1. INTRODUCTION Have u ever been lost and wished there was an easy way to find out which way u needed to go? How about finding yourself out hiking and then not knowing how to get back to your camp or car? Ever been flying and wanted to know the nearest airport? Our ancestors had to go to pretty extreme measures to keep from getting lost. They erected monumental landmarks, laboriously drafted detailed maps and learned to read the stars in the night sky. GPS is a satellite based radio navigation system which provides continuous, all weather, worldwide navigation capability for sea, land and air applications. So things are much, much easier today. For less than $100, you can get a pocketsized gadget that will tell you exactly where you are on Earth at any moment. As long as you have a GPS receiver and a clear view of the sky, you'll never be lost again. Navigation in three dimensions is the primary function of GPS. Navigation receivers are made for aircraft, ships, ground vehicles, and for hand carrying by individuals. Precise positioning is possible using GPS receivers at reference locations providing corrections and relative positioning data for remote receivers. Surveying, geodetic control, and plate tectonic studies are examples. Time and frequency dissemination, based on the precise clocks on board the SVs and controlled by the monitor stations, is another use for GPS. Astronomical observatories, telecommunications facilities, and laboratory standards can be set to precise time signals or controlled to accurate frequencies by special purpose GPS receivers.


GPS, which stands for Global Positioning System, is the only system today able to show you your exact position on the Earth anytime. The Global Positioning System is a constellation of satellites that orbit the earth twice a day, transmitting precise time and position (latitude, longitude and altitude) information. Cavemen probably used stones and twigs to mark a trail when they set out hunting for food. The earliest mariners followed the coast closely to keep from getting lost. When navigators first sailed into the open ocean, they discovered they could chart their course by the stars. The next major developments in the

quest for the perfect method of navigation were the magnetic compass and the sextant. The needle of a compass always points north, so it is always possible to know in what direction you are going. The sextant uses adjustable mirrors to measure the exact angle of the stars, moon, and sun above the horizon. GPS is one of the most fantastic utilities ever devised by man. GPS will figure in history alongside the development of the sea-going chronometer. This device enabled seafarers to plot their course to an accuracy that greatly encouraged maritime activity, and led to the migration explosion of the nineteenth century. GPS will affect mankind in the same way. There are myriad applications that will benefit us individually and collectively. The technology evolved from, Mr. Marconi’s transmission of radio waves. This was applied for society during the 1920's by the establishment of radio stations, for which you only needed a receiver. The same applies for GPS- you only need a rather special radio receiver. Significant advances in radio were bolstered by large sums of money during and after the Second World War, and were even

more advanced by the need for communications with early satellites and rockets, and general space exploration. The technology to receive radio signals in a small hand-held, from 20,000kms away, is indeed amazing. Throughout the 1960s the U.S. Navy and Air Force worked on a number of systems that would provide navigation capability for a variety of applications. Disadvantages of other navigation systems Landmark: Only work in local area. Subject to movement or destruction by environmental factors. Dead Reckoning: Very complicated. Accuracy depends on measurement tools which are usually relatively crude. Errors accumulate quickly. Celestial: Complicated. Only works at night in good weather. Limited precision. OMEGA: Based on relatively few radio direction beacons. Accuracy limited and subject to radio interference. LORAN: Limited coverage (mostly coastal). Accuracy variable, affected by geographic situation. Easy to jam or disturb. SatNav: Based on low-frequency doppler measurements so it is sensitive to small movements at receiver. Few satellites so updates are infrequent. Many of these systems were incompatible with one another. In 1973 finally, the U.S. Department of Defense decided that the military had to have a super precise form of worldwide positioning. And fortunately they had the kind of money ($12 billion!) it took to build something really good. In short, development of the GPS satellite navigation system was begun in the 1970s by the US Department

of Defense. The basis for the new system was atomic clocks carried on satellites, a concept successfully tested in an earlier Navy program called TIMATION. The Air Force operated the new system, which it called the Navstar Global Positioning System. It has since come to be known simply as GPS. Why did the Department of Defense develop GPS? In the latter days of the arms race the targeting of ICBMs became such a fine art that they could be expected to land right on an enemy's missile silos. Such a direct hit would destroy the silo and any missile in it. The ability to take out your opponent's missiles had a profound effect on the balance of power but you could only expect to hit a silo if you knew exactly where you were launching from. That's not hard if your missiles are on land, as most of them were in the Soviet Union. But most of the U.S. nuclear arsenal was at sea on subs. To maintain the balance of power the U.S. had to come up with a way to allow those subs to surface and fix their exact position in a matter of minutes anywhere in the world. The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978 and a second-generation set of satellites ("Block II") was launched beginning in 1989. Today's GPS constellation consists of at least 24 Block II satellites. A full constellation of 24 satellites was achieved in 1994. The U.S. Air Force Space Command (AFSC) formally declared the GPS satellite constellation as having met the requirement for Full Operational Capability (FOC) as of April 27, 1995. Since then, the system has been taken into full use. In 1995 an agreement was made between the US-DOD and the US Department of Transportation regarding wide area broadcasts. With the modernized Block IIF satellites nearing launch—and the GPS III program now in its planning stages—the technology is poised to reach new levels of sophistication unimagined just a few years ago. GPS was originally intended for military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the system available for civilian use. After the downing of Korean Flight 007 in 1983 -a tragedy that might have been prevented if its crew had access to better navigational tools- President Ronald Reagan issued a directive that guaranteed that GPS signals would be available at no charge to the world. That directive helped open up a commercial market. Deployment of GPS continued at a steady pace through the 1990s, with growing numbers of civilian and military users. GPS burst into public awareness during the Persian Gulf War in 1991. GPS was used extensively during that conflict, so much so that not enough military-equipped GPS receivers were available. To satisfy demand, the Department of Defense acquired civilian GPS units and

temporarily changed GPS transmissions to give civilian receivers access to higher-accuracy military signals. When the system was created, timing errors were inserted into GPS transmissions to limit the accuracy of non-military GPS receivers to about 100 meters. This part of GPS operations, called Selective Availability, was eliminated in May 2000. The system's dominant roles are in intelligent transportation systems, telecommunications, and precision delivery of military munitions. Moreover, its use in supporting both critical civil infrastructure and military operations has received new attention since September 2001. The GPS signals are available to an unlimited number of users simultaneously, and there is no charge for using the GPS Satellites either. The Soviet Union also developed a satellite-based navigation system, called GLONASS, which is in operation today.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense that

continuously transmit coded information, which makes it possible to precisely identify locations on earth by measuring the distance from the satellites. The satellites transmit very low power specially coded radio signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time thus allowing anyone one with a GPS receiver to determine their location on earth. Four GPS satellite signals are used to compute positions in three dimensions and the time offset in the receiver clock. The system was designed so that receivers did not require atomic clocks, and so could be made small and inexpensively. The gps system consists of three pieces. There are the satellites that transmit the position information, there are the ground stations that are used to control the satellites and update the information, and finally there is the receiver that you purchased. It is the receiver that collects data from the satellites and computes its location anywhere in the world based on information it gets from the satellites.

Measurement from a fourth satellite now resolves the ambiguity as to which of the two points is the location of the receiver. The satellites also tell us exactly where they are in their orbits above the Earth. Measurement from a third satellite introduces a third sphere. the receiver knows it is also somewhere on the surface of a second sphere with radius equal to its distance from the second satellite. The fourth satellite point also helps eliminate certain errors in the measured distance due to uncertainties in the GPS receiver's timing as well. It works something like this-If we know our exact distance from a satellite in space. we know we are somewhere on the surface of an imaginary sphere with radius equal to the distance to the satellite radius. By measuring its distance from a second satellite. One of these is usually impossible. PRINCIPLE OF GPS The principle behind GPS is the measurement of distance (or "range") between the receiver and the satellites. it only receives data.com There is a popular misconception that a gps receiver somehow sends information to the satellites but this is not true. 4. the receiver must be somewhere along a circle which is formed from the intersection of the two spheres.101seminartopics. . and the GPS receivers have mathematical methods of eliminating the impossible location. Therefore. Now there are only two points which are consistent with being at the intersection of all three spheres.

101seminartopics.com .

the position of unknown point is determined with respect to another known point (base or reference station).  Again in GPS positioning there are two types   Static Kinematic In Kinematic differential positioning one receiver is at known station referred to as base/reference (stationery) while second receiver referred to as rover is moved .101seminartopics. the position of an unknown point is determined based on known positions of GPS satellites in space. TYPES OF POSITIONING  There are basically two types of GPS positioning   Single Point Positioning Relative Point Positioning Single Point Positioning is also known as autonomous or absolute positioning.com 5. Infact DGPS is a specific type of relative positioning. In this type. The term Differential Positioning (DGPS) is often used interchangeably with Relative Positioning. In Relative Positioning.

your GPS receiver would have no idea what the current time and date are. This part of the signal is essential to determining a position. In post processing. current date. 7.101seminartopics. Real time processing yields low accuracy as compared to post processing. ~Thus all GPS positioning can be classified as static or kinematic.com over path to be positioned. The almanac data tells the GPS receiver where each GPS satellite should be at any time throughout the day. observed data from all the receivers is processed using special software. real time or post processing. Without this part of the message. single point or relative. 6. as we’ll see in a moment. and time. Each satellite transmits almanac data showing the orbital information for that satellite and for every other satellite in the system. HOW GPS WORKS? .  Accurate positions in DGPS can be accomplished through two methods   Real time processing Post processing Real time processing requires a data link to transmit corrections from a base receiver to a rover receiver. Ephemeris data is constantly transmitted by each satellite and contains important information such as status of the satellite (healthy or unhealthy). INFORMATION IN A GPS SIGNAL The GPS signal contains ephemeris and almanac data.

and this message was sent at time Z. moving at the speed of light. The signals. GPS receivers passively receive satellite signals.101seminartopics.50 watts) allowing anyone with a GPS receiver to determine their location on earth. arrive at a GPS receiver at slightly different times because some satellites are farther away than others. they do not transmit. GPS operations depend on a very accurate time reference. glass and plastic but not through solid objects like buildings and mountains.S. my position is currently Y. The signals travel “line of sight”. Naval Observatory. "I'm satellite #X.com The satellites transmit very low power signals (20. Your GPS receiver reads the message and ." All GPS satellites synchronize operations so that these repeating signals are transmitted at the same instant. Each GPS satellite has atomic clocks on board. So GPS receivers require an unobstructed view of the sky. which is provided by atomic clocks at the U. smoke. Each satellite transmits a message which essentially says. they are used only outdoors and they often do not perform well within forested areas or near tall buildings. meaning it will pass through clouds.

101seminartopics. orbit with a period of 12 hours.com saves the ephemeris and almanac data for continual use. the receiver is generating the same code and tries to match it up with the satellites’ code.42 MHz  LINK2 or L2 = 1227. With four or more satellites.60 MHz Pseudo Random Number (PRN code) The pseudo-random code identifies which satellite is transmitting . and altitude. a GPS receiver can also accurately provide speed and direction of travel (referred to as 'ground speed' and 'ground track'). at a distance of 13000 miles. To determine your position the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received by the GPS receiver. GPS SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS The satellites transmit on two L-band microwave carrier frequencies  LINK1 or L1 = 1575. a GPS receiver can determine a 3D position. If we add distance measurements from a few more satellites.S. Then let’s say we are 12000 miles from another satellite. The distance to the GPS satellites can be determined by estimating the amount of time it takes for their signals to reach the receiver. The receiver then compares the two codes to determine how much it needs to delay (or shift) its code to match the satellite’s code. code. The satellites. Air Force. the receiver can determine a position. When the satellite is generating the pseudo random code. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away that particular satellite is (Range=travel time*velocity of light). Ground stations are used to precisely track each satellite's orbit. If we add a third satellite. we can triangulate our position. This is exactly what a GPS receiver does. With a minimum of three or more satellites.in other words. we now have two common points where the three spheres intersect. an I. 8. your GPS receiver can determine a latitude/longitude position . our location is some where on an imaginary sphere that has the satellite at the center with radius 11000 miles. longitude. Let’s say we are 11000 miles from one satellite. This gives the travel time.D. With this calculated position the exact location of the receiver can be pinpointed on a digitized map with the use of the proper GIS software tools. operated by the U. By continuously updating your position. Now that we have both satellite location and distance. Pseudo Random Number (PRN code) which is used to code . the second sphere would intersect the first sphere to create a common circle. which includes latitude.what's called a 2D position fix.

The C/A code is a repeating 1 MHz pseudo-random noise code.  coarse/acquisition (C/A) code  precision (P) code  Y-code The C/A Code (Coarse Acquisition) modulates the L1 carrier phase. The C/A code that modulates the L1 carrier is the basis for the civil SPS and is used primarily to acquire the P-code. ones. the P-Code is encrypted into the Y-Code. "spreading" the spectrum over a 1 MHz bandwidth. twos. GPS satellites are often identified by their PRN number.com the signal from that satellite is a string of numbers that would look random to anyone who do not know what the formula used to create it is.23 MHz rate) 10 MHz PRN code. The Navigation Message also modulates the L1-C/A code signal. The P-Code (Precise) modulates both the L1 and L2 carrier phases and so the P-code is available on both L1 and L2. This noise-like code modulates the L1 carrier signal. Good numeric distribution: If the formula is producing random numbers between 0 and 9. Characteristics of PRN code are –   No repetition: The sequence does not cycle around and repeat itself. system time and other system parameters. The precision (P) code is the principal navigation ranging code. etc. Each one-week segment of this code is unique to one GPS satellite and is reset each week. There is a different C/A code PRN for each SV. The C/A code repeats every 1023 bits (period of one millisecond. The Navigation Message is a 50 Hz signal transmitted by each satellite consisting of data bits that describe the GPS satellite orbits. In addition.023 MHz rate).101seminartopics. . Three pseudo-random noise ranging codes modulate the L Band carrier phase. that it produces should be roughly equal over a long period of time. The P (Y)-Code is the basis for the PPS. The P-Code is a very long (a period of 7 days. the unique identifier for each pseudorandom-noise code.  Lack of predictability: You have no way to predict what the next number will be unless you know the formula and the seed (the initial value). The C/A code is available on the L1 frequency. 10. The encrypted Y-Code requires a classified AS Module for each receiver channel and is for use only by authorized users with cryptographic keys. 1. the number of zeros. This allows the user set to find all satellites once the first has been acquired. clock corrections. an almanac is also provided which gives the approximate data for each active satellite. In the Anti-Spoofing (AS) mode of operation.

This travel time is also called the Time of Arrival. but with individual code assignments. the system provides a large margin of resistance to interference. The main purpose of these coded signals is to allow calculation of the travel time from the satellites to the GPS receiver on earth. 9.com The various satellites all transmit on the same frequencies. L1 and L2.101seminartopics. GPS ELEMENTS  GPS elements:    Space Segment Control Segment User Segment . Due to the spread spectrum characteristic of the signals. The travel time multiplied by the speed of light equals the satellite range (distance from the satellite to the GPS receiver).

the space segment of the GPS system.101seminartopics. The satellite orbits repeat almost the same ground track (as the earth turns beneath them) once each day. These 24 satellites (21 navigational satellites and 3 active spares) are in 6 circular orbits (with nominally four SVs in each).com Space Segment The GPS technology is based on the NAVSTAR (NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging) constellation composed of 24 satellites in space. equally spaced (60 degrees apart). There are often more than 24 operational satellites as new ones are launched to replace older satellites. at an inclination angle of 55 degrees. These satellites weigh 1900 lbs in .

travel at speeds of about 14.000 kilometres per hour or 8700 miles per hour with a 12hr period (precisely 11hr 58 min). you will still pick up the GPS satellites. What this means is you can receive satellite signals anywhere in the world. The satellites are generally allowed to "float" in their orbits and aren't rigidly held in position. These satellites provide 24-hour-a-day coverage for both two-and three. The satellites are high enough to bypass the problems encountered by land-based systems they space send wireless radio signals from Their configuration provides the user with between 5 and 8 space vehicles anywhere on the earth.dimensional .101seminartopics. with a position dilution of precision (PDOP) of six or less.000 kms above the earth's surface. It is at roughly 25. sometimes as many as 12.com orbit. In practice there are usually many more than this. at any time.000 kilometers from the earth's centre or 20. The NAVSTAR satellites can see from the northernmost and southern most parts of their orbits. The spacing of satellites in orbit is arranged so that under normal conditions a minimum of five satellites will be in view to users worldwide. The orbital paths of these satellites take them between roughly 60 degrees North and 60 degrees South latitudes. As you move closer to the poles.

5 days between corrections from the ground. Each satellite transmits on exactly the same frequency. The groups are designated as blocks. The first is for the standard positioning system (SPS). If solar energy fails (eclipse. When encrypted. several atomic clocks to accurately know the time. some information can be derived from the P code. automatically sending a code indicating that it is out of service.42MHz. They are powered by solar energy and each satellite is expected to last approximately 10 years. the block II satellite can detect certain error conditions. L1 (1575. It also contains a receiver to get update information. allowing for longer lifetimes in space. Each satellite contains a supply of fuel and small servo engines so that it can be moved in orbit to correct for positioning errors. L2 carries only the P code. They also continuously broadcast position and time throughout the world. with one sub-group. however. The block II satellites were the first fully functional satellites. They also have radiation-hardened electronics. which is 1547. In addition. including cesium atomic clocks for timing as well as the ability to implement selective availability. The SPS signal is at the L1 frequency.com positioning anywhere on Earth.) they have backup batteries on board to keep them running. SATELLITE SIGNAL: Each satellite transmits on two L band frequencies.6 MHz). The block I satellites were intended for system testing.42 MHz) and L2 (1227. The same navigation data message is carried on both frequencies. the P code is known as Y code. each satellites signal is doppler-shifted by the time it reaches the user. and photoelectric cells to power everything. A navigation data message is superimposed on these codes.101seminartopics. GROUPING: There have been three distinct groups of NAVSTAR satellites so far. a transmitter to send information to the gps receiver. The second one is for the precise positioning system (PPS). The L2 frequency carries the PPS signal and is at 1227.60MHz. The block IIa satellites are identical to the standard block II but . control hardware. The P code is normally encrypted so that only the C/A code is available to civilian users. Currently there are 27 total satellites in the sky and it is possible that there could be as many as 31 or 32. an antenna array to magnify the weak transmitter signal. Block II satellites can operate for 3. etc. With update control from the ground units it can maintain an essentially circular orbit around the earth. L1 carries a precise (P) code and a coarse/acquisition (C/A) code. The current series of GPS satellites broadcast data using two distinct signals of accuracy. however.

but is a vital part of the system. Then the information is formatted into updated navigation messages that are transmitted through ground antennas. Thus. The NAVSTAR control segment.com continue to operate for 180 days between uploads from the ground. collect and send information from the satellites back to the master control station that computes the precise orbits. This number is assigned in order of launch. and to detect equipment malfunctions. These satellites can operate for 180 days between uploads like the block IIa. This segment is usually unseen by the user. they can generate their own navigation information. The control segment is composed of all the ground-based facilities that are used to monitor and control the satellites.101seminartopics. The latest satellites. IDENTIFICATION NO: Each satellite has two identifying numbers. like ephemeris and clock data to the satellites. the block IIR versions. . The monitor stations track GPS satellites in view. The master station uploads the data which is necessary for proper operation of the satellite.S. The MCS receives data from the monitor stations in real time 24 hours a day and uses that information to determine if the satellites are experiencing clock or ephemeris changes. a master control station (MCS) and 3 uplink antennas. Air Force's 2nd Space Operations Squadron (2nd SOPS). With the modernized Block IIR and Block IIF satellites nearing launch—and the GPS III program now in its planning stages—the technology is poised to reach new levels of sophistication unimagined just a few years ago. called the operational control system (OCS) consists of 5 monitor stations. The MCS is located at Schriever Air Force Base (formerly Falcon AFB) in Colorado. Second is the Space vehicle (SV) number. which identifies the specific satellite hardware. Unlike the block IIa. include autonomous navigation. others by PRN. the accuracy of the system can be maintained longer between uploads. Control Segment It consists of a system of tracking stations located around the world. This is a unique integer number. The satellites send down subsets of the orbital ephemeris data. The third method to identify a satellite is by the Psuedo-random noise code number. Some receivers identify the satellites that they are listening to by SV. First is the NAVSTAR number. and is managed by the U. which is used to code the signal from that Satellite that would look random to anyone who does not know what the formula used to create it is.

The ground antennas are located at Ascencion Island. The GPS receiver figures both of these things out by analyzing high-frequency. the MCS maintains a 24 hour computer bulletin board system with the latest system news and status. These stations are able to track and monitor each satellite for 21 hours a day. velocity and time. the GPS receiver has to know two things: •The location of at least three satellites above you •The distance between you and each of those satellites. Ascencion Island. There are five passive monitor stations. so they can pick up signals from several satellites simultaneously. Hawaii. These passive monitor stations are nothing more than GPS receivers that track all satellites in view and thus accumulate ranging data from the satellite signals. The antenna facilities transmit to the satellites via an S-band radio link. then. along with routine maintenance commands are transmitted to the satellites by ground-based uplink antennas. Parallel receivers typically have five to twelve receiver circuits. located at Colorado Springs. land and airborne operators to receive the broadcast. resulting in 2 periods of 1. The information calculated by the MCS. User segment GPS 72 handheld rxr The user segment is composed of GPS receivers composed of processors and antennas that allow for sea. A total of 4 satellites are required to compute these calculations. Most modern receivers are parallel multi-channel design. There are several remote monitor stations. Diego Garcia and Kwajalein. In order to make this simple calculation. The receivers convert space vehicle signals into position. The monitor stations send the raw data back to the MCS for processing.5 hours when the satellite is on the other side of the earth out of reach for that ground station. Better units have multiple receivers. which send their information to the master control station.com New navigation and ephemeris information is calculated from the monitored signals and uploaded to the satellites once or twice per day. In addition to its main function. Diego Garcia and Kwajalein. low-power radio signals from the GPS satellites. The civilian contact for this is the United States Coast Guard’s (USCG) Navigation Center (NAVCEN).101seminartopics. each devoted to .

the receiver can give you several pieces of valuable information: •How far you've traveled (odometer) •How long you've been traveling •Your current speed (speedometer) •Your average speed • A "bread crumb" trail showing you exactly where you have traveled on the map • The estimated time of arrival at your destination if you maintain your current speed 10. but were limited in their ability to continuously receive signals in the toughest environments. One channel can be collecting the data from one satellite while the other two channels are locking in on the satellites where the next measurements are going to come from. A standard GPS receiver will not only place you on a map at any particular location. velocity and time are needed for marine. because they can instantly switch to the next satellite's data. and it is more accurate than a one channel receiver. Another benefit to this type of receiver is that it can track up to eight satellites. terrestrial & aeronautic applications. then it can devote one channel to each of the four satellites at the same time. but will also trace your path across a map as you move.com one particular satellite at all times. Position. so if one satellite is blocked. if there is any movement of the receiver while it is collecting the four measurements. Also. it can switch to another one. the accuracy of those measurements will be affected. If it does. this kind of accuracy is not needed. If you leave your receiver on. GPS SERVICES  GPS provides two services   SPS-Standard Positioning Service PPS-Precise Positioning Service . then the receiver has to have at least four channels. the three channel receiver is more economical than a four channel receiver. so some receivers have only one channel. This type of receiver doesn't waste time between measurements. Most of the time. A compromise that is used quite often is the three channel receiver.101seminartopics. Thus. it can stay in constant communication with GPS satellites to see how your location is changing. If you want to have continuous real-time position measurements. Parallel channels are quick to lock onto satellites when first turned on and they are able to receive the satellite signals even in difficult conditions such as dense foliage or urban settings. With this information and its built-in clock. Older single-channel designs were once popular. One of the problems with this type of receiver is that it doesn't always do a good job of monitoring velocity.

"You are 625 miles from Boise. and Allied military and U. it is very helpful to understand the concept of trilateration. but it is not really that useful by itself. nonFederal Government. The SPS accuracy is intentionally degraded by the DOD by the use of Selective Availability.S. Federal Government users.7 meters vertically and time transfer accuracy to UTC within 200 nanoseconds.S. Idaho. PPS will be made available to U. like this: . which contains a coarse acquisition (C/A) code and a navigation data message. both domestic and foreign." This is a piece of information. PPS The Precise Positioning Service is a highly accurate military positioning. PPS will be the data transmitted on the GPS L1 and L2 frequencies. 11. worldwide basis with no direct charge. SPS will be provided on the GPS L1 frequency. civil use of PPS. It will be denied to unauthorized users by the use of cryptography. "Where am I?" and the person says to you. worldwide basis to users authorized by the U.com SPS The Standard Positioning Service is a positioning and timing service. You could be anywhere on a circle around Boise that has a radius of 625 miles. GLOBAL POSITIONING Geometric View In order to understand how the GPS satellite system works. Let's look at an example to see how trilateration works. Let's say that you are somewhere in the United States and you are TOTALLY lost -you don't have a clue where you are. which will be available to all GPS users on a continuous. SPS provides a predictable positioning accuracy of 100 meters horizontally and 156 meters vertically and time transfer accuracy to UTC within 340 nanoseconds. will be considered upon request and authorized on a case-by-case basis. PPS was designed primarily for U. velocity and timing service which will be available on a continuous. You find a friendly-looking person and ask.S. military use. Limited.P (Y) code capable military user equipment provides a predictable positioning accuracy of at least 22 meters horizontally and 27.S.101seminartopics.

if you combine this information with the Boise information. "You are 690 miles away from Minneapolis. you can determine .com If you know you are 625 miles from Boise. you have two circles that intersect. but you don't know which one. Arizona. you can figure out which of the two points you are at: With three known points. So you ask another person." This is helpful . and he says. You now know that you are at one of two points.101seminartopics. like this: If you know you are 625 miles from Boise and 690 miles from Minneapolis. you could be anywhere on this circle. then you know you must be at one of two points. Minnesota. If a third person tells you that you are 615 miles from Tucson.

Colorado! With three known points.Distance to a satellite is determined by measuring how long a radio signal takes to reach us from that satellite(transit time or TDOA-Time Difference Of Arrival). Measuring Distance : 1.com that your exact location is somewhere near Denver. .By comparing how late the satellite's pseudo-random code appears compared to our receiver's code. The heart of a GPS receiver is the ability to find the receiver's distance from 4 (or more) GPS satellites. already known locations. the receiver can calculate its exact location and altitude on Earth! If the receiver can only find three satellites. 2. we determine how long it took to reach us. 3. you can see that you are near Denver. You also need 4 spheres instead of three circles to find your exact location.101seminartopics. This same concept works in three dimensional space as well. it has to determine two things:   The location of at least three satellites above you The distance between you and each of those satellites The gps receiver measures the length of time the signal takes to arrive at your location and then based on knowing that the signal moves at the speed of light it can compute the distance based on the travel time. This is the transit time. then it can use an imaginary sphere to represent the earth and can give you location information but no altitude information.To make the measurement we assume that both the satellite and our receiver are generating the same pseudo-random codes at exactly the same time. For a GPS receiver to find your location. Once it determines its distance from the four satellites. The geometry behind this is very easy to understand in two dimensional space. Colorado! Trilateration is a basic geometric principle that allows you to find one location if you know its distance from other. but you're dealing with spheres instead of circles. 4.Multiply that travel time by the speed of light and you've got distance.

this distance would be the distance to the satellite. what would happen if we were to acquire the information from a fourth satellite? We should expect that it would show us to be at exactly the same point we just computed above. The receiver multiplies this time by the speed of light to determine how far the signal traveled. Now we know we are somewhere on the circle that is described by the intersection of the two spheres. The receiver begins running the same digital pattern. A more basic question is. let's say midnight. "How does the gps know the travel time(TDOA) so that it can compute the distance?" The satellite sends the current time along with the message so the gps can subtract its knowledge of the current time from the satellite time in the message (which is the time that the signal started its descent) and use this to compute the difference. By acquiring the same information from a second satellite we can compute a second sphere that cuts the first one at a plane. Now. . also exactly at midnight. If we know approximately where we are we can discard one of those points and we are left with our exact fix location in 3D space. The length of the delay is equal to the time of the signal's travel. One way to solve the problem would be to put extremely accurate and synchronized clocks in the satellites and the receivers. The satellite begins transmitting a long digital pattern. If the signal traveled in a straight line. armed with the satellite location and the distance from the satellite we can expect that we are somewhere on a sphere that is described by the radius (distance) and centered at the satellite location. as part of its signal at a certain time. But what if it isn't? Before we can answer that question we need a little more background. Measuring the time would be easy if you knew exactly what time the signal left the satellite and exactly what time it arrived at your receiver. called a pseudo-random code. If we acquire the same information from a third satellite we would notice that the new sphere would intersect the circle at only two points. and solving this problem is key to the Global Positioning System. When the satellite's signal reaches the receiver.101seminartopics. its transmission of the pattern will lag a bit behind the receiver's playing of the pattern.com Now.

"XX". you would need to have atomic clocks not only on all the satellites.com The only way to implement a system like this would require a level of accuracy only found in atomic clocks. Let's say that we are four seconds from receiver A and six seconds from receiver B. We will add another measurement to our calculation. which makes them a little too expensive for everyday consumer use! The Global Positioning System has a very effective solution to this problem . This would seem like the right location. but satellite C's reading will be nowhere near that. because that is where all three measurements intersect. The receiver looks at all the signals it is receiving and uses calculations to find both the exact time and the exact location simultaneously. Pretend that it's a little fast.000. Let's say that we are eight seconds away from satellite C. then all three circles would intersect at X. then we will still have satellites A and B intersecting. the two circles would intersect at a different point.000 and $100. The little computers in the GPS receivers are . Atomic clocks usually cost somewhere between $50. To make a GPS using only synchronized clocks. If we use the receivers that are a second fast. because we would have no way of knowing otherwise using just our calculations.a GPS receiver contains no atomic clock at all.101seminartopics. Just keep in mind that in real-life GPS is in three dimensions. If we add the third measurement where the clocks are one second off. but it's consistent. we're going to talk in two dimensions. Let's assume that our receiver clock isn't perfect. If all of the receivers are working properly. so "X" is where we really are (keep in mind that it would take three points in three dimensions). but also in the receiver itself. To simplify our explanation. This is because the time measured in these calculations amounts to nanoseconds. It has a normal quartz clock.

as illustrated above. by adding another measurement. we will need a fourth measurement to cancel out any clock errors. using the clock it is equipped with. the computer "discovers" the amount of time it needs to subtract to find where all of the points intersect. electromagnetic signals travel through a vacuum at the speed of light. Since the receiver makes all of its time measurements. For this reason. By trimming the times. and therefore its distance measurements. and so on. .101seminartopics. on the order of the actual atomic clocks in the satellites! So we will then have a good position fix and as a side effect we will also have the correct time to about 200 nanoseconds or so. The earth. This allows it to adjust its clock to adjust its measure of distance. is not a vacuum. the distances will all be proportionally incorrect. One problem with this method is the measure of speed. Four spheres of this sort will not intersect at one point if you've measured incorrectly. Thus. they realize something is wrong. a GPS receiver actually keeps extremely accurate time. we can cancel out any consistent clock error the receivers may have. To move into three dimensions. you can draw four spheres that all intersect at one point. so they start subtracting (or adding) the same amount of time off of each receiver's time.com programmed so that when they get a series of measurements that cannot intersect. The receiver can therefore easily calculate exactly what distance adjustment will cause the four spheres to intersect at one point. the angle at which the signal enters it. The satellites can also transmit additional information to the receiver. and its atmosphere slows the transmission of the signal according to the particular conditions at that atmospheric location. of course. They assume that their receivers are off. When you measure the distance to four located satellites. A GPS receiver guesses the actual speed of the signal using complex mathematical models of a wide range of atmospheric conditions. One of the applications of gps technology is to provide the correct time even when we don't care about our position. There are twenty-four satellites placed around the earth so that four measurements can be taken from any place on earth. The need for four measurements has had a huge impact on how GPS receivers are designed. As we saw earlier.

For example a gps can compute the travel direction (compass heading) by comparing current location to previous location. Good receivers will calculate the relative angles between satellites and pick the readings where the measurements will be best. Depending on the distance between the two satellites. we can either have a small box or a very long and large box. Because we now know that any measurement from a satellite isn't totally accurate all the time. While this sounds really complicated. The area created by the intersection of the two circles makes a little box. The receiver clock is not top quality. we can say that we are located somewhere in the box. Mathematical View . Maintaining the fix means that we need to continuously recalculate the information based on the moving satellites. which reduces (and in some cases totally minimizes) the GDOP error. The closer the angle of the satellites to one another. almanac data to figure out the approximate positions of all the satellites. In addition to the data already mentioned the unit uses Doppler data from the moving satellites. This term deals with the fact that the measurement from one satellite will be better than the reading from another. Similarly the gps can keep track of travel distance. a GPS receiver will take into account a subtle principle of geometry called "Geometric Dilution of Precision" (GDOP). we will let the distance of the satellite be represented by a fuzzy line. This would cause a major error—the uncorrected reading is called a pseudo range.101seminartopics. it's not. Therefore. Once we have a number of fixes we can derive much more information than just location data. and ephemeris data download directly from the satellite that can be used to compute its position in the sky. Because of the uncertainty due to error. The problem is that the receiver clock is not perfectly in sync with the satellite clock. the larger the box will be. and the military intentionally dithers the satellite clock and coordinates. This view is simplified. compute speed. it is better to get a reading from satellites with a wider angle.com To get the best possible measurement. record travel time and other valuable data.

Ys. Uz are the positions we are trying to find. X. R is the approximate (pseudorange) distance from the receiver to the satellite. . Z. Uy.com Another way to understand the operation of a gps system is to look at the math that goes into calculating a position. Therefore we need 4 equations to solve for the 4 unknowns. R=c(T-dT). Y. From Pythagoras we have: R + Es = sqrt{(Xs .Ux)^2 + (Ys .Uy)^2 + (Zs. Zs are the satellite positions that can be calculated from ephemeris information sent from each satellite.Here T is the transit time and dT is the time error at the receiver. Since we know how fast radio signals travel -. This is the reason that the unit requires an estimate of our current location to compute our position. Mathematically this is a standard least squares problem.101seminartopics.we can figure out how far they've traveled by figuring out how long it took for them to arrive. A GPS receiver measures the amount of time it takes for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver. Transit time is the time taken by the signal to reach the receiver. The terms Xs. and dT. These include such things as troposphere and ionosphere errors. Since we can calculate the pseudorange and satellite positions independently and we can factor in modeling information from hardcoded data we are left with four unknowns. about 186. The Es term is a lump sum of all the modeling errors considered by the gps. Once we have the delta's down to an acceptable level we have a solution.they are electromagnetic waves and so (in a vacuum) travel at the speed of light.Uz)^2} Where Ux. One approach is to use guesses of our current position to calculate delta's from what we would expect and then iterate towards a converged solution.000 miles per second -. clock errors from the satellite and any other error the gps receiver thinks is significant enough to model.

user’s position So there are four equations and four unknowns.transit time of the signal dT-time error at the receiver U.the output. In addition to the 3 positions and time they have added the Doppler data dx. and the time error dT at the receiver is then calculated (see figure). R. Y. The user’s position. Four equations will . (Ux.com The four satellites’ ephemeris data provide the satellite’s X.101seminartopics. and dz which represents the relative speed between the satellite and the receiver. is the receiver measurement made by calculating the time it took for the signal to reach the receiver. Uz). dy. R . Uy. Z . and Z positions. In actual practice a receiver calculates a set of equations with 7 unknowns.the positions coordinates of the satellite. These terms are needed because our solution is based on moving objects and dx and dy can be used as part of the receiver velocity calculation (dz is discarded). The range. Four equations are: (X1-Ux)^2+ (Y1-Uy) ^2+ (Z1-Uz) ^2= (R1 +E1) ^2 (X2-Ux)^2+ (Y2-Uy) ^2+ (Z2-Uz) ^2= (R2 +E2) ^2 (X3-Ux)^2+ (Y3-Uy) ^2+ (Z3-Uz) ^2= (R3 +E3) ^2 (X4-Ux)^2+ (Y4-Uy) ^2+ (Z4-Uz) ^2= (R4 +E4) ^2 X. Y.the measure range =C(T-dT) C -velocity of em signal T .

The GPS receiver simply stores an almanac that tells it where every satellite should be at any given time. (This may have to be done after the initial position is computed as part of the refinement step if the internal clock isn't accurate.) 5. The satellites are far enough from the Earth (11.com compute a full 3D solution but new 12 channel units can use additional satellites to perform an overdetermined solution that will offer more accuracy. (If the internal clock is close this can be done once. As satellites move out of view or get blocked from the receivers view by buildings. Repeat these steps for each available satellite. Older multiplex units pick the best 4 satellites based on their DOP. Sync with an available satellite and download the navigation information. ionosphere data. Calculate the pseudorange data and then correct for ionosphere and other modeling errors. otherwise it will have to be repeated after the receiver position is computed. More Detail on Calculating a Receiver Position The steps involved in calculating a position are: 1. trees. Correct using differential data if available. Calculate the exact satellite position. and other objects the receiver will switch to other satellites to maintain a location fix. and predictable orbits. This will include both the elevation and azimuth data so we can apply troposphere modeling corrections that are dependent on how far above the horizon the satellite is. 2. Correct the SV position for earth's rotation based on the time it takes for the signal traversal using the pseudo range data. This isn't difficult because the satellites travel in a very high. Things like the pull of the moon and the sun do change the satellites' orbits very slightly.) If the differential station is near the gps receiver it will be able to skip the corrections for modeling errors since .000 miles) that they are not affected by our atmosphere. These include clock information. but the Department of Defense constantly monitors their exact positions and transmits any adjustments to all GPS receivers as part of the satellites' signals.101seminartopics. (Note that consumer units may not compensate for ionosphere or tropospheric errors. Finding the Satellites The other crucial component of GPS calculations is the knowledge of where the satellites are. Convert the messages to internal format for calculation.) 4. and ephemeris (orbit) data. If the number of tracked satellites drops to three then a 3D solution is no longer possible and the receiver will use the last available altitude and compute a 2D fix for horizontal position. 3.

which . These receivers can be commanded to take the two constants. Altitude is also corrected for geoid height prior to display. Spread spectrum technology enables low-powered satellites to produce signals that can be detected at very low received-signal levels. Each Block IIR satellite contains three Rb atomic clocks. Calculate the initial receiver position as described in the prior section. 6. etc.S Naval Observatory. Essentially. 13.com this is part of the correction data available. 12. Refine the position based on additional satellites and the correct time to obtain a 3D fix and subsequently improve the fix based on choosing SV's with a better DOP. Satellite clocks Each Block II/IIA satellite contains two cesium (Cs) and two rubidium (Rb) atomic clocks. 9. 8. of a second. SPECTRUM SHARING Each of the 24 satellites transmits a set of signals using spread spectrum technology. The system time is referenced to the Master Clock (MC) at the USNO from which system time will not deviate by more than one microsecond. GPS time information GPS time is given by its Composite Clock (CC). 7. The CC or "paper" clock conforms to all Monitor Station and satellite operational frequency standards.101seminartopics. This precision timing is important because the receiver must determine exactly how long it takes for signals to travel from each GPS satellite. or three billionths. applying an over determined solution.000000003. A0 and A1. Master Clock) can be made automatically by most timing receivers. the carrier signal is modulated by a unique coding sequence. A direct reference to UTC (U. Using dgps corrections leads to accuracy considerably beyond the capability of a standard receiver. Convert the data based on whatever datum and grid system you have chosen and display the answer on the position page.that's 0. GPS TIME INFORMATION Satellites are equipped with very precise clocks that keep accurate time to within three nanoseconds . from the NAV message for a linear extrapolation to the USNO MC. Add in the leap seconds and time offset from UTC time to the computed time data and converts it for display.

a GPS receiver searches that spectrum looking for a match. 14. but not to a point where it undermines the requirements for personal navigation. under real conditions. However. GPS ACCURACY The accuracy of a position determined with GPS depends on the type of receiver. better the accuracy. SA will hamper very precise positioning accuracy. The SA process induces an error. timing errors were inserted into GPS transmissions to limit the accuracy of non-military GPS receivers to about 100 meters. there is always some degree of error. 15.101seminartopics.g. longitude. the SA-induced error is presently a fact of life in each position calculation. using data from more than four satellites can mitigate that error.  Ionosphere and troposphere delays The GPS assumes that signals will be traveling between satellite and receiver is . the location is precisely and accurately determined. Several signals are transmitted over the same spectrum. Fortunately. Other types of receivers use a method called Differential GPS (DGPS) to obtain much higher accuracy. altitude and time) can be calculated. When the system was created. DGPS requires an additional receiver fixed at a known location nearby. The signal can then be "unspread" and decode. Under ideal conditions. but using distinctly different coding. Observations made by the stationary receiver are used to correct positions recorded by the roving units. ERRORS IN GPS With simultaneous data received from four satellites. This part of GPS operations. one’s position (e. Despite the opportunity for error. positioning can be calculated to within a few hundred feet or less in most cases. called Selective Availability. Most hand-held GPS units have about 10-20 meter accuracy. however. More the number of satellites visible. Using a replicated code sequence.com has the effect of spreading the signal’s frequency spectrum. was eliminated in May 2000. latitude. Nevertheless. Errors can be caused by  Selective Availability or SA The degradation applied by the US DOD to the satellite signal. producing an accuracy greater than 1 meter.

The signal will actually be delayed upon going through the ionosphere and troposphere. The GPS specification for minimum detectable signals renders reception marginal when the signal is attenuated by foliage. Denser the foliage. the receiver must be able to detect signals whose power has been attenuated to a level of about 5 percent of the initial level.  Signal attenuation Non-restricted GPS signals are transmitted at 1. Such signals are blocked by steel and concrete structures (e. a microwave frequency.g. particularly in urban automobile navigation applications. or the ground. the receiver must provide sensitivity that exceeds the current standard. and attenuated by passing through trees and leaves. 16. and the distance from the satellite will also seem to be longer (see figure 2).  Receiver clock errors Since it is not practical to have atomic clocks in the receiver.  Orbital errors Also known as ‘ephemeris errors’. DGPS .101seminartopics. This can produce location errors that are unacceptable. receivers that just meet this specification are not reliable for use in forests or even tree-lined streets. more marginal the signal. a tall building). To ensure being able to detect signals in a forest.com in a straight line. the time delay will be longer. these are inaccuracies in the satellite’s reported position. buildings and tunnels). the receiver timing references will have some small error.g.575 GHz.  Multipath error Multipath error can produce very large deviations. Because the path is not straight. Multipath is caused by satellite signals that arrive at the receiver after having bounced off some nearby structure (e. As such. For example.

A reference receiver. 17.  FM-transmitters with RDS The use of this system is relatively simple. With it. because a simple FM-receiver can be designed and build for use with this system. It becomes a universal measurement system capable of positioning things on a very precise scale. They can operate for . DETAILS OF THE NAVSTAR CONSTELLATION Block I Satellites The Block I satellites were built by Rockwell International. therefore the use of this system is a good option for cheap use of DGPS.com The idea behind all-differential positioning is to correct bias errors at one location with measured bias errors at a known position. those errors common to both the reference and remote receivers (not multipath or receiver noise). Differential position accuracies of 1-10 meters are possible with DGPS based on C/A code SPS signals.101seminartopics.  Long wave services Next to public DGPS services there is a possibility to use a signal created by a private company. Differential GPS or “DGPS” removes common-mode errors.  Long wave transmitters with AMDS For the AM frequency band a RDS system was designed also. The stationary receiver is the key. GPS becomes more than just a system for navigating boats and planes around the world. to improve the control over flight traffic. computes corrections for each satellite signal. called AMDS. one that's stationary and another that's roving around making position measurements. It does require a small number of DGPS transmitters. or base station. for use with their equipment only. The low cost is an advantage and several airports. Errors are more often common when receivers are close together (less than 100 km). It ties all the satellite measurements into a solid local reference. That improved accuracy has a profound effect on the importance of GPS as a resource. The range of an AM-transmitter is much larger. Differential GPS involves the cooperation of two receivers. The receiver used gets extra information through:  A local support signal This option can only be used for professional applications.

51 cm long and 7 cm in diameter. Block II Satellites The Block II satellite is designed to provide reliable service over a 7. Block IIR Satellites The block IIR satellites feature autonomous navigation. The elements are approx. approx. Dimensions for the inner and outer ring launchers have identical dimensions. The inner ring. The elements are hollow cylinders. The improved Block II antenna provides slightly greater gain than the Block I antenna. with 90% of the power supplied to the outer array. 62 cm long but are tapered over the remaining 13 cm. the system would at least still be operational. That is. approx. Block IIA Satellites The Block IIA satellites are essentially identical to the standard block II with one exception. the satellites will continue to transmit the same navigation message for up to 180 days. In the event the ground stations are unable to upload new navigation information. The launchers for both inner and outer rings are 25 cm long cones. This antenna configuration results in a "dimpled” pattern. The satellite design requires minimal interaction with the ground and allows all but a few maintenance activities to be performed without interruption to the signal broadcast. has the remaining eight elements in an octagon configuration. Periodic uploads of data from the control segment cause no disruption to service. The elements are composed of. 44 cm in radius. The outer ring.05 cm thick fiberglass. ANTENNA SUBASSEMBLY The L-band antenna array on the Block I satellite is composed of twelve elements arranged in two concentric rings.101seminartopics. The launchers for the inner elements are approx. This pattern is designed to supply even power across the face of the earth. The orbit of the satellite will change over this period of time. The inner and outer rings are fed 180 degrees out of phase with each other. 19 cm tall. The satellites were built by General Electric Astrospace. approx. the accuracy of the system will degrade over time. Without periodic navigation updates from the ground. ANTENNA SUBASSEMBLY The L-band antenna array on the Block II satellite is also composed of elements arranged in two concentric rings.5 days between navigation message uploads from the ground. while the launchers for the outer rings are approx. 15 cm in radius has four equally spaced elements. Each of the elements protrudes from a 15 cm diameter launcher.com 3.5 year life span. 26 cm tall. However. they can create .

but here it is on a web page maintained by William Roth. The system is so advanced. Monaco currently uses the Carin Navigation System. Using an infrared remote control.I don't know who makes SAT TRAK IV yet.SAT TRACK is a real time satellite tracking and orbit prediction program for UNIX/Linux platforms running color X-windows. The 10 most recent destinations are stored automatically. Each disk contains detailed travel information with highways. The system also features a personal destination memory that can store up to 100 of your favorite destinations. which incorporates the use of a software package consisting of seven CD-ROM disks.S. SAT TRAK IV.com their own navigation messages without uploads from the ground. the GPS directs you with turn-by-turn verbal and visual guidance. The system allows you to select your destination in several different ways. The positioning system works with software disks that provide geographic information about different areas of the country. the delivery of verbal instructions is even timed to your vehicle speed. If your . The company provides navigational software to a majority of the GPS manufacturers in the U. You can use either the on-screen keyboard function. or if you prefer. It's for IBM PC compatibles. Activating the system is easy. The system can even help you avoid tolls and construction by offering alternate routes. allowing users to travel cross country without the need of additional disks. museums and other areas of interest. Each disk is equipped with the entire United States interstate highway system. simply enter your destination and select your preferred route. This allows the system to maintain system accuracy for much longer periods between contacts with the ground. N7RYW. via highway. local streets and points of interest for a particular region.Once your destination is entered. Software SAT TRACK. locate the destination with the on-screen map and cursor.101seminartopics. or you can call up the destination from the system’s CDROM The CD-ROM includes map information as well as destination categories such as restaurants. whether it be the shortest distance. The software was developed by a California-based company by the name of Navtech. a more scenic route.

making it easy to find your way. more generalized view. The system also allows you a variety of views of your traveling area.101seminartopics. The graphics illustrate all the surrounding streets at each junction. hospitals and a variety of other points along the way. the instructions are delivered earlier.GPS APPLICATIONS  GPS in the air GPS offers an inexpensive and reliable supplement to existing navigation techniques for aircraft. You can zoom in tightly for close-ups of museum locations. Visual guidance is provided by detailed graphics showing upcoming intersections and the direction in which you should travel. or you can zoom out for a broader. or . through a LCD screen. 18. giving you enough time to move to the correct lane to prepare for a turn or exit Above: monitors. An example of a few menu screens you might see on your GPS The system shows your vehicles position on a full-color. Civil aircraft typically fly from one ground beacon. scalable map.com vehicle’s speed increases.

featureless expanses of sand. Railroads are using GPS technology to replace older. GPS helps motorists find their way by showing their position and intended route on dashboard displays. Geologists use GPS to measure expansion of volcanoes and movement along fault lines.  Military Uses for GPS With GPS. The user of the GPSsystem uses the satellite system to locate where he/she is. to another. GPS receivers were carried by foot soldiers and attached to vehicles. Picture the desert. reducing response time. the soldiers are able to go places and maneuver in sandstorms or at night when even the troops who lived there couldn’t. artillery fire etc. With GPS. helicopters. It is used on satellites to obtain highly accurate orbit data and to control spacecraft orientation. GPS has improved efficient routing of vessels and enhanced safety at sea by making it possible to report a precise position to rescuers when disaster strikes. Police and fire departments can use GPS to dispatch their vehicles efficiently. and with the help of a CD-rom or another large database that contains the GIS-map the car's computer is able to calculate the exact position of the car. Scientists . Biologists can track animals using radio collars that transmit GPS data. Ecologists can use GPS to map differences in a forest canopy. A GPS-based navigation system will increase the number of airports that are able to help a well-equipped plane to land in lowvisibility conditions. Delivery trucks can receive GPS signals and instantly transmit their position to a central dispatcher. and aircraft instrument panels. In the near future in the USA it will even be allowed to use GPS as the primary form of navigation. Pilots on long distance flights without GPS rely on navigational beacons located across the country. Geographers use GPS to define spatial relationships between features of the Earth's surface.  GPS in scientific research GPS has made scientific field studies throughout the world more accurate and has allowed scientists to perform new types of geographic analyses. an aircraft's computers can be programmed to fly a direct route to a destination. with its wide. It is used also for troop deployment.101seminartopics.  GPS in sea GPS is a powerful tool that can save a ship's navigator hours of celestial observation and calculation. GPS has become important for nearly all military operations and weapons systems.  GPS on land Everyone who has the proper equipment can use it. The savings in fuel and time can be significant.com waypoint. maintenance-intensive mechanical signals.

 Every Day Life During construction of the tunnel under the English Channel.com use GPS for a wide range of applications. It can keep track of orchard costs. The GPS system allows orchardist's to accurately keep records of chemical applications. GPS also allows for the fine-tuning of orchard management techniques for the grower. With GPS we would be able to help ships avoid icebergs by zeroing in on their position and notifying the ship of the location and possibly bypass a disaster. thus offering better and faster service.  Applications for your business By use of GPS an insurance company will be able to track down a stolen vehicle in every situation. record and track yields. Otherwise. to the delivery point using GPS and GIS. which is extremely important where the government is concerned. the tunnel might have been crooked. The captain of a ship can use GPS to directly locate his ship. the location of the explosion can be determined.101seminartopics. By measuring the time delay of arrival of the flash at several satellites. A transport company which has GPS installed enables her drivers to take the shortest route. They relied on GPS receivers outside the tunnel to check their positions along the way and to make sure they met exactly in the middle. Several of the GPS satellites carry background Xray radiation detectors to provide an accurate record of the X-ray environment around the earth. Scientific analysis that formerly had to be conducted in a laboratory can now be done quicker and easier in the field. British and French crews started digging from opposite ends: one from Dover.  Surveying and map making with GPS Surveying that previously required hours or even days using conventional methods can be done in minutes with GPS. This flash can be seen by the X-ray flash detectors on several satellites. one from Calais.  Monitor Nuclear Explosions Nuclear explosions emit an X-ray flash lasting less than 1 microsecond.  Set Your Watch! Because GPS includes a very accurate time reference. the system is also widely . For a transport company using boats for transport.  GPS for Horticulture In orchards. avoiding traffic jams. GPS can be of excellent use to locate a ship with a specific cargo. France. GPS is used mainly for orchard mapping or electrical mapping. England. and also the use of a beacon to locate a drowning person is a good option for use of GPS.

to provide continuous. worldwide positioning and navigation data to US military forces around the globe. There is an intermediate category of receivers which allow relatively precise positioning without being excessively costly. COST OF THE SYSTEM This remarkable system was not cheap to build.000 FF or 30. which measure pseudo-range and phase data on only one of the two wavelength. Development of the $10 billion GPS satellite navigation system was begun in the 1970s by the US Department of Defense. its your tax money that paid for it)So we could just break out a GPS receiver. Acquiring data only on the frequency with the higher signal/noise ratio. that would not only tell us where we are in position coordinates (latitude/longitude). There are no subscription fees or set up charges to use GPS. adds to the cost of the system. The capability is almost unlimited. streets and more. at a price as less as $300. Now everyone gets to enjoy the benefits of GPS. put the batteries in and dive right into the fun! . 19.101seminartopics. weighing less than a pound. On the opposite.GPS actually predates the introduction of the personal computer. but would even display our location on an electronic map along with cities. Ongoing maintenance.The designers originally had military application in mind. dual frequency receivers able to measure both pseudo-range and phase data on both carrier waves cost up to 150. an executive decree in the 1980s made GPS available for civilian use also. those receivers are built with relatively cheap electronic. GPS receivers can display time accurate to within 150 billionths of a second. (Well. Those are the single frequency receivers. Amazingly . Its designers may not have foreseen a day when we would be carrying small portable receivers. which continues to manage the system.000 USD.com used for timekeeping. Fortunately. including the launch of replacement satellites. A commercial receiver used for navigation purposes will be able to measure only the coarse pseudo range distances coded on one of the two frequencies. Such receivers are available from 1500 FF or 300 USD. There are no subscription fees or set up charges to use GPS.

There will probably be a time soon when every car on the road can be equipped with a GPS receiver. GPS navigation is becoming more common everyday. The only way you can record where you have been. There are myriad applications that will benefit us individually and collectively. the sun is hot. or find your way back to civilization. is by using the almost magic power of your GPS receiver. Systems as amazing as this one are already being tested on highways in the United States. Using a GPS receiver. CONCLUSION Imagine being an archaeologist on an expedition to the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. GPS is rapidly changing the way people are finding their way around the earth. Or let's suppose you are an oceanographer for the International Ice Patrol. you are certain that somewhere close by are the ruins of villages once populated by Mayan Indians. GPS will figure in history alongside the development of the sea-going chronometer. The indash monitor will be a full-color display showing your location and a map of the roads around you. saving lives. It will probably monitor your car's performance and your car phone as well.com 20. perhaps averting disaster. getting there faster or whatever use you can dream of. Whether it is for fun. including a video screen installed in the dashboard. They are a major threat to the ships that travel those waters. and led to the migration explosion of the nineteenth century. You may be responsible for finding icebergs that form in the cold waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. you are able to help ships avoid disaster by zeroing in on the position of the icebergs and notifying ship captains of their locations. The forest is dense. This device enabled seafarers to plot their course to an accuracy that greatly encouraged maritime activity. and more than 300 of them form every winter. References . GPS will affect mankind in the same way. Some of these icebergs are 50 miles long.101seminartopics. and the air is humid. After preparing for your trip for months.

com .net http://www.com http://www.com http://groups.com WebPages.com http://colorado.com/group/gpsu/ http://garmin.com http://www.amazon. http://www.101seminartopics.AllGPS.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps http://trimble.sirf.gpsinformation.yahoo.

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