Many of the ruling group havebeen educatedin the West and have acquireda Westernlifestyle. but alsoincluding a few large estates primarily producing cashcropsfor export. A civilian political grouping hasrecently cometo power with a policy of rapid industrial development.The country's economyis basedon agriculture. relative to manufacturedimports. This is granted on condition that the currencyis devaluedand import restrictionsremoved. that new itemsin theseareas so canmore easilybe'slottedin'and remembered. (Bombs Breakfast.and similar luxuries which others in the higher echelonsthen seekto acquire.relying heavily on advertisingand the lure ofWestern image. results in a secondapplication for a loan. One copy of the text for eachstudent. Campaign Against the Arms Trade. although the cost of the latter is reducedby a grant of military aid from a Westernpower. The result of this policyis the destructionof embryonic local industry aslarge foreign concerns.radios. stimulateinterestin to a dulltext.This the government reluctantly accedes to. ffier a fewyears the foreign exchangeposition has seriously deterioratedand a loan is obtainedfrom the IMF.

product descriptions . popular songs The sampletexts below provide examples.Examples suitabletexts might be: o advertisements flom coursebooks .in the samples of them they are going to read a short article about the stresses working for an international companyihearan Ametican cowboy songabout whisky. work are the following personality characteristics: cultural sensitivity. 4 Giveout the texts/playthe recording/tell the story. recipes. Pre-text activities| 17 q .Allow dictionariesand give assistance 3 Ask the studentsto form larger groups (eight to twelve) and explain their lists to one another. and not being arrogantbut humble. selFdiscipline. Procedure Tell the studentsthat later in the lessontheywill be readinga text/listening to a tapeihearinga story. but I can alsoseethat my family needsmore They find it probably more difficult to copewith my reassurance.to predict someof the vocabularythey might encounterin the text. Ask the students. items. In terms of the company.Washington and the cherrytree. gavethe following account: 'I feel l can copewith the demandsofbeing in different placesall the time. frantic life.being assertive. news items with a well-known therne (armstalks. I would expectthe companyto treat me asa mature individual. passages . a of virtue of its content and/orstyle.Ideally. earthquakes. Tell them to producea list of eight to ten when asked. 'My careerexpectationshavecompletely changedasI now think much more globally. Nasreddinstories) o instructions. despitebeing an international company. 'What helped me personallyto adaptto short-term internationaindependence.Preparation by Choose text with a fairly narrow and predictableset of vocabulary. I have alwaysbeen ableto work strangehours and to juggle a lot of balls in the air. sportsreports) o fairy storiesand folk talesknown to the students(for example. Cinderella. being positive.I think nothing of picking up the phone and arranging a meeting in another country or on another continent. commuter Sampletexts Theinternational 'Euro flyer' who commutesbetweenthe UK and An interview with a This manager the continent everyweek showsthe specialchallenges.Givethem a very rough idea of below tell what the piecewill be about:for example.being open and light-hearted.They do not realize the effect of short-terminternational travel.I would have expectedmore support.I would expectfrom my companymore flexibility but alsomore trust.in pairs.

Because have a highly I stressfulinternational job. whiskey. And religion when I die. Variation A Polishcolleague. Beefsteak when I'm hungry Redliquorwhen I'm dry Greenbacks when I'm hard up. Oh. Br eakLng ough thr Culnre Sho London: Nicholas ck BrealeyPublishing. I I Sometimes drink rum. This is obviouslya risk in terms of long-term stressbut it also puts a certain pressureon my personalrelationships. I now find it quite hard to slow down in my personallife and I want to pack in all the socialactivities in a very short spaceof time. You'verobbed my poor pockets Of silverand gold. They sayI drink whiskey. whiskey.suggests putting up the first part of the title of the piece.and then askingthe classto suggest ways of completing it.Jacko' diamonds. Sometimes drink whiskey. There is definitely not enoughbalancein terms of relaxation in my life.whereasbefore this itwould never have occurredto me. On the other hand. All them that don't like me Canleaveme alone. you villain You'vebeen my downfall. and what their suggested titles might refer to. I At other times none. I'11lay down and die. Mymoney'smyown.lcry.' (Elisabeth Marx. Sometimes drink brandy. You'vekicked me. Jacko' diamonds. I do believeI havebecomelesstolerant of peoplewho want to wastetime and in such situationsmytemper hasbecomeshorter. I believeI have developeda deeperand better understanding people. I find it difficult to switch offand therefore my lifestyle hasbecomeextremely paceyand adrenalindriven. If youdon'tgwemeryewhtskey. rye Ryewhiskey. Isurelywilldie. If the hard times don't kill me. you've hurt meBut I love you for all. of 'Another areathat I need guard to for my own developmentis the private life/professionallife distinction. I knowyou of old. MalgorzataSzwaj. The only negativeeffect of my frantic lifestyle is that I havebecomemuch more aggressive lesspatient and peoplehavein fact commented and on this.1999) Ryewhiskey I'11 when I'm hungry eat I'll drinkwhen I'm dry. Rye whtskey. (TraditionalUScowboy song) 18 | Pre+extactivities .

cholesterol robbery terrorism.students the threeexamples: Name Placeof residence Known associates Criminal record value jewellery. and give a fairly concreteexamplein column 3: 1 2 J Name John Smith Place of residence 3 PackerStreet. 3 Point out that words could alsobe saidto havecriminal records.4 Criminal records Level Elementary advanced to Time 30-40minutes Aims Tofocusthe students'attention the waysthey associate words on by meaningor context.1. cheating commodity shop sell. investment stealing. Preparation Choose keywords from a text. safe money. Arthur Baines Crfuninal record fat body carbolrydrates. produced following Examples In one group. the Procedure a Write up on the blackboard skeleton'criminalrecordcard'of the type shown below (column r only) 2 Fill in an example 'criminal record' asin column z. they might like to consider whether they have changed their minds about any of the words after reading them in context. 7 Ask the classto read the text.buy greed rent Cambridge landlady dirtyroom.and especially the positiveand negative on words havefor them.West Croydon Iftrown associates PeterTackson. connotations Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. record cards' for each of the Ask the students to form small groups (three to flve) and tell each other what they have written and why. kidnapping heart disease troline<< Write up on the blackboard the list ofwords fiom the textyou have chosen. For the intermediate text overleaf this could be: land value belong rent market commodity Ask the students to make out'criminal words you have written up. 8 As a follow-up.badfood Pre-textactivities | 19 .

and then go offto the moon. because otherwisehe could not earn his living and one cannot havethe right to life without alsohaving the right to some meansof sustaininglife. (JuliusK.a personcould claim a pieceof land ashis own private propertywhether he intended to use it or not. 2 Ask the students.so that their moredirected and critical. In the following exampletext thesecould be. call them 'mine'.5 Ungrammatical Level Intermediateto advanced Time 3G40 minutes Aims Toencourage students exploretheir preconceptions to about particular words beforemeetingthem in a context. ownfeelings 20 | Pre-text activities . or by askingyou) that they understand all the words. If this pieceof land was in an urban areaI had no needto developit at all. readingbecomes Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent Preparation Choosea text and list ro-rz words and phrasesin it that the classare likely to flnd hard. But the African's right to land was simply the right to use it. for intermediate learners : rush-hour performing crowded s i tu p a n d b e g carchases display trafficlanes ploughing oavement equation alleyways Jam Procedure 1 Put up your list on the blackboardand askthe studentsto check (with dictionaries. Oxford University Press.The foreigner introduced a completely different concept-the conceptof land asa marketablecommodity. Nyerere. I could leaveit to the fools who were preparedto developall the other piecesof land surrounding 'my' piece. nor did it occurto him to try and claim one.from eachother. to divide the words into male and female.working individually. it is completelywrong.Tell them that this has nothing to do with ideasof grammaticalgender or'dictionary meaning' but should expresstheir about the words. Then I could come down from the moon and demandthat 'my' thesefools pay me through their nosesfor the high value of land-a value which they themselves had createdfor me while I was enjoying myself on the moon! Sucha systemis not only foreign to us.Sample text Land To us in Africa land was alwaysrecognizedasbelonging to the community. AII I had to do to gain a living from 'my' land was to chargea rent to the peoplewho wanted to useit. I could take a few squaremiles of land. Eachindividual within our societyhad a right to the use of the land. 1968) gender 1.and in doing so automaticallyto raisethe market value of mine. he had no other right to it.Ujamaa.According to this system.

doesn't matter.. for some of us at least. 5 Ask them to discuss in pairs if the context has led them to change their minds about any of the words and phrases. or just possibly through it. He goes on the pavement. means nothing. manywords are. his car can roll over. he drives round it. Then they sit in a dark cinema and watch a man drive a car through rush-hour traffi.' But quite aparr from the grammar. If he meets another car. he hurtles down empty alleyways. Gridlock. The fact that Moses may have been able to part the Red Seabut could not do more than ten miles an hour in London. If you offered it a biscuit it would probably sit up and beg. (Ben Elton. Macdonald. she broke. on four successive Sunday mornings. His car can jump.3oa. Movie car chasesremind us of how much we love cars. is not part of the equation. Sometimes. or maybe over it. Example Hereiswhat one studentproduced: Male rusn-nour carchases sit up and beg equation performing display ploughing Female pavemenr trafficlanes crowded alleyways jam text Movie chase Sample All week people sit in traffi. he crossesinto opposing traffic lanes.. \Mhen the movie is over. but a man driving a car through a crowded city at eighty miles an hour we not only accept but remark to each other how brilliantly done the car chaseswere. On the way they sit in more traffic jams. r99r) Comments Many teachers might be horrified at the idea of encouraging students to associate English words with gender-it's hard enough to stop Gaston saylng'When I picked up the cup.c.Invite the students to discuss in pairs why they sexed the words as they did.m. on a Friday night. The fact that if you actually tried any of that stufffor real you would not get twenty yards before ploughing into a bus queue and killing thirry innocent pedestrians. If the man had turned into a six-foot banana we would say it was a stupid movie.c jams. it is more like a performing dog than a ton and a half of lifeless metal. was shot at 5. they miss the first part of the movie because they can't flnd a parking place. Nothing can stop the hero in his car. Pre-text activities 21 | . they go to the movies. genderloaded. everybody goes and sits in a jam again. clear across a city at eighty miles an hour. The fact that this display . f 4 Give out the text for the class to read.

Preparation From a narrative or descriptivetext which you wish the classto read. and completethe set Level Elementary advanced to Time 30-40 minutes Aims Tofocusthe students'attention on how they try to remember words. and one copyof the'word jumble'for each student. Materials Onecopyof the text. Procedure 1 Give out the word jumbles facedown to eachmember of the group. Give out copiesof the text. and the text they imagine containsthem.and on how contextmight influence their memory. to write out all the words they can remember. which is taken from the sample text. by They could use a different colouredpen for this. (or 2 Tell the classthat theywill haver5 seconds more if you have chosena long list) to look at the jumbles.1. out the words you have chosenas Set a word jumble like the one below. Ask the studentsto discuss pairs the words they havewritten in down. then tell them to turn over their sheetsand read.remember. Then ask them to wdte down any more words they think might fit the sceneor action suggested the words they haveremembered. working individually. \Mhenthe time limit is up. and prepare sufflcient copiesfor eachpersonin the group. tell the classto turn the jumbles face down again. 22 I Pre-text activities .5 Look.Then askthem. selectz5-3o of thosevocabularyitems which for you bestreflect the mood and action of the passage.

and coming back again to the fltted wardrobe. In next to no time.This may sound odd. Pausing only to collide with the settee that I had forgotten had been put in the middle of the living room. All her feelings and moods transmitted themselves through the harness. a blind person is always mentally planning. after being used to my flat with its one entrance and fewer rooms. I knew when we were passing another dog. because I could feel her looking. Emma and I collapsed into bed at about two in the morning.\Mhen the students have flnished reading the text. while I carried on the endless business of unpacking. it seemed. Don) and I quickly got out of bed. Then I realized I could not remember exactlywhere the door was. where Don was patiently waiting. and b)which words they think theywill now remember. for eachstudent. It took me a long time to become accustomed to all the different doors. Don helped me move in. I felt I was in a fitted wardrobe. And moving to a new house. Emmq andI. There was no one there. Materials Onecopyof the text. ask them to discuss in groups of three to flve a)which words they found hard to remember in step 3. tg77l Acknowledgements This idea was suggested by a picture recall exetcise presented byAlan Maley at the IATEFL Conference in Decembet 7979. Pre-text activities23 I . I got to the front door. and we had a hectic time: he put up curtain rails and changed electric plugs. But around the house itwas different. but I knew what was going around me as she reacted to her surroundings. Gollancz. in fact. 1 . I heard someone knocking outside (it was. obviously. Moving in a room. andwhy. Then I remembered there was a back door as well. I could always tell if there was an obstacle ahead because of the way she slowed up and hesitated ever so slightly. I finally found the right door. But having Emma I could see: not in a visual sense. and one copyof a mapor drawing. After trying another wall. you have to start all over again. and her tail wagging. Sample text Moving house It took the upheaval of moving house to bring home to me again that I could not see. or from one room to another. 7 Wordson a map Level Intermediate advanced to Time 20-30minutes Aims To motivate and focusthe students'readingof a text by first exploringthe personal connections someof the words and of phrases used. (Sheila Hocken.

a symbol)and be readyto show it to the students.Making games.theywill generategamesthemselves. I decidedthat if one presentsyoung children with the componentsof games.The queen. building are all waysyoung peoplecan discoverthat they can put things into the world.rooks.though the king was given the mobility 24 | Pre-text activities . Children experiment with different ways of doing things. that they can have somecontrol over life. 3 Give out copiesof the text.writing. The other day I ran into somechildren who were playing their own at version of chess. since they gallopedlike horses.for example: Procedure Showthe classthe image and give them the list of words. For the passage variations componenr to runrnto mobility +^ nanarrfo daring change to justifications expenment rules in one's ownvoice standard an Choose image (amap of a well-known country picture of a wellknown person. Alternatively. The knights jumped two squares a time. Creatinga gameis much like discoveringhow to write in one's own voice. pawnsand bishops moved in their regular ways. whereas adults get accustomed believing there is one right and one wrong to way to do things. text Children play at Sample Watching children play.Preparation from it to and wordsand phrases Choose passage pick out 10-12 a given below we suggest these: focuson.Ask them to decideindividually which words apply in someway to the image. 2 Ask them to comparenoteswith their neighbours.give out copiesof the image and askthem to write the words on it in appropriatepositions.

especially that will be usedasthe basis or for discussion essay-writing. Wnting. he claimed that the only justiflcation for letting children play games in school was to accustom them to learning to play by the rules. \Mhen I mentioned to him that there were dozens of variations of chess played throughout the world. \vVhenI came upon the game a young student was telling the kids how wrong they were in daring to change the rules of the 'real' chess players if they didn't play game. Methuen.eachbearing a different For the first class: word. From the text below we have selected these: Pre-text activities 25 | .one set of 24 word cardsfor eachgroup of sixto eight students. Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent.nedareaof human the concern. The new game was interesting but the student teacher insisted it wasn't a game and forced the kids to play by the standard rules. for every six to eight students in the class. Preparation preparea set ofz4 cards.R. (H. or point ofview.of a queen. Choose words from a fairlywell-defi. Prepare a set ofz4 cards. 1977) 1 . that theywould never be the rules.for example: Things and ideasclose the individual to d t I animal soul stomach enemy family group boy baby head mind friend woman father heart girl child per morner blood )3:'l daughter adult :.Kohl.cd Sscialconcerns and ideas -ome -atron scnool neighbourhood NCSI f riends garoen nouse land flat wife socrety language estate conversatron properry country :ceech hospital institution 2 belongings f a m i l y corrage locality preferably one expressing a strong For later classes: choose a passage. I disagree. Maths and Games. and pick out z4words and/or phrases from it theme which typify its content. One of the kids said she didn't want to be a real chess player but was curious about what happened when you changed the rules. 8 Cards the table on to Level Intermediate advanced Time 20-30minutes to Aims Toget the students clarifytheir ideasabout a topic or attitude one beforereadinga text. each bearing a different word or phrase.

Stress must be used. Sample text My mother her About fi. 3 Ask the group(s)to arrangethe cardsin groupsof three (or four.During the hours of darknessmy mother. then 83.or both. Procedure Lesson 1 Arrangethe classroomsothat the group(s)ofstudents can stand round a tableor tables.you could dictatethe list to your studentsand get them to preparetheir own cards. unanimously and b) all the cards Invite the group(s)tojustifytheir card affangement. fell over a wall betweentwo houses. and left a trail of blood back to her home.threat home refuge scnoor perpetrated magistrate psychiatrist police suicide community iil mentally ACCUSCO nursed teenager snop vandalism neighbour mother theft anorexta services hospital statistics social Alternatively. or that a)the group must agree six) accordingto meaning.sufferedappalling lacerations.It lifted the depression shewas quite a h"ppy shoplifter. Shewould go into housesand take anything portable. get them to circulate and seewhat other groupshave done.If there is more than one group. and the only place shewas safein was the bank.although once she shedonions and carrotsasshewalked. The studentsmay read the text beforeworking on the cards.afterwards. was now in deep up at ofstealing.now being She chased by the police and the socialservices. shestill got awaywith a great deal.veyearsbefore her death my mother ceased threats of suicideand embarkedon a life of persistenttheft. It must have I been a sweetmoment when a shopassistant had onceflned in the magistrate'scourt for shoplifting asked:"vVhatare you going to do aboutyour mother's shoplifting?' The local shopsfrisked my mother's pocketsand shoppingbag. 2 Layout a set ofcards faceup in random order on the table(s). The exercisecan thus be usedasa lead-into a text and/or asa way of passingcomment on it and stimulating criticism and discussion.' saidthe psychiatrist.but never bargainedfor the capacityof directoire knickers with strong So elastics.but usecardsbearingwords derivedfrom a text. Lesson 2 Follow the sameprocedureasabove. 'Youmustn't do that sort of thing. and he took her into hospital depression being accused and for a courseof electro-convulsive therapy. 26 | Pre-text activities . Next cameillegal entry.

' said both GP and social workers. and the community was beset by teenage vandalism. and my mother's neighbour. My mother selected the car. I drove her home-my home. The following morning I was told by the ward sister that she was much improved. 'Now Pre-text activities27 I . A frustrated policeman told me: And to cap it all. A little old thief'. she was taken into the local general hospital. The police visited schools. Lacerated and shocked. and eating her breakfast as if she had not seen food for a month. as a way of expressing the reader's understanding or reaction. would tear to pieces anyone who touched the car.and nursed her for six weeks. 'It is time you had some relief.' the psychiatrist told me. Watchers.With a suitcase in the boot I drove her to the clinic.they will be obliged to take her in!' said the GP.' said the psychiatrist. the ruddy dog was helping her!' 'This time she will be taken in. and perpetrated the damage. bought a huge Alsatian. went into the house for an instrument. TheGuardian. With great resilience she became as active as ever. She had joined the statistics of those mentally ill who are successfully maintained withinthe community. after several bouts of damage. but she was not. A few minutes later she rang back. (Clarice Maizel. witnessed the car vandalism. some time after that. Her last refuge was anorexia neryosa. My mother had choked to death.19 December 1983) Comments The activity can also be used after reading a text. he assured me. Before that time came she had another fall. He proposed taking her into the psycho-geriatric ward for three weeks. which. 'You have made a mess ofyourself.

r3. canbe usedwith oral texts (for example.2.'Besomeone the studentsto connectthe words and phrasesthey meet in the text with what they alreadyknow and with their own experienceof life (for and language example.9. else').For that reason.and three-part it verbs.3.we have avoideddesigningactivities where instructions relate round specifictexts. will almost alwaysbe preferable. ratherthan simplytellingthem to readthe text. These Many of the activitiesin this chapter include are intended purely asexamples.Choosingyour own texts. 'sampletexts'. we concentrateon shorter texts. shouldbe a simple matter to substitutea task basedon the actualtext you are using. and due attention is paid to this throughout. 2. 'Email language':'4 Ask them to make a list of all the two. The context in which one meetsa word or phraseis important in establishingits exactmeaning and connotation.2. 28 | Working with texts . we havetried to make activitiesthat are both interactive and memorablein themselves.in another forgotten. or getting the studentsto choosethem.'Correct the teacher'. and in those few cases to specificfeaturesof a sampletext (for example. 2 To encourage them to look closelyat words and phrasesin context. but it is alsoimportant in terms of memorability-an item met in one context maybe remembered. The emphasis throughoutis on getting and 2. this end.cientreading.2.mood and soon) in which the text is To read/heardand discussed.').For this reason.'Thewordsin your past').r4.we are concernedhere with the useof texts asa sourceof vocabularyand asan aid to learning vocabulary: for we are not offering strategies effi.people.to make the instructions more package concreteand to give the teacherand studentsa ready-made with which to try out the coreideas.Workingwith texts As in the previouschapter. This appliesalsoto the 'context of situation'-the setting (place. which can be worked through and have alsoincluded activities that during a single classsession.1 Customizing text a Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20-30minutes Aims 1 Tofocusthe students'attention givingthem a specific by task.

Only when I'd carried out the last box and was really leaving did she emerge. then weeksat a time. (AnneMichaels. Shewas afraid. only in order to withdraw them. though I knew it made them ill with worry. When I flnally did visit. eachother's choices. e BloomsburyPublishing.Grimly sheprepareda parcel of food. defectionhad given them a new intimacy. a new scar. and somethingwas lost betweenus. a fact my mother had refusedto acceptall summer. I sawthat. I lay in bed only a few miles across town and let my mother's phone callsring into the dark. 5 In pairs the studentslook at and discuss Sample text Separation year of university and was determined I was about to start my second to be on my own. One sun-wornAugust morning I carried my boxesof books down to the damp coolness the cement parking garageand loadedup the of car.Materials Onecopyof the text. 4 Ask the studentsto selectsubstitutesfrom the sheetfor the words underlined.My effiortsto free myself had createda deeperharm. But my mother wasn't angry. at intermediate level. irrevocably. Until it hurt lessand lessand to the bag was simply like the roll of candymy mother passed me from the front seaton our Sundaydrives.Fugitiv Pieces. Write thesedovrn. Overthe years. selectro-r5 words and phrasesto focuson. to stop hunger for a second-was handedto me at the threshold at the end of eachvisit. though my parentscontinued in their separate my silences. The first night in my own apartment.997) with Working texts| 29 .shesuggested go into the living room andjoin my father. 2 Slowly saythe words and phrasesyou have chosenwhile the students underline them in the passage.for eachstudent. Preparation you From the next readingpassage proposeto usewith your class. and one copyof the'Alternativewords' sheet.(See examplebelow. I didn't call for a week.the moment that plasticbag passed flom her hand to mine. Shewould begin a story and then fall silent.My mother retreatedbehind the closeddoor of her bedroom.I believethat for moments my mother actually 'It's distrustedme.' When I protested. At flrst I thought shewas punishing me for her needof me.) Procedure to 1 Givethe studentsthe readingpassage look through.the absurdpackage-enough for a singlemeal. 3 Giveout the sheetof alternativewords and phrases.Then preparea sheetof z5-4o different words and phrases(not only fiom which alternativesto thosein the text canbe synonyms) the chosen.My mother still bent towards me but with confidences. I nothing that would interest you.

December 1983.ofcourse. allow the studentsto substitute items not on the sheet.Ask them for their leasons:it is the students'own preferences. overcome dislikes. Ask if anybodyelseunderlined the samephrase.This givesthem more freedom. Procedure Dealwith the coursebook unit text in your normal ways.I Words and phrasesfor dictation (in the order they appearin the text): wasdetermined worry on myown Inilmacy retreated freemyself emerge created deeper harm a protested irrevocably absurd Alternativewords sheet Alternative words and phrases(in random order): without changing rejection hadmade mymind hurthermore up alone come out caused more serious damage uselessbreak away showherself familiarity for ever attachment ridiculoushid refused develop withdrew haddecided escape permanently independentanxiety closeness objected fear understanding Variation In step4 aboveyou can. phrases 2.perhaps.and then askthe studentsto work on their own and underline three or four phrasesor words in the text that they speciallylike. yours. that not determine how deeplythey can extract meaning from a text. an Adult Migrant Educationteacherin Melbourne. 30 | Working with texts . insteadof leadingthem to explore other possibilities.but may alsorestrict their choiceto what they already'know they know'. Ask studentsto read out a phrasethey like and then explain their reasons(in a beginners'classthis will happenin the mother tongue).2 Favourite Level Beginner advanced to Time 15-30minutes Aims Togive students chance sharetheir feelingsabout vocabulary a to personal and. Materials Coursebook. Acknowledgements This derivesfrom an idea proposedby Gail Moraro. inESlTeachers' Exchange. Repeat process the with ro-r5 students.

give a task-based To focusto listening. Lonny.After stoppingyou they are to repeatyour sentence. Working texts| 31 with . The Sampletext providesan exampleanecdoteincorporating paraphrases.ask them to produceanecdotes oftheir own: Put the studentsin groupsofthree and ask eachgroup to write an anecdoteof their own. Tell the classthat you are going to read the story again. Pick ro-r5 words fiom it that you want the studentsto focuson and write paraphrases of them. Substituteyour paraphrases the words in the text. Toencourage students build up a wider set of vocabulary to choices. 3 Correct teacher the Level Time Aims 1 2 Elementary advanced to 25-35minutesin the first lesson and 45-60minutesin the second. Materials One copy of the text and one word cardfor eachstudent. 2 . Readthrough the story again. Lesson 2 like the one Onceyour studentshave done two or three exercises above. You will need one card for eachstudent. with English for teacherscourses. Procedure Lesson 1 1 Readthe story oncethrough sothe studentsget the outline of it. haven't had it failyet! We Thankyou. substituting the word on their cardfor yours.but that this time they should stopyou assoonasthey hear a paraphrase a word of they have on their cards.Variation Ask half the classto underline phrasesand words they do not like. with illiterate adult immigrants. 2 Give out the cardsto the students. Preparation Write out an anecdotein short sentences. put eachword on three cards. while the others underline onesthev do like.and have usedit with grumpy teenagers.Givethem a chanceto checkthat they know the meaning of the words on them. soifyou havepicked out ten words and your classis thirty strong. Acknowledgements We learnt this simplestof techniquesfiom Lonny Gold. then for write out the original words on cardsto be given out to the class.

He had a large stomqchwhich lookedjust right behind the wheel of his 3o-tonlorry. 'it's at the top it won't get through.give out copiesof the text.The cards shouldthen be given out to the members of B and the activity proceeds in the flrst class(above). as the 5 Repeat activity. . 'Can't get through.' The original words are put on cardsfor the students: in Originalwords on cards Paraphrases text paunch sromach rrucK lorry twisting bendy stgn notice pulled uP stopped got out of climbed downfrom pensivelY thoughtfully policeman cop trouble oroblem uP re-inflated PumPed again carefullY attentively ponderously weightily Variation With beginnersand very elementarystudents.' roaredup and asked fust at tfiat moment a motor-bikepohceman whatthe oroblemwas.driving alongabendy him.ask one member of group A to read her/his group anecdoteslowly to the membersof group B. paraphrases ofwords or phrasesin the passage.' he thought to himself. Just letyour tyres down an inch or two and on havethem re-inflated the other side. 'Maximum height: r4ft' he read onthenohce.He looked from his lorry to the bridge. Sampletext He was a hefty man in his mid-fifties. the road aheadof and He stopped got out.'he saidweighnly. he sawa bridge over Oneday. bottom.In a later class.' the trucker told him.t of 2 Ask the groupsto prepare6-rz paraphrases interesting words in their texts and to put theseon cardsor slips ofpaper. with texts 32 | Working .' 'No for The driver thought about this attentively severalminutes. country road. scratching his head thoughtfully 'My lorry's t4feettinch. then simply dictate somewords extractedfrom it: they should mix in a few underline the words they hear.' saidthe other. using group B's anecdote. 3 Ask eachgroup of three to join with another group. 4 Within eachpair of groups. Acknowledgements We owe this activity to Lou Spaventa. not at the use. 'Easy. 'never get through there.

noting any grammatical changes The might alsobe necessary.They then pair offand swapcompositions. and so on. with Working texts| 33 . studentswork on this task in pairs. Procedure Ask the studentsto form groupsof four members. Tell them that texts are often improved and given more impact by cutting words out. explain why.and to meanings and of express their own understandings specific connotations.You will need a different text for eachgroup of students. Materials Coursebook. Make copiesof eachtext: one for eachmember of the group plus one additional copy.4 DeletingWords Level Post-beginner advanced to Time 15-20minutes or Aims Tofocus on whether a word is necessary not as a way of exploringits meaningin context. one copy ofthe secondtext to group B. 5 Marginalia Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20-45 minutes. Sharewith the classthe words you think are best left out and briefly with you. Givethem an opportunity to (dis)agree Variation Working individually. Ask them to underline ro-u words in the passage that that they feel can usefully go.2.They comeback together to discuss the deletions.dependingon the texts chosen. Materials A different text for eachgroup of students:five copiesof eachtext. 4 2 . Procedure fi:om the coursebook two or Ask the studentsto re-reada passage three units back. studentswrite a short composition.StudentA deletesall the unnecessary words in B'swork and vice versa. Preparation Choosea number of short but completetexts: poemsare ideal.Make sure each group has access at leastone dictionary. Aims To get studentsto look closelyat vocabularyin context. Group the studentsin sixesto read their reducedversion ofthe passage. to Give one copy ofthe flrst text to group A.

Not everyword or phrasein the text needbe chosen. on their own copies. 2. Follow-up 'Publication' is an excellentway to encouragestudentsto respectand enjoyboth their own work and that of others: Put all the marginalia for eachtext on a sheetof paper together with the original text and make enoughcopiesfor the whole classto read. and have access computersand browser software. Variation The sameactivity works well with texts generatedby the students themselves. Ask the studentsto underline.make a simple websitefor each text: the original text should be on one page(or asthe main frame of word or phrasemadeinto a link and the a page)with eachselected page(or frame) to be displayed commentsto it placedin a separate when the link is clicked. If you and your studentsare familiar with.and then. with texts 34 | Working . After ten minutes. you would prefer them to flnd out from eachother or from the dictionary. Give out the remaining copiesof the texts. to make a comment on it. sothat eachstudent has hisiher own copy. in the margin. example sentence show how it can be used. a better alternative. Preparation you a Choose short passage think will be easyfor your students. response Tell the studentsto circulate their texts around the group and to read eachother's'marginalia'.I their text within the group. to. ask eachgroup to divide up thefutext sothat each a member chooses different word or phrasefrom it.the word or phrasetheyhave chosen. Materials One copy of the original text and one copy of the doctoredtext for eachstudent.a to an or criticism. Explain that this can take any form they like: a paraphrase.6 Huntthe misfits Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20-35minutes in of awareness meanings contextin a Aims Todevelopstudents'critical light-heartedway. Say Tell the studentsto read and discuss but you are availableto answersimple questionsabout language.evena picture. someof the words in it sothat it no longer makesproper Change sense.

) for a fairly advanced Variation Put up the following sentenceon the blackboardand invite the class to correct it: Ma:no notholybad. Don't tell them what you have done to the text-let it dawn on them.For the second.askthem to check eachother's work.In classyou will need copiesof both the original passage the and you will doctoredone.(Thetext 'Viaduct Rescue' below would be appropriate group. creativemistake: Peter ismybestfriend. Londonis capital England. for few comprehension Choose this purposea text that presents problems and make surethat the studentshave dictionariesto hand. the needto make your own doctoredversion. 'vVhen they havecorrectedasmuch asthey can.) Procedure Givethe studentsa copy eachofthe doctoredtext and askthem to read it. and you can askthem to make corrections.to deform other simplesentences. Follow-up like the \Mhenthe studentshavedone two or three editing exercises one above. is Now put up this sentenceand invite them to introduce a similar. Give out the undoctoredpassage. the studentsmust know enoughto feel the text is within their grasp. me There's money no inthebank. for example. Ask them.give them an undoctoredtext and invite them to doctor it: somestudentstake evenmore pleasurein constructingthe texts than in'correcting' them. (See Sampletexts below. Aboveall. in smallgroups. l[ Working texts| 35 with . the of EJena asked tofeedthecats. Eventuallyone or more studentswill point out there is somethingwrong.

I texts Sample Gharlie ( T h e i m e s1 8F e b r u a r1 9 8 0 ) y T . FebruarY 23 l5 | Workingwith texts . FebruarY 1980) 18 rescue 1980) (TheGuardian. Gharlie Gairoli dies aged 70 (TheTimes.

write deflnitions of thesewords.and how they can be expressed definitions or paraphrases. but related to the overall context.quite large chunks of with Evento someone rock can be moved great distances. by Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. MorecambeBay Sampletext Crossing There is no route or path which can be taken regularly. Make one copy of (See Sampletext the the annotatedtext for eachstudent in the class.over the sandsof MorecambeBay. & Charles.suchconditions are not alwayseasilypredicted.but soon it found how hopeless waswhen he had to be rescuedin mid-channel. sixteenRoyal Marineson a route march from Hest Bank to Barrow-in-Furness nearly got themselvesinto serioustrouble before I rushed out and put them back on to a safecourse. Changes to dirr"tr" and sofrequent. below. and underline eight to ten words and phrasesin it.togetherwith deflnitions of two to four otherwords not in the text.r98o) the half-way across water man a young kinds of different often from keptaway lumps thick. at the foot of the page. and then to find words to suit the remaining deflnitions. Preparation Choose text. sowere headingstraight for deepwater. in no particular order. a Then. 3 Ask them to look at the work of two or three other studentsin the class. experience. solid way takenfrom one place to another of natural stream water longjourneyon foot made in by soldiers training direction movingin a particular of changes Position the intervals at evenly-spaced known in advance 4 with texts| 37 Workino . and askthe studentsto match the definitions to the underlined words. in safety.They had startedout one hour and before I had suggested. 7 Ghostdefinitions to Level Elementary intermediate Time 20 minutes Aims Tofocus on the exact meaningsof lexicalitems. Eachtide shillg the sandin "t" one direction or another.) Procedure 1 Explain howyou preparedthe deflnitions.and along the coast.In Novembert963. David (CedricRobinson. Then there was a lad who tried to crossthe bay on a bicycle.2 .SandPilotofMorecambeBay. 2 Give out the text.

course handouts.we hope. Comments This is both a readingand a writing (or at leastan editing) exercise. Procedure Ask the students. Variation 2 There is a vast body of text. etc.pattern sentences.exceptto ensurethat you have sufficient copiesof the 'source texts'to be used(coursebooks.the University ofvirginia's http://wwwbartleby. anthologies. You or your studentscould usea searchengine suchas Googleto flnd sources favourite authors or themes.interpret. to riffIe through the sourcetexts and selectlines or shorter fragmentsof text. Preparation None. Materials A collectionof 'sourcetexts'(see below). but is reviewing its potential meaningsin other contexts. but is included here because dependscrucially on the way we it recognize. creativeways.I 2.or go directly of to one of the anthology sites(for example. etc. In choosinga fragment of text.beginnersto lower-intermediatestudentscould use fragmentsof coursebooks. readers. by 38 | Working with texts . and respondto speciflcwords and phrases. the student is not only decidingon its meaning in a particular context. Acknowledgements This activity was suggested a competition in the NewStatesman.com ). Variation 3 The activity alsoworks using texts written by the students themselves.8 Patchwork text Level Elementary advanced to Time 2040 minutes Aims To scanand re-contextualize text fragments.newspaper cuttings. the student is re-contextualizingthe fragmentsin new and.In assemblingthe 'patchwork text'.singly or in groupsof two to four. From thesethey should constructthe opening paragraphof a novel or short story.handouts. Variation 1 More advancedstudentscan constructtheir texts from poetry anthologies. including poetry now availableon the Internet.).

(AndreaNewman.But he hasn't forgiven Gavin. Gavinwon't put up with my nonsense. It's extraordinaryhow quickly Daddy'sforgiven me. the Sampletext. He'stough. Only do this exercisein a group where there is plenty of mutual trust. They might seeme too clearly. and askthe studentsto pick out six or In sevenemotionally strongwords and phrases. ask to describethe way Prue them to look at all thosethe writer uses advantage I play thelitrlegirl I see of treats her father: exploit victimize talce I I goI indulge.Now Mummy's different: hearing her voicejust nowthere was no tug-of-war. Preparation Chooseand make copiesof an emotionally chargedtext. thought: I exploithim.in pairs. Or victimize him even.ABouquet Triton Books.when they're alone.Or they might out like eachother too much.and I alwaysam.2.9 Thewordsin your past Level Elementary advanced to Time 20-30minutes memorable linkingit to important by Aims To makenew vocabulary memories the students'ownlives.I'm rather glad. Then askthe studentsto explain to one another. to myself. but I don't. and where would I be then? Squeezed by all thosethings men like to talk about. DaddyI can take advantage evenmore than I usedto. I simply can't avoid it: an irresistible impulse to playthe little girl. simply doesn'tappealto him.whatever they are. how onecan far Ask them to think back to a period of their lives in which thesewords might flt. Procedure Give out copiesof the text.969) ofBarbedWire. And if they did it might somehowdiminish their love for me. I know. I shouldwant tlem to like eachother. I knowl do.r. Sampletext Daddy Prue. He can't even mention his name. I might not be quite sucha specialpersonfor either of them if they drew together over me. Amazing. not if I'm really honest. Gavinwon't. like the Sampletext below. Not at all.It's bad enoughwhen Gavin'sfriends come round.I don't really needthem to love eachother as well. But of.puttingthe phone down. or for which they would be usefully descriptive. to seehow he far I can go. with texts| 39 Workino r . in Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent.always me did.how the words they havechosenflt or describethe period they havebeen thinking of.Perhapssheprefersthe boys. when I remember how angry he was.That's wrong of me.They both love me: that's enough. to what length of selFindulgence will allow me to It sink. or maybeshejust accepts asanother grown-up woman.

40 | Working with texts .1O Towardslearninga text by heart (a) Level Beginner advanced to depending the lengthof the text. Alternatively. they write the secondword. Materials One copy for the text for eachstudent. tell them to turn face-downor put away the original text and to exchangewhat they have written with their partners and. Make sure that everyonehas a copy of the text to be worked on. Tell everyoneto put awaywhat they havewritten.Tell them that one is A and the other B. on Time 1540 minutes. then with the words they have chosenfrom the passage. Example lifeline 1949 1955 1962 1966 1974 met Mario etc. then askthem to changeplacessothat no one is sitting next to their partner. writing lVhen they havefinished writing. choosea suitablesection from their coursebook. etc.asin the example below. still sitting apart. Bring a student to the board to write out the whole text fiom memory helpedby the Do rest of the class. they leavea blank for the third and write the fourth. and to label it first with datesand events.I Variation Insteadof askingthe classsimply to think back. to flll in the blanks. askthem to draw a life line.rstword. not intervene if mistakesgo up on the board.At the end ofthe exerciseget one student to read out the original text while the 'secretary'coffectswhat is on the board. etc. Preparation and preparecopiesof a short text that you would like your Choose studentsto learn by heart. 5. r.Tell them to include any punctuation and to leaveblanks ofroughly the right length for each word left out. went to live started 'big withGrandma school' hitch-hiked got married in Denmar& k Germany 2. Aims To encourage studentsto remembercontextsas well as single words and phrases. Ask all the As to copy out the text in this manner: they leavea blank for the fi. words and Ask all the Bsto copy out the text but leaving out the even in the oddwords. 3. Procedure Pair the students.

Ask another student to read out the whole text. collocations.11 Towards Level Beginner advanced to Time 15-30minutes Aims Toencouragestudentsto remembercontextsas well assingle words and phrases. Working withtexts| 41 . Comments Rub out first the words and phrasesyou want the studentsto concentrateon most. Ask a secondstudent to read the paragraphaloud. Continue until there are onlv a few isolatedwords left onthe board.NBAn overhead projector or flip-chart will not work for this activity. Beforethe lessonstarts.can constitute a valuableinner resourcefor 'lexical grammar'. Recentwork in the areasof 'above-the-word lexis'. Rub out another three or four words and againask for a readingof the whole text. Rub out three or four words or phraseson different lines.Comments 4 the Current EFLmethodologyrarely encourages student to learn text by heart.esingleword.this canbe a happy and rewarding activity. Alternatively. vocabularylearning. for somelearners. Materials A blackboardor whiteboard is essential.put the text up on the board.hasunderlined the needfor learnersto remember and recall much larger'chunks' of language than tJ.choosea suitablesectionfrom their coursebook. Sometexts (proseaswell aspoetry and song)have a music and sonority that make tJem a pleasureto recite. and yet.while others.suitably chosen.etc. including tJrewords that are no longer there. learning text by heart(b) a 2. Procedure Silently Ask a student to read the text on the board aloud to class. Preparation a Choose short text that you would like your studentsto learn by heart. underline any bits shemispronouncedand askher to re-readthem.

shapingwalls of mud. beach. and the big hotel on the corner was red brick with a cast iron balcony and corrugated iron roof. doors and roofs ofbark. The other things were mines and slag heaps and pitheads. so I used to build things out of mud. and stretching away from them 42 | Workinqwith texts . I can see myself now squatting in a corner of the big paddock. on 2 Ask the group to build up a list of professions the blackboard. lost in the creation of a remembered town. by was list following of professions produced onegroup: Example The joiner accountant bus-driver baker electrician apprentice teacher butcher clergyman foreman fisherman politician businessmansocialworker farmer associations: formed following the the Afterreading textbelowthegroup place for is the teacher (because beach thebest sea sand.12 Cross-associations to Level Elementary advanced Time 15-25minutes as Aims To usecreativeword-association an aid to memory' of the text for eachstudent. uses. the words they have with the professions.ofthe words. and all around among untidy lumps of mud I made tower things flom sticks above holes in the ground. Ask them to find out etc. any way they wish. lessons) paddock squatting horizon farmer butcher (connection with cattle) thesepeople electrician (fromthe position joiner often haveto work in) you politician (because can't seewhat isoverthe horizon. chosen 4 Invite them in pairs to explain to eachother their associations. Materials One copy Preparation and make copiesof a short text. meanings.I 2. Procedure Ask the studentsto read through the text and note down any words which they don't know or which interest them. In my mind's eye the houses were all painted dazzling white. small and thin and brown in my patched khaki pants and shirt. and you don't know the f uture is you will get if a politician elected) Sampletext Goblins I never had clean beach sand to play on when I was a kid' In fact never saw the seabefore I was nine. in 3 The studentsassociate. An examplewill be found Choose below. I always built in this same place.

Working withtexts| 43 . 2 ..wood.peoplein the group itself. When the other kids found me they usedto laugh and break up my mining town. (ColinJohnson. settee.wardrobe. Then I beganbuilding towns full of white goblins and I stampedthem into the ground in a rage.. this the student then explainswhythese things cameto mind. The studentsthen reverseroles and repeatthe exercise. field.).). 1 3 Besomeone else Level lntermediateto advanced Time 30-40 minutes Aims Toget students in thinking about words and phrases their cultural/historical context.table.. Variation for may be usedto build the list of associations. Preparation Choose and make copiesof a short text that is fairlyrich in modern vocabularyand dealswith a contemporarysubject. who free-associates After with the words asif s/hewere the historical personchosen. . Ask the studentsto form pairs. river.One student should then read out his/her list of words one by one to the partner..an r8th-century peasant. .asin the example below Procedure Ask the studentsto read through the text and note down words that they would considerparticularly relevant to today'sworld. valley.furniture features(hill.an EgyptianPharaoh. Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. Other categories (chair.I would seethe sparedesertscrub shimmering to a flat horizon and the whole land panting with heat under a bleachedblue sky.his/her 'tlinking into' own grandmother/father)and to spenda few minutes the role.famouspeople. 1965) Angus and Robertson. Ask eachstudent to selectfor her/himself a historical role (for example.landscape example. WiId CatFalling.

March zooz) 15 Variation You can also use this activity with audio recordings or live storytelling. associations. followino firemen drive-thru restaurant car fires? menwhostart kindof gate? some an Inn no toea apparatus breathing detectives tapedoff forensic corporare manager Sample text so? lungs. Drive-thru destroyed by inferno TWo flremen narrowly escaped injury while tackling a blaze that gutted the McDonald's drive-thru restaurant on the Sturry Road in Canterbury on Monday. Leading fireman Keith Dabson said two firemen who had gone into the buitding with breathing apparatus came out seconds before the roofcollaPsed. 'The fire went up the walls into the eaves and whistled through the roofvoid.' Mr Dabson said that the restaurant was smoke-logged when firemen arrived and within zo minutes the building was ablaze. said the company would have a better idea of how much rebuilding was the damage. whysay but clearly no idea ropedoff to something do with the law body perhaps bailiff? a somekindof official. Detectives are investigating the suspected arson attack.' he said. 'We could see the flames spreading into the restaurant and as we pulled the men out the roof fell down. Robert Parker. 44 | Workingwith texts . student apparatus breathing firemen drive-thru restaurant car corporate manager off forensic detectives taped peasant. produced the himself a 16th-century as seeing Hispartner. It is believed that a car parked in the drive-thru section was set alight and the fire spread to the building via a canopy. corporate affairs manager for McDonald's.produced list: the one the Example From textbelow. 'If we hadn't pulled them out at that moment they could have been cut offand injured. necessary once its construction manager had assessed (KentMessenger. There is no point in losing a life trying to save a building. Flames quickly spread through the roofvoid. We are trained to look for flashovers. Nearly 3o flremen from Canterbury Sturry Whitstable and Faversham were called to the scene shortly after 3 am and battled to get the blaze under control. destroying the centre ofthe building. The area has been taped offand forensic experts and flre investigators were examining the scene on MondaY.'he said.

Tell the students to underline all the features that make this piece of writing feel like an oral text.. Alternatively. Preparation Make a copy for each student of the email text below. 4 Ask them to make a list of all the two.and three-part verbs. After a couple of hours my invention sadly gave out. the smash-hit soap opera. and I fell asleep.14 Email Level U pper-intermediate to advanced Time 40-50 minutes Aims To get students to learn from 'informal'. 7 Round offthe lessonwithvour above. as did my grarnmar. And trying to help my cousion Daniel with his biology revision. uncorrected nativespeaker texts. own comments on the hardertasks email text Well. But everybody in Santiago seemed very well and jolly and I had a funtime tryingto followthe latest going on in 'Market of Love' (or something ). Tell them you will be available to help with unknown words and expressions. (my aunt) to the bus station ( hooray. and make any necessary changes or additions to Steps 3 and 4. exclaimed several times how strange it was to be here. my trusty Rough Guide meant I knoewwhich one to go to and she didn't!) Workingwithtexts 145 .language 2. and their lists. Here's the travelogue Was firll of merrybable when I arrived. and thought my Spanish was going brilliantly until I realised so far everything I d said had been practised to myself on the plane. And watching NellyFurtado onMTV That was Wednesday. Ask them to copy out all the features of the text that indicate the age and gender of the writer. Then ask tJ. choose and make copies of an email you have received. Group tfie students in fours to share their first impressions (as expressed in the three sentences they wrote in Step r). 5 Ask them to list flve to six phrases or stretches of language that they would feel happyusing in their ownway of speaking/writing English.em to underline (in a 'writing' frame different colour) all the features that come from the ofmind. Procedure Give out the text below and ask the students to read it through quickly and then to write a three-sentence reaction to it. managed to recognise my aunt and cousin very happily. Materials A copy for each student of the email text below. their later impressions. Thursday morning I waved everyone offto school and went offwith Ximena.

shows just one of her manywriting styles. TWo rolls. the aim ofwhich is to exchange news andviews with others. uncorrected style. which students can learn from as they can learn from overheard 'email conversations. Chile is a brilliant country: enough to be cheap.. hoiw tasty is the chicken here?.)in suitably casual comfortably complicitous Spanish failed miserably due to poverty of Spanish vocabulary.. rich enough to make travelling massively enjoyable..liszt. from which you can download a list of available newsgroups-or you can search. rice and huge chicken nugget.google. Acknowledgements Thanks to Daniela Cammack for the email text. Just. Daniela passed five A-level exams. the conductor turned up with my lunch.com/groups . My six hour journey largely consisted of me chuckling to myself at the bed-like qualities of my chair and the enornous footrest in front. about six horus north of Santiago.. Managed not to ask her not to tell my mum.. To receive and send messagesvia a newsgroup. nad the several miles of legroom provided for a mere 5 quid. 46 | Workingwith texts . The email above.to get to Coquimbo. It must be stressed that there is no particular -emails varyfrom the formal office memorandum to the style' electronic equivalent ofa note stuck on the fridge. writtenwhen she was zo. you can either 'newsreader' (usuallypart ofyour email software) to connect use a with a news server-many Internet Service Providers (Isrs) run their own news servers. and oh my word. Committed an abominable error on the way. groups to which one subscribes by sending an email request to an automatic list-server or to the human who runs the list: a very good 'list of lists' can be found on the web at http://www.and just when I was thinking perhaps only bringing water with me was a bit stupid. read. 'poor' The bus was absolutely fantastic. and went on to study at Oxford University.. and send messageswith your 'Lists' are private web browservia http://wmv.net . I so nearlylaughed out loud. I think I impressed her with my diziness though. In addition to personally addressed emails.. though: rnanaged to leave my cash card in the machine until some very angry bleeping called us back. Ximena not very impressed at all and my desperate attempts to laugh it off/ claim it had never happened before ( er. and many can be seen as valuable records of native speakers'informal.. each with grade A. Comments Emails (even more than handwritten letters) share characteristics of both written and spoken language.com or by sending a blank email to liszter@bluemarble. even a plastic-style nugget tastesjust like a good roast chicken smells. there are many public newsgroups and special-interest'lists' accessible through the Internet..

where writing is simply a convenientway of gathering the questionsto be used.1 Invisible Level Elementary advanced to Time 10-20minutes Aims To get studentsto reflecton and use'known'vocabulary. and so on. in Tell them to stopwhen they havewritten six or sevenwords. and to draw a rectanglearound it.through 3.letter. Ask the studentsto begin by picturing the whole text on the page. Tell the studentsto look at their sheetof paper and to imagine that they have alreadywritten a text on it of about roo words. and asthesebecomeclear.Writingactivities Short writing tasksform part of many of the activities in this book. Visually oriented studentsmay needthe written shapeof a word beforethey can learn it.'Expandinga sentence'.and to learn from eachother by readingand discussing what others have written.-or you can specifya particular kind oftext. in exactlythe positionsthey occupyon the page. especiallywhenaskedto make wall-chartsor take notesat the blackboard. Writing is not only a useful skill in itselfl it canbe usedin the classroomfor a number of purposes: focusthought.r.You may say that this can be any kind of text-essay. Procedure Ask the studentsto sit in pairs.they should write thesewords. description. to provide an to interval of privary. They shouldthen try to make out individual words in the text. to shareideasquickly.4. which aims to widen vocabularyby looking at certain rhetorical featuresof written English. writing 3. and only thesewords.Ask them to choose words that are widely separated the text. The activitiesin this chapter show a spectrumof writing tasks.'The oracle'. 'Invisible writing'. from 3.to more creativewriting in 3. while thosewho are stronglykinaesthetic (seeChapter6) may beneflt from the simple physicalprocess.Eachstudent should havea pen and a blank sheetofpaper. etc.2. Writing activities | 47 1 2 3 4 .

other than by the teacher. the 'say' the letter to middle. then go back to their seats to and write the letter addressed themselves. writes in six or sevenwords. Follow-up and indeed studentsmaybenefit from The exerciseis repeatable.for particular students who 'can't flnd anything to write' or who genuinely suffer from writer's block. In this case. however. They then take a cleanpieceof paper and write down six to ten key words on the blank page. Tell them they haveten minutes to do this. and the ending. and though the mechanicsare then completesthe text.We havefound this soloversion useful. Somestudentswill want to themselvesinternally. lacks a motivated reader. oncewritten.the characterof the exerciseis very different: most importantly. working alone.placing them where they would comein the text.can be highly demotivating' 48 | Writingactivities .different types oftext (see Variation r below). They exchangepaperswith their partner. The partners meet up and comparewhat they havewritten. Variation 2 This type ofexercisecan alsobe done by individual students:each student imaginestheir own text. They think about tfie beginning of the letter.) Givethe studentsa further five to ten minutes to exchangetheir what their partner haswritten papersagainand to read and discuss for them. Comments studentsto write in the knowledgethat they This activity encourages To haveat leastone interestedreader. letter to Eachpersontakesa moment to mentally preparea one-page their partner. Variation 1 Randomlypairyour studentsand make surethe paired studentsare not sitting next to eachother. the text.and different ways of selectingthe initial six or sevenwords.Get the membersof eachpair to exchangetheir piecesof paper and. write with no expectationof being read. experimentingwith different partners. (It may help somestudentsempathizewith their partner if they alsoattempt to imitate their handwriting.to write out the whole text asthey imagine their partner would havewritten it. almost the same.

and to write it on one of their blank slips. the questionermight interpret the oraclereplies.For example.controlled Preparation or Choose. Pass two containersround the group. the the question. Collect recently learned. Writingactivities 49 | . answeras Comments This is a writing exercisein the sensethat t}le studentsput their of questionsin written form.if. eachstudent in turn should read out first their question slip and then the word on the other slip.) In groups offour to eight. telling the studentsto close the their eyesand take one slip at random from eachcontainer.3 .to how the word might be interpreted asan answer.by the 'Shall I be rich?'.even large hats will do.either personalor more 'Shall general.waste-paperbins.3 Adding words to a story Level Elementary intermediate to Time 30-40 minutes Aims Togive the studentsan opportunity to start writing creatively frame. and discuss 'oracle'.ifyou stop smoking'. Procedure 1 Give out two blank slips of paper to eachstudent. 2 Theoracle to Level Lower-intermediate advanced Time 15-20minutes Aims To practisenewly learnt vocabularyin a wide range of contextsand situations. soon?'Collectup the completedslips and put them in Containerr. 'Will there be a war in the Middle Eastagain I get married this year?'.for example. a very short story and write it out asfour to eight examplebelow. makeup. within a safe.usethe lower-intermediate sentences.it doesn'tmatter. 'Yes.(If they happento take their own slips. Materials Make sureyou have plenty of slipsof paper(approximately4cm x in you will needat leasttwice as manyasthereare students 12cm): in Also makesureyou havetwo empty containers classthe class. 2 Tell the studentsto think of a question. cardboardboxes. to the question 'globalwarming'. but not perhapsin the sense 'composingwritten discourse'. 3. Alternatively. believethat activities suchasthis We canbe a great help in overcomingmany students'fearsof committing themselvesto paper. Now tell the studentsto think of an Englishword that they have blank slip.and to write it on their second theseand put them in Container z.

add the same words as t O s last timel mo quetopr ayf or ther ain cloudso come. Materials One copy Preparation Prepareand make copiesof a worksheet.In turn they read their storiesto each other...She Tell the studentsto end the story in not more than three words. oonthew ells ouldrun dry. Put up walls. Group the studentsin threes.An exampleis provided below. and to addthe caption: She Dictate: on The nextdaythelittlegtfl wentto the[srac r ] mosque herowntopr ay grandfather's umbrella. Ask studentsto copyinto their notebooksthe newwords theytake a likingto. on the board. norainfell. and [snecE] avillagewith Thiswas [sracn] walls Ask the studentsto add a few words in eachof the spaces.And norainfell. with two or more words. It hadnot r aine for marry. mosque.4 Expanding sentence to Level Lower-intermediate advanced Time 10-1 minutesfor eachworksheet. I a 3.Procedure Dictate: roofs.+threewords. Dictate: S w manymonths.controlled for eachstudent of the Worksheet+ Exampleanswers. Ask the studentsto add two or more words in the spaceleft.but you may find it more useful to write your own. Ask the studentsto draw a quick sketch of the little girl they imagine was. 5 Aims To give the studentsan opportunity to start writing creatively frame. Get the studentsto comeup and write the words they usedto qualify thesenouns on the board under eachheading. or use drawn from your coursebookor createdby you or your sentences students. d needed The villagers desperately lsytcnl. roofs. S0 | writingactivities . etc. nelittlegirl stayed And athome. within a safe. Ask the studentsto completethe sentence Dictate: to Themenofthevillagewentto the[srec n] mosEue pr ayfor r ain. tookher for rain. 4 Dictate: of Thewomen thevillagewentto theIsra c r .

a not Hewas writer.really cold. o Yeah. and insertedcomments.yawned.picked Heleaned 3 H es m i l e d . of expansionin the examples:sequences action. up o The isdeep sky blue.in Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress Writing activities51 | .iust tables. if necessarytlat there answersheets.or 4 Hewasa writer. clutched side. a a is been. Worksheet 1 Hegot up. a Wewentto a restaurant. to startedto Hesmiled.or been. 3 H es m i l e d . Hegot up. . fell his over.ondthrew over. in Ask your studentsto expandthesesentences a similar way: o Hepicked hishat. 4 Hewasa writer. r The treeisnotwhatyouthink. in 5 We went to a restaurant GreekStreet.ortriedsmile. upthebook.Procedure Give out copiesof the worksheet and the Exampleanswersand ask on the studentsto notice the expansionofthe original sentences the are three kinds of Explain. 2 He leanedover. Thelight faded. Exampleanswers 1 Hegot up. Hewas writer.and 2 He leanedover. manof words. stretched. Ask eachgroup to up put two or three oftheir best sentences on the board. Group the studentsin sixesto comparetheirwork.and deadon thefloor.smallplace.a a scribbler. had Hewas. D'you could? thinkyoupossibly . 5 four Greek Street.and bay. looked outocrossthe the Hegotup.orsaidtohave in We went to a restaurant GreekStreet. restatements(the sameor similar in otherwords). Heleaned itonthefire.opened curtains. I feel o Cutuothetomatoes. o Notreally. pen-pusher.awriter. of smilebutthoughtbetterit. a manofdeeds.

B i l i n g u a le x t sa n d a c t i v i t i e s t

Translation is a special skill, and one that many otherwise competent users of a second language, includingbilinguals, flnd difficult. It has been attacked as a teaching tool for many decades,not least for producing generations of students who may know a great deal about a language, but who cannot useit effectively. To extend this criticism to any :useof the mother tongue in class, however, seems to us both unjustified and unrealistic. No amount of urgmg students to leave their mother tongue outside the classroom door will prevent them, in the privacy of their own thoughts, from comparing, contrasting, and translating languages, or, despite our best efforts, fiom making target-language errors in the process. A far better approach, we think, is to accept that for most students the 'natural'language of expression, and to design mother tongue is the exercises that draw on the wealth of experience of life and language that has come to them through the language theywere born into. This does not mean a return to endless. unmotivated translation. The activities in this chapter include reflective and interactive exercises that aim to turn mother-tongue experience into targetlanguage competence. Most of the activities that follow are best suited to classesthat share a common mother tongue. Those that can be used or adapted for use in polyglot groups are so marked.

vocabularychoices 4,1 Sensory
Level Lower-intermediate advanced to Time 40-50 minutes words more memorable evoking by Aims To maketarget-language associations throughthe mothertongue.The strongpersonal to in studentsareencouraged useall their senses this. Procedure Ask the studentsto think of a placethey really like, be it their home, house,or a placeoutdoors, and the season, time of the someone else's day,the weather, etc.in which they like it best.

52 | Bilingual textsand activities

Ask them to write a list of ten mother-tonguewords or phrasesthat of of describethe smells the place;ten to describethesounds the place; ten to describethe way the placelook; and ten to evoke t}l'e feelingthe placegivesthem. Group the studentsin fours, with dictionaries,to translatethe words into English.They help eachother and you help them. Ask eachstudent to write a free descriptionof this placein English impressions. mixing sensory Group the learnersin sixes:t1ey read their piecesto eachother.

4.2 Changingthe order of the words
to Level Elementary upper-intermediate Time 15-20minutes Aims To give studentsguided practicein contrastivetranslation. Materials One worksheetfor eachstudent. Preparation from a unit later in your coursebook Choosesix to eight sentences Commentsbelow.)Translatethe than the pointyou are at now. (See into the students'mother tongue.Write eachof the sentences as English sentences jumbled strings of words. Example sehr Wir milssenmorgen frilh aufstehen. veryto weget have earlyup tomorrow Copythe pageofjumbled strings so eachpair of studentscan have a under eachline ofjumbledwords. sheet.Leaveplenty of space Procedure 1 Give out the sheetofjumbled words to eachpair of students. 2 Tell the studentsthat you are going to readthe first sentencein their mother tongue and they are to write it under the first English string with correct word order. ofwords asa coherentEnglish sentence Explain that they needto useall the words in the string. 3 Continue this way until they havetranslatedall the sentences. 4 Ask different studentsto read out their translations.Givefeedback. Comments using text from a coursebook In this and other activitieswe suggest that the studentswill not be working on until laterin the course. unit for There at leasttwo good reasons this: 'stretch'the studentswhile still remainingwithin you to It enables the overall curriculum for the year. are It givesthe studentsan idea of where they are going: coursebooks linear, but learning a languageis not. necessarily
textsand activities 53 Bilingual |

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4,3 Focusing difficulty on
Level lntermediateto advanced Time 40-50minutes Aims To provokecontrastiveawareness vocabularyin two languages. of Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. Preparation Choose make copiesof a short text. The Sample and text is an example level. ofwhat would be appropriateat an upper-intermediate Procedure 1 Put the studentsin pairs,then give one copy ofthe text you have chosento eachpair. (Thisencourages co-operation.) them to work Tell with their partner and decidewhich words, phrases, sense-groups or in the Englishtext are hard to render into their mother tongue. 2 Ask different pairsto tell the whole group which phrases they have chosenand the solutionsthey havecomeup with. Shareyour own solutionswith the class, not beforethe studentshavehad their say. but 3 The pairs now translatethe text into their mother tongue. 4 The pairs form sixes.They read out and discuss their translations. in Sample text The Elephant the Room There'san elephantin the room. It is large and squatting,soit's hard to get around it. Yetwe squeeze with 'How are you' and 'I'm flne', by And a thousandother forms of trivial chatter. We talk about the weather. We talk aboutwork. We talk about everything-except the elephantin the room. There'san elephantin the room. We all know it is there. We are thinking about the elephant aswe talk together. It is constantlyon our minds. For you see,it is a very big elephant. It hashurt us all. But we do not talk about the elephantin the room. Oh please,sayher name agarn. say'Barbara' agarn. Oh please, Oh please, let's talk about the elephantin the room. For ifwe talk about her death, Perhaps can talk about her life? we CanI say'Barbara'to you and not haveyou look awal2 For ifl cannot, then you are leaving Me Alone... In a room ... With an elephant... Sa I gilinoual andactivities texts

and Bilingualtexts activities 55 | . Bereavement 4.individuality for the USA'hyltocrisy studiedor been to for the UK. for example.e989. from simply plunging into a translation and. kirei (clean) (ye arning-longing-nostalgial Japan. encourages Acknowledgements Maganne. the other studentsaskthe questionsabout their representation. Comments the Focusingfirst on the problem areasin a text discourages students paradoxically.variation @ differencesof Another way of getting studentsto focus on specific is languages to get them to produce.4 Culturalkeywords Level Lower-intermediatetoadvanced Time 40-50 minutes and the ways in of Aims To explorethe cultural resonance vocabulary. Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto work in small groups(4-6) and chooseone or two words that pithily sum up major valuesin their home culture (for for example.after hearing the text read to them rather than reading it. using whatever languagecomesto mind.a fairly detailedparaphrase done from memory. and to comeup with one or countriesthey have two cultural keywordsabout English-speaking (for example. holdingthe their'statue'to the class. They with the original and decidewhat then comparetheir paraphrases changes they needto make to producea more accuratetranslation. can-do forAustralia). Terry Kett ering. by Eileyhant theRoom.resignaci6n (resignahon) southern Spain.if they want to.saudade for for northern Portugal. them to standback and seethe text asa whole. Bereavement in The Publishing. 5 Ask the studentsto work in new gtoups. 4 Allow five minutes' quiet for studentsto write themselvesnotes about their reactionsto the statues. 3 Eachgroup then presents 'staflle' Let position for r5-zo seconds. 2 Tell them they have four minutes to representthe most important 'living statue':a static word they have chosenasa tableau or illustration or symbolicrepresentationmadeby the bodiesof someor all of the group members. This is best language.in the other vocabularyacross ofthe text flrst. 7 Eachgroup presentstheir statueto the whole group. 5 Givethem four minutes to organizetheir statues. of vocabularyitems can representimportant aspects which specific a culture.

They then checkwith the coursebook. . 4 Pairthe studentsand ask them to flll in the missingletters. . 2 Tell the studentsto write down only thefrsf letter of the word you dictate.I Allow five minutes for writing up reactionsto the ideaspresentedin the statues. feeling for the word. .5 . . . . Preparation Bereadyto dictatero-r5 words from the bilingual list at the end of your coursebook unit.the two English in wordsin the exampleare childanddream\. 4.asan to the aid to memoryand spelling. .k o d o m o 5 d . . . . . . . and a mothertongue translation (Japanese the exampleabove. Procedure 1 Explain to the studentsthat they should write the words you are going to dictate in a vertical list that will look like this: c . . y u m e . For airing cupboard bungalow croft aufaitwith (= standard ordinary) cream tea savoury semi-detached cosy pflvacy daddy limo (of myoldman Speaker the House Commons) of Comments In one of our classes whole group made statuesaround the the Portuguese keyword saudade(yearning-longing-nostalgia).5 How many lettersin the word? Level Beginner intermediate to Time 10-20minutes Aims Toget students visualize look of a word on the page. We presentedour statues Portuguese and sheanalysedfor us how closewe seemed havegot to a genuine. It was a thrilling classin terms full. . . Variation An indirect way of exploring culture through vocabularyis to askthe studentswhich of a suitably chosenset of Englishwords and phrases haveone-wordequivalentsin their language(s). example. Portuguese of learning cultural awareness. S6| eilingualtexts activities and . . . Roundoff with feedbackabout the statue-making. 3 Dictate all the words you have chosenfrom the vocabularylist in the unit. a after participant had explainedit. . multicultural groupsasa way of sharingtheir cultures aswell asapproachingthe culture(s)of the target language. . . This activity can be usedin polyglot. . .followed by the number of letters in the word. . . .

Bilingual andactivities57 texts | . In class or as homework Hand out the day'sinstalment and let the studentsread.. From the other endtisgramisthe journalist. for discussion their mother tongue. but do not be tempted to put too much in Englishtoo soon. of Preparation Takean Englishtext your studentswill find gripping and translateit into their mother tongue. Walter.Comments This can be ofparticular importance to peoplewhose mother tongue is not written in the Romanalphabet.Leaveone word or soper sentencein fairly accuratelyfrom the English:choosewords that canbe guessed words that are repeatedin the text. 1984.or the reading willbecome heavy. told me in a trembling voice: GeorgePapachristophilou 'There'sbeen a coup-there are tanks everywhereand they're surrounding everything-leave your spiti!' 'Areyou serious?' r6tisal:Lim. Materials Copies the two-languagetext for eachstudent.Book r. Time 15 minutesper session over several class words from a motherAims Todeduce meaningof target-language the tongue context.Leave the text in English. I helmets. been cut off. I can seerifles. Acknowledgements We cameacross idea of counting letters inwords in Swanand the ridgeEnglish our e. For obviousreasons cannot provide materialsfor your students: we you instead.seebelow for a text that assumes are a beginner in Modern Greek. Camb C s 4.including phrasesaswell assinglewords.6 Tvvo-language texts Level All meetings. out while you canl-I put down thetil1fonoand stayedsilent for some Nlgramdsto the centre had seconds. rvVhen telephonekudunistinthe middle of the night.After the they may feel a need studentshaveworked through severalsessions. Then I begandialling arittmrts.. Choose Pick a fairly long text that the studentscan work on for a few progressively more of minutes per session over severalweeks. sentencecontext.get Nd.I tellyou. in Sample text TheBarbarians comein the night.Justsuchatilefonimawoke up at dawn on the zrst ofApril 1967. machine-guns. something the me unusual is happening. soldiers.

I managedto speakto a very few of my fllus and tell them the terrible news. Acknowledgements The idea of using bilingual texts in the way describedcameto us from aftet Orange: 196znovelAC'lockwork readingAnthony Burgess's readingthe book you will find that you have absorbedaround roo slangBurgess words and phrasesof the (mainly Russian-based) (Fora glossary see invented for his characters.Thank Godyou You'veonly just comeback and nowyou fdvgts managedto comeback home from prison .the languageofBhutan. By now myln€kahadwoken up.Here are the column headings: ASSOCIATIOIV ASSOCIATION / BRIDGE TL I WORD / MT texts SSI eilingual andactivities .cockworkorange.We havefound it an excellentway of getting beginnersgraduallyto assimilatenew vocabularyby setting it in a context that has not been denatured.) A good. by 4.Eva.and particularlyfor thosewho are aiming at a reading knowledgeof English..1977) (T. examplethat I http ://www.and Iro who still went to nipiagogio. xipnrsemy They year at primary school.z3 Meres Paranomia.You must filefonisis me after lunch to let me knowyou're OK.turn it landscape-wise rule or fold four vertical columns.1979.com. shn 4o Comments sharingthe samemother This exercisetype is designedfor classes tongue. As shegot my clothestogether sherotfseme: 'But who's behind the coup?Is it going to go on a long time? again. thought they had to go to schoolearlier..I explainedto them that it wasn't yet 5ra andthat I was going to haveto be awayfrom spttifor quite sometime.who was in her second *.Dimos. Glaros. and 1 Takea pieceof paper.You mrstn'tniizese about us-look after yourself and be careful ... on PreParation Let us show you the procedureby teachingyou two or three words of Zonka.in Somehl€fona the suburbswere still answering.7 Learning associating to Level Beginner elementarY Time 15-20minutes way of quicklylearning to students a practical Aims To introduce vocabulary their own.And let me know how I can ""#Jllt tvvodaughters.asin somany target-Ianguage beginners'readers. mixes Germanand English is Werner Lansburgh's Verlag.sustained Fischer DearDoosie.

of course. 'Draw the word'.It may alsobe helpful in laying a temporary foundation for deeperlanguage learning. which hasbeen This is aversionof tlle so-called'keyword'technique.'OHPlists'. better. and the teacherhasno need to processes the students.will havethe right mindset for this. which goes that you had before. the The more fanciful the association.ro. shown to be effective(for somelearners)in the short-term acquisitionof one-to-one word pairings. with the soundand shapeof the word in 3 Now write your association or It Column z (word association). and t. Now write the translation of dumrain Column 3 (mother-tongue): garden. Bilingual textsand activities 59 | . pointed out to us that to build the languagehouseyou needplenty of bricks before you start.2 Write down the word dumrain the first column (TL= translation).with the association 'bridge association'.here are one a newword: bha 'exclamationof surprise' cow 'I seea cow in my bedroom and goBHA!!' Procedure Follow the proceduredescribedabovewith around zo words of Englishyou needto teachyour beginners. Comments Not all students.thus creating a person'sassociations with in Column 4. can be a word association a picture. has PaulMeara.it can be easily of monitor the association usedin polyglot groups.(See Other activitiesin this book which employ similar visual mnemonic 'Picturingwordsand phrases'. devices 6.8. and is particularly useful in preparing studentsfor quizzesand examinations. He suggests that with rooo words you will begin to be able to get someof the gist of normal targetMeara1997. chosenwill the Work on the listening or readingpassage words were taken from. The bricks are the words.6. are 'Leapingwords'.(If you know little of the here is a chanceto learn somemore!)The words students'language.8 Two-facingwords advanced Level Upper-intermediateto Time 10-15minutes way. Comparethe meaningyou now know.5. Since this activity is largely individual. probablybe from a coursebook listening or reading.of the University of Walesat Swansea.) language texts. looking ambiguityin a focusedbut amusing Aims Toexplorelexical words that canbe usedas homophones and at homonyms. As an example.rS. different parts of speech. tt. garden. 4.

them. the Ithinka lot of ltalianmen. notesin (brackets) The Dictate sentences the possibilities and referto the ambiguities. Madcowdiseasewosformerly/formally (relating relating people. 'international groups' for thosewho have tongue.Givehelp here and there. (cometo supperas a night? make suppertomorrow Canyou guest/prepare supper) (relationalor geographical her relative? Well. which they are to take downintheir mother fiom the Dictation sheet. Roundoffby checkingthat everybodysawall the ambiguities. As you move round the classassurethe studentsthat all the original were ambiguous.If you have an pair the studentsaccordingto their mother international class. talk to him on the phone/lead him upstairs) upstairs Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress 50 I Bilinoualtexts and activities .slowly.(crack the earth/crack drug) (is lsthebookdated? it out of date?/doesit have a date of publication?) (l'll him Oh. thusto the different of translation.with one or more no common mother tongue. is This desk madeof cypress/Cyprus potatoes pees/peas the in cookwho does and Didyouhearaboutthe pot? knownas BSE.it's Johnisit?I'lltake upstairs. Procedure to Tell the studentsyou are going to dictate someEnglish sentences tongue. the in in Crackfound lceland. itto experience Ikeep and lhad thisamazing canmeantelling or connecting) cocaine.aren'tyou nearest closeness) up-hang onl(your voice is becomingunclearon You're cracking are the phone/you are burstinginto laughter/you startingto breakdown) wood. 2 Dictate the sentences 3 Pair the studentsto comparetheir translations. and one copyfor eachstudentto be givenout after the lesson.Materials One copy of the Dictationsheet(below) for your own usein class. when pairs get sentences stuck. Dictationsheet printedin italics.(l appreciate men/they are often in 'Who camehere my mind/asan answerto the question: yesterday?') This wastheonethingI did right/writein theworkshop.

Comments providing the studentsare This activity is suitablefor polyglot classes appropriatelygrouped. Games. and Bilingualtexts activities 61 | .pageazz.and other textual realia. but evenmore fascinating sentences: Janus-like youbecause I workwithyou. texts. Acknowledgements We learnt this technique fromJean Cureau. from tfre mother tongue into English./It isn't just your being a colleague me like you.Follow-up As homework ask eachstudent to hand in betweenthree and six Use ambiguousmother-tonguesentences. maps. are grammatical on lexical ambiguity.other target-language Materials Posters. encourages environment.rather than waiting to be themselves.aswell as giving a practicaldemonstration how important contextis in of in students particularshouldbeneflt. Procedure Put the list of translationson the blackboard.Over-serious You will find more ambiguous material in Davis et a\. determiningmeaning.maps.Tell the studentsthat 'somewhereon the walls'. work CambridgeUniversityPress.Above. theseto do the same exercisethe other way round. Then chooseten and pin them up round the walls of the classroom. or sowords containedin the texts on the walls and preparea list of their translationsinto the students'mother tongue. their English equivalentsare to be found and askthem to look for them. Preparation Get together a collection of posters. to find vocabularyfor remote from an English-using 'fed'. using cluesand contexts. the of This activity stresses fun aspect linguistic ambiguity.9 On the walls to Level Beginners elementary Time 15 minutes textsfor target-language skimmingand scanning Aims lio practise equivalentsof mother-tongueexpressions.especiallythose It feature of the classroom. Comments This very simple activity can becomean on-going.ever-changing students. (I dislike you because I don'thke that makes you're a colleague.) (Are DomensellbetterthanwomenTthe men sellingsomethingor being sold?) 4.MoreGrarnmar we 1995.

are eachmove must be a capture. Materials Board. Seebelow.reversi 4 . Eachplayer in turn placesa counter on the board.A chessboard ideal. revision material. which the playerwho cantranslatemostaccurately of the bestchance winning.) boardat the end ofthe game.with her/his own colour uppermost.on the other an appropriatetranslation into the mother tongue.(See Translation Reversi This is playedin exactlythe sameway asthe traditional game. Variation 1 The gamemay be shortenedby using a 6 x 6 board (36cards)or a 7 x Tboard(49cards). asin normal Reversi.s/he loses that turn. translationcardsetc. The gameendswhen neither player has a legal move and/orthe board is full.If a player cannot make a capture.but with a few extra rules: Smallpieces cardareusedinsteadof counters: one sideof each of on card is written a word or phrasein English.s/hemust translateat leasttwo words in the capture stringbefore moving. player who successfully The translateshis/her opponent'spieceor pieces places pieces the end of the line.one playeris 'English'. 1 0 Translation Level Elementary advanced to Time 20-30minutes Aims To usea simpleboardand somepieces cardas a vocabulary of in has exercise. The winner is the player with the most pieceson the page65.A captureis madewhen one has placeda pieceat eachend of a line of opposingpieces(row column or diagonal):the capturedpiecesremain in placebut are turned over to reversetheir colours. Procedure Straight Reversi The traditional gameis playedbytwo players('vVhite and Black)with 64 counterson an 8 x 8 squared board. is Countersare white on one sideand black on the other.Insteadof '\Mhite' and 'Black'. then at Sources the words and phrasesusedin the gamecould include for current topic or text material.counters. In capturing longer lines of pieces. 62 | Bilingual textsand activities . and problems thrown up by students'work. thereafter. the Beforebeing allowed to capturea single opposingpiece. other'Mother Tongue'. In the flrst four movesthe four centre squares filled.the player must be ableto translatethe word on it before completing the move.

hk . by Mario Rinvolucri and IsobelFletcherde Tellez. antonyms.cIarity. Position White response s textsand activities 63 Bilingual | .canbe found on the cD RoMMindGame. Variation 3 Eventhough. established and other languagegames. orthographic/phonemicspelling.word + definition. when introducing the game.etc.the activity hasgreatereffect or when the studentsproducematerialsfor themselves for eachother.other paired items canbe used:synonyms.it may be simpler to use materialsproducedby the teacher.Variation 2 Insteadof translations.publishedby Clarity. I oO - n a) O a o o a) a) ^ o t C o r) a) o o o a) a) a) a) (.com.o o a) o equal. o a) o Theopeningmoves o aa a) o s Blackfirstcapture. Comments This is the old gameof Reversi-or Othello-which is now alsoan computer game.A computer version of TrarslanonReversi. availableat htt p ://www.

a) C o o o C r) a) o o o C o r-\ a) a) rf l t o a o a) a) a) a) a o o o o a) o a) aoo n oo C f-) a) - a) a) ^ a\ ooooooo a) a) a) o a) a) o a) o a) ( a) a) o a) o a) a) n o a) o a) o o a) a) o a\ -) l r) C r) a) a) a) a) a) a a) a) : ) a) a\ C I Whitecloses I in W h i t ew i n s4 7 : 1 7 . 64 I Bilingualtexts activities and .

In this chapter. show how the insights ofcorpus lexicographycan influence both 'More on fendt0'.6.5.we try to show how corporaand their associated Most Blitish learnersand teachers.7.to/corpo ra gives annotatedlist of corporaand the softwareneeded a comprehensive to work with them.2. 5.+. and organizedto facilitate the were usedfor biblical Early corpora(or corpuses) about language. the computer explosionhas both madepossiblethe creation of very large corpora (5oomillion words and more) and generatedthe need for ever more complex indexers.s.not only among linguists. and literary studiesand in philological research(for example. a languagecorpusis a body of texts. and corpus-derived. basicsearchand displaytechniquesthat teachersand studentscan '\Mhich word are we to apply directly if they have access a corpus. 'Working with student help in producing classroommaterials.S.the biggestcorpusof all'.and searchand analysistools (concordancers. 5. givesideasfor applylng concordancing the students'own 'Quarryrngthe Internet for words'.r. softwarecan benefit langUage grammar books. 'Reciprocal and verb phrases'.parsers. show how corpuswork can after?'. to texts'.and an increasingnumber of 'Tendto'. selected discoveryoffacts explicit principles. Somefurther guidanceand referencesare provided in the Commentson this final activity' Corpuslexicographyis a rapidly developingfield.3. illustrates someof the what and how we teach.but in many other fields.1 Reciprocal advanced Level Upper-intermediateto Time 30-40 minutes can analysis highlightpatternsof grammar Aims Toshow how corpus and meaning.are now dictionaries.At the sametime. and 5.but over the past 25years their usehas grown enormously.and 5.the completecorpusof Otd Englishtexts).and concordances corpora Using accordingto Put simply. looks at written work. and new methodsand applicationsare appearingall the time. so on) to dealwith the sheervolume of information flowing around the planet. and concordances65 corpora Using | .naked truth'. . David Lee's frequently updated corpuswebsite at htt p://devoted.5. 'Barefacts. verb Phrases 5.

'describe (t998). to a that 3 Writedown all the negative feelingbetween two 4 Writedown allthe phrases whichinvolve individuals. have a relationship. lost Aftershemovedto London. groups or things do the same thing to each other. They Helosttouch losttouch. that basically 5 Write down all the phrases 6 Lookat theseexamples: Wemadecontact.Tell them to complete the worksheet in groupsof four. Worksheet 1 Lookthroughthisphrase list: notes swords compare cross battleit out chewthefat fall in love do business burythehatchet do battle gotowar gohandinhand shakehands changeplaces havewords settle accounts haveit off haveit out joinforces linkarms holdhands hititoff losetouch makecontact lockhorns losecontact mendfences makepeace makelove makefriends part company passthetimeof day see to eye eye do 2 Writedown all the phrasesyou nof knowthe meaningsof.Tell them to call you over when they need further help. offering translationsand contextsfor the phrases.'reciprocal verbs' are defined as those that Verbs actions and processesin which tvvo or more people. lmadecontactwithhim.addingcontextand details. for for makeyour own example sentences each. phrases have do with repairing relationship.for of Materials Copies the Worksheet eachstudent. or are linked because they are participating jointly in an action or an event'. Procedure Givethe studentscopiesof the Worksheet. meantotalkwith. Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress Comments In Chapter 6 of Collins Cobuild's corpus-derived GrammarPatternsl. withher.If you and your classsharethe samemother tongue. Choose of them and ten All the phrases abovecanbe usedin thesetwo patterns. using dictionariesand any other referencematerial they have. Preparation Readthe Commentsbelow and make copiesof the Worksheet. example: Peter touchwith her. As the studentswork.tochatwith.be readyto help them find good translationsfor the phrases. They are used with either a plural subject and no object (WemadecontacLIk 66 | Using corpora and concordances . go round helping to clarify meaning.

make your own to concordance word or phraseyou or your studentshave chosen.2) showwhat the output of a corpus (often calleda concordqnce) look like. The deflnition combinesmeaning and grammar in a way that makesvocabularylearning hrghly effective.ifyou Make copiesof the Exampleconcordance have access a corpusand appropriate software. and askthem to read Give out copiesof the Exampleconcordance through and seehow many of the excerptsthey can make senseof. maybe used 4 with students 5.They made friendswith her. They turn their books over and bring the dialoguesto life for the rest ofthe class. s: We're never up before eleven. and how this output can search in class. a: Bit late really.the shopstend to open about eleveno'clock.)or with a subjectfollowed by with + object (Imade contart wrthhim. Ask the pairs to learn by heart what they havewritten.and enablesus language teachersto introduce them asa memorableand learnablegrouping to our students.).2 'Tendto': usingconcordances Level lntermediateto advanced Time 30-40 minutes with Aims To presentand practisethe languagepatternsassociated phrases. we In the next activity (5.which usescomputersto extract from examplesof natural languagenot associated simply a meaning for a word or phrase.It is a typical product ofcorpus lexicography. Givehelp where required. Preparation below. corpora and concordances67 Using | .and that second-language who useit tend to sound speakers more English than they really are!Tell them that this verb tends to expresshabit and regular occurrence.how they are standingor sitting. ofa Procedure Explain to your studentsthattendto is extremely frequent in spoken English. particular words and printouts for the word(s)or Materials Copies one or more concordance of phrase(s) chosen.blutfhe patterns with it. Givethem this example: e: Shoppingpretty good down your way. innit? s: That's right.Alternatively. and to decide where the speakers are. and what their relationship is.qndlbattledfi out. Yeah. Pair the studentsand askthem to chooseone utterancethey like and to producea four-line dialoguethat it could be part of.

sARA-32. themselvesto formulate the queriesat eachstage.3 More on 'tend to': using a corpusand software in class Level Intermediateto advanced Time Aims Materials Preparation If this is the first time you have useda corpus. Linguishcs.tn l-rcd Yceh i^lhat I Yeah the shops s right Ily i f I do buy bacon we six grood glasses but we couple of times and you that a bit down or that tend to go very often because I mea tend to like to save my money and sp tend to borrow things off Tim and he names very IitLLe tend to use direct tend to do is read or watch tefevisi tend to open about eleven o'clock tend to have ir for a funch you know She was sayin tend not to use them tend to find that a lot of the Londo tends to go back I don't quite know Acknowledgements abovewas edited down from a cANcoDE The Exampleconcordance andApplied output cited in Michael McCarthy.work through Procedure byyourselfto get usedto the technique. of transcriptsof spokenEnglish.) 5. we have prepared the Example concordance below.and the students the to suggest words and phrasesto work on. To getyou started.In later sessions.5 Get them to createanother dialoguewith a new excerpt and act this out.encourage very little preparationwill be needed. is Cambridge. Wherever possible. Example concordance tend to ch Erm yeah but we don't quite far away Mmbut I The thing is I the drift tend not to use names I nhl. and 68 1 Usingcorpora concordances .SpokenLanguage prepared (cANcoDE a specially corpus 1998. using the cD-RoMSof the British National Corpus (nllc) and query soft\^/are.

If any of the listed examplesis hard to understandfrom the limited context given. or asa copy installed on eachmachine)and that the appropriatequery or softwareis up and running. context. number ofwords betweenthe elementstend d specifya maximum and to: this could be used. concordance Divide the classinto groups accordingto the number of computer workstations available: the optimum group sizewould be two to four studentsat eachworkstation. and to make a further searchto obtain more examplesof a may this group.we written than in spokenlanguage?' cannot saythat there is a signiflcant differencehere. alsoShe tendthevlawnbrfi as examples They a special'wild card' symbol (usuallythe asterisk):tend* c searchusing etc. meaning. Ask the groupsto searchthe corpusfor instancesof the phrasetend to.while 'ls I wouldtendnotto may prompt the question tendnotto usedmore in (Fromthe evidenceof the BNC. and/orby limiting the searchto texts ofa particular type.Dependingon the corpusand softwarebeing used. sothat everyonehas at leastone other personto talk to but is still ableto seethe screen. searchfor tend <verb + <infinitive marker>: f if the word or phrasebeing queried is fairly common.by askingfor'the first 5o hits' the software.tending. followed by to.tender. amount of text shown.to pick up instancesof tend notto: as e if the words in the corpusare marked ('tagged') <noun>.the query may take one of severalforms: a searchontend:this will produceeveryinstanceof tend(but not where tendis not etc.tending.for example. b searchon the phrasetendto:this will excludenot only such to tends worry.One member of eachgroup shouldbe responsiblefor operatingthe keyboard. etc.tended.the item is tendingtoincrease suggest searchfor more examplesof tendtousedin a continuoustense.il Procedure to Make surethat the corpusto be usedis accessible eachworkstation (this maybe through a local network or the Internet. presenttense>. For example. Tell the studentsto look at the results oftheir query and to consider ways in which the examples can be grouped by grarnmar.and so on.) corpora concordances and Using I o9 . or '5o random hits'.including all the cases tends. it will to alsobe necessary restrict the number of instancesoutput by for example. they can usethe softwareto increasethe Expandedoutput below).i but will include tends. (see Ask the studentsto chooseone of the groupsof examplesthey have decidedon. alsotendency.).

\vVhen they've flnished.naked truth'.and then try to work out a deflnition or paraphrase from the lists.Example concordance the whole of global warming does tend to come to mind when you see tend to get too too friendly and not keep it on a on a business Yes.you can add them to the classreferencelibrary alongwith the dictionaries. and whether there are any 'rules' for decidingwhich word to usein a given situation or context. of also5. it tends to be men. and they tend to be larger cars. in small groups. In many of the ruraf areas. to tendto(be inclinedto.(Examples arefreedom: prime:premier. Here are somemore suggestions for using a corpusasa referencetool: Ask the studentsto think of other expressions suggested or similar by proneto. tendencyof words the to associate with particular otherwords: for example.) them to usethe Iiberr.Tell them that they will be ableto look theseup in a dictionary but that first.be andhave atendency cometo mind). of course. Give out a text and askthe studentsto selectthree to five words and phrasesthat are unfamiliar. 1s tending to increase aff the time inhs in thc indrrstri:l are: and fheru wiff tend tO be offiee iohs This is how they er. referencegrammars. choice:option. it' s more men very often development programmes tend to ignore er therr and you tend to sort of say welf what do you really want Eo tal-k Expanded output for the tenth linein the example I want us to think for a moment about the rights and needs of aff those miffions of chifdren who do not qo to school. to and then to explore them in the sameway.Hopefully.) Write on the board. who are invisibfe <pause> because very often development programmes tend to iqnore <pause> er therr needs.and so on.y.they shouldget a list of examples(no more than ten) of eachfrom the corpus. their work will give you an opportunity to introduce the idea of collocation. however. tend to compromise with it. this can alsobe seenascheckingthe dictionary againstthe corpus evidencethey haveobtained. Tell corpusto discoverhow closein meaning the words in eachpair are.5 'Barefacts.(Sincedictionariesare not infallible. they can check tfieir answersin the dictionary. or ask the studentsto choose. Variations Onceyou and your studentshavegained someexpedencein working with a colpus and its associated soffware.) 70 | Using corpora and concordances . T wou-Id tend not to until the scheme was actually in management It.triple:treble.we tend to say (See civillibertrybrtfreedom thought. or usedin unfamiliar ways.thesauri. yeah.one or more pairs of words that havevery similar meanings. Welf it stops the top Transport. reform tended to be uneven.

htm | (upto 50hits. as circumstances Preparation Choosea word or collocationthat you would like the classto look at in detail. to to Ifyou have access a corpus. anyone by Guy Aston and Lou Burnard. So. Each word is marked as <verb>. Alternatively. consists of text files 'marked up' or 'tagged' to give a great deal of information that are aboutthe text and its constituent parts. and to test their predictions by searching the spoken dialogues ofthe corpus fi. and so on). (and students)to prepareclassroom to for Materials Worksheets eachstudent. updated to take account ofrecent revisions ofboth the corpus and the software.cobuild.uk/lookup. and the situation in which a conversation took place. leisure. details of authorship. commerce.4 Whichword are we after? to Level Elementary advanced Time 10-20minutes software can help teachers Aims To show how corporaand concordance materials. Acknowledgements The Example concordance was produced ftom TheBritish National Corpus(WorldEdthon).ox.) 5. science. for example. Edinburgh University Press1998.access computers. details of the participants' gender and age.u k/B NC) using the program sARA-32byTony Dodd. and same cD-RoIr. ox. in common with many other corpora.rst for instances in utterances tagged <male> and then in those tagged <female>.software.ac.(The SARA-32 learning to use sARA-32is advised to look atTheBNCHandbook. you could askyour students to list words that they think are more commonly used in speech by women than by men. ac. for spoken texts. and. Internet.available on two cD-RoMS from the Humanitres Computing Unit.rs. http ://sa natcorp. text domain (imaginative.The BNC.use a concordancer extract ten examplescontaining the word or phraseyou have chosen.you can get your examplesfrom one of the siteson the suchas to web which allow limited free access a text database. which includes an excellent sARA-32tutorial' The second edition of this. among other things. and concordances71 corpora Using | . and rather more context). Oxford University (htt p //www. (upto at CollinsCobuild http://titania.etc. and each textbegins with a header that includes. <adjective> and so on. h cu.the permit. publication or composition.co'uk 4o hits returned) and the Bdtish National Corpusat ra. a copy of which is on the help flle/manual is rather sparse.collins. is expected to appear in late zoo4.

rOU' fha .h o "e - and found Gordie' s T-shirt the river. : nr l r i r .!rrv .iFtarnanj-q ^l^ne country leave is l . che my rTaF:h^irf - thanks. L. ^ ! ^ ^ ] I r L ^ 9 y snoke reason ro Mps in you give.anar r l a..^ Th:nLe . (whites q P l r n vn l l l-\ai nd iar n a a w Sometimes Lhey woulo need three months now.9 i d ^ ---^^ i na f arrn pfastic in pants. I've used my -service for - the other.fr i hr La!1r r behind. . .. ^ ^ .c nr r l i ti ani na fni r . a\/ar\z^na t^ ( ^ f A .(Exampler is laundry and exampleziswarmest. rn ni ck ^rrr ^f f ha shampoo" to -basket. thA a a ! !r f \ 7 L r r rrhnf c nhi ql nnad rarn t h_E Lr a fari c l a lv . ^rrr I ^^at har Pu-.r hr . lLLorry ^Li ulrfrruJL business in this .^ JU ni nk rrn enrl nerr yu fnr i r f r _ hL U ^ rrnrrr I ha Lrrc +F. Example worksheet2 Lr nnl r : .Lished himself friend r! h _ L rc l-ia Ti:f as the nis f h^ Lrrs \/ t ha nerqnn:l rcn:rdc Covernment.q r r r e u l:r arnr^^f LrhFn . .l Lr r oL r-l-na tha inhhnz .^^ Pfaysu ^r^hrl-il lhinlze -sensurround sn^rf rarmc q n l nrrcc sounds.^ Yours sincerely.) Example worksheet1 --r^m Fh^ ^^11^^^ uuffsgs.Timm\/ Don Eduardo.asin Example worksheet r below.l u u ! .( Crr'l f ^ .1 .3 Import the examplesinto a word processorand deletethe chosen word/phrasefrom eachexample. Procedure I 2 Divide the classinto groups of three to flve students. I hanLc l^^ l.leaving a gap. .Il eVer hr^eha-l Wear ^T ! r Mr Ma'nr For whatever or 1 .4 -facifities are on che premises.n r am ^ \ 7a l !r !au: _ t j l \/ tL^ u u Y rhr 11^ . of those k ^ ^ who were. . wlry . They or for . . Now that's . . 4 Print and make copiesfor eachgroup ofthree to five students.. A ^ n r ir J y e n u ! hr aoz^ ^1r f ^r r ^h f L^ dr-r ' th A rh-^ ij-'z'n Ha air the urill lerrza rznrr has now estab." thi < .timi tharr He sends yol n^. Give one exampleworksheet to eachgroup and tell them to work out which word or phraseshould appearin the examples. Afso ideal and coloureds) r r u MgT | i n ho " ^| na | -9 To help you conceal your da I i rzar . r . f ^r l-hF f:mi seeing women kneading -at lr. .^ I o D ^ ^ ^ l sst. for adopted covered bur Europeans.^ ! l D l ^ J. ywu! L ^ ^ ua\j I ^ Lr ! L ^ Lrrs _ Ywu ^ _ rl _ f \ / uh 72 | Using corpora concordances and .v9eLr-L_ r.r u s a^ r : ra ^l -.

Variation Ifyour studentshaveaccess a corpusand can useit for simple to (see them searches the previousactivity for hints on this). 5 Bare Level Intermediateto advanced Time 20-40 minutes Aims To usea corpus find out which of two or moreapparent to synonymsis appropriateto a particularcontext. give out the Key. Print theseout. and concordances73 Using corpora | . solvingthe przzle.) Allow time for discussion.and much more creativethan. selection. Get a concordance the words you are investigating(on screenof there is no needto print it out). get your studentsto suggest. and a worksheet Materials One copy of a concordance.to seeif they can seeany pattern in the way the headwordhasbeen chosen. and a second selectionof zo or soitems for the exampleconcordance. encourage to make worksheetsfor eachother: flnding and selectingthe examplesis at leastasuseful as. 2 After a minute or two. Giveout copiesof the Exampleconcordance working alone or in pairs. give out the Worksheetand askthem to wdte the most likelyword in eachgap. provided. or similar meanings.Save resulting'thinned' concordance a text file.Point out that in eachcase in this showsthe word which actually appears the corpus.similarto the examples Preparation \Mhenpreparing your own materials: two or more words with very Select.to usea corpusto prepare classroom materials. give out the list of Frequentcollocates. and key for eachstudent.Make a note of the commonestcollocations. frequent collocates.(Somecorpussoffwarecan do this automatically. facts.with gapsreplacingthe headwords.for the worksheet. 'vVhen they haveflnished.rstaccordingto the words searched and then accordingto the words that appearbefore or after.)Selecttwo or three examplesof eachof the common the collocationsand deleteeverything else.and that there are severalcases where eitherbareornakedmight havebeen used.nakedtruth 5 . and use the 'sort' option to group the for examplesfi. 3 After another minute. as Make a mixed Import the savedtext flle into your word processor. Procedure and askthe students.

l ^ n ^ o I vr c. excepU body/bodies.vr ha nqr r y : !t h:r'i wref the nf v haon larder rho ef thi was bare che and took fh^. there -h6 Fha fr^m are lots o f bare people on the beach. a naked naked. half.truth. H Y a r ^. naked. f a a - The floors were of the .l arru r h e tr^^n.. floor. r h o c r r i n P < o : e v L u !r v . ambition. 74 | Using corpora and concordances .. desk. mudguards properties chassis and car re-made.)Tell the classto look againat the and to mark thosewhere the frequent collocatesof bareandnaked shouldthen meaning is metaphorical (for example. even'er a r m s .l ri. .. she had her sleeves rolled a n d naked. r/r t^ l cfF^c .barebones). the under where chick manoeuvres itself inside up naked a sheet.hands. of crowd into a football LnLrodLCed and qurIire structure Willian are Huqh ^ . room. Borh men were armed. necessities skin.flesh bulb.h r T r! ' each carrying I L blind .strip/ped.5 - urri9 9urr5 t t s naked bayonets bones eye.. linoleum.c. s h o w i n g bare ll Frequent collocates lbefore . earth. ll lay/laid.Follow-up (Thiscan be set for homework.stark. h a r r e n n l v o i r r c organisation's life. .They write a short paragtaphto illustrate how eachmay be used. l remembered .chest.gun.a ! ! y same wood. .^q.running.u.leg/s.walls. ^ r n i < : r i n n . a hospital.d L.l ^ lytrrg Though sti slle tldu Ilcve 5eerl L ^ r . ' . microscopical in most ilsects.. tha of tire damage but' thaL Lhere was a bare possibillty 'naked racism and exploitation ronl:cinc with subtle naked save for a collar. ll stand/ing/stoodnakedll caught. Example concordance bare/naked I afr hi c nrri:mac hohi nri :nn omorced srark naked. eye.i ih t6lt:e t:nLe th^ T1. some bare. naked bare alt. The -oom was quiLe bare like body were stripped L o bare metal.af^rmc urara h iPJ ' n< r r y w r : -r u 5 u nuu d- d^\r6ynmant. ln probably of and wood.found. right -r:r i-r.. bones.aggression.' -Lo r econstruct i on wlch a bare m'n lmum of equ ipmenL yer maintai ned A I^lact T^r fha?F/ c a -ower there and lt'S bare of trees. + r A a 'l m a some covered sword and dirk. and woodwork often examlnation t h e w i n g s a p D e a r t o b e naked.completely. has differences aa.d th:f R i . to hit Dietrich! I I a^l . branch/es. strip/stripped bare llfooUfeet.hough noc seriously a snap declsion like out were the Marfene and hair and pushed harmed.essentials. ll afterl minimum.l drawer that are invisible to t h e naked arnare-r_rcq of his of Puddephat's LoreLLa Peered at the bare facts of these o u r naked intuitions Lo some extent.^ .ice fnrrno that < .dh Ah..

15 Likea childshewantedto explore. were smoothbeneathher Coolstonesteps feet. covered him out the front of the house. 18 lt will simplify muchof the discussion will helplayand the inner workingsof the market. and locked . a beautiful lt's dress. I 16 Lying flat. starts diggingfrantically. 19 Verysadly. in and manyothers became beggars. with their hands. [..with f lowers -. of 13 TheystrippedPatsy him all overwith shoepolish.] Thecorridors beyond. 20 StickthecardinanenvelopethatwillYes. otherswith pick-axes. government the pastforty years 14 No British with in and more hasbeenelected evena majorityof the votescast..fitit. Manywere forcedto eke out a existence misery.were stark.. Patrice wouldassoon leavethe houseaswithoutmake-up. four feet tall. motherdied a move.[. when But do you dustbehindand underneath.. her two weeksafter Pat's graspfor powerthat mustnot be allowed. and others 12 Achille Biennale appeared also BonitoOliva.. the surface that shows. exiles wandering and Deciduous shrub. 9 Theremaining shellisthen cut up andsentoff to itsgravein the industry's meltingpot. and ascoldand draughtyas wind tunnels. my against coldconcretefoughtwith the thing till the chest my eyespoppedand my breathgaveout 17 Children soon will exertinfluence of proportion their and out to power. | 1 Everyone somewith spades.. 8 lt shouldbe visible the eyeasafuzzy patch(withouta tail) two to to threetimesthe sizeof the Moon. though. 2 KenLivingstone madea had I 3 4 5 and coldlooking. 5 7 Hellenistic a device suggesting Greekkingswere frequentlyportrayed superhuman status.Cxample worksheet bare/naked Herneckand shoulders are Shelooksso pretty. on erectbranches.Ohyesitwouldn'tgo throughthe postwould it? Using corpora and concordances75 | . commissioner thisyear's of on the cover a magazine. just people the l0 Some minimum.]Mm.

). or will be given without some of the useful information that the corpus search can reveal: time and place does not appear in the dictionaries we looked at.. almost at a placeof. and so on.fail to show that o the second of these uses is eight to ten times more common than the flrst.by askingthe class on to do their written assignments a computer. Ifyou download a random onplace throws up nearly48. inthe nght place. how meaning changes in context. For example. o in this use the phrase alrnost always appears at the end of the sentence.or 'In the first . Again.Key 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 bare naked naked bare bare bare naked 8 naked 9 bare 10 bare 1"1 bare 12 naked 13 naked 14 bare 15 16 17 18 19 20 bare bare naked bare bare naked Comments Looking at the co-occurrences of words in a corpus is a very profitable way of finding out how words are actually used. in the courseof normal classwork. but manywill not. but is commonly used (theright time and place. concordance students' texts in machine-readable Materials Computers. or own textsto discover highlightfeatures vocabulary form. they almost never cany on with the second place'. and then sort the results so that four-word sequences containingplace appear together. .tholugl:' they may give two separateusesof the phrase ('flrstly .' and'as things are/were at the start ofa process'). you can see.or to type fair copies zO I Using and corpora concordances ... even when people start a sentence or utterance with 'in place . . Many of these will appear in recent dictionaries. Preparation text.this is not the time andplace for . 5 .. software as needed.ooo selection of these. This is best done Build up a small corpusof student-generated over a period. how words may be linked to other words in only a narrow tange of structures. glance. the most frequent sequences:in (the) aII overtheplace. a BNC search 'hits'. entries for inthe first place. 6 Working with studenttexts to Level Elementary advanced Time 20-45 minutes software can be usedwith the studentt' Aims Toshow how concordance of and style.taketheplaceoJ and so on.'.

sound.o. Variation 4 to Ifyou have access a large generalcorpus.may show cleardifferences peoplewho are primarilyvisual. you can askthe studentsto comparethe relative frequenciesof words and phrasesin their own texts and in the larger corpus. Variation 3 Dependingon the type and content ofthe texts. and pick out words which occur much more. but which they now don't seemto be using at all? Variation 2 In a mixed gtoup.e. saya year or more. organizethem by date of composition.o.suchasthe sNc.for example. one for eachstudent. or much less.and movement. flrst of the Ask the studentsto make fi:equency-ordered then of only their own texts. they may decideto look round for a few alternative expressions. and concordances77 corpora Using | .in their own texts than has in all the texts taken together.and askthe studentsto compareword-listsmade from the earliestwith wordlists from the Iatest. whole corpus.and In groupsof three to four they should comparethe lists.(WordsmithTools a'keywords' function which will comparetwo frequencylists and list the anomaliesautomatically.e. a collectionof personalletters or emails.and to seeif there are interesting differencesin frequency.) Encourage studentsto look at thesewords in their original the possiblechanges the languageused.If. them and has classroomcomputer can access make surethat each soffware.feelslke.Are there words or phraseswhich they onceuseda lot. to contexts.and to suggest Variation 1 If the texts were collectedover a long period of time.soundshke.it might be instructive to comparethe relative A andyoulyour.s%) that veryniceappeats 7oo times in the ca.and Organizethe texts in directories(folders).and the other from thosewritten by females. studentscanlook at In speciflcword typesor semanticareas. look at the usein descriptivetexts frequencyof Ilmelmy of or at suchaslookslike. for example. auditory or kinaesthetic.'public diary' or 'blog' of handwritten work.a ro that they haveusedthe phraseveryrnce times in student discovers and their own zooowords of text (i.ro-million-word spokendialoguesectionof the sNc (i. one fiom the texts written by males.oo7%). and to comparethe two. adjectives of phrases between colour. askthem to make two wordlists. concordance the necessary Procedure wordlists.Seepager7o. Asking them to keep a (=web log) on computer is alsoa goodway to collect texts.

and eachstudentwill need one copyof one of the individual word lists and one copy of the combinedword list. this stagedon't download any of the texts themselves.(Thesoftwarewill probablybe ableto do this automatically.together with the textual context that is usually also given. the lists ofweb addresses The first ro-zo addresses each for word or phrase.Edit the word lists to excludewords that occurvery frequently in the language. Togive practice usingcomputers in and softwarewithout losing sightof moreimmediate language learningneeds. Openyour browser and use a searchengine suchasGoogleor AltaVistato find on the web texts containing the words and phrases just chosen.You will needone copy or more of eachtext to put up on the walls or spreadout on the tables. and on the students'familiaritywith the equipment and soffware.)You may alsolike to re-edit and/orre-format the lists in a word processor. 7 Quarryingthe Internetfor words Level lntermediateto advanced Time 30-50minutesin class. (Dependingon the availability of computersand Internet access. the See Commentsbelow for waysof making the variousprocesses involved more efficient. Internet access. the Readthrough your lists of addresses: the context information (the use strings oftext that contain the searchwords)to selectrz-t5 texts. Get them to reducetheir list to fi.5 . and a combinedword list for all the texts: thesewill show the words usedin the texts togetherwith the number of times they appear.will be ample. You should alsohavea few extra copiesofeach text for the students to readat home.veor six key items. spread out over several sessions as necessary. Materials Computers. Print out and make copiesof the original texts and the word lists. At (unrs).Wordlist inWordSmith Tools)to preparewordlists for eachtext.some or all of the abovecan be done by the studentsthemselves. Usesuitablesoffware(for example.suchasarticlesand pronouns.) Za I Using corpora concordances and . Aims To encourage studentsto learn how words and phrases usedby are searching Internetfor example the texts. concordance software as needed (seebelow). Save lists if you need to intermpt the work. Preparation Oneor two lessons beforeyou intend to do the activity. get the class to selecta topic areathat intereststhem and to brainstorm words and phrases which they expectto flnd in texts on the topic. Downloadthem and savethem to disk.

5.in listing directly on screen. not pretty pictures. students. they should sit dovrn and underline on their list all the words or phrasesthat they don't know.3. print out the words and phrasesin extractsin activities contextualizedformat.can look at a concordance about the wider context (vocabularysituation.5. Tell the studentsto look through their word list for a minute or two. Variation 2 the If you have computersavailablein the classroom.Procedure where Put up one copy of eachtext on the walls. Comments one To searchthe web.If the listing is basedon a number of different texts. asin Preparation.In larger classes. orwhich theywould like more information about. or on flat surfaces you they can easilybe seenand read. asa or they had when they first chosethe whole. useyour browser to access of the many search enginesavailable. then click to access many papersasyou wish. switch offyour browser's'fetch imagesautomatically' option.type in the terms you wish to searchfor. met the expectations searchwords or phrasesthat yielded them.you may as haveproblemswith the sheerquantity of information you haveto wade through. If you're fetching material for later study. Give eachstudent one copy of tle word list for one of the texts. Tell them to usethe lists to help them producea list of newwords or phrasesto searchfor. the filenamesand line numbers a can alsobe shown.\Mhenthey have done this.and don't needto read it as 'Saveto flle' or 'Saveto disk' it arrivesat your computer.step1. and then to walk round and try to find the original text from which it was prepared. and then expandit to checktheir predictions. wait to and receivea page(or more often pageupon page)of web addresses. asin the concordance and 5.)of each speculate extract. making it very easyfor the studentsto access whole text that intereststhem and print it out for later reading. In eachstudent should have a different word list. smaller classes.4. However. How can you maximize your chancesof quickly it flnding what you want.above.2. and (b)the texts. Ask the studentsto form groupsoffour to six and give eachstudent a copy of the combinedword list. get them to form pairs or threesto discuss whether (a)they were sutprisedby the Ianguage content ofthe text they found. Variation I Insteadof producingword lists. small groups. etc.choosethe and Using corpora concordances I zS . and how canyou process most efficiently onceyou've got it? Here are a few pointers: If you are only interestedin text. may needto put up more than one copy of eachtext. As more and more studentsfinish stepsz and 3.

resultseither asa normal listing or asa concordance Text is found on the Internet in different forms. edit out all the unwanted material. aswill PortableDocument Format (.pdf)and Powerpoint (.buynow.ppt)documents. words' option. require you to or enclosethe phrasein quotation marks. Many web pagescontain the text you want.and David givesextensiveguidanceon the (zooo) Eastmententitled Thelnternet useofthe Internet for languageteachers.. or to a range of dates(for example.doc.to a particular language and/or country. When concordanced. One site of interest to us is l.option. a check-box.txt) to process word-listing concordance presentfew problems.rtf web pages. and soon) flles . which canpresentsearch http://webcorp. and not all are easy in software.or try one of the 'metasearch'sites.and so on. If you haveto of you will haveto useyour browser's'Save As' work with thesepages. David Hardisty.Word-processor (.htmt.uk/wcadvanced.Usedifferent searchengines. navigationlinks and so on. but a lot of other stuffas well: advertisements. in a word processor.which take your query passit on to severalsearchengines.) Not all searchenginesusethe samesearchmethods:what one fails to find maywell be listed by another. and then. ('Science'.and most concordancers will dealwith normal (. If you're using an on-line searchengine. or'Export' function to fiirn the file into plain text.and combine the resultsbefore sendingthem back to you. suchpagesmay give a falseimpressionby showing repeatedoccurrences goto top.org.only files updated in the last year). make sureyou usethe 'exact \Mhen searchingfor specificphrases. a lot of time can be wastedwaiting for the text to appearon the screen. checkthe options it offers: you may be able to restrict your searchto a particular topic area 'On-lineNewspapers'. 80 | Using and concordances corpora . The book in this seriesby ScottWindeat. may needto be loadedinto the appropriateapplication flrst and savedasplain text.htm display.htm). (Thismay be a button. and so on).Plain text files (.

arguing for the existenceof within us to explain differencesof perception.the retina in our eye. dependon the settingsin which it is and encountered.will in turn be affectedby the ways in which we have learnt to processreality.and learnt procedures. we offer activities that range across sensoryspectrum.the memorability of a word or collocationwill.) The implications of this for us asteachersare far-reaching.but at the expenseof those other channelswhich mediate experience. the sensorysignalsthat we receivefrom. Wordsand the senses 81 | . illustrations. and that in vocabulary learning. account.and which allow the student to process the and practiselanguagein waysappropriateto their perceptualand Theseinclude not onlyvisual and auditory cognitive preferences. such as Howard Gardnerat Harvard.thought. and (Foran early. a perceiveit are largely what we perceiveand how we concretesense.however. the must be into which it type of intelligence (in Gardner'ssense) integrated. the and creativity.or 'facts'. and printed texts combine to produce a feastfor the learners'eyes.We can accept.In this chapter.storedpatterns.psychologists. the product of training and habit.imagination.therefore. for example. which draws heavily on the work of the psychologistGregoryBatesonand the psychotherapist Milton Erickson. For many years. for example. Nor is perception itself assimple asit might appear:at the neurologicallevel.whether of sensoryimpressions.seeBandler and Grinder rgzs.book the visual channel of perception.thathow material and information are presentedto and worked on by our studentswill have a profound effect on their learning.if not at presentvery clear. and that this has marked effectson how we learn. In the sameway.make up lessthan a quarter of the information that our brain 'visual image'-the rest is processes when presentingus with a In composedof memories.and other researchers the human sciences 'preferred channels' of observedthat we vary widely in our perception.but still influential on how we expressourselves.behaviour.Blackboards. our memories. and memory.the channelsthrough which it is processed. have in neurologists.)Others. have 'multiple intelligences' gone further. for any particular learner.andthe senses Words is and classrooms mainly on The sensoryemphasisin coursebooks wall-charts. procedures. (See Annotated Bibliography sectionat the end of this book for works by Gardnerand others in this area.

Themuffledshattering 3 A sharpcrack.until I seecars barrier. Overon two wheels. Materials A copy of the text for eachstudent. sensory Procedure 1 Readthe three descriptionsaloud to your classand askthem what differencesthey notice betweenthem. which consistsof three descriptionsof the samecar accident. We for ooomph. sheet Sample An accident 1 Swooping down to the right. of the windscreen thud. powdering. 2 | seethe phoneasit goes. scraping alongthe steelbarrier. Now I canseeeverything clearly. And now likesilence. on shuddering alongthe central barrier. and m a i ra r o u n d e . the In pullingup behind. Screeching. How mustallthat have mirrorI seecars looked the people to followingus? Metalon metal. I am high. but also those that involve space and movement (kinaesthesia). Bangbang.activities. Everything lookstipped over-we are on two wheels. Thenthereisa blank. 6.We aretipping? sway hours.high. Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress 82 | Words and the senses .Wet air rushing throughthe in Back to the motorwaysurface-grinding. down on four wheels and amazingly Oomph. as well as more abstract. Preparation Make copiesof the Samplesheetbelow. stillness wet on four wheels.eachwritten from a different perspective.1 Wordsand our senses Level Lower-intermediatetoadvanced Time 25-40minutes through Aims To makestudentsaware of their own sensorypreferences the words they chooseand the texts they respondmost stronglyto. windscreen.back scratching. tinglingof fine windscreen A undermy top skin. overthe there. fog in my head the hascleared and I steerusoverto the hardshoulder.likel'm not comingthe other way close. Normal tyre roarandthud. 2 Readagainand repeatyour question. Veeroveron to the hardshoulder and glass find I havestopped. I am in controlagain. logical exercises. thud-we are backon the motorway.

showingtheir they have drawingsand teachingtheir words to other people. protection a dictionary with you to class. 4 Ask the students. they should move on to another. and a priest marrying two people.They can use eachother's knowledge. counsellorsoften usethis to encourage and to use studentsare led to becomeawareof their preferences them creatively. to weavethe bits they like from eachtext into a new one.and not before. Materials Dictionaries. Comments The languagethat we useoften reflectsthe way in which particular senses dominate our perceptionsand thoughts: those of us who are primarily auditory for example. peopleto talk.a hinge.Stopthe exercisewhen each personhasworked with about five partners. Procedure Exemplify the conceptchosenby drawing: for joiningthismight be.we may respondbetter to language (Skilledinterviewers and that matchesour own sensorypreferences.Similarly. addingwhatever they want themselves.andyou asan informant.waterthings. Ask the studentsto draw asmany things and people that join asthey can.Let them work either on their own or in pairs.dictionaries.3 Givethem copiesof the texts to read for themselves. Tell them to circulatewhat they havewritten or to put it up on the walls.rather than cluster in larger and larger groups.may usea high proportion of sound words and metaphors. and to go round and readwhat the others havewritten. Oncethe studentshavegot a good number of drawings down on paper.working on their own. say. Preparation Takea large or Choose notion srcf:'asjoining. Words thesenses83 and | . 6.) In this activity. Ask the studentsto standup and work in pairs.'vVhen finished with one partner.askthem to label their drawings.2 Notion pictures Level Beginner intermediate to Time 20-30minutes Aims To review and recallvocabulary.especiallyif Englishis not your mother tongue.

act asinforr. Procedure Find someonein the group who likes drawing and askthem to draw on or diagram a given scene/machine/situation/process the blackboard. The words now needto be usedin a context beyondthe picture. Oncethe drawing hasbegun to take shapeget someonein the group with clear handwriting to come out and start labelling what hasbeen drawn. This should be done with the help of the group. Tell the studentsto copythe board drawing into their notebooksand than to write the words in on the drawings:this makesmore sense writing lists ofwords.Tell the artist to usethe whole of the board. Materials Dictionary. or your students. 'notions'. in Threeways of doing this are suggested the detailedExamples that follow.e. 84 | Wordsandthe senses . sprinkler ocropus hosepipe ry esrua gumboots goggles level spirit starfish whale irrigation umbrella water meter rap well nver spnn9 bathtub pool swimming Comments especiallyif you.arewilling to chooselessobvious and scenes 6.It is highly repeatable. This activity is mainly visual.sothat you can supply them if asked. Preparation Make surebeforeyou start that you are fully conversantwith the words that may be calledfor by the students.nant only.you should only supply a word when askedto: i.Exampfe When we havedone this exercise wilh joiningasthe conceptword.3 Machines to Level Elementary advanced Time 3040 minutes ways of presenting ahd learning Aims To providevisualand kinaesthetic new vocabulary.Havea dictionarv handv in class. As teacher. haveproduced drawings the following: of students crowd audience ring engagement cocktail ofloge river apex breadand butter border comma dividing line shelf plug electric handcuffs students haveproduced drawings the following of With waterthings.

Ask the students to form pairs and compare the differences they have found-this willbring oral production of the words being learnt. qnd of TeIl the ar[ist to visualizethe dashboard controls a car. After the group hasfollowed steps1.plans.etc. askthe instructor what each control is and what it is for. in a later class.Then invite one student to sit on one chair and play the part of a driving instructor. z and 3 housesat different plasterer workonthe above.Follow steps 1' z.maps. Comments outlined here maybe usedin any situation involving The exercises the drawing and labelling of pictures. while you sit besidethem and play the part of a and slow pupil: show nervousness. z and 3 above.diagrams.put two chairs out in front of them. You part in this organization. Then askthe whole classto act out the learner-instructor scenesimultaneouslyin pairs. Then ask the students to look at the illustration below and to jot down all the differences they can see between the two bikes there.ffier doing steps1.as seen from the back seat. As a follow-up activity. with Tell the artist to draw the peopleworking onabuildingsife.exceptto keep them shouldtake no speakingin English. Wordsand the senses| 85 .askthe pairs to continue the of sceneinto the first stages a driving lesson:moving offand coming to a stop. sideby side. of stages completion.Eachstudent (or pair of students building workers the is in a large class) to assume role of one type of worker.and to draw them.ask the studentsa question such asCanthe Then tell them to organizethemselvesinto a thebricklayer? housebefore in the line across classroomrepresentingthe time sequence which work on a house.Examples Some word areas that lend themselves to this activity 1 Tell the artist to draw abicycle. and 3 above in order to familiarize students with the necessaryvocabulary.

Looking at and listening to another persondoing the samemakeswhat theyhave to say. cat. 2 Ask the studentsto draw a picture of an animal. using their labelledpicture asa visual aid.They should in turn give minilectureson their chosensubjects.6. Ask eachstudent to label the picture with the terms on their list from step1:where to put the words on the picture is up to the student.easyto draw. Form the studentsinto small groups. etc.All the studentsshould draw the samesubject:choosesomethingwhich is clear. Procedure 1 Ask eachstudent to write down a list of 8 to rz words that are central to their profession.and the words theyuse to sayit. machine.4 Elephants Level Elementary advanced to Time 40-50 minutes Aims To encouragepeer-teaching both of subject-matter and of lexis. and which hasrecognizablydistinct parts (for example. memorable. asit uses the principle of 'making strange'what is familiar. Example Onestudent printing who worked photolithographic produced in this elephant: Comments This exercisemay at first sight seemstrange. Having to placethe words from your list on the elephant forcesyou to look at them from a new angle.or to a hobby or interest. bicycle).Soit should.elephant. 85 | Words thesenses and .

And so on round the circle.deception. producesmuch more revealingmimes than trees. are up on the board.) target-language round the group like this.5 Exploring Level Beginnertoadvanced size. shallowness. Goback to the flrst student. gale. and the student shouldtlen mime the way thattreewould be: the student mimes silently and everybodyround the circle mirrors the mime. area. a quick drawing. In multiple intelligence terms (see beginning ofthis chapter). 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wordsandthe senses 87 | .who mimes their tree againand saysthe word for it in the target languageif they can.) Comments the This technique harnesses kinaestheticand the visual abilities ofthe learners. The student next round the circle mimes a tree they have in mind' Everybodymirrors them.It getsthe studentsout oftheir seatsand for allows them to move. if they wish.for example. somethingthatis essenhal a minority of the them. Aims To learnvocabulary Procedure With an upper-intermediateclassyou mlght chooseto teachthe namesoftrees: Bring the studentstogether in a big standingcircle.round part ofthe circle. example.(Youor the dictionary give the version.it simultaneouslyactivatesthe kinaesthetic/spatial and linguistic intelligences. 'frost'?).adding the mother-tongueword and.mist. depending class on Time 15-30minutes. The studentsreturn to their seatsand copythe words into their notebooks. This must be a particular kind of tree. through movement. or if your class is large. sincerity. Variations At beginner level you can have studentsdealwith a word fleld such as words(fot lower-intermediatestudentscan dealwith weather an:rmals.kinaesthetically vocabulary 6. (Thismay haveto be in among the desks.truth. otherwise in their mother tongue. Havea student at the board Proceed until all the tree names writing down the words in both languages.) Ask one of the studentsto bring to mind a tree.if they are fixed.breeze. frost-how would you mime being studentscanwork with abstractwords in a given Advanced-level (This distrust.

When the flrst student has done this.as an of aid to understanding memory.Youwill needaroundten per student. Give eachgroup a pile ofr5-25 countersor coins. guilt independence innocence revenge contradiction ingratitude age stability sadness hostility death Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto form groups ofthree to four. airpoft beach village field forest school qaraqe or c/ass crowd regiment queue party club junta Preparea list or lists ofwords youwould like the studentsto work on: theseshouldbe words with a strong emotional or controversial content. coins. Make surethey checkwith dictionariesor by askingthat they understandthem all.to representthe word by meansof an arrangementof countersor coins on the paper.and a sheetofplain white paper to affange them on. for example. Ask one student in eachgroup to selecta word from the list and then without sayingwhich word they have chosen. 88 | Wordsandthe senses . and Materials A collection identical of smallobjects.Youwill alsoneed one sheetof white paperfor eachpair of students. buttons. the others in the group should try to guess which word was selected. for example. After eachmember of the group has selectedand representedone word from the introductory list. suchascounters. introduce the secondset of emotional words and asktfiem to continue working on them. Stop the exerciseafter two or three more rounds. Preparation Preparean introductorylist ofwords with a strong spatialor hierarchical sensefor the studentsto practiseon.5 Coins speak Level Elementary advanced to Time 15-25minutes Aims Toexplorethe spatialand hierarchical associations words.6. 2 Givethem your list of spatiafhierarchicalwords.

Take Blu-Tack.Examples q . and getting the readersto think through their own ideas/prejudices before reading. Words thesenses 89 and | .askthe studentsto write their own lists of words that are important or exciting or disturbing for them. situations.. It then hasthe doublevalue of exploring vocabularyfrom the text. Selectenough picturesfor eachmember of the classto havetwo. and to learnvocabulary 2 To get studentsto write texts that other studentswillwant to read.This exercisecan be repeatedmany times during a coursewithwhatevervocabularyhappens to be under consideration:evenabstractwords can havepowerful spatial for associations many people.-. or Procedure Split the classinto two equalgroups.C O^ V CU^ UCO() c gggg ^L/ r ) OC co ^o. (seePreparation). Variation 2 The exercisecan equallywell be usedasa pre-readingexercise.one at eachend of the room. someother meansof fixing the picturesto the walls. pictures of Materials A collection magazine Preparation Collectmagazinepictureswith a strong direct impact. 7 Picture Level Elementary advanced to Time 35-50minutes Aims 1 To get studentsto use known (or half-known)vocabularyin new from eachother. Spreadout halfthe pictures for one group and halffor the other group. and to work in pairs on these. visually uncluttered-portions are often more useful thanwhole pictures. gallery 6 .? UV \J L) v' !2 u^cc U L / J U N T Ap n a l a n x : o o o MISERY: ONC IS S A D N E S ST E A T S : by surrounded MASSCS from excluded the group from eye falling Variation 1 After the introductory stage. Make a varied selection:don't chooseonly pictures thatyou like.

hand above navel.Ask eachstudent to choosea picture.1.8 Listening colour Level Elementary advanced to Time 15minutes Aims To learnvocabulary through specific visualassociations. by When everyonehasfinished. and askthe studentsto look round for the picture that best corresponds to the list they haveworked from and to put up their paragraphand the word list next to it. cansee You her stomach she and wasplaying a chain youcanalso hernails with and see your which reflect eyes. fine the a goldchain her wrote listof words encircles stomach. Materials A posteror other large. \Mhenthey have done this. Comments This is a mainlyvisual activity.colourful picture. See3. this suggested the by wordlist: A woman lying thebath. student The this suggested thepicture: by fingersmooth skinbath rednails womanchain waterplayhair navel stomach group fromtheother A student wrote paragraph. well-manicured ison herstomach. Ask the studentsto changeendsand chooseone list from those written by the other group. in 6. Ask the studentsto write clearly on a piece of paper twelve words suggested the picture they havechosen.'Invisible writing'. take awayeachstudent'spicture and ask everyoneto lay out their sheetsofwords at their end of the room.Prepareto describe the picture without mentioning any colour. Preparation Choosea brightly colouredpainting or posterin which there is plenty of action. Removeany unchosenpictures. 8 Invite the studentsto go round and look at the pictures and read the compositions.It should not be too complicated.Banadjectives. 90 | Words thesenses and . put up the pictures around the walls. but not to show it to anyonein the other group. has was in She smooth skin. Example A student onegroup in chose picture a detail froma magazine a of cut glistening beads the on with advertisement:skin a woman's stomach of her moisture. Ask them to read their word lists and then to write a short paragraph describingthe picture they imagine behind the words.

. Acknowledgements This idea appearedin an article by MalgorzataSzwajinModernEnglish Teacherintg84. Tell them that the picture is highly coloured.may be vitally important for some.. Materials A copy of the text for eachstudent. but without mentioning any colour.The coav. Pointssuch asthesemay comeup in generaldiscussion: painted it felt o howthepainter whens/he painter was/is s/he r whatkindof o whatkindof roomit wouldsuit you it house? e would like inyour Variation Insteadofusing a picture. 6. shape.9 Getasmuchwrong asyou can to Level Upper-intermediate advanced Time 10-20minutes of the of Aims To meet head-on challenge linkingthe meanings words with their visualand auditoryrepresentations. you can tell a story taking carenot to use Then askthe studentsto any referenceto colour in your descriptions. Showthe classthe picture.but that theywill have to Then describethe picture in full imagine the coloursfor themselves.and eventhoseof us who are 'highlyvisual' may differ markedly in howwe visualize.or proporlion may dominate.for others line.They shouldbe as specificaspossible. Make copiesof the short passage Procedure Explain to the classthat you going to give them a dictation and that everytime they hear lherea homophonethey areto wntelright down the written version that is wrong for the context. for example..for example. Comments Our visual perception is very complicated.Procedure Put the picture or poster up somewherethe classcan't seeit. onherblue dark-eyedgirlput re-tell the story in colour. Preparation included at step4 below. spatialdetail.Colour. Words thesenses91 and | . Ask peopleto tell the classwhich coloursthey saw.

lf yew did knot do this ewe wood go knot contextually to balmy*.or the actof quoting. the ability see. write up a few on the board: l'll sort freeze or isle aisle sought* frees frieze ore oar Cs seas sees awe* serze (Words marked " are homophonic only in those dialects where end'r' is not sounded. is barmy So.) of-syllable 'mistakes'.Sow/Sew beeableto shut out the unwanted (a net.you would go meaning that is not contextually meanings partof beingsane.orgl-jeremy/dictiona htm rylhomophones. such as British RP. in either or both of which they may be deficient. canmeana plaice.which include plenty of homophonicwords. are the or to a location.whichcanmean the Homophones an odd phenomenon.To make the idea of homophone clear. I http://www.sothat eachgroup takes a homophonic dictation from one of the students. The principle of treating effors asinteresting rather than wicked is teachins.We tendto exclude right lf you did not do this.Weetend to exclude meaning write. Take whirred are the Homophones a nod phenomenon. or the River Seine) meanings part of beingseine. If four studentshave done this homework.A good site for this homework is peak.having to learn the spokenand written forms of a languageat the sametime makesthings doubly difficult not leastbecause this involvesthe simultaneousexerciseof auditory and visual skills. Give out the homophonic text below for them to compare their own with.to be ableto shutout unwanted Group the students in fours to share homophones theywere aware of. Comments For many classroomlearners. witch ore site/sight/cite. fundamental to non-behaviourist 92 | Wordsand the senses . askthree or four of your more linguisticallyinterestedstudentsto go to homophone siteson the web and then to produceshort texts like the one above.oar that is the the act of quoting. the abilityto sea. serne is Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress Variation For homework. divide the classup into four groups. Offer a small prize for the student with the most Give this dictation and do it slowly: Take word site.

or backwards.from memory or by guesswork. Materials Overheadprojectorand transparencies. Write the words on an overheadtransparencyin black. as Preparethree more ffansparencies in step 3.or around the circumferenceof a circle. Ask the students. words or Beadventurous. Procedure Put up the first transparency(the neat one in black lettering)' then switch it off. this time scatter them all over the sheet. dansle pddagogiquesLeFranEais in fiches 6 . to recall eachword or phraseand to discuss which visual representationof it was the most memorable. eachfor ro-r5 seconds.Flashup all five transparencies turn. Write someof the words at an angle. Tell the studentsto put awaytheir written notesand to in concentrateon the screen. 1 0 OHPlists to Level Beginner advanced Time 10-15minutes Aims To breakup the orderand visualmonotonyof listsas an aid to memory. Ask the studentsto jot down any words they remember and for each to add abrief explanation or mother-tongueequivalent. one-hrmdred-mistqke or (diclationwithout Februaryzooo. the Givethe classfive minutes to compareand discuss words they havejotted down. If the words are new to them.or ask them to glve you short lists of words or phrasesthey are having difficulty in remembering.in groupsof three to five.Acknowledgements cents We learnt th e idea of unedictdesans fautesoar unedicl6.e fautes fiom the dictahon) mistakes. Preparation words or phrasesthat you want Make a list of ro-r5 target-language your studentsto learn or revise. but Write the words againon another transparency. using the same phrasesbut writing them differently on eachsheet.and make your selectionfrom them. and Words thesenses93 I .Usedifferent colouredinks. in two neat columns. Allow the studentsto look at it for ro-r5 seconds. Monde. you may want to join in at this stageto give explanationsand examples. different sizes and stylesof lettering.

out All3sto speak slowly. All8sto speak theirmother in tongue.. All7sto soeak a shrill in voice. Thus 94 | Words thesenses and .. then turns to the personon the right and givesit into their handsad saysit in the way suggested above. Preparation ro-rz useful collocationsfrom your coursebookor elsewhereChoose Procedure 1 Get the studentsstandingin a large circle right round the classroom2 Numberthemoff 1 2 3 4 5 6 T 8. All6sto sing.the unexpected. transparencies their own use.11 Wordsroundthe circle Level Beginner intermediate to Time 10-15minutes Aims To practise sayingwords usingthe fullvocal range. could evenadd a soundtrack!) Follow-up This is a highly repeatableactMty.whispering. 7 2 3 4 etc. etc.you could use a computer + video projector and presentyour lists using one of the many software 'presentationpackages' (In suchasPowerPointor Shockwave... singing.or to usewith studentsin other for classes. This personholds out their handsand takesthe collocation. Oncethe studentshave you can get them to preparethe OP understoodthe process.Scatteringwords on a pageor blackboardor overheadprojector transparencycan be very helpful in gving studentssignposts their memories. to This technique is particularlyuseful in preparing studentsfor exams. All2sto call loudly. All4sto soeak fast All 5sto mouth without sound. 6.the very neatness makesit difficult to bring back a picture of what they haveread:our visual mernory often dependson the unusual. however. 4 Explain that you are going to take one of the collocationschosenin your handsand then both sayit andhandittothe personon your right..Variation Insteadof an overheadprojector. these you cases.For many. Comments For somepeople. 3 Ontheboardwrite: All 1sto whisoer.words presentedin neat lists can be memorable.

) of saying each item. and give the phrase back to the person on the mistake-maker's left. that will photocopyclearly. and has proved very useful in teaching adult immigrants without literacy skills. Materials Photocopies a picturefor eachstudent. If any student makes a mess of pronouncing the phrase. In the first class Ask the studentsfor homework to write on the Giveout the copies. but to choose for themselves the best or most interesting way (shouting. 6 . walk over to the person'downstream' of them (to their right). 1 Get the students to work in circles of 6-'tz. who then goes back to their place in the circle to continue th-e chain.the collocation goes right round the circle as an'object' and as an ever-changing sequence of sounds. 1 2 Filling landscape a Level Beginner advanceo to Time 3 minutesin the first class. whispering. In the second class Put the studentsin fours to comparethe words they havefound: a lot of peer teachingwill follow. Thesemaybe labellings of featuresthat by are there or they may be words suggested the feel and mood of the picture.Make a copy for eachstudent.suchasa Breughel a snowscape. You give it back and say it to the person. picture anywords it suggests. 2 Ask them to work as in the activity above. Wordsand the senses 95 | . of Preparation Choose picture with strong contrasts. minutesin the second. etc. Encourage studentsto use dictionariesto flnd the words they want. Comments This activity is both highly auditory and kinaesthetic. Tell them they must be willing to teachany new words they haveused. Do the exercise round the circle. Any student unsure ofthe pronunciation ofthe phrase can cross the circle and grve you the phrase. 10 vocabulary themselves for and Aims Toencourage students discover to to teach it to others. Variation This can also be done as a follow-up. who then again gives it to the mistake-maker. This allows the person with the problem to hear the sounds twice again before re-pronouncing them.

orwhich the artist decidedto leaveout. things or peoplewhich were there before the picflrre was painted. Variation 2 Insteadof askingthe studentsto focus on what they can seein the picture. adjectives people.13 Fishy adjectives to Level Intermediate advanced Time 30-40 minutes that describe Aims To use. 95 | Words thesenses and .Variation I The sameexercisecan of coursebe donewith the students'own pictures. Comments Peerteachingis an excellentway of learning.The activity is primarily visual.but this often hasthe effect of lesseningthe peer teaching aspect: one may be more interestedin the different way in which picture. than in their reactionsto a someoneelsehas seenthe same completely different picture. Acknowledgements We learnt this exercisefrom Lou Spaventa. 6.memorableway. things which are outsidethe frame of the picture.in a creative.) Procedure Ask the studentsto follow the instructions of whichever worksheet yougive them. Materials Copies either Worksheet1 or Worksheet2 for eachstudent. of (Seepages98-9. get them to speculate what they cannot see:things which on maybe hidden behind other things.

2 What threethingsmight you sayto the restof the fish in the shoalaboutthe fish in the bottom left-handcorner? Write your answers: Pick10-15adjectives phrases and from the listbelow or from your head.Worksheet1 paranoid reflective depth selective deluded outof her/his ostracized redundant self-centred experienced condescending gullible hostile creative easily influenced diffident marginal antisocial different out-of-place troubled ill-at-ease discriminating victimized deviant edgy intolerant unemployed questioning confused sentto Coventry proud confused delinquent responsive too big for his/her boots iil in a dilemma irresponsible disruptive divided subversive 1 lf you were one of the f ishin the shoal. Work in pairswith several differentpeoplein the group to find how and why they chose their adjectives. and abouthow theyshowit. which one would you be?Puta tick by it.Lookup anywordsfrom the listyou the don't know or askyour neighbour.to describe fishthat isout of the shoal. Wordsand the senses 97 | . Talkto your partnerabout anyoneyou know who is likethe fish outside the shoal.

etc.14 Objects Level Beginner upper-intermediate to Time 10-12 minutes meaningin any way that suits students express to Aims Toencourage (visually. Compare Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress roundthe circle 6. a fishing ro4 etc. and all 2 Whichfishwould you mostliketo be? 3 Whichfishwouldyou mosthateto be? the the 4 Jot down ten adjectives describe fishyou mostlike and ten to describe to oneyou likeleast.and then to askfor and through movement. to showtheir object and then to hand it. and temperature.(It could be a baseballbat.). Preparation None. to B.find yourself doing quite a lot of follotuup work. them learn the specificvocabularythey need. especiallyif their interestsdiffer widely from yoursl) Procedure Get the studentsinto a big standingcircle. their right-hand neighbour. 98 | Wordsand the senses .Ask them to think of a piece of sporting equipment and imagine they are holding it in their hands. a golf tee. Ask one student. texture.A.)Thestudent with the object in their handsshould feel its weigfr. a football. sincethe purposeis to work on the students'own areasof interest. however. withoru sayrnganything. (Youmay.Worksheet2 "l Give these fishnicknames writethem down. youranswers with your neighbours'.

Procedure 1 (optional)Askthe studentsto shut tfieir eyesand notice their breathing.and colour of what they were receiving and passing. 5 Havea secretaryat the board and askAwhat they gaveto B. leavinga ro.Ask them to imagine that they arebreathing stressand anxiet]a and energyin. wordsandphrases 5. what they receivedand then what they passed C does B now says the same.it what it is. and passes silently the 3 StudentB receives object. The others copy down the words and the sketches. The studentssit down and an artistic one comesto the board and of drawsquick sketches eachitem. questionsyou ask: you Howbigwasthe picture got? was to Howclose the picture you? looking in? you or Were inside picture.sometimesstopthe studentwho is speakingand ask them about the weight. Preparation eight to twelve words and phrasesyou want the studentsto Choose gointo more deeply. Alternatively B may change the object receivedinto someother sporting object before passingit on to C.and ask a student of your choiceall or someof the Tell the other studentsto note down the following questions. The secretaryputs either or both words up on the board. And so on round the circle. 3 Bring the studentsback from their reverie. 4 Continue on round the circle. size. (Thefi.15 Picturing to Level Elementary advanced Time 20-30minutes with the English Aims To usedetailed.creativevisualizationto associate are wordsthe students learning. If A doesn'tknow the word in English. outside the or Was in black white in colour? it and Words thesenses99 and | . on.guesses on to C.rsttime you do this with teenage out classes readyfor giggling and noise.Ask the studentsto make picnrresin their mind's eyeasthey hear eachword or phrase.then they sayit in their mother tongue and you or a dictionary translatesit. who is one awayto their right.) be 2 Saythe words and phrasesyou have chosenaloud.sayagainone of the words and phrases.to zosecondpauseafter each.To get the studentsmore into the reality of the objects.

Wasit moving still? or What. another student.studentswho did not understandsomeof the dictatedwords will havean opportunity to find out or askabout them. another word from the list and put the samequestionsto Choose with a third person. 100 | Words thesenses and . yousee? did During this stage. using the questionsyou askedin step 3.exactly.Repeat Pair the studentsand askthem to explore the pictures they got for tJ'ewords.

ideasof 'concrete' 'inanimate'. Word sets| 101 .We do not alwaysagreeabout the categories set up: we divide up the world. and the words we useto describeit. to learn into 'topic areas'. not only grammatical categories.r. mood').even surrealwaysofgrouping others suggest 'Mappingone's opposites'. In relation to learning. 'Collecting ar'd7.and it is a great help to the curriculum designerand the writer to split up the vocabularythe student is expected coursebook Linguistsalsolike to work with word sets. however.'Wordsfrom the collocations'. homestayfamily'. words (for example. what the words refer to) into categories.and so on.compare.therefore. personal.in which the studentsare encouraged question.9. memorablefeatures thereby. our upbringing.8.7.A supermarketwithout shelf labelswould be a nightmare to navigate. In this chapter. or to find Moreover. ready-made sets(for example.tinto a category and we forget things or muddle them up preciselybecause they doflt into a category and lose distinctive.and our personalexperiences that we useto describethings.or fields'. our mother and thought processes. and 7.and build to Someoffer newways of handling vocabularysetsfor themselves.ro. words of a particular origin or register. we have collecteda dozenor so exercises which dealwith word setsin challenging. tongue. suggest waysin which the studentscan learn from of their own observations language.while z.the categories things in supermarketsand referencebooks.do not necessarily correspondto the needsof learning and memory: very often we remember things because they are unusual. 'Intelligencetest'.'Diagonal 7.unorthodox ways.6.+. and do not fi. meaning groups (synoqrmsor but and and'abstract'.7.Word sets for There are manypractical reasons organizingwords (or.'animate' near-synonyms).accordingto our culture. 'Prototypes'). sets. in quite different ways.things work out rather less we efficiently.more 'word or often.

the how canyou tell your father and b Besides sexdifferences.because is the only one it with two legs.saw.3 7 . hammer. Procedure Put up the following items on the blackboard.a discussion on the validity of suchtestsmightwell ensue. 102 | Wordsets . c Work with a parlner. List the differencesbetweenyour car/biryde and theirs. 1 Intelligence test Level Beg innerto intermediate Time 10 minutes Aims Toexplorethe idea of a 'word set'and the many different ways in which one cancategorize vocabulary. askfor their suggestions. pliers Examples allmetal: hammer nail pliers aggressive/active: sawhammer pliers nailset: hammer nail grammatically hammer saw nail could beverbs/are singular: hammer saw fools: oliers onesyllable: saw nail -er (agent form): merpliers ending ham hammer nail Germanicoriqin: saw word families 7. Procedure Useonly one of thesestudent-directed suggestions any given in lesson: a Work in pairs and list things found in an office but not in a home.explaining or illustrating where necessary.then explainyour list to a partner you trust.If there are many'incorrect' answers.2 Unusual Level Elementary advanced to Time 10 minutesfor mostof the suggestions below. 3 Now askthe group to make asmany setsaspossibleusing two or more of the items in the list pliers. Aims Toencourage students group words in unusual. nuil. Then tell them that the 'right answer' is pliers. mother apart?List the most salient physicaland emotional Do differences. \Mhenthey have done this. pliers harrnner nail saw Ask the studentsto write down the odd man out and give their reason(s). the work alone. to memorable categories.

Ask the studentsto look at the word on their card and to write either the name of somethingtfiat went into the making of the object in front of the word.sweater.d Hereis a list of commonverbs: push tap open heat tastesqueeze cleanlLsten Work in pairs and think of three typical doersof eachaction and one atypical one. For example.Give each student a word card. memorable Materials One word cardfor eachstudent. and tell the others three things that would be found there. Procedure Divide the classinto small circles(four to five members). e Work together in fours. man-madeobject (for example. Oneperson should think of a place. The others shouldthen try and guessthe place..For example: clean: typical: laundryman/painter/dentist atypical:tramp Compareyour lists witfi thoseof other pairs. 3 Chains to Level Elementary advanced Time 20 minutes and students group words in imaginative to Aims Toencourage ways. or room.On eachcardwrite the name of one sewing-machine). sruDENTn: Here'san extraword:book 7 . who should againwrite a word before or after the two words now on sweater.grass Wordsets| 103 . Preparation Preparea card for eachstudent. book. building. sheep the card.if the word was sweater. for example. it might write sheepbefore or paper after it.For example: alibrary):shelf sunblind catalogue sruDENr e (thinkingof sruDENTr:A lawyer'soffice? sruDENTc: A supermarket? . Eachstudent shouldthen passthe card to their left-handneighbour.. or the name of somethingthat the object might orre becomeafter the word.

104 | Wordsets . Procedure Lesson 1 Give eachstudent a newspaperor half a newspaper.: '\ *\ cotton .letthe studentsthrash it out asfar as llke possibleamong themselves-do not make a ruling for them.until the board is full.a tree could be built. or elsetheir juxtaposition is. Materials EnoughEnglish-language newspapers magazines and (old oneswill do) to be ableto give at leasthalf of one to each student. This may well mean bringing in the context in which they found them. Ask them for homework to pick out adjective-nouncombinationswhere at least one item is new to them. ex cathedra.A page or two is not enough for this activity. Invite different studentsto volunteer and teach one oftheir six combinations. Lesson 2 Divide the board into eight columns and invite a student to put one of their combinationsin the first two columns and to teach it to the class. 30-40minutesin the second. Stress that they must be ableto teach their collocationsclearly and briefly.Suppose studentvolunteersa combination such a asFORTHCOMIIVG EVENT-the columns might well look like this: adjective noun noun noun noun noun noun noun event sale marriage issue publicationstrike? debn forthcoming If a personin the group comesup with a dubiouscompanionfor FORTHCOMING strike. Ask them to flnd six such combinationseachand to prepareto teach their meaningsto the rest of the class. Aims Toexpandstudents' understanding acquisition above-theand of word vocabulary.4 Collecting collocations Level Intermediate advanced to Time 5 minutesin the first lesson. for example.3 Variation Insteadof arranging the chain in a linear fashion./t'^" sheep sweater paper book parcel dishcloth compost 7. with eachstudent in turn adding a link. Then askthe group to produceother nouns that combine well with that adjective.

the teacher.you can usethis to check out the combinations.you can use a good Internet search for engine (suchasGoogte) the occulrenceof particular combinations 'exactwords' when you in web pages:make surethat you specify enter the searchphrase(for example.5 How strong is the collocation? advanced Level Upper-intermediateto Time 20-30 minutes of and Aims Toexpandstudents'understanding acquisition above-theword vocabularY. using the samemethod' Here are someof them: taxburden noun-noun: danangmaster ading misle adverb-adjective: unforttntately vastlycomplicated greatlytoberegreLted adverb-verb inevitably flowedfrom varygreatlY verb-adverb: repliedhuffiIy 2 Put a list of twenty nouns and ten verbs on the board.Write it up without the +/-/? marks you have on the next page:they give you. Preparation a Choose number of words closelyrelated in meaning and/or context.the key. and make a grid like the examplebelow Procedure 1 Put this collocationalgrid on the board and askthe studentsto copy it out into their books.Variation Many other combinationscan be worked on.Alternatively. sets| 105 Word .for example: an eccentricmilkonure to kisslovinglY Comments program to Ifyou have access a corpusofEnglish and a concordance frequenry of word (seeChapter5). 7. Acknowledgements We learnt this technique from Mike Lavery.The students copy down the lists and supply eachnoun with a typical adjectiveand eachverb with a typical adverb.by enclosingthe phrase between double quotation marks).

1982. 5 Giveyour book to a student to put the key up on the board.asmany of the items will be of comparativelylow frequencyin the corpusused. 105 | Wordsets .weakly.asaway of generatingmore imaginative. or not at all with the nouns down the left hand side.unblemished spotless performance argument complexion behaviour kitchen recoro reputatron taste order credentials flawless T T immaculate T imoeccable T 7 ) ? T T ? T T T T T ? T T ) T T T ? ? ) T Ask the studentsto look the adjectivesaboveup in their dictionaries. Variation 1 This activity can be supplementedwith web searches and look-ups. et Macmillan. Ask them to put someof definitions/translations on the board. aCowsebookonTranslation Routledge.text. and (-) for zero collocation.though in the latter casethere may not be concordance sufficient data to cometo film conclusions.In Other Words.from an original ideain Rudska. aI. 5 Put the pairs together in sixesto comparetheir findings. up Pair the studentsand explain that: spotless collocatesstrongly with kitchenand with record(+) (?l spotless collocates weakly with complexion spotless not collocatevnth order(-) does Pair the studentsand askthem to decidewhich of the adjectives along the top collocatestrongly. and lessclich6-ridden. 1992.They mark (+)for a strong collocation.(?)for a weak one.TheWordsYouNeed. Variation 2 Advancedstudentsmay benefit from deliberatelyexperimenting with atypical collocations. Acknowledgements We owe this exerciseto a brilliant book by Mona Baker.

ballfmouse oppositesbecause playthings-the one dead.ball.typewriter.6 Diagonal to Level Beginner intermediate Time 10 minutes and situational to at Aims Toget students look closely the semantic associations a word. shoutsout a word. Wordsets| 107 . 'opposites' personalassociations ofwords one cangive these both are cats' are too. and thus fix new vocabularyvery firmly.Fill the board with the students'lexis.7 The egg exercise Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 20 minutes of and associations a Aims Toexplorethe variousmeanings word or phrase. Procedure Put up on the blackboardthree or fourwords with clear opposites. Procedure 1 Ask the students.the other alive. of Materials A soft ball.Ask the classto suggest sad.Give eachgroup a ball. studentsshout out aII the nouns and verbsthey have usedin their completions.working on their own. 7. then throws the ball to another member of the circle. rise.Wednesday.The secondplayer shouts out an 'opposite'. Add two or three words that do not have clear opposites.then a new word. to completethe following sentencestemsasvariedly and in asmanyways asthey can: at least sevencompletionsfor eachsentence: An egg Eggs eggs Its hard to The 2 Havea student cometo the board and act asgroup secretary. Acknowledgements version from an internal publication brought We learnt the ball-game outbyVolkshochschuleteachersof Frenchin Lower Saxony. The first player takesthe ball. Germanv. For example. and throws the ball to a third player. that by using the Suggest for example. for example.opposites 7.Let the game continue until twenty words have beendealtwith. oppositesfor them. cold. Ask the classto form circlesof six to ten people.

Hereis a list: to rain blustery showers ro Snow bright intervals temperature dawn ory unsettled ro pour sunshine drought storm overcast bright to blow forecast damp sandstorm sky barometer outlook lull fog breeze force-eight wind scorching hurricane moon to clear up lowpressure earthquake rain shine or flood downpour t h es u n cloud Checkthat all the words vou dictatedare known to at leastsomeof the students. Agrandmother a child'sbestfriend].The words at the very centre of their circlescould be called 'prototypes'the membersmost typical of their set. Procedure 1 Ask eachstudent to take a clean sheetof paper and to writeweather right in the middle of it. 3 Tell the studentsyou are going to dictate a number of words to them to do with weather. 2 They then draw flve or six concentriccirclesround the word. they put them in the outer areas. Group the studentsin fours to sharetheir placing of the vocabulary.3 In fours the studentsread out their sentences eachother.) set Time 20-30minutes Aims Toget studentsto considerhow word setsare built up. and in so doing to consider how effective them such for categorizations in organizing are and remembering vocabulary.It'shardto[oppose] [is grandmothers. 7. by asking suchquestions as'How stronglydoesthis word belongto its set?'. 108 | Word sets .If studentsregardtheseasvery centrally the weather words.Simplyreplaceeggbythe newitem. asin the examplesbelow. in terms of how centrally'weatherish' they feel the words are. Preparation Find or construct setsofwords. the outer one reachingthe edgeofthe paper. they put them in the inner circles.If they regardthem asperipheral weather words. to Follow-up This activity can be usedover and over againto explore or fix the meaningsof newvocabulary.8 Prototypes Level Beginnertoadvanced (Theexample below isfor lower-intermediate. for example.

I am light. powerful. Hodder & Stoughton.e.for example: 1 Youcan do this 'prototype' exercise Which malesin the following list are most male? bull ogre dog stag tomcat drake boar ram billygoat cock man elephant stallion gander cockerel 'vVhichare the most'foody' of thesefoods?'Whichthe least? tapioca cheese rice potatoes lamb snake burger cucumbertrout chips artichokebanana flour A roleplay: choose. Try out different kinds oftext: newspaper article. lfbirds were the set chosen.business letter. and very fast' rather than chosen the falcon. replacing each ofthe underlined words in turn by a different member of the set. George's visit to Sarratt gave back the dangerous edge to my memory. Ask your students. andveryfast. so that you can share my voyage and ask yourself the same questions. one student might choose and so on. another pigeon. There were times when I thought of him as some kind of father to replace the one I never knew. For example. more than a fiiend. Using the technique with poems can also bring unexpected insights into the perceptions ofboth poet and reader: Wordsets| 109 . he presided over my life. even towards myself. r99r) fohn le Carr6. member of the set and be prepared to speak on its behalf. 'I've powerful. experience and a little pain had made me a mite too wary of the truth. each give a one-minute talk about the set member they have chosen. George was more than a mentor to me. etc. George Smiley put that right.a third chicken. They should then read and re-read the text aloud. coursebook passage. in which they try to convince the rest that their choice is prototypical of the whole set. This is done most effectively when the students give 'I their talks inrole. I have read. And now that I have the leisure to remember. they certainly have no right to teach. that's what I mean to do for you.a set ofwords such Each student should then choose a different asbirds. in following extract and underline flve to eight nouns in it. TheSecretPilgrim.or get the students to choose. and discuss the effect of their substitutions. If that is so. carnivores. they might begin am a falcon. I'm not a frightened man-or no more frightened than any other man who has looked at death and knows it is for him.houses.Variations with anyword set. AII the same. to read the apparent in a text. followed by three or four other words that might belong to the same set. they should then write each underlined word down and next to it the name of a set to which the word might belong. i. Working together. The students then falcon. The students may also like to work with texts they have written themselves.' 'prototypicality' (Advanced)The degree of of words may also become groups ofthree. Though not always present. Sample text 1 Frightened people never learn. A falcon is light.

Eachstudent should come to the next lessonwith a substantiallist. screwed to the floor and often to each other. cupboardis definite$ A a piece of furniture. potatoes. it is a vegetable. Shaped to the comfort of the last to go As if to win them back. along with p eqs. Even conventional word sets. It stays as it was left. sets are deflned precisely in terms of the common properties of their members. ThelNhitsunWeddings. 20-30minutesin the second lesson. Thatvase. Lesson 2 1 Get the studentsto fill the board with their cooking words. bereft Of anyone to please. Long fallen wide. Instead. Aims To providea simpleresearch for students tool studyingin an English-speaking environment and living in host families. though few tomato-eaters would agree.and abanana. For the botanist. are just as mtchfurniture as the armchairs and dining-chairs our homes.9 Wordsfrom the homestayfamily Level Beginnertoadvanced (The vocabulary the example givenisintermediate. in Acknowledgements 'prototype' We learnt the idea of fromAitchison (1994). Lesson 1 For homework. A joyous shot at how things ought to be. In the real world.an orange. along with an apple. include and exclude members according to criteria that are far from cleat Apear is obviously a fruit. but the seats one flnds in airports and concert-halls. 7. 1964) Comments In logic and mathematics. For them. Faber & Faber. the sets or categories we construct are far less precise.Sample text 2 Homeis so Sad Home is so sad.and cabbage. so is a tomato. blttabuilt-in cupboardis definitely not. askthe studentsto get their hoststo take them into the kitchen and teachthem the namesof all the utensils and the variousverbs connectedwith cooking. 2 Get studentsto explain any of the words the others don't know 110 | Word sets . Having no heart to put aside the theft And turn again to what it started as. it withers so. Becauseit is immovable? Perhaps. such asfurniture andfruit.) in Time 2-3 minutesin the first lesson. (Philip Larkin. You can see how it was: Look at the pictures and the cutlery The music in the piano stool.

in an English-speaking (for example.a given student might decideshehasbeen a goat.for an elementarygroup. confused Preparation Choose lexical field appropriateto your students'level and a cultural background. as Variation 1 There are many other areasin which the studentscan quarry vocabularyfiom the host family. the teacher. Heranger boiled in Tostew yourownjuice. memorable with eachothen in a personal.or country whosehome life is immigrants to an English-speaking in their mother tongue)can do very similar'research conducted etc. Cool a cucumber. Add a few more you think they might want to learn. and which animal three animalsto the student herself hasbeen like.employeesof British orAmerican companiesabroad. but not living. and her three classmates 4 Group the studentsin fours to sharethe animals theyhave chosenfor themselvesand for the teacher. a dog. for example: the words thewords around car prv gardening words Variation 2 of the vocabulary home-buying environment Peopleworking. the teacherhasbeen a boa constrictor. havebeen a cat. 7. Shealsochooses flt the three chosenstudents. Word sets| 111 . Procedure 1 Ask one student to act assecretaryat the board and askthe group to brainstorm all the animal words they know.The examplechosenhereis animak. 2 Ask the studentsto work individuallv and write down the namesof of three classmates their choice. 5 Roundoffthe exerciseby having half a dozenpeopletelling the group the animal they have chosenfor you and why.1O Mappingone'smood Level Post-beginnertoadvanced Time 15-20minutes itemsin a'word field'.and a squirrel. over. tasks'with their colleagues.which may easilybe Aims Todifferentiate way.Showthe studentshow many of the kitchen verbshave strong : metaphorical meanings with Hewassimmering rage.havebeen like during the lessonso far.for example. 3 Ask eachstudent to write down which animafanimals you.

may appearhigh for in the order in contextssuchasClrurch andState. 112 | Word sets .which of the samelevel. for example: grey lightning. sunshine.With a student secretaryat the board. violin. Acknowledgements We receivedthe sparkfor this exercisefrom Linda Orr. marsh. This canbe an excellentlead-into work on registerand style. paddy moraine.Variation You can do this exercisewith many setsof words. heath. triangle. In a different part of your blackboardspace. showers. flute. harp. hill. forest. representinglevelsof generalityin the variouscontexB in which the words may appear. Acknowledgements We learnt this technique from Christine Frank at Pilgrims.a hierarchy often emerges. Allow time for the whole class give feedback how thinking about to on the key wordsbeforereadingmay haveinfluencedtheir readingof the worship faith evil building religious property chapel mosque temple community arch font crypt roof church text. Materials Copies a text you or the class of havechosen. piccolo cymbals. and which of a higher level. 7 . field piano. waterfall. Ask the classwhich words brainstormed are of a lower level of generality. Preparation five to six key words from a text that you want them to reaC Choose Procedure Explainto the class that. 1 1A hierarchy association of Level Intermediateto advanced Time 20-35minutes Aims To organizeword setsas a hierarchy. sharp frost. much lower in Thc but Catholic church onthecorner. snow first plain. If the key word were church. stream. sky. example. here is how this board work might look: Do the same with the other kev words and then havethe students readthe text. Church. monsoon. when words are organizedin sets. bassoon. write up the key word on the left-hand sidehalfway down from the top. is opytosite BaptistchapeL the Beforethe studentsread the text put the first key word you have chosenon the board. get them to brainstorm 1o-2owords they connectwith the key word.

Persona I

are The best conversations thosein which the participants are motivated not only to talk but alsoto listen, and the best time to learn vocabularyis when the needto expressor understand is at its height. the The nine activitiesin this chapterencourage studentsto personalexperiences and thoughts, including exchangemore 'Life keSrwords', 8.4,'Scars', focus and thoughts about language.8.2, 'Phrases like', is more directly about I while 8.8, on experiences, language.8.r, 'Yougive my talk', createsa more interactive frame for listening. 8.6, A letter from the teacher',introducesthe vocabulary you want the classto learn in a more personal,involving way.There 'Mapping are other activities elsewherein the book, suchas7.1o, 'Lexicalfurniture', which coverthe samekind one'smood', andu.4, ofground.

8.1 Yougive my talk
to Level Elementary advanced and 3G45 minutesin the second. Time 5-10 minutesin the first class Aims To motivate studentsto listento, and therefore learn from, eachother. Procedure Lesson 1 1 Ask the studentsindividually to list five topics they would like to hear a short talk on, and then in pairs to exchangelists. 2 Ask eachstudent to chooseand mark one item on their partner's list that they would be willing to talk on. 3 Studentsshouldgive back the lists to their partners. 4 For homework, tell the studentsto preparea vocabularylist for the topic their partner has electedto speakon. Lesson 2 1 Havethe studentspair up asin the previousclassand give their vocabularylists to their partners.

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2 Eachstudent should nowwork individually on preparing their talk; they may usethe words on their partner's list or not, asthey choose, but the list will provide someidea of their future listener's knowledgeof and attitude towards the subject. 3 Ask one member of eachpair to give their talk to the other. 4 Ask the listener in eachpair to explain how they cameto construct the vocabularylist, and what theywould have saidin giving the same talk. 5 Repeat activitywith eachlistener now giving their talk. the Comments 'vVhilespeakers often impose subjectmatter on listeners,listeners seldomhavethe sameprivilege. Here the listener suggests topic the and guidesits content by proposinga set of keywords.The words chosenby the listener will alsogive the speakersomeidea of the listener'slevel of knowledgeof the topic: for example,given the topic 'Computers',the word-list keyboard, screen, Microsofi, word processor, spellingwottld conveya very different impressionfrom instruction cycle, nm-time, optimize, kernel, hardware abstractionlayer.

8.2 Life keywords
Level Elementary advanced to Time 25-40minutes Aims To practise and sharevocabulary which is personally important. Procedure 1 Ask the studentswhat dateit is today.Write it on the board.Ask them what the datewas sevenyearsago-put that on the board.Ask three or four peoplehow old they were on that date, sevenyearsago2 Now askthe studentsto write down ten key emotional or ideawords and phrasesthat sum up their lives now and a further ten to sum up their lives then. 3 Ask the studentsto pair offand explain the words and their significanceto their partners.Havethem changepartners three or four times, not more, asthis kind of talking is very tiring. Examples Inthisactivity. person 39 came with: one of up 'Now'words 'Past'words making new letting free conflict inside commitment unease workgroup with furure retirement death 114 | Personal change hitch-hiking shadow theatre commitment Chile break withmother

had: Another; 18-year-old, an money university family friends future engagement

marbles friends school musrc father mother

8.3 Turnout your pockets
Level Elementarytoupper-intermediate Time 20-35 minutes Aims ,Tousepractical, day-to-dayvocabularyin personallyrelevant conversations. Procedure 1 Ask eachstudent to list someor all of the objectsin their handbag/ wallet/pockets:askthem to write their lists clearly. 2 'vVhen lists are ready,ask the studentsto fold them and give the them to you. ShuffIethe lists and let eachstudent pick one at random. No student should end up with their own list. whose list they haveand to tell the 3 Ask the studentsto guess group why. Acknowledgements A We learnt this exercisefrom Lou Spaventa. similar one is found in Newbury Language Aass. G.Moskowitz.Caring Sharing theForeign and in House, 1978.

8.4 Scars
Level Elementarytoupper-intermediate Time 40-50 minutes Aims To motivate studentsto overcomelackof vocabularywhen narrating. Preparation Bring back to mind the story of a scaryou have or that a closerelative ofyours has. Procedure 1 Tell the studentsyour scarstory.If it is about a scarof yours that is showable,let them seeit. 2 Invite the group to think of how they got whatever scarsthey have. Givethem a few minutes to bring their storiesback to mind.

Personal | 115

wound.In steps3 and 4. operate. clothes..though at different levelsofintensity and involvernent. Pair the students. and build up further vocabularyon the board. Comments As we noted in the introduction.lf scars evokeshort stories.At this stage. Discourage them from writing.hair canproduceautobiographicalnovels. If the classis a large one.remind them of the words on the board.5 Wordsmy neighbourknows Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20 minutes Aims To encourage studentsto teacheachother and learn from each other. Onlywrite up words actually needed by the narrator.(How yourhair was you when wereeight? youremember first timeyouvisited Can the a yourhair? hatrdresser's? youever Have dyed .. Eachstudent tells the partner the scarstory they have createdfor them. Ask three or four more peopleto tell their scarstoriesto the whole group.Eachstudent is silently to imagine a scarstory for their partner. stretcher. 8. bandage.until everybodywho wants to has told one. Variations There are many other themes that can be used.Sometopics are intrinsically compulsive. 115 | Personal .Help with words and write any accident-related vocabularyup on the board. Procedure 1 Divide the classinto pairs. vocabularyis best learnt at the moments it is needed. for example.1 Other themes for anecdotes that we havetried include stairs. Acknowledgements We learnt this exercisefrom Christine Frank. stitches. now askthem to work in threes and continue telling scarstories.for example. andhouses.. the teacherhas of the opportunity of teachingvocabularywhen the students'attention is at its height.and will motivate the speakerto flnd ways of expressing their meaning despitedeflciencies vocabulary.Ask a volunteer to tell their story.

I 8. Personal I tt7 . on the UKC Students' that across hilltoP? wandered strolled orchard-covered the views Marvellous out over cityandthegentle. Preparation Write a letter to your class.Having written the letter without thinking speciallyabout the languageadd in all the slmonymsyou can. 2 Go through those slmonymswhich presentdifferencesof register. The partnersmust not communicateat this stage' 3 Then askthe pairs to check out the accuracyofthe predictions.Ask eachstudent to write a list of ten words which their partner a shouldknow. or about something connectedwith the class today. and Devon Cornwall excursion at a to we I This morning hope willbeable interview lady the woman you and there Have been campus. Materials A copy of your letter for eachstudent (seePreparation). lwoman. ng ki ul/breath-ta super/wonderf it. asin this exampletaken classat Pilgrims: from Mario's work with an advanced PeoPle.either about somethingpersonalyou feel you want like telling them. c deflnitely doesn'tknow. Procedure 1 Givethe studentsyour letter and askthem to read it. Carmen.andsuyter Ifyouwish. too muchrice I hope overmucn withthe hostfamilyl homestaY Celia? Howwasyourtripto theWestCountry. about somethingfrom a previousclass them to think back to. b should know but probably doesn't. hills surround that side on it are around/are everY all Make a copy ofyour letter for eachstudent. Aims To presentvocabularyto studentsin a direct. Morning Monday Dear not and youhada goodweekend. you can comment aloud on the factorsthat determined your choiceof language for them. up Union.in the letter abovelady lwonderful.for example.6 A letter from the teacher to Level Post-beginner advanced Time 10-15minutes 'l-Thou' context.

oncetoo often. or. Ask three or four peopleto read theirs out. Procedure Lesson 1 1 Ask the studentsto read 'The boy's definitions for his dog' and 'The husband'sdefinitions for his wife'.by Ambrose Bierce(available Devil's Dictionary free online from ProjectGutenberg). 8. You maywrite less well than Dylan Thomasor D H Lawrencebut the fact that the text is yours and uniquelywritten for thoseparticular studentsmakesit special. use similar texts preparedby different studentsin previousclasses. Materials A copy of the definitionstexts for eachstudent. n. containsdeflnitions such asthese: admiration. 2 Tell them to write for homework similar deflnitions that encapsulate their understandingof another person'sor creatule'sworldview. year. There are many techniquesyou can usewith the letter but we feel it is enoughfor the studentsto simply read it.7 The secretdictionary Level Elementary advanced to Time 15 minutesin the f irst lesson. Acknowledgements The (l. Preparation Make copiesofthe deflnitions texts below. Aims To expressprivate connotationsof a word or phrase-strong enoughto be usedas'definitions'. Tell them to write the definitions on detachablesheets. entitled Letters (996\. 2 For more activitiesaround letters and letter-writing. 10-15 minutesin the second lesson. our polite recognition of another'sresemblance to ourselves.9o6). 118 | Personal .88:-.)Point out that these havebeenwritten by the boy from the dog'spoint of view. seethe book in this seriesby Nicky Burbidgeet al. twice. written by and for nobody in particular. sothe studentscometo look forward to a letter from you. a period ofthree hundred and sixty-flvedisappointments. n. adv. better. and by the husbandfi:om the wife's point ofview. Lesson 2 Ask the studentsto put their definitions up round the walls of the room.Comments 1 This is not a one-offexercise-we suggest that you useit everylesson or everyweek. (See below. 3 It is much easierto pick up languagefrom a personalletter than from a third-persontext.

Procedure 1 Group the studentsin threes. and to space be enlarged burrow:wafting spiralof scent.and then to explain the phrasesto their partners and tell them when they usethem' 2 Eachstudent then thinks of situationsin which they could usetheir partners' phrasesand tells their partners about them.frustrating. tuggingat the leash walkies: thousand a for definitions hiswife The husband's of the children: centraltaskfacinghumans-bearers one's hopes and ambitions necessary which I am the recipient.for The boy's definitions hisdog place bury bones place arrange. basket: cat car:cat-cove4 hiding-place potentialmeal dangerous. and to teach their phrasesto the rest ofthe class. of money:something to similar rain.Tell the studentseachto think ofthree phrasesthey like to usewhen speakingEnglish. to to home-place. deepened lamp post/wall:doggielnternetchat room smells. They now rehearse insteadof anewphrase the languagefor the situation butsubstthtte their favourite phrase:help the studentswhere necessarytofind s.I am not surewhereeitherof them comef rom. and car:a luxurythat I seeasa necessity which no one should of havebecause globalwarming that men offer to justify long absences work: a generalexcuse from the realityof homelife Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress I 8. eersonal | 119 . cat:hateful. equivalentphrases/paraphrase 4 Ask the studentsto fiIIthe board with the substitutephrasesthey havefound. 3 Tell eachstudent to chooseone oftheir own phrasesand to outline three to flve situationsin which they would useit.8 Phraseslike Level Lower-intermediatetoadvanced Time 15-25minutes Aims To encouragestudentsto acquirea wider choiceof expressions.

close three frlends.for example. StudentB answersasmuch aspossiblein English.but if they don't know a particular word to use their mother tongue. Variations you The basicquestionrNhathave got x of?may becomelimiting after a time.With advanced students.we show personalpreferencefor somephrases over others.Put the mother-tongueword on the board. Rub out the mother-tonguewords asthe English ones replace them. 3 Group the studentsin threes. 120 | Personal . Tell the student to respondin English.This activity asksthe students(andthe teacher)to extend this freedom to the target language. Procedure 1 Get a volunteer student to askyou thesequestions: you Whathave got tenof? you Whathave gotthree of? Givetruthful answers.and at the sametime to widen the range of choicesmade. 5 Roundsz and 3: the studentsin the threesomeschangeroles and repeatthe questioning.9 What haveyou got ten of? Level Beginnerto lower-intermediate Time 15-20minutes Aims Toget students discover to and usenew words to express things that are important to them now. 4 Roundr: StudentA asksthe questions(up to ten). 2 Now demonstratethe exercisethe other way round.whatthree objects wouldyouvalue most? you Whatthings eatcould mosVleast to happily without? do Comments As we have seenin previousactivities.this is essential in 'flnding one'svoice' in the other language. then you supplythem. StudentC notesdown any mother-tongue wordsB wasforcedto use. with you asking the questionsup to ten.Comments In our mother tongue.with its English equivalent. Here are someother productive patterns: you Whatthree have gotthatI haven't? things you Whathave thrownaway week? this Whatfivethings youwishyoucould without? do do lf youwereX.the best time to teach vocabularyis when a student reallywants to saysomething. tendicttonanes. 6 Ask the 'secretary'to write on the board the mother-tonguewords usedin the exercise. 7 Get the classto try and find translations-if they can't. 8.

thinks that the combination offered so far cannot leadto a word.they can be usedto alter the mood or focus of a lesson. then C a word beginning with the last letter of B'sword.Word games The activitiesin this chapter servea number of purposes: they are intended to appealto the students'puzzle-solving side.five seconds player makesthis more exciting. and are repeatable. completesa word. they may challengethe previousplayer to saythe word they are thinking of: if there is no suchword. of Letter by letter PlayerA saysa letter.) Word games | 121 . C thinks of a word beginning with the tvyoletters alreadygiven and saysits third letter.say. D :l ( + d o l l a r ) D: o (-r chromium) E: That'sa word ! E:That notpossible: s yourword? what s D loses life.t1. otherwisethe challengeris penalized. PlayerB thinks of a word beginning with A's letter and saysits secondletter. (A time limit of.1 Circle Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 10-15minutesfor eachgame. most of the gamescan be playedin ro-zo minutes.and they promote experimentation.The gamecontinuesuntil only one player is left.B has to saya word that begins with the last letter ofA's word. a Tail to head (1) A thinks of a word and saysit aloud.Oncestudentshave graspedthe rules. Aims To providea bankof gameswith a varietyof learningpurposes that can be played in circles three to sevenplayers. in sayinga letter. games 9. and so on round the circle until someonemakesa per mistake. B:h(-rchange) C:l(+ 4s1s1 C:r (-r 661. For example: A:d A: c B:o(+isg.The personwho. that player losesa life.ontheirturn. and so on round the circle. loses and must drop out (or lose a life). D: c-h-r-o-m-i-u-m a Eloses life. If a player.. or cannot find a word.

pretend. The other players.and so on round the circle. B hasto find a word beginning with the last soundofA's word.lingle.Then C offers a third word to connectwith B's word. must fi nd a building A B beginningwith B.More difficult: B hasto flnd a word beginning with the last two letters ofA's word.Iitre.isolate. contend. and namesone member beginning a with A. CaNada) and maths (rapid).At any point a player may challengethe connectionof another player. fat..buildings: isfor Acropohs.compare. Within a strict time limit (saythree seconds). and so on round the circle.such as dortbt. syllable-ing-(ring. Tennis elbow foot A saysa word. Tailto head (2) A thinks of a word and saysit.. ('Hard' letters suchasQand X can be omitted if wished.sing.).institution. schoolteacher.in turn.rst in someway. Tonicsolfa (do re mi fa so la ti do) Roundthe circle.. for example. . all B:lt mayrain tomorrow. an Sets Find all the professions you can startingwith Sand endingwith R (sailor.. for example. for example:contain.Find all the verbsof soundcontaining the . eachplayer must make a word containing one or more of the notesofthe tonic solfa. place. Theme alphabets A chooses category statesit. A: 'S'. must B saya second word that connectswith the f.prefer. must make similar'lipograms'.BisforBank. Try exploring other areas-symbols from chemistry (reFer. We're ina circle.initials and abbreviations(sTUCk.).Wrong! There's 'S'in 'it's'. prepare. and so on round the circle. Swapped syllables Aproposesa polysyllabicword.. for example: table LEmon ONly LYmph PHarmacy.For example: games 122 | Word .comic.. for example: edgejoin noisyevil Iook catchcheese..) Lipograms A chooses letter of the alphabetand givesa short sentence a which must not contain that letter. C:lt'snotraining now. B must changeone of the syllablesto make a new word. raCIAl)accordingto the backgroundand interestsofthe group.. D.

(Youmay alsochooseto play calm. or Preparation Preparea list of words and put them on the board or make a poster. Rhyming definitions Eachplayer in turn must think of a rhyming phraseand give a brief the definition of it. seniorpoliceman(topcop).relax and shut their eyes. and then to do the sameagain. Readthesewords slowly and gently: irrational immoral clockwise incapable to misappropriate to misbehave serviceman irresponsible inaudible incautious illogical disapproving inconceivable to apply ex-serviceman to function inappropriate intuitive legal unhappy impossible non-violent caoable audible logical responsible conceivable unattractive to behave to misapply to appropriate to malfunction at ease illegal immortal counter-intuitive ill-at-ease mortal rational games 123 Word | . the membersdecideon 'acceptable' In each connections.falsepain (fake example.lad dad).but swappingnostrils. tell them you are going to read them some words.autwnn fqil isUSsynonym or autumn\ f (thelast-nof hymnandautumn silent) A:hymn is group.TelI them to put their fingers on one nostril while breathing in and out with the other. low-volume music in the background. Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto push their booksaway.) 2 With their eyesstill shut.large hog (bigpig).Tell them to just let the words flow over them. 9. Ask them to notice their breathing. the others must then tly to guess phrase.2 The prefix game Level lntermediateto advanced Time 30-40 minutes Aims Towork on the variousnegativeprefixes English. ache).We learnt this from Eugene Raudsepp 1977. in especially for studentspreparing an examination for suchas FCE TOEFL.A: tennis B: elbow is ftenniselbowan illness) (elbowandfoot arepartsof the body) C:foot D:baII foot+ball =football) E:fall fallrhymeswithbal/) F'. whether they know their meaning or not.for happy father (g.

This is particularly regularly puts adjectivesal Eventhough thes Spanish. Variation 2 ffier the studentshavewc someor allof theprefixes a all the roots.. Bringtwo students to the I teams. 5 6 At the end of the game. . sc as 1 Put up the following list ol commonly usedin noun + head house wot money chair tow market clothes car 124 | Wordgames .indivic own containing the brains words exist. asl the board in their noteboo monolingual class check sr Variation 1 1 Put up the following on th UN 2 Ask the classto suggest wc to brainstorm other preflx 3 Invite the students.moral to pack fit 3 4 anticlockw verbal to unpack Read the words again twic. They shouldtl producenew'words'. Variation 3 Insteadofprefixes and suf nouns.. mistakeswith adjective+ r noun + noun phrases.whi< dictionaries. and appoint one stt team A a word that they hi Give them ten seconds' co: right. one ofthe secretarie the other writes down the Give teamB awordto matr Back to team A etc.

Comments The relaxation exerciseat the beginning can be usedasan introduction to any activity demandingspeedand concentration.3 Definitions Level Intermediateto advanced Time 20-30minutes gameto practise usingdefinitions. insteadof sayingthe words for them to write. about 2. now for line one: A two-letter word that expresses doubt and ends inf. A they made ditting Thestudents write: The final step.5 centimetres long.toy town. Anglo-American units of measurement. The comparative form of the opposite oflong. Going head flrst into water. dictation 9. In the singular. you will give them deflnitions and clues. 2 Dictate as follows: You say: The definite article. Aims Tousea guessing Preparation Choosea very short text (r5-zo words) and preparedeflnitions. asin the upper-intermediate examplebelow. hints. The word begins withf and means the same as last. Third person plural pronoun. That was the title of the poem. It ends with iing. Procedure 1 Explain to the studentsthat you are going to give them a dictation. The first word in the phrase Here it's plural and meansyianks. Tell them now to checktJ'e new words and phrasesin a dictionary. Past tense of a verb with a meaning very like do. 'and lodging'. but that. as. boards sxx tnches shorter games 125 Word | .for example:townhall. and cluesfor eachof the words in it.Encourage and secondelement in the combination. \4lhen you walk you take many of these.Ask the studentsto make newwords and phrasesby combining pairs of words on the list or byusing one word from the list and one word them to use everyword asboth the first of their choice.Ask them to work in pairs with only one person wTltrng. The word ends iny. Start a new line of the poem: Half a dozen.

Hamlet was worried about this inflnitive. and they can be laborious are and time-consumingto compose.Marchzooo.4 Crosswords Level Intermediateto advanced Time No morethan 20-30 minutesin any one session. asin the exampleabove. whose idea is quoted by PaulRogerson an article in the AISLImagazine. Definite article. to preparethis type of dictation. The flrst word in the phrase '.to a fifth of the class: five the 'dictators' working simultaneously. The second letter is n. A two-letter word. They should keep their texts short.and the students'. AnanagramofWHO. Thinkwhat trees are made of. (Peter Hein. Acknowledgements We learnt this technique from Mitzi Powles.6. Comments Crosswords not everyone'scup of tea.The two examples here are designedto make the teacher's.Start a new line: This is the verb that describes the main action of philosophers. Ask one of pairs to read out the title and the poem: The final step If they made diving boards six inches shorterthinkhowmuch sooner you'd be in the water. The word for many thatyolJtrse with uncountable nouns. 9. Eachof them dictatestheir deflnitions etc.ve students. More Grool<s. Blackrvell and Mott. particularly if one has to restrict oneselftocommonor'useful'words.task a little easier. ) think how much sooner you . This word is wet and rhymes with shorter. askfi.or later' Start a new line: Second person pronoun. Then think of a modal verb with the same sound.A be ln the waver Follow-up Onceyou haveusedthis technique three or four times. 126 | Word games . Contract it and link it to the word before with an apostrophe.for homework.EuropaVicina in N. Aims To introduce students English-language to crosswords show and ways in which they can be adaptedand made more creative.

the deflnitions maybe allusive. such as those in newspapers. 8 10 11 I t4 t5 l7 t8 t9 Across Clues 1 T H E NS C R E A M 7 GAS 8 BUSH IB R 9 MEET EX R 11 LAL 12 LIL 1 4 GR I S S E T 1 6 I N D YG U N 18 OPT 19 PENNY EDED C Photocopiable@John Morgan Down Clues 1 M T O R YI S S U E 2 THING V 3 RASH ET 4 BSO 5 TAVIE 6 H O L YP I S H O P 1 0 E G GD A N E 13 DELLA 15A TEEN 17 CEI Wordgames 127 | . or to add anagrams of the solutions as an extra help. Here is an example to getyou started: addyour own deflnitions ifyou wish. One wayto use them is to rewrite the definitions. Procedure A Anagram crosswords Published crosswords. city. Oneanswer the nameof a well-known Anotherisan English now dead. and the cultural references maybe impenetrable. can pose all sorts of problems to the non-native speaker: the words used are often obscure.Materials for Copiesof the crosswords eachstudent. AnagramCrossword write in the Each of clueisan anagram the word you should woman. is diagram.

Here are four completeddiagramsand fourblank diagramsto start with: 128 | Wordgames .Tell the groupsto choosea secretaryand to which the secretaryshouldwrite composecluesfor the crossword. the groups should exchangethe blank diagramsand cluesand try to solvethe puzzles. under the blank diagram.AnagramCrossword solution M Y A N I A G c H A R E s o B T E v R P 5 H s E U B I x L T R E M E A t L I L T I G R E s o c 5 16 U 17 N D L Y I N G E T E E N P H Y s D c P E N E D Photocopiable@John Morgan Write your own clues Many studentsfind it much more fun to write the cluesthan to solve them.\Mhenthey have flnished. Divide the classinto groupsof three or four and give each group one blank diagram and one completeddiagram and one or more dictionaries.

and you can write your own lists. or make games 129 Word | . More than one word list (or phraselist) can be used.f reeuk. downloadable free from I ha es/uti ity.Our favourite is Henry Casson's Crossword Utihty.F E W E w o E R A s P E T I E A V E A L E R E B 5 E A B R L E o v v Y 10 u D N D W A R D t E c A T T T I L E N I E D s I M N T o P A c T u T E L I B A D A M T o A N N s w A ta s I H E R W t3 A N s o H U o R o I N E s T Y L E Y N s T P o N D D E M A L N o P E R u c L T R E A 1 G E T A c R o T R s s E A N N D T H I M A E P I s N G E A A c K R s E c T A E D D G T A c H o u U D L o R G A s N A R G E P T I P o t 11 E R o W 10 U R A I o U T U M E o N c o R E c Y N T H W E 5 lhotocopiable @John Morgan C Software aids to crosswordsetting and solving There are severalprograms available to assistin designing and printing diagrams. or ask the program to searcha word list for words that will fit.htm.neUd rrison/puzzl programs to assistin finding words to fit into your There are also diagram: you can chooseyour own words. http ://home.

uk and Crossw d Compiler ft om or 6 http://www.(See Chapter5.5 8 t 10 n t1 l2 3 tz 2 I I 9 t0 I 9 1'l to Photocopiable @John Morgan one from a corpusoftexts usingconcordancesoftware. e-ma Finally. m.crossword-puzzl ker.ltd. ftom g htt p://vrrvr.weni us2000.)GoodexamplesareTlEA& Symytatlry from htt p://bryson. students(andteachers) interestedin looking at how 'cryptic' puzzleswork will get a lot help from of the surprisingly effective crossword-solvingprogram Crossword Maestro.com. co 130 | Wordgames .

sentences. off-the-cuff Hetookhisclothes for today lamb stewison themenu lunch Mary a little had prices gone recently. 4 Ask studentsround the classto read out the 20 sentences. appropriateforyour class. are to are speeches hard make.9. and grammatical Aims Toexplorethe differentsemantic Materials One copy of a worksheetfor eachstudent (optional). quite lotof help downthese me a need Oldpeople keep you watchmen theneighbourhood at Babies keep awake nrght can safe. in are driers useful winter. back andtwo make to to is Home theolace come pie delictous.rstword of the secondsentence: tNhois thePrimeMinisterof thiscountry? to are Countryhotels nice stayin. Preparation 'double sentences' (see below) at a level Collecttogether 1o-2o type them out. and a Small love rough tumble kids a need haircut. the to They decided shear ewereally of can Husbands oftenlatehusbands bea matter regret. 5 For homework askthem to cometo classwith six double sentences each. It is the last word of the flrst sentenceand the fi. and make copies. are aren'tthey? Showthe studentstrow countryis a pivot word.5 Pivot words to Level Lower-intermediate advanced (Theexample hereis upper-intermediate. dren'tthey? 'double' Explain that you are going to give the studentsa dictation of like sentences the one above. Procedure Write this exampleup on the board: lMhois thePrimeMinisterof thiscountryhotels niceto stayin. games 131 Word | . Point out that in two of the examplesthe 'pivot word'will havetwo different spellings. group the studentsin fours to work on eachother's In the next class.They are to take down your words and underline the pivot word. wonthegame isreally Ourteam 3 Pairthe studentssothey can comparetheir answers. up have house lived anexpensive in Theoldwoman four. : Dictatetheseten'double sentences' you? would steps.) Time 20-30 minutes usesof words.

6 Hidingwords Level Lower-intermediate advanced to Time 10-20minutes Aims Todiscover words'buried'in other words or surrounding text. but appealsto a przzle mentality. Get the studentsto exchangetheir sentences flnd their partner's and hidden words. one or more to a sentence.) Variation 2 A developmentof the aboveis to presentthe 'double sentences'with the pivot words omitted.Tell them they can use dictionariesto find the words for their sentences.liaison in If I see mouse. and someUK speakers. Ask the studentsto hide them. they should discardit and move on to another.three to flve words. Materials Dictionaries. not to spendtoo long on this: if they but cannot easilyfind a way to 'hide' a word.sream comes many a I (ice in Jlavours. (thrye) and or on featuresof pronunciation. or askthe studentsto select. there is alsoa differencein stress here. This is more difficult. Do you knoW HERE-mailaddress? Put on the board. Procedure Put up the following words on the board: CENT Explain that many words can be found hidden inside other words: oTHEr reCENTly and eveninside phrases: I took the BUSHome. reaml (ForUSspeakers. 9.for example: Addsome rosemary time travelisimpossible. THE 132 | Wordgames .Variation 1 You canusethis technique to focuson phrasalverbs. Acknowledgements This idea comesfrom Milton Erickson'swork with hypnotic language Patterns.for example: Nev gweup themountaintheywent. for example. or on differencesof spelling. in the as examplesyou gave. er I'm afraidyouletme downthe roadqndthenright andthenyou're there.

Aims To practiseidentifying words with the help of definitions. Procedure 1 Write on the board the following string of letters: YENING CHIE ENTERRIBIEA OARD IC PRACT ALENDARTB Wordgames 133 | .and so on. You will flnd some more example wordchains at the end of this activity' write a simple definition for eachword in the chain and put the definitions and the number of letters in eachword on a worksheet. give the first three letters of the first word.orashomework.Variation 1 Hide the words aseveryother letter of the newword or phrase. the hidden word. To get the students started.for example: PIGEON + my speedkept sliPplnGbElOw Ninety kilometres an hour. hunt 9.but strong in puzzle-solving.7 Treasure Level lntermediateto advanced Time 10-20minutes. in which eachword Make a overlaps its neighbours by exactly three letters. add a vice versa.As a help to thosewho cannot spot brief definition. Variation 2 Hide the words backurards: KNIT + sTINKingfish Variation 3 Useeachlefter of the word asthe first letters of the words of a phrase: TEACH + TakeEverythingAnd ComeHome Comments Gameslike this appealto loversof logical puzzles. and Studentsmay be weak in English. as in the example below.intelligence tests' crosswordpuzzles. Preparation 'word chain' like that shown below. Many studentswill prefer constructing the contexts to finding the hidden words.

eachquestionhasto be answeredbefore the next canbe attempted.Using colouredchalk or markers.feelingsick(inthe stomach) _ _ _ _ _ (6) _ givenby a stateto a politicalrefugee 5 n. show that this is a wordchain in which eachword overlapsits neighboursby exactly three letters: PRACTI CAI EN DARTBO ARDEN TERRI BLEACH I EYENING Give out the worksheet and let the studentsget on with it.veryold . Comments As in a treasurehunt. protection -_(6) 5 n.or by underlining. or ashomework. The exercisecan be done individually. representative a group or category of EXA____(7) 2 adj..lacking. Studentsshould alsobe encouraged prepareworksheetsfor each to other. in pairs or small groups.enjoyable ----(8) 3 adj. in hopeor support esp. timber.This can be frustrating for somepeople! Example worksheet 1 n..(7) adj. Key E X A M P L E A S A N T IE A S Y L U ME R E F T QU B Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress _ _ (6) Suggested wordchains Here are somemore word chainsfrom which you (or your students) can prepareyour own worksheets: BLTRDE}IAIISMANAGERMAAD4{OI4IEVERDrcTIONARY ARO LATDERNEATHE]VYGNPOS TEOPATTIYROID TIPSYCHIATRI CKSHAWTHORNAMENTIRETYMOLO GY ARMCTI/IRBRUSHERMITTEATIACTE\4RBATIMIDRIFFY INGOTHICCWBOARDOTJ"RSEIVESTRYING (Thelast one is a word necklace!) 134 | Word games . wood for building _ _ (6) 7 adj.

9. with the large-print sidehidden. so that eachword is clearly visible to the On whole class. Materials Word cards(seePreParation).8 Storyboard to Level Elementary advanced Time 20-30 minutes Aims To practiserelatingwords to context. word games 135 | .l98z' John Higgins and GrahamDavies'Storyboard. Acknowledgements Wida Software.the text will graduallyappear. Ask them to shout out any words that come to mind: if you hear any of the words in the text' reversethe correspondingcard immediately. Variation If you can memorize a short text exactly.Short poems. preferably containing not too much new lexical write it out clearly on cardsmeasuring20 x 15 material for the class.but.works evenbetter on the blackboard.then you can of course with the cardson the blackboard. cm. Tell the classthat there is a text on the blackboardwhich they will haveto uncover. are ideal for this' Comments This was originally devisedasa computer game. Preparation a Choose short text. From chancebeginnings. one word to a card. with a little preparationby the teacher.asmore and more context becomesavailableto the students. the back of eachcardwrite the sameword very small' Procedure Stick the cardsto the wall or blackboardin the coffect text sequence.using the smallprint words asa rerninder.one word at a time.especially dispense oneswith clear rhyme and rhythm.

136 | Oictionary exercises wordhistory and . b A chooses word defined on the pagesopen and tells the other a playerswhat it is: this maybe awordA thinks the other playersdo not know.interestsand learning style.5.which makesit hard to give concrete recommendations. this series(1998).New dictionariesare also constantlyappearing. and flndingyourway for round dictionaries.looks at the languagewe needto explainand commenton howwe usewords. Materials Sufficient monolingual dictionaries haveone for eachgroup of to two to four students. will Procedure Ask the studentsto form groupsof 3-5 playerseach.then ask the groupsto play one completeround.Make sureeach group hasa dictionary.and to.1o. and the two activitiesthat follow cater for studentswho are interestedin the history of words. in containsa number of Jon Wright's Dictionaries.'\Mhat do I mean?'.1(D Diction exercises ary and word history The first three activitiesin this chapter aim to familiarize students with dictionariesand show how to usethem in enjoyable.using. though for moreadvanced students variouslearners'dictionaries the may be lessstimulating.uses.8.4. The gamegoeslike this: a PlayerA opensthe dictionary at random.and limitationsof dictionaries. Explain or demonstratethe game. 1 0 . or a known word which has a lesswell-known meaning.creative ways. 1 Word dip Level Elementary advanced to Time 15-25minutes Aims Tofamiliarizestudentswith the structure. ro. showshow a thesauruscan be usedto stimulate thought and discussion. 'Thesauri'. The choiceof which dictionary to use dependsvery much on the students'level. veryuseful suggestions choosing. Any monolingual dictionary will do. 'Borrowedwords'. Pocket dictionaries not be adequate.

). but c The other playersthen questionA on the meaning (or the specific meaning chosenbyA) of the word. the a d A scores point if no one guesses meaning within. usedin the definitions on the language to dictionaries haveone for eachstudent.2 Fromword to word Level lntermediateto advanced Time 15-25minutes with the emphasis in Aims Togive further practice the useof dictionaries. ' + + plant-r grow) increase rise+ swell wqves hair+ thread cotton -r understand and exercises wordhistory 137 Dictionary | . Procedure Ask the studentsto work individually. A may alsogive other information. produced list: plant. A may only answer/esor n0.Otherwisethe flrst personto guessthe meaning getsthe point. say. Ask the studentsto look up in the dictionary the word you have put on the board and to read through the definition(s). Give eachstudent a dictionary or make surethey havebrought one to class. suchaspart of speech. monolingual Materials Sufficient if you provide a selectionof different It will be more interesting dictionaries. well asbeing the past tenseof find)' It may be helpful to insist that A both pronouncesthe word and spellsit out. 10. zo questions.a dozenwords. Write up a word on the blackboard. 5 Ask them to form pairs and comparetheir lists. 4 Ask the studentsto continue in this way until they havelooked up. then repeatthe gameon a later occasron.Then askthem to chooseone of the words in the deflnition and to look that up. person this one fromthe headword Example Starting a -r vegetable organism structure framework skeleton bone + + 1 + plant -t + + + + bobbin reel cylinder tubular chamber andanother. given. If the studentswish to continue.as as stsch fomtd(= establish.At eachstagethey shouldwrite down the word they look up. not meaning.Chooseone which will produce a rich set of paraphrases/synonyms. Two or three rounds shouldbe tfie maximum to sustaininterest. say.

to look up eachof the words in their dictionary. Variation This exercisecan easilybe adaptedasa pair exerciseby asking the pairs to write sentences that apply to both members.working individually. they should construct an example and any example sentences sentencefor that word including their own name.rretheir examplesentences. Follow-up 2 Ask the studentsto usethe technique aboveto 'quarry'words relating to a particular subjector theme (for example. Materials Dictionaries. Follow-up 1 After working through steps1-4 above. 3 Writeyourself in Level Elementary advanced to Time 10-15minutes Aims To add a strong personalelementto dictionarypractice. 1 0 .the studentscomp.'vVhen they have read the entry selected given. my might write English In small groups.@ Variation who sharethe samemother tongue can do the exercise Students using a good bilingual dictionary. yourmindoffdomestic problems.for example: veal:Weareboth opposedto production whiteveal. if a studentwere to look tsptakeone's So.words neededin writing a description.words usedby policemen). takes they the exampleHqrdworkalways classestake mind offwork.moving back and forth between English and mother-tongueentries. Preparation Select6-rz words from a text or other sourceofvocabularv. or a referenceto mindof and flnd themselves. Procedure Ask the students. the of 138 | Dictionary exercises wordhistory and .askthe studentsto link the words in their list into a paragraphor short story.

favounte Ask the studentsto form pairs and to put questionsback and forth to eachother in the wayyou have shown. After five minutes. colour Ivty colour. Tell the students to rewrite a short text by picking out as many words and phrases from it as they want and adding to each a comment introduced by one of the phrases in the above list.by whichlmeonthe favourite get the classto brainstorm. but they are more considerate. Time 10-15minutesin the first class. Student: rNhat\ yourfavouritecolour? 'favourite Teacher: Whatdoyoumeanby colour'? youliketo wear. but they are more considerate. including They should then write their answersassingle sentences for the phrasebywhichlmean. exercises wordhistory 139 and Dictionary | .for example: in other words or rather that is (to say) meaninq in the sense of t. example: lliketowear. that is people who both live and work in the rewritten countryside. have a different attitude to the road from town people.10.working individually. other phrasesthat can be used Teach.by Lesson 2 Remind the classofthe previousactivitybywritingyour original example sentenceon the board. whichlmeorrthe colour MyfavourLte colortr. Teacher: Inthat case. to recall two or three of the questionsthey were asked.4 What do I mean? Level Lower-intermediate advanced to 10-20minutesin laterclasses.isblue. They are not better. of answeringimmediately. for example. Example text Country people.underlining the phrase bywhichlmean: Ikke to wear. They are not better drivers. The colour Student: my colour isblue. and other drivers. tell them to take a pieceof paper and. drivers. are doing while they drive along. in the senseof technically more comPetent. isblue.e. used in defining and Aims To introduceand practisewords and phrases explaining meaningsProcedure Lesson 1 Instead Invite one student to askyou a questionin front of the class. By this I mean they actually consider what they. Seethe exarnple below Example text Country people have a different attitude to the road from town people.or instead ofby wlnchI mecm.pick out a word or phrasefrom their questionand put a questionback to them.

5 Borrowed words Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20 minutes Aims To show how words canchangeform and meaningacross languages. .and commenting on the meaning of the words we use.. Materials Copies the word list and key for eachstudent. modify. in Put the whole list on a sheetof paper and make a copy for An eachmember of the class.Here the student is encouraged to learn someof the words we needin order to talk about words. b specifying: particularly in particular specifically to bespecific to name one c approximating: rna sense more less or sortof astT were for wantof a better word d abandoningan explanationor example: etc. paraphrasing. for example s Take. 1 0 .Tell the studentswhich original languages are represented the words and askthem.try to representeachofthese languages your set. or correct the languagewe are using. exampleset is given below. of Preparation Preparea set of Englishwords that derive fromwords in other languages: your classcontainsspeakers different mother if of tongues.. . . . We are constantlyexplaining. comment on. 140 | Dictionary exercises wordhistory and . Here are a few example setsofphrases: a clarifying by example: for instance . Procedure Give out the word lists... working individually. a y. to by match them to the words in the list.Follow-up Usethe questioningand rewrite techniquesto explore other waysin which we seekto clarify. and soforth a n ds o o n you know what I mean ina manner speaking of to an extent youknowthesortof thingI mean workit outforyourself Comments The dictionary is not the only placewhere deflnitions are found.

sherryderivesfrom an older pronunciation came of SpanishJerez. if the dictionary alsogivesetymologies(for and even somethingof the how.Ask the studentsto checktheir answersnot only againstthe key but alsoin a dictionary. wLry theborrowing.) Example ginseng pundit hippopotamus lute atom bungalow marzrpan tea typhoon siesta cattle opera canasta sherry soya decide curry orange coolie kilogram armada alcohol atmosphere torso chemist pork apron piano Key Arabic Spanish lndian languages French Italian apron pork cattle decide torso marzipan opera piano Chinese Greek typhoon tea soya ginseng atmosphere hippopotamus kilogram atom alcohol siesta bungalow lute canasta curry orange sherry pundit chemist armada coolie Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress words 10. Preparation You may alsolike to Takeseveraleqrmologicaldictionariesto class. and exercises word history| 141 Dictionary . and Materials Etymological otherdictionaries.when. Give out the key. not to the animal itself.OED.They should pay attention to the pronunciation (which maybe very different from that in the (which maywell have changedor the original language). readup a little on the peopleand eventsreferred to. The studentsmay now compareand discuss particularly useful if you haveincluded words borrowed from languages spokenby the students. meaning(s) becomerestricted). example. Mandarin.and.bwtgalow from a Hindiwordthat simply means'of Bengal'. (In the examplelist below.Chcnnbers).porkrefers to the meat of the pig.This is their answers. teawasborrowed of not from Cantonese.6 Commemorative to Level Upper-intermediate advanced Time 20-30minutes Aims To explorewords with a history.

Procedure Get a secretary cometo the board and then dictate thesewords to to them: sandwich wellingtons spa plimsoll quisling hoover mackintosh biro caesarian volcano maramon cardigan quixotic meander to meetyourWaterloo to cross Rubicon the Checkthat all the words are semanticallyknown to the students. the safeloading line on a ship. Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto work either alone or in groupsof two to three.Make enough copiesfor eachstudent or group ofstudents. Preparation Make a list of words that you are confident most of the classare familiar with. Explain that all the words or phrasesrefer back to the name of a person. especially harder onesllke plimsoll: found in the phraseplimsollline. For newer words. 6 Eachgroup teachesthe whole classthe derivation of their words. Ask the studentsto work in small groups and give eachgroup a dictionary.7 Datingwords Level Upper-intermediate advanced to Time 15-30minutes Aims More on words and history. alsoa type of sportsfootwear. 10.Include asmany recently introduced words/meanings as you can. 3 Ask the studentsto write next to eachword the approximateyear when it was flrst usedin English.a place.with the emphasis more recent on coinages.Assigna small group of words to eachgroup of students.or an event. to Ask them to checktheir answersagainstan appropriatedictionary. or give out the examplelist againwith the datesincluded. Get the students/groups join together to comparetheir answers. or usethe examplelist given below (with the years omitted).Ask them if they can identify any of these. Ask the gloupsto lookup theirwords and flnd the person. Materials A copy of the wordlist for eachstudent. we recommendJohn Ayto's Twentieth-Cenhtry (t999)and Words 142 | Dictionary exercises word history and .placeor event that lies behind each. 2 Give out one copy of the wordlist to eachstudent or group.

Make an extract from a thesaurusentry containing it.You should alsomake copiesof the worksheet (which can be usedwith any item chosen)for everyone. wonderful. 10. Word list (1972)car bomb (1972) gr€€h= ecological poverty line(1901) ( j i n g l e( n o u n ) 1 (1940) crew-cut nappy(1927) sitcom(1964) (1959) carer(1978) think-tank (1944) genocide drop-out(1930) pylon(1923) (1956) (1941) in-house gremlin fab (1e57) (1960) cassette rockand roll (1954) doodle(1937) Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress Here is an example entry fromJohn Ayto's excellent Twentieth-CenturY Words: of SlangA shortening fabulous marvellous. and prepare enoughcopiesfor eachstudentto have one.For older Words Dictionary New of ElizabethKnowles'Oxford (Second edition) givesdated words.h i sf i r es s i m P l f a b .to to and.when it became 'TheFabFour') pop After lying and otherMerseyside groups. or usethe examplebelow. ' Y produce groups sounds Most 1963MeettheBeatles.(. called (see fabbo (1984)).incidentally. Preparation Choosea word or phrasewith strong or controversialassociations. introduce and practise and distort meaning' to disguise how words canbe used extract and worksheet copiesof the Thesaurus Materials Dictionaries. until (whichis not recorded printin thissense in (sometimes to the Beatles attached took off around1963. the towards blazing toes her She 1963Times.Providea variety of dictionariesand other referencebooks in class. ttle OxfordEnglishDicttonary citations of almost everyword deflned.8 Thesauri advanced Level Upper-intermediateto Time 30-45 minutes Aims To show how words may be grouped by meaningand context. show usinga thesaurus. of the Merseyside which areprettyfab I just Lampoon'.'And think it s fab!' 1988National To which we should addthatfab is now back in a period of 'dormancv'. 1980s in a dormantfor a while. stretched stockinged ' D a d d yt. tab adj(1957) really Theusage 1959). and exercises word history| 143 Dictionary .997).it enjoyed revival the logs.

and that to get bestvalue out of it. and that it can be a useful aid to memory and imagination. and stopthem after two minutes. Encourage them to usedictionariesand referencebooks.or a similar.Tell them they have 15minutes to completeit. everystudent should havereadwhat at leasteight others havewritten after ten minutes.Tell them to scatterthe words around the board. not in neat rows and columns. arrangedin groups accordingto meaning. Give everystudent a copy of the Worksheet. arrangingthem into groupsaccordingto meaning. Keepthem moving round: in a classof zo. but without deflnitions or examples). Tell them what a thesaurusis (acollection of words. walk around. and comparewhat they havewritten.then get five to ten students(dependingon the sizeof your classand of the board)to write all the words and phrasesthey can think of that havethe same. Give out copiesofthe Thesaurus extract and askthem to look through it. but are not on the board.Tell them that they may alsoadd any other words of similar meaning that comeinto their minds. 1zl4| Dictionary exercises wordhistory and . 'vVhen the studentsare back in their seats. one should useit in conjunction with a dictionary.Procedure Write the word or phrase(in this casethe wordterronst)in the centre ofthe board.and to askyou and eachother questions. Group the studentsin fours to compareand discuss what they have done. meaning. Tell the studentsto standup. them to take a piece all tell of paper and copy down the words on the board. Stress that it is not a 'collection of synoqrms'.

write an example are 3 Lookthrough the extractagain. for sentence each: and dictionary. radiotalk. shortstory. 6 Write down five wordsor phrases to in in 7 Whichsingleword or phrase the extractisclosest meaning the one printedin bold text? from that word or phrase? 8 And which isfurthestin meaning Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress and exercises wordhistory 145 Dictionary | . look them up in the you five 2 Choose of the wordsor phrases haveunderlined.) (essay. 1 Lookthroughthe Thesaurus havenot met before. article.or whichyou would liketo learnmoreabout.Worksheet you anywordsand phrases underlining extract.Whichtwo wordsor phrases for you most here: Writethem alikein meaning? are 4 Whichtwo wordsor phrases mostdifferentin meaning? to whichyou would be surprised find in the 5 Write down five wordsor phrases etc. ought to be. newspaper sameshorttext but which are not in the extract.

Jezebel. thief &c.hanging&c. judici murder.[.devilincarnate. blood. suicide.]. Mohawk. quietus. canniba anthropophagus. monster. manslaughte4 murde4 assassination. felo hara-kiri. wrongdoer [Maleficent &c. desperado. siren. snakein the grass. anarchist. hatchet man.hooligan. foeticidelobsl. gunman. apache[obs]. rattlesnake. fratricide. firebug IU. [U. suttee. matricide.792. evildoer.homicide. serpent. Furies.asp.incendiary. 145 | Dictionary exercises wordhistory and .(arms) 727. deadly strangulation. hell-hound.v. regicide. demonin humanform.ghoul. oppressol tyrant.S. terrorist. executioner (punishment) &c.ruffian. of Killing. holocaust. killing&c. Hun. infanticide.bloodshed.hyena.cutthroat. 97 al butche[ slayer. pogrom. de se[obs]. savage.] N.beldam. uglycustomer. immolation. brute. iconoclast. hoodlum. 975. harpy. gore. communist. Apache[obs]. garrotte. ogre.].(demon)980. Frankenstein's monster. auto da fe.plug-ugly. snake.slaughtelcarnage.man-eater.violentdeath. fiend &c. vampire. hornet. being]Evildoer. bloodsucker. hitman.martyrdom. cockatrice.Attila. parricide. tiger. vipeqadder. [obs]. coupde grace.gorilla. butchery. uxoricidelobsl. . execution &c. fusillade.S.N. l. matador. murdere4 Cain.@ Thesaurus extract #361. scorpion. racketeel gallows. vulture.949.v.destroyeri Vandal. bully. larrikin[Aus]. tough IU. caitiff [obs]. suffocation. pug-ugly hood.butchel hangman.thuggery Thuggism massacre..l #913. weapon&c. hag.mischief-maker. terrorist. Eumenides. assassin. .5. firebrand. .barbarian.IDestruction life. blood-hound. wild beast. pyromaniac. deathbloWfinishingstroke.] of . cobra. thug.l.]. (ca pitaI punishment) 2. rough. anthropophagist.scourge the humanrace.

visualth esaurus. others on American English. of thesecan be found at of uri http://www.Most follow Roget'soriginal plan. If you click to on any of these.g ute nberg. you will needto enableJavain your browser. and other words appearor are replaced.A note on Roget's Thesaurus has andPlnases long been out of Roget'soriginal ThesaurusEnglishWords of copyright.\Mhenyou enter a word.com/thesa . asin the extract above.the displaychanges make the new word central.) There are alsoonline versions.To useit. Now there are innumerable versionsall claiming to be and all independentlycopyrighted. it will return a seriesof words linking For the flrst to the second.bartleby.com allows a search TheLexicalFreeNet on one word (in which caseit givesa list of synonyms)or on a pair of words.(TheThesaurus extract aboveis taken from this public-domainversion. dreamandleviathanyteld: -leviathan +horror + monster dream+ ntghtrnare and exercises wordhistory 147 Dictionary | . The full text of the r9t edition is availablefrom the web: you can fl nd it by visiting htt p://www. example. If you enter two words. a graphicsdisplayopenswith your word in the centre.which enableyou to type in a search word or phraseand receivean HTMLpagecontaining the appropriate One section(s) Roget. Other online thesauri Thes at Plumb Design's VizuaI aurus htt p://www. with your word-processor.but 'alphabeticalthesauri' such asthat publishedby there are also and electronicversionsthat can be used Oxford University Press.you can open it in your wordprocessor and searchforwhatyou need. many ways:someare basedon British. thesaurusat http://wwwlexfn. joined to other words of similar meaning by spiderylines.net. someate highly literary while others are basedon up-to-datespoken English.Thesediffer in Roget'sThesaurus.5Mb). When you have downloadedthe flle (aboutr.com is a remarkablecombination of thesaurusand mind-map.

we might havethe following page: (phantasma) Gota goodletter ghost fromhome today. before they can be saidto havetruly learnt a word or phrase.in different frames of mind.to go beyondthe monotonouscolumn of bilingual pairs: Frau woman . (See t.to improve the visual notebooks. (pepithesis) teacher looking of thewindow.in the companyof different people.4.11 Kevrsron exercrses A Traditionally.and reflect on words many times.all encourage use of revision exercises.and und Stuhl chair A ground plan of one'shome with the words you were learning written all over it is a lot more memorablethan this. Examinations. and use. in different contextsand settings. 148 I Revision exercises . 'Lexicalfurniture'.revision hasbeen much more on teachers'mapsthan other aspects ofvocabularywork.With vocabulary studentsneedto meet. perhaps. and the teacher'shuman needto believethat shehas actually taughtthestudentssomething. for example.for example. The conviction is out politics lt'sa Greek word-l gotthe English stress wrong metaphor again ! Makesme think of movinghouse. quaktyof Many activitieshere aim.and.the curriculum. A note on notebooks Many of the exercises that follow should be done in the students' vocabularynotebooks.From a Greekstudent.) The vocabularynotebook may well be a sort of history of the languageclass:studentscanwrite personalnotesabout the circumstances learning aswell asthe apparent'content' of the of lesson. we believethat there is a the but deeperneed:one simply doesnot 'learn' somethingby encountering it once.In this way learnerswill have a powerful record ofthe exercises they have donewith and around new lexis. A colleaguein Cambridgestarted eachmorning on her intensive courses asking studentsto close by their eyesand think back over what they learnt the previousday.

and telling them that they are onYou. and to deepentheir understanding words by comparing categorizations. and especiallyhis views on learner independence of commonsenseTeaching and the role of the teacher. a Ask the studentsto give eachof their categories heading' to read out their Go round the classasking someof the students Do headingsand the words in the correspondingcategories' not and tone of reward or censurestudentsbyyour facial expression be voice for the way they have categorized: asneutral asyou can and How the studentsgroup the words is up to sayaslittle aspossible.working individually. to categorizethe words into more than tvvogroups. Give them time to think' Ask words.seehis book.For more about his work. Invite the students. Procedure A Nicewords versusnastYwords 1 Givethe studentsthe words to be reviewedand askthem eachto pick three they like and three they don't. wordsand Nasty 2 Put up two headingson the board: Nice nastyword.1976' Languages. 'right' or'wrong' will only th. The EducationalSolutions.etc.The way they do this is up to them: the with the words.Do not tell the studentshow to of the words.they will usetheir mothel tongue. to write lp oneof their nice words andone eachstudent exercises 149 Revision | . the sound look of the words on the page. their dePendence increase Comments If you are working with beginners.11. Foreign 1 2 3 4 11.1 Open categorization Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 15-20minutes Aims To allow studentsto categorizevocabularyin any way they want' Procedure Write the words to be reviewedon the board. Acknowledgements we learnt this technique from caleb Gattegno'ssilentway.2 Guidedcategorization Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 15-20minutes Aims To get the studentsto form interestingand memorableword of grolps.associations idea groupings.em. let categorize: them find out for themselves.

invite peopleto explain why they like or dislike parlicular words. Invite studentsto stick on the large sheetanywords they like. cuttings from newspaperheadlinesor advertisements. or that interest them. intensive I don't it because -nt-istoohardtosay like the correctly.or which confuseor bother them. From time to time. Other binary subjectivecategories Using the methodologysuggested A. Variation The exerciseabovecan be adaptedto run over the courseof a whole term: Get a large sheetof card to hang on your classroom wall. hold comment sessions: the students let introduce their own words flrst. followed by commentsfrom others. Thesemaybe singlewords written on slips of paper. Example Inonegroup review the words were: viaduct prun9e lelly ambulance jack-knife windscreen to lower to volunteer intensive motorway hair-raising Here some thethings are of different students about said some thewords: of ambulance I used bea nurse anambulance to and comina meant more work. Tell them thev can do this whenever they like during the course. is windscreen I don't it because like I learnt lastterm can't it and remember it. Try to keep in the backgroundand let the studentsrun their own session.By keeping quiet youwill help the studentsto talk. Ask them etc.The sound right. jelly llike it.for example. Find a closed box and make a slot in the top: thesewill becomepermanent classroomfixtures. to 'throw away' in the box anywords they don't like. Do not glossor comment yourself: don't give or withhold approval. of veryEnglish words notvery English words newworos oldwords me-connected words separate-from-me words highwords lowwords pastwords futurewords 150 | Revision exercises . you can askthe studentsto in work on contrastivecategories many different sorts.@ \Alheneverybodyhastlvo words on the board. or can't or don't want to remember.l don'tliketheword.

of course. 4 Put up your list of words and askthe studentsto write them in one or other column accordingto the associations they feel betweentheir words and the countries. D Wordsand countries 1 Ask the studentsto jot down the name of a country they have enjoyedvisiting orwould like to visit. to Example Inoneclass listof words the under review was. 5 Ask them to explain their associations their neighbours. eachwith a country asheading.) Ask them to write down the namesof the various countriesacross the top of h pieceof paper. shed translucent loop draughty rack pail corruqated hinge suck hefty hook drain staple lethal goat Revision exercises 151 | . 3 Pair the studentsand let them explain their word-shape associations.c Wordsand shapes 1 Put up on the board the following shapes: Ask the studentsto copy the shapes into their notebooksand then associate words to be reviewedwith the shapes. the They may.and then to rule tle paper into columns. (Inaccuracy giveslife to the exercise. Havethem draw mapsof thesecountrieson the blackboard.link a given word with more than one shape.

and ask the students to copv it into their notebooks: . They should do this individually in writing. Acknowledgements We should like to thank Marilyn Spaventa.fast slow .strong weak .deeo shallow . (For this exercise black and white are colours. subjective reactions.distasteful tasty .hot cold 152 | Revision exercises .One student producedtheseassociations: Romania sneo pail SUCK Mongolia Denmark Wales USA lethal drain hefty Tanzania draughty corrugated translucent h i n g e racK goat No associations: staple/loop/hook E Words and colours 1 Ask each sflrdent to wdte down six colours in order of preference ranging from most liked to most disliked.3 Wordson a scale Level Time Aims Intermediate to advanced 15-20 minutes To concentratethe students'attention on the words under revision by focusing on their own.oassive actrve .worthless valuable . Explain that it shows a series of scalesbetween extremes. Ask individual students to tell the group which colours they assigned to different words and why. Procedure 1 Fut the table below up on the board. who used this technique with classeson Pilgrims summer courses. 11.dirty clean .tense relaxed .large small .) Put a set of words on the board and ask the students to associate the words with the colours.

Write the words to be revised on another part of the board and ask the students, working individually, to choose six words and decide where each of them should go on each scale. If one of the words to be revised were consistency, example, a student's scales might look for like this: valuqble X worthless _ deep

- fast X active _ passwe This student thinks corsistency a valuablequality that probably is indicatesdepth. Speed seemsunimportant but it takesan active stanceto be consistent. 3 Pair the studentsand askthem to explain their scales a partner. to

shallow slow

11.4 Lexical furniture
Level Elementary advanced to Time 15-20minutes with Aims Tofix vocabulary memoryby visualizing in connections familiarobjects and places. Procedure Ask eachsfi;dent to draw a ground plan of their house/flat/home/ room. 2 Put up on the blackboarda set of twenty or sowords for revision. 3 Working on their own, the studentsshouldthen placethe words in appropriatepositionsin their living place. 4 In pairs,they look at eachothers' placingsand discuss them. Example ln oneclass, girlputperplexed the garage because mother her could a in never why She outside the understand hercarwouldnotstart. putfurious house her wouldnotallowexpressionsanger of inside, because parents anddo an exoerimenf the kitchen. in Variation 1 Eachstudent drawsa clockface:the words to be reviewedare placed on the clockfaceaccordingto temporal associations. Variation 2 Ask the studentsto write down twenty times of daywhen regular things happen,for example: for 8.r5 Wifeleaves work. 8.3o Postman comes. washing the breakfast up dishes. 9.1o I finish

I

Revision exercises | 153

r

They shouldthen write the words to be reviewedagainstthe times, asthey find appropriate. Variation 3 Ask eachstudent to draw a map of their district, and to mark on it one or more of the routesthey regularly follow (for example,to work, to school,to a friend's house).On this map they shouldthen placethe words to be reviewed. Comments Placingwords or ideasto be rememberedin your houseor alongyour high streetis one of the oldestmemory techniquesknown. It was this that was usedby Shereshevskii, prodigiousmemory man studied the inA. R.Ltsria.TheMindof aMnemoni.st. Penguin, t975.

11.5 Leaping words
Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 10-15minutes Aims Toget students to'draw'words asa simplebut creative way of rememberi vocabulary visually. ng Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto chooser5 words they flnd hard to remember from the last few pagesof their vocabularynotebooks.They should checkthem through with a neighbour or you and/ora dictionary. 2 They shouldnow rewrite the words using the shapes and sizesof the letters to bring out the meanings. 3 Ask them to get up and move around the room to show their designs to asmany peopleaspossible,explaining why they seeparticular words thus. Example Inonegroup waswritten spif

J P I

/F

T

byonestudenl, andjealousya spiral another. as by

EtJ ,A g 5 Y -o
Acknowledgements We first learnt this technique from Michael Legutke,Germany.

154 | Revision exercises

11.6 Findthe word a picture
to Beginner advanced Time 20-40 minutes to Aims Toget students link words and visualimages. Materials Word cards;a collectionof magazinepictures(seePreparation). Level Preparation that Select6o words from the work done during previousclasses Selectroo pictures or card. needrevising.Put eachword on a separate (Ratherthan selectthe pictures one parts of pictures from magazines. by one, it is much more effective,aswell aslesstime-consuming,to keep a box ofunsorted pictures (or parts ofpictures) cut from etc.,and then grab a handful wheneveryou needthem. magazines Try to get your studentsto add to the box: that way your own tastes will not restrict the variety.) Procedure Give out the word cardsto the students:if you have twenty students, eachwill get three cards;if thirty, eachwill get two. round the room. Ask the Spread magazinepictures on flat surfaces get up and circulate.Their task is to find a picture that the studentsto somehowmatcheseachof their words. It is up to them to decidehow. Tell them that the picture doesn'thave to illustrate the word directly' with by but may symbolizeit, or be suggested it through association You shouldbe availableto help studentswho don't context or setting. remembertheir words. Ask the studentsto explain to eachother how they have matched their words and pictures.Eachshould talk to at leastfive other people.

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words pictures and foundbetween of students examples links are Examples Here some gave: they andtheexplanations
Words rage awell hostility Pictures violently a policeman off carrying a smallchild u a m a nd r o w n i n g n d e r a bridge people a poorquarter in jeering t anarmed a policeman p l u s hs h i n y u s h i o n s , c on a settee a girl runningacross a street two motherholding y o u n gc h i l d r e n

Explanations 'lt makes angry.' me

forger guilt sprocket

'Because leather false.' looks the 'Because feelsguilt.' she 'Theylook as closeas a sprocket i st o a w h e e l . '

exercises 155 Revision |

ittsn't dress. Preparation Choose words you want the studentsto review. then says:'The word on my card rhymes withguess.7 Rhymingreview Level Elementary advanced to Time 20-30 minutes Aims To providea simpleauditory review of vocabulary. They do this by asking questions. 15-20minutesin the second. for example. B: Isit sometling girl wears? a A: No.@ 11. Suppose word on the card is mess. Acknowledgements The ideafor this activity camefrom Hurwitz and Goddard. Preparation Choose ro-r5 words and put eachon a separate card. 155 | Revision exercises . Procedure Lesson 1 Put the words on the board. which also focuses pronunciation spelling.rather than simply shouting out the words they think of.Gcnnesto Improv YourChild' English. peoyie livein cities alot? who C: Isit something feel A: No.' A choose 2 The other studentsin the group then haveto discoverwhat the word on A's card is. 3 Repeatsteps1 and z asoften asyou wish. Aims Toget students visualize to words asa meansof remembering them. 1 1.notbless. r9 72. the StudentA might guess. grring a new card to a different student eachtime.There is no reason the why theseshould only be onesthat canbe easilydrawn. on and Materials Word cards(seePreparation). Procedure 1 Eachstudent is given a word card and askedto think of a word that rh5rmes with it. e s Kayeand Ward.not stress.8 Draw the word Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 5 minutesin the first class. D: Isitwhatapriest does? A: No.then tell the studentsto draw a picture for eachword ashomework.

observation A fire-watching of stages growthf rom infancy. crowned. all the pictures should be pooled. Comments 'cannot draw' may benefit more than thosewho can. Preparation Selectnot more than thirtywords that needreviewing. aboutto be Example tnterre9num Onekingdeadon the groundand anotheralive.) the cyclist's gates. exercises 157 Revision | . A bricklayer to receive from the top of a high tryingto get something A person to reoch cupboard. 2 Ask the students. skill tower in a forest.as Studentswho they will need to find words to explain their drawings' words 11.Put eachone card. at emphasize A teacher a blackboard that explained thiswas gazingat a van. sothatyou endup with thfuty cardsthat match the thirtvword cards. Eitheraskthe studentsto show their picturesto one or two neighboursand explain the links shown.For eachword flnd a slmonym.9 Matching to Level Elementary advanced Time 15-30minutes Aims To review words. Materials 30 word cardsand 30 definitions cards(seePreparation). or form groupsof four to five students.In eachgroup. two underlining words.and one by one individuals shouldtake a picture from the pool and try to guessthe words representedand tJ'e links betweenthem. focusingon meaningand context.Lesson 2 Ask the studentsto work in pairs. working individually.showingtheir drawings to each other and explaining why they feel the drawings flt the words.opposite.(Thestudent A cyclist desire for desire the van. A childat various todevelop Variation 1 Write the words on the blackboardin arbitrary pairs. on a separate below) and honesty dictionary definition. simultaneously. to draw pictures linking the words in eachpair. replacement One person a receiving brickfrom a helper. by A house surrounded highwallsand locked exclusive on A pottermakinga vase a wheel. a handing bagto another. or'groping definition' (see put one of theseon a card.

us The idea ofusing 'gfoping definitions' hasbeen usedin M. Heinemann. Ask a student to call out one of theirwords: the personwith the matching card then callsout the matchingword or deflnition.r98r. Why do it yourself? Simply choosethe words you want revised(or askthe studentsto choose) and aska more advanced group to provide the synonyms.and to write on eachslip the name of a personin the group for whom the word would be an appropriategift. TeIl them to put the words eachon a slip of paper. Ask them to note down who hasthe cardscorrespondingto theirs. 158 | Revision exercises . Acknowledgements Mike Laverygave the outline of this exercise. 1 0Gift words Level Beginner advanced to Time 20 minutes Aims To review vocabularyand at the sametime to establishor improve rapportwithin a group. Rinvolucri.Theywill be delightedto know their work is being put to a directly practicaluse. 1 1 . Mazes. Variation The preparation outlined abovetakesquite a bit of time.oppositesand deflnitions to put on card. This goeson until all the cardshavebeen matched. and what is on them (this reduceschaos). Bererand M.@ Here are examplesfor fourwords: word cards matchingcards tact oravery eregance honesty diplomacy cowardice the quality being of refined graceful or it begins ith 'h'w b u t t h e ' h ' i s n ' ts o u n d e d you cantrustsomeone who hasit-they won't lieto you (synonym) (opposite) (dictionary inition) def (groping definition) Procedure Give eachstudent one or two of the word cardsand one or two of the matching cards(dependingon classsize)and askthem to get up and mill around the room trying to find cardsto match their own. Procedure Ask the studentsto pick out 20 words they feel needreviewing from recent work and to checkthey know what they mean.

sothat there is an oppositionwithin eachpair. and 3 with a newpair ofwords.les Procedure Get all the studentsstandingin the middle of the room. who to any fence-sitters chooseone end of the room. the giver should explain the meaning. Aronsotr. exercises 159 Revision | . 1 1 Forced to Level Elementary advanced Time 15-25minutes by Aims Togenerateconversation a fast and energeticreview of words. Tell them you are going to offer them a choice:they are going to have to choose which thing they think they are most like. Seta time-limit of no more than one minute for eachexchange.not clusters of three or more. Acknowledgements This exerciseis a transpositionof an activity usedin therapy and chother . Variation Half the classsit with their word slips spreadout in front of them. you might thesepairs: choose spring-well -waterfall estuary drownrng floating starfish-whale lake-river sprntkler gogg.you want studentsto review'water words'. and the reasonfor the gift. Repeat Steps z.a977 Jason choice 1 1 . r. apy chrn s propo sed by Ted Saretsky in Aaiv eTe que and GroupPsy .3 Everyonenow gets up and mills around giving the words away. for example. The other half move round taking the words they feel they would like and explaining why. If. Ask studentsfrom one end of the room to go over and talk to the peoplewho madethe oppositechorce. Preparation half a dozenpairs of words from a vocabularyareato be Choose revised. Oblige Now askthe peopleto talk to their neighboursin pairs and explain why they choseasthey did. If you are working with wateryolJmight say: Peoplewhothinktheyarelikea springmustgoto that endof ther oompeople think theyarelikea wellmustgo to theotherendof theroom. Insist that theywork in pairs.If the receiverof a word doesnot understandit.

Materials One word cardfor eachstudent (seePreparation). A:What'sthenounforthatT B:'lnyasion'.Give eachpersona card and ensurethat partners have different cards. NFER PublishingCo. the often done Lebcmon? to B:Attackedit? A:lNhatdoyousaywhen country one moves annyintoanother? an B:It irwades it. Hart Co. This is howit cango: The first word on A's card is invasion. Preparecardswith ten words on each.1982. 150 | Revision exercises . StudentA looks at the flrst word on the card and asksB a questionaimed at getting B to saythe word.l979. StudentA must not show their card to student B.Everystudentwill needto be given one ten-word card. 11.).12 Question and answer Level Elementary advanced to Time 15-25 minutes Aims To practisethe vocabularyunder review interactivelyand in new contexts. Procedure Pair the students. A:\Mat did theAmericans to VietnamT do B:Bombedit? A: Yes andwhathave Israelis . Second EIT edition. Values Aarifi cation. Simon. They alternateuntil all the words on both cards havebeen dealt with.Acknowledgements We learnt this technique from S. Commtnication Games. Preparation Select3o-4o words that needreviewing.A fires more questionsuntil B saysthe word. Guider.. B doesthe sameto A.Howe and Kirschenbaum. IfA's questiondoesnot elicit from B the word on A's card..B. Acknowledgements We found this technique in Byrne and Rixon (Eds.

They must not write. Pitman. Procedure Put up the words on tfre board or overheadprojector. Ask individual studentsto pick six or sevenwords from those on the board.non-wordy way.A and B. 1963. The studentspair offand tell eachother their stories. Put zo words to be reviewedeachon a separate Procedure Divide the classinto two teams.then explain how they chosethose particular words. 2 Call out a member of eachteam and show them one word.not on paper) by suggested the words they have chosen. t}re 3 Eachteam member rushesback to their team and drawsor mimes word.Ask the studentsto checkany words they don't remember the meaning of. Preparation Choose3o-4o words that need revising. Acknowledgements The activitycomes fromViola Spolin'sgoldmine of dramaideas.14 Wordrush to Level Beginner intermediate Time 10 minutes Aims To review words in an energetic. speak. Materials Word cards(seePreparation). I@ 11. InT rovisation theTheatre. Havet]'e two teams Go at assemble one end of the classroom. Eachstudent then makesup a story (mentally. Preparation card. to the other end yourself. 1 3 Wordsto story Level to Elementary advanced Time 20-30 minutes Aims To useoral storytellingto review words.1 1 .or whisper! The first team that the recognizes word from the drawing and shoutsit out correctly gets a point. for Revision exercises | 161 .

fe OI The ccnnel morerealthoLnbeyond. make a comparativesentenceabout them and put the sentence on up the board. then the chances that either are the word or the context(s)in which it hasbeen met failed to engage their attention. Lesson 2 Checkthat the studentsdo knowthe meaningsof the words they have put on their slips of paper.yormight write: The camel ebfurtherawaythanbey ond. They should put eachof thesewords on a separate slip of paper and bring the slips to their next class.If the two words are beyond and camel. 1 5Comparing random words Level Elementary advanced to Time 5 minutesin the first lesson. to cometo the front. kinaesthetically.16 Multi-sensory revision Level Elementary advanced to Time 30-40 minutes Aims To get studentsto choosewhether to reviselinguistically. Comments If studentscannot remember a word. 152 | Revision exercises . Aims To provide a somewhatsurrealway of reviewing'hard-toremember'words.one at a time. auditorilyor visually. Procedure Lesson 1 For homework. Taketwo slips at random and make a comparativesentenceabout them and put it up on the board.@ 1 1 . Acknowledgements We learnt this activity from a Chandlerand Stonearticle we found on the Web at http ://wrruwetprof o nal. askthe studentsto go back over the last five units of the coursebook. Stopwhen the board is full.Spread the slipsfacedown over all the teacher's desk. pick two words. and eachpick out ten words they find it hard to remember the meaning of. minutesin the second 15 lesson. is Ask the students.com/ essi 11.

kinaesthetically. for example: rain:yotfeel the wet on your skin get betrayal:you the feeling of emptinessturning to anger.auditorily.Add extra words if really necessary. otter. -.in Modern Holden's exercises 163 Revision | . etc. introduction encouragestudentsto try more than one way.Procedure Ask the studentsto go back over the pastthree units in the and eachpull out ten words they find hard to remember coursebook or have already forgotten the meaning of. for example egg. Allow the studentsro-r5 minutes to work their way through the words.soif the phraseto remember isfootballpitch. or visually. sound-associated d Get a picture in your mind of the idea behind eachword to be remembered. Acknowledgements the We cameacross abovefourways of revisingwords inWilliam Teacher 7999' 812. Fnglish article'Learning to Learn'...Jot down the words.(See to Chapter6.all the b's.yott this comeup vmthfoolishwitch.)If you usethe exercisemore than once. the c Associate word to be rememberedwith a word of similar might sound.Groupall the a's. Havea secretarycometo the board:the studentsdictate their words to the secretarywho writes them here and there over the board. The first time you usethis exercise.. all the c's.Write down one word to remind you of eachpicture.allow time for plenary feedback. Propose thesefour waysthe studentscan revisethe words: so a Write the words out in a sequence that the last letter of word I is go. Comments This activity allows the student to choosewhether to revise the linguistically. the sameasthe flrst letter of word z. Ask the studentswhich way they choseto work on the word (a' b' c' or d).and all the d's' and within thesegroupingshavethe studentswork in threesor fours to describewhat they did with the words. Write down the word and the association. b Think about eachword and imagine it through your body.Do for all the words. whichever way they wish.

help.17 Writing to rule Level Elementary advanced to Time 30-40 minutes Aims To encourage studentsto extractas much meaningasthey canfrom words by limitingthe numberthey areallowedto use.can stimulate and encourage well asrestrict a writer. If.\. 3 As theywrite.not.The 'mini-sagas' popularizedin Britain by theDailyTelegraph storiesof exactly 5o are words.etc.I. or roo words too lonfl Relaxthe restriction on articles. with the languageproblemsthe 'no repetition' rule imposes. Procedure 1 Tell the studentsthey are going to be writing a 5o-wordstory.helping verbs.or banning (or insisting on) specificwords (and. other restrictions. or get the studentsto invent. parlour and radio The gameJust aMinuteasksplayersto speakon a theme for exactly one minute 'without hesitation.etc.11. when requested..or perhapsespecially. sounds. . 164 | Revision exercises . arbitrary ones.not eventhe articles.Doesthis make the activity more or lesscreative? Invent. . but may include repetition.or letters may be used.common verbs. 2 Now tell them that they are to writ e exactly words and that no 5o word may be repeated. or deviation'. Variations Experimentwith differentword counts:is 3o words too short. Tell them to listen criticallyjust in casethere hasbeen an unwitting repetition.repetition.suchas limiting the number of times speciflcwords. and to sit accordingly. 4 Group the studentsin sixesto enjoy listening to eachother's stories.your students as block when you ask them "v\hitethree sentences using thesewords'. Acknowledgements We found this activity in Michael Lewis(1993).Ask them to decidewhether t-Ileyprefer to work alone or in pairs. for example. tell them to make the sentences exactly elevenwords long. Comments Rules.even.

Linda. Gregory. Second edition. Words andhowwe learn. materials based on the Co| |i ns Cob u i Id. Examines twenty-six forms of word game including Scrabble and Spoonerisms. ASacredUnity: Further of StepstoanEcoTogt Mtnd. Bandler. Bateson. Allyn and Bacon. :992. it defines those predictable elements that make change happen in language-based transactions. London: HarperCollins. A second volume ofcollected essays.: Paladin Books. Experiences ofa teacher in New Zealand. The cultural and political power of words.WordsrntheMind: Introductionto the Mental LexiconSecond edition. Pau Io. Sheelagh and Mario Rinvolucri. Pearson. zooz. The second edition contains 'latest intelligences'. Grammar Patternsr Verbs.Letters. psychiatry. Aunique retrospective of the twentieth century providing insight into the development ofthe English language decade by decade.r nnotatedb i b l i o g a p h y An Aitchison. Peta Gray. evolution and much else that goes to make up Bateson's view of the mind as a network of interactions relating the individual with his society. r97z. t998. Gairns. describing their history and social context. OxfordGuidetoWord Garnes.London: Routledge. t963. Mo na. and vital resource. crosswords and chronograms.Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fre i re. Sheila Levy. Based on the the Cobuild corpus. Ayto.(in this series) Campbell. and find the ones we want.StepstoanEcologrof Mind. 7973. Oxford: Blackrvell. Gregory. Twentteth-Cenhtry Oxford: Oxford University Press. with around 5ooo new words and usages. Boulder. 2oo1. :'996. Sylvia. :998. and Dee cmd Dickinson. Delfer. :999.Teaching LearningThrough Second edition. Secker andWarburg. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ruth and Stuart Redman. Augarde. Addresses the need for a systematic approach to training in translation studies by exploring various areas oflanguage and relating the theoretical findings to the actual practice of translation. The author discussesthe structure and content of 'mental lexicon'. Teacher. understand. John. B i b l i o g r a p h y1 6 5 | . The flrst systematic theoretical treatment of vocabulary acquisition. r97s. the human word-store or London: Ashton-Warner.Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Subtitled'Language and therapy'. riddles and puns. Richard and John Grinder. t986. and Ma rio Ri nvof u qi. 1994. New York Multiple Intelligences. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Words. living. Bateson. Bruce Campbell. TheStruchtreof Magic. with remarkable insight into children's motivations to learn. remember. workable ideas based on Gardner's theories. ook Bake r. Usingthe Mother Tongue. t99t. Collected essaysin anthropology. Tony. Jean. Burbidge. in the context of adult literary prograrnmes. ETp-Delta. London: HarperCollins. Provides ideas and guidelines on when and how to use the mother tongue not just for convenience but as a real.Palo /Jto: Science and Behavior Books. Cultural Actionfor Freedom. Practical. In OtherWords: a Courseb on Translation. Workrngwith Words. Nicky. Co.

'have fun with and encourages learners to dictionaries'. Y ohtme z ChangingCouples. educators.(in this series) Makes learners aware of the wealth of information in most ELT dictionaries. TheDisciplined New York: What Nl Students ShouldUnderstand. r99o. and the general public alike. Jay. rggga. multiple intelligences approach to the teaching of mathematics. and Matthew J. Volume t Changinglndniduals. Ha Iey. Meara. Va. N.Dictionaries. Spolin worked with students and professionals in the theatre. Mass. A collection of essaysfiom the long-time editor of the magazine NewAge.Irnprovisation the Theatre. t997. Jon. Itbrings together a number of separate studies by the author. Conversationswith Milt on H. Knowfes. R.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.).First published in London. Strong. M ichael. A. The book explores the larger questions ofwhat an educated person should be and how such an education can be achieved. Wash. Yiola. Math for Humans:Teaching Math Through I Intelligences. and MJ. Lewis. The book's main principles are that language consists of grammaticalized lexis not lexicalized grammar. for London: Pitman. A progress report on how the theory of multiple intelligences has evolved since it was flrst set forth in Howard Gardner's 1983 bookFrcLrnes Mind. Nexandria. Simon and Schuster. Rowley.Hove: Language Teaching Publications.). memory training. Maine: Samuel Weiser.. 196g. McCarthy. Perini.). New York: Perigee Books/Putnam. A collection of 75 games to expand creativity and make you think. and enables the reader to learn these patterns of excellence. Cre e Growth GcLrnes. Wah f. The story ofaround zooo words and phrases prominent in the media or the public eye in the r98os and r99os. YorkBeach.1997. Discussesthe KeyWord approach.Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. O'Conno[ Joseph and John Seymour. Volume g Changing and Childr en and Families all explore Ericks on' s contribution to therapy as various kinds of linguistic intervention to bring about change.Spoken Langtage and Cambridge : Cambridge Applied Linguistics. Paul. lntroducing NLP. Mark. AWay andWays.Meaningand Method. ErickonVolumes r-3. Intelligence amed: Mullryle Intelligences the 27stCentury. 1998. rggg. :1996. Rationales and research-based principles of learning that support integrated learning to help educators process ideas and analyse their current practices. 1998. A synthesis of Gardner's ideas aimed at parents. An introduction to and many practical examples of using a broad. Stevick. materials and teacher training are discussed. Howard. Spof in. Rowley. Orage. Earl. Memory. TheLexical Approach.'Towards a new approach to modelling vocabulary acquisition' in Schmitt. r g 8S. SoEachMay Learn: lntegrattng Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. rg8o. : Livnlern Press. University Press. Silver. based on tlte cANcoDE spokencorpus. t999b.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. zooo.:Newbury House. t977. Acquisitionand Pedagogt. Michael. of Mind: Gard ner. TheOxford Dictionary of NewWords. 1999. includes instruments for identi$ring style and intelligence proflles. Particularly good as a survey ofviews on memory and vocabulary retention. Eu g e ne. McCarthy (eds. atfu Rau dsep p. gg9. 'new' An excellent suwey of methods in language teaching.Langley.London: HarperCollins. New York: for BasicBooks. Stevick. Mass. Wright. Gives a central role to the spoken language in the syllabus. Earl. Describes what good communicators do differently. Howard. Harvey F. r93o.Reft Gardner. OnLow andPsychologtrcal Exercises. 166| Bibliography .:NewburyHouse. (ed. Elizabeth (ed.Vocabulary: Desription. NewYork: Triangle Press. Practises reading skills.Richard W. but extended this to elementary and secondary educationfiom gifted students to children with severe learning disabilities. Methods.Second edition.

Oxford Oxford Phrasebuilder University Press.http'.ac.com FreeN Lexical etThesaurus: O Dictionary nline.com/thesa Crosswordsoftware ailty. Search software for the Bntish NationaTCorpus. queryengine.oup. [ee.freeserve. Compiler httpl lwww.crosswordCrossword puzzle-maker. C. Beresfo rd.wordreference. Ross.neVdhar risonlpuzzlesl utility. Visual aurus. Dodd.co.copern ic.colIi ns.u k/BNC Free trial available. http://devoted.ltd. Oxford English htto://www.genius2000. Henry. http://home. hcu.com/ GenLe. Scott. cD-RoM. Dictionariesand thesaurionline ANd CD-ROMS Collins bilingual dictionaries (Spanish. rjcw. dance. generalized search and query software.co.to/corpora Frequently updated corpus website reporting on new developments in corpora and concordance software. French): co http ://www.uk Text analysis and concordancing software used in a wide range ofsubject areas.com/elVglobal/cata logue/multi media Probably the most powerful.oed.cobui ld. Collocationaldictionary which integrates and web browser.ox.Crossword Casson. B i b l i o g r a p h y1 6 7 | . u com htt p://www. with your word processor g Thes Pfumb Desi n.l lwww.vis lt hesa rus. ou p. with concordances limited to ao hits. David. German. R. k 'Bank Offers a free trial use of a section of the of English'corpus. Will give you 5o hits fi:om the roo million-word British National Corpus.com Crossword Maestro.co. Wordsmith Tools.htm 6. J.u k or http://www. versatile and learner-centric corpus tools available. http://www.TEA& Symp uk http://bryson.com http://www. m/ lexf http://www.com Coyternic Powerful.Concordancesoftware and online resources CollinsCobuild u http://titan ia. Italian. Concor http://www. ua Roget'sThesaurus. Oxford University. Watts. uri http://www bartl eby. Utility. Tony. http://www. Humanitie s Computing Unit. n.freeuk. M i ke. World Edition. SAM-32.

6. prototypes 1o8.7. 8.s.5 translation 4.65 context 28 corpora3.6.2. 6. context a.165 sensorypreferences 9. 6.5.3.16 11.9.9 male words r.5. 7.z.8.2.9.6.t5 ambiguous words 4. 4. homonyms 4.8 gender r.a-4o.8.6.8. 7.65 Erickson.6.7.L. t55 collocation 3.11.6.8. r1.ra also memory (see association) t.9.8 multi-sensory4.L.8 conceptwords 6. 1.5. corpora 5. Language abstractvocabulary 6.4. 7.9 femalewords r.4. 6. 9.4.r4 ro.Gregory 8r.7. 6. 70.7o colour 6.8.6.Index are In the generalindexreferences to pagenumbers. 9.2.5.11.5.s concordances S.t2.9.4.7.5.7 crosswords 9.Z. 5.1. 82 Shereshevskiie54 wordflelds 7o1.5 foodvocabulary 7.8.6.8.ro 5. 1. t:.5 8..7.5.10.15. 6. 6.15.4.6.11.5.5 Topics also association(see memory) r.13 animals 6.8 verb phrases 5.4.81.2..8. 71. 7.2.t relaxation 6.78 learning styles 3. 8.42. 2.9.t6 168| Index . a1. 6.t4 kinaesthesic 5.4 dictation 4. 6.2.5.6. General index Aitchison.76 opposite meanings 7. r:. history ofwords 2. 2. 6.9..s.8 collocation s.ao.S.6.8.1.2 word order 4.9.2.5.165 association 7 Bateson.7 peer teaching 6.5 adjectives 6.5.S.7 learning by heart 2.11o.in the Topicsand Sometermsmay ate references to activity numbers.7.10.6.5 concordances 3.4. 2.3.6. 7. 9.ro.3.2 sensorypreferences 6.4.r.14..r prediction L1.5. Howard 81.7.3 email z.7 6.9.9.7.7.2. perception 6. Jean 11o.5 11.Caleb r+9 Intemet 11. 6.r auditory 61 6.3.4.9.7. 8r neurolinguistic programming (NLP) 3.6.2.12.8 homophones 4.6 visual 4.a2 2. 7.2.6. 11.j.6 parts ofspeech 4.2.:il^.8 prototypes 7. 71.17. ::l.r2.3 weather vocabulary 5.9.8..9.15.9. 70.8. Languageindexes in appear more than oneindex.2 synonyms 5. r3 lexico-grammar 3 memory 81 mother tongue 3.3. 2.2.5 spatial 6.9. 7.63.5 aL4. preflxes 9.L0.2-5..77.71r storytelling 2. ro perception 6.tt. trees 5. Milton 8r.t5.t3 categoriesof words 11.166 Gategno. 52 multiple intelligences 3. e3z Gardner.2 thesaurus ro.77.6.4.t4.8. 4.7r.8 word hierarchy 7.2 definitions 2.

materials.4 4 2 1 6 . practical and trainee teachers guidance keyaspects in oflanguage teaching. follow-up and activities. classroom management. preparation. Eachbookincludes an introduction and up to roo classroom ideas.19 . materials. variations. time. OXFORD ENGLISH r s B N0 . monitoring. and The activitiesareclearlypresented. This series trainers. and ofFer teachers all the information they needaboutappropriate level.RESOURCE B @ K SF O R TEACHERS series editor Alan Maley givesteachers.4 8 ililillti . techniques.

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