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Report Lays

Report Lays

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Lay opened a snack food operation in Nashville. and a barbecue version of the chips appeared on grocery shelves. he purchased the Atlanta. a company owned by PepsiCo Inc.W. and Sun Chips. Shortly thereafter." Sales of the chips became international. Shortly thereafter. Lay's went national in its marketing and was soon supplying product throughout the United States. Frito-Lay merged with the Pepsi-Cola Company to form PepsiCo. In 1942. the company introduced the "Wavy Lays" products to grocer shelves. In 1961. Georgia potato chip manufacturer "Barrett Food Company.. a snack food giant with combined sales of over$127 million annually. Lay's modified its barbecue chips formula and rebranded it as "K. A new formulation of chip was introduced in 1991 that was crisper and kept fresher longer. The business shortened its name to "the Lay's Company" in 1944 and became the first snack food manufacturer to purchase television commercials. salesman Herman W." Lay criss-crossed the southern United States selling the product from the trunk of his car. kettle cooked brands appeared as did a processed version called Lay's Stax that was intended to compete with Pringles. the largest of any manufacturer.since 1965." renaming it "H. Frito-Lay products currently control 59% of the United States savory snack-food market. Other brands in the Frito-Lay group include Fritos. Masterpiece. Tennesseeand. Doritos. resulting in the first large-scale production of the product. and the company began introducing a variety of additional flavour variations. Lay's chips are marketed as a division of Frito-Lay. In the mid to late 1990s. in 1938. Lay introduced the first continuous potato processor. "so crisp you can hear the freshness. the Frito Company founded by Elmer Doolin and Lay's merged to form Frito-Lay Inc.Rold Gold pretzels. with marketing assisted by a number of celebrity endorsers. and introduced a lower calorie baked version and a variety that was completely fat-free (Lay's WOW chips containing the fat substitute olestra). In the 2000s.[2] 2 .C. Lay & Company." named after a popular sauce. Ruffles. History n 1932. with Bert Lahr as a celebrity spokesman. Inc. Lays introduced its best-known slogan "betcha you can't eat just one. Cheetos. His signature line. In 1965." became the chips' first slogan along with "de-Lay-sious!" As the popular commercials aired during the 1950s.INTRODUCTION Lay's (known as Walkers in the UK and Ireland) is the brand name for a number of potato chip (crisps) varieties as well as the name of the company that founded the chip brand in 1932.

In Israel. The logo for the British version is notably similar to the American brand. After Thin's was sold to Snack Brands Australia (Owned by Arnotts). In Australia. Bollywood superstar Saif Ali Khan and Indian cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni endorse Lays. Salt & Vinegar. The other Frito-Lay brands are also distributed through the Walkers label. It controls around 80% of the market there. In Canada. In India. 3 . Lays was commercialized before 2001 with the name Frenchitas and Chizitos for the Cheetos. featuring a red ribbon around a yellow sun. Lay's Super Chips (Heinz Ketchup/Mexican Pepper/Perfect Pickles/Salt 'n' Pepper [all through Delhaize) and Lay's Baked Chips (Mediterranean Herbs/through Delhaize). The logo for the Mexican company sports the red ribbon. Thins is still sold in Australia as a direct competitor to Smith's Crisps. Lay's are manufactured. the famous singer Sébastien 'Angel' De Sousa from the Arthur Crew is sponsored by Lay's corp. In Mexico.L. Walkers flavours include Cheese & Onion. Lay's was once sold with its own label until it was merged with the local label Chipsy ( ). de R. the Lay's label is distributed with the name Tapochips ( ' ) Walkers is a snack food manufacturer In France. Doritos and Ruffles are marketed under the Sabritas brand. Lay's Light and Lay's Sensations (Thai Sweet Chili/Red Paprika/Oven Roasted Chicken and Thyme). in 1966. Smith's produced a line of potato chips under the Lay's brand for a brief period of time. Ready Salted. As with Doritos. Smith's Food Group. Fritos. Walkers also makes Sensations branded crisps in the UK. The Lay's line was eventually rebranded in 2004 as Smith's Crisps. distributed and imported in Germany by Frito Lay's Benelux division. but it has a stylized smiling face instead of the sun. In Argentina. using the nameThins. In Egypt. the chips are distributed through the Lay's label. while the traditional Smith's line was renamed Smith's Crinkles. In the Netherlands Lay's are sold in three varieties: Lay's. PepsiCohas owned the Walkers crisp label in the United Kingdom since 1991 and distributes Lay's product via this brand name. Pepsico acquired Sabritas S. Pepsico acquired The Smith's Snackfood Company in 1998 and marketed Frito-Lay products under that label. Lay's along with other products such as Cheetos.International in the United Kingdom best known for manufacturing crisps.

Vrei si tu? (Lay's Romania) meaning "Want some?" Lay's MAX . Lays changed their logo.. Smith's Food Group.More for me.. México..want some?' (Russia)    4 . can you?" Lay's. chips are distributed under a Lay's sister-company. Several flavors as noted above are only available through Delhaize (Belgian supermarket chain)] which has opened 2 locations in Cologne and Aachen (Delhaize Germany locations. As with Doritos. It is similar to the previous one. Want some? Betcha can't eat just one. Lagi bet! 'You can't eat just one . (2009) That's another reason to smile! (2007) Food for the fun of it! (2007) Lay's. Lay's are manufactured. Simply Good. better for me! (Romania) ' ?' meaning 'Lay's . Chile and Argentina) meaning "You can't eat just one.  In September 2007. Want to bet!'(Lay's India) 'Har programme ka main food' 'The main food for every programme' (Lay's India) 'No one can eat just one' (Lay's India) ¿A que no puedes comer solo una? (Lay's Spain. distributed and imported in Germany by Frito Lay's Benelux division. Lay's Flavors Benelux).[available in Cologne/Aachen only through the German locations of Delhaize).In Germany. Lay's Super Chips (Heinz Ketchup/Mexican Pepper/Perfect Pickles/Salt 'n' Pepper [all through Delhaize) and Lay's Baked Chips (Mediterranean Herbs/through Delhaize). (2009) Simply Made. (1960s-2006) ! (Nobody can eat just one) (Lay's Greece) Lays'ini payla (Lay's Turkey) 'Lay's Ka Mazaa Lo' 'Enjoy Lay's' (Lay's Pakistan) 'You can't eat just one . Peru. Lay's Light and Lay's Sensations (Thai Sweet Chili/Red Paprika/Oven Roasted Chicken and Thyne .. In Brazil. but with more of a 3D look and the letters 'a' and 'y' connected. Elma Chips. Lay's are sold in three varieties: Lay's. get your smile on! (2006-) Lay's. The bags themselves were also redesigned.  SLOGANS               Happiness is Simple.

Japanese Teriyaki Chicken. Curry. Additionally. Flavors included in the 2010 promotion are: Spanish Chicken Paella.      Kart paragav s negali sustot! (Lithuania) meaning "Once tasted you can't stop!" (Lay's China) meaning "Joy that cannot be stopped!" Lay's. French Garlic Baguette. Salt & Pepper. The company also sells Baked Lay's and Lay's Stax across the country. Kérsz? (Hungary) meaning "Want some?" ! (Israel) meaning "So natural you can not control yourself!" É impossível comer um só! (Brazil) meaning "It is impossible to eat just one!" Be a little Dillogical(India) Flavors Except for barbecue-flavor potato chips. 5 . Salt & Vinegar. Curry and Ginger. Dill Pickle. which were introduced no later than 1958. Wavy Original. Poutine. Scottish Haggis. Irish Stew. American Cheeseburger. the original is still the selection of 81% of consumers. Australian BBQ Kangaroo. Food and Drug Administration allowed removal of warnings about various health consequences of the fat substitute. Lay's also launched Cheddar & Sour Cream and BBQ Rib as limited time flavors in summer 2010. up until the last 20 years. Salsa. The following Lay's flavors are available nationally in Canada: Classic. beef & onion. while Old Fashioned Bar. Limón. Barbecue. Greek kebab and Marmite. and Masala. Italian Spaghetti Bolognese. Flavored products in the traditional fried varieties include Sour Cream & Onion.Q is available in Eastern Canada and Quebec. English Roast Beef and Yorkshire Pudding. Walkers also runs a 'Nations Flavour' promotion that the public vote for the flavor they like the best.B. Despite many new flavors. Salt & Vinegar. Flamin' Hot. Dutch Edam Cheese. South African Sweet Chutney. and a thicker "Deli style" chip. The WOW! brand was rebranded in 2004 as Lay's Light after the olestra formula was altered and the U.S. Sour Cream & Onion. Hidden Valley Ranch. the only flavor of potato chips had been the conventional one. Roast Chicken Lightly Salted. Roast Chicken. in addition to the classic chips. Smokey Bacon. Europe There are a number of unique products in the United Kingdom sold under the Walkers label. Argentinian Flame Grilled Steak and Welsh Rarebit. including prawn cocktail. Cheddar & Sour Cream.B. Ketchup. Bar. Brazilian Salsa. Ketchup. Dill Pickle.Q. Sea Salt & Pepper. Pizza. The previous winner of this promotion was Builders Breakfast. Fries & Gravy are available in Atlantic Canada. German Bratwurst Sausage. Wasabi.[1] North America In the United States. Lay's offers a number of flavor combinations.

Thai Sweet Chili. and Balsamico). barbecue and sour cream & onion varieties. Lay's Max and Lay s Sticks flavors are: Paprika and Salt. There is also the Lays Apettite flavor of Cheese and Onion. South America 6 . Paprika. Barbecue. Cheese. Tzatziki. Australia Under the Smith's label in Australia. and Just Paprika (Bell Pepper)). Sour cream & Cheese. Italian Tomato & Basil. and Salted/Natural). Original. There are hundreds of sub-variations in the Mediterranean line adjusted to each country's liking. 66 Babi Pangang'). unique flavors include Greek Feta & Herb. 'Lay's from the Oven' flavors of Rock Salt and Grilled Paprika and lastly the '4 Pory Roku' ('4 Season of the Year') which change flavor every Season. Baked chicken with lemon and thyme. resulting in three new flavours being produced. with one of them becoming the winner (the three new flavours being 'Mango Red Chilli'. Paprika (Bell Pepper). and Finest Sea Salt). ranch and Au Gratin flavors while Lay's Stax offers original. In Romania the Lay's flavors are Salt. Paprika (Bell Pepper). and Lay's Thai Sweet Chili) In the Netherlands the following flavors are marketed: Lay's (Naturel (Natural). Ham & cheese flavors) and some international "Lay's" flavors plus Russian specific flavors. and Barbecue Ham (Barbecue Bacon)) Lay's Super Chips (Salt'n Pepper. Olive and Tomato. The Lay's Natural includes thick cut barbecue and sea salt brands. Sour cream & Onion. and Paprika). the Lay's Sensations flavors are: Thai Chili. after voting. in which people can enter a competition to suggest new flavours. pizza and salt & vinegar. Oregano. and cilantro exist. Sour Cream & Dill. All 3 key Lay's brands are distributed with 2 flavors for each brand. Russia has "Lay's MAX" chips (Chicken. Cheese Onion. sour cream & onion. In addition. Paprika. Hot green peppers and fromage. In the baked products. In Poland the chips flavors are: Green Onion. Lay's Sensations (Red Sweet Paprika. The kettle cooked version includes original. Bolognese Original. Mexican Peppers & Cream. ranch. Lay's Light (Natural. Lay's Sensations (Red Sweet Paprika. mesquite barbecue and jalapeño brands. In Belgium there is a Cucumber and Goats flavour. there are classic. hickory barbecue. and Japanese Teriyaki). Lays started a new campaign in 2010 in the Netherlands. Wavy Lay's have original. sea salt & vinegar. with Mediterranean flavors which include Feta cheese flavor. Lay's is also present in the German market. Cheddar. Sea Salt & Black Pepper and various more. Lay's Light (Paprika. barbecue. 'Patatje Joppie' and 'Nr.In Greece and Cyprus. and. Lay's are made and packed by Tasty Foods and Corina Snacks LTD. Chicken with Spices. and Lay's Finest (Mixed Pepper & Sea Salt. including Mushroom & Sour cream and Crab & Red caviar. as follows: Lay's (Natural.

Pakistan. and Stax (Authentic Original. some of the Lay's flavored products are sold with the "Lay's Mediterraneas" label. Cherry Tomato.vitamin C is the highest. Lasagna. Seafood and Mayonnaise. Spicy Seafood. Blueberry. and French Chicken). A one ounce (28 gram) serving of Lay's regular potato chips has 160 calories and contains ten grams of fat. Salt content is particularly high. Soy Sauce. Sour Cream & Onion. Intense & Stimulating (Numb & Spicy Hot Pot. with a serving containing as much as 380 mg of salt. Olive Oil and Tomato. Asia One flavor sold primarily in southern Asia is called "Magic Masala". Nutritional information As a snack food. Seafood Barbecue. Classic Flavors (American Classic. Bacon & Cheese (America). and Sour Cream and Onions versions. Texas Grilled BBQ. Cheese & Onion. and include such flavors as Ham. Thai Chili Paste. Garlic Soft Shelled Crab (Hong Kong). In Thailand there are Classic. Squid. Cucumber. and Smoked Manchego Cheese. Mexican Bar-B-Q. Blueberry.5 grams 7 . Crispy Roasted Chicken. Basil. Chili and Lime. Stax typically contain ten grams of fat. Black Pepper Rib Eye Steak. Beside Magic Masala. such as French Mayonnaise. Spicy Chili Squid. Olive Oil and Parmesan Cheese. Salmon Terriyaki (Japan). Olive Oil and Basil. Balsamic Vinegar and Salt (England). with flavors like Andean cheese. Chile there are Lemon and Cilantro. and Japanese Nori Seaweed. Temporary international flavors have also been introduced. Flavors popular in India are "American Style Cream and Onion" and "Spanish tomato tango". Kiwi. Kettle cooked brands have seven to eight grams of fat and one gram of saturated fat but are 140 calories. Lays Natural has nine grams of fat. Peru also has the Lay's Dips brand. Kiwi. and Spicy Seafood. Finger Licking Braised Pork. two grams of saturated fat and 150 calories. and Bangladesh. Flavors featured in Thailand include Nori Seaweed. which includes a Peruvian Criollo Chili sauce sachet. This flavor is very popular in India. Beef Carpaccio with Parmeggiano. Lobster. 2. the Lay's brands contain very few vitamins and minerals in any variety. Mexican Tomato Chicken."World Classic Salted" is available as well. Peru has Lay's Sabores Peruanos" (Lay's Peruvian Flavors). and Lime). Tomato. Greek Tzatziki Cheese with onions. with one grams of saturated fat. Lay's China has four ranges of flavors: Cool & Refreshing (Cucumber. Thai Seafood Dip. Italian Red Meat.In some countries such as Argentina and Uruguay. At ten percent of the daily requirement per serving. and Hot & Sour Fish Soup). Other traditional "Thai" flavors include Tom Yum. and Lime).

feature 1. There are many flavors of Baked Lays as well. The various brands do not contain any trans fats. BRAND AWARENESS Measurement driven conceptualization Brand awareness means the extent to which a brand associated with a particular product is documented by potential and existing customers either positively or negatively. at best. A more complete understanding of the brand can occur if multiple measures are used.saturated fat and are 160 calories per serving. This is because family 8 . due to catastrophic events to the brand. such as a wide product recall or continued negative press attention (Blackwater or Halliburton. All of these calculations are. brand awareness has influence on buying behaviour of a buyer. PR. and original. the greater the probability that the company will use a family branding strategy rather than an individual branding strategy. Wavy Lays are identical to the regular brand except for a half-gram less of saturated fat in some combinations. Each serving has 110 to 120 calories. approximations. Colloquially. A brand equity is the positive effect of the brand on the difference between the prices that the consumer accepts to pay when the brand known compared to the value of the benefit received. Lay's Classic Potato chips were cooked in hydrogenated oil until 2003. Creation of brand awareness is the primary goal of advertising at the beginning of any product's life cycle in target markets. Lay's Light servings are 75 calories per ounce and have no fat. individual branding strategies The greater a company's brand equity. The brand-related negative intangible assets are called brand liability . compared with brand equity [11]. The baked variety.[2] Currently. the term "negative brand equity" may be used to describe a product or service where a brand has a negligible effect on a product level when compared to a no-name or private label product. the chips are made with sunflower and/or corn oil. barbecue. A second perspective is that negative equity can exist. for example). introduced in the mid 90's. and have no saturated fat. Family branding vs. sour cream and onion. Baked Lays are produced in Cheddar. and promotion. hypothesizing only positive brand equity is created by marketing activities such as advertising. In fact.5 grams of fat per one ounce serving. One perspective states brand equity cannot be negative. There are two schools of thought regarding the existence of negative brand equity.

"Aided recall" measures the extent to which a brand name is remembered when the actual brand name is prompted. product or service class. soft-drinks. an empiricalstudy appeared to put this debate to rest by suggesting that all awareness metrics were systematically related. awareness. simply reflecting their difficulty. in the same way that certain questions are more difficult in academic exams [1].as above. Brand awareness can be measured by showing a consumer the brand and asking whether or not they knew of it beforehand. but only the first brand recalled is recorded (also known as spontaneous brand recall). in common market research practice a variety of recognition and recall measures of brand awareness are employed all of which test the brand name's association to a product category cue. this came about because most market research in the 20th Century was conducted by post or telephone. Some researchers divide recall into both "unaided" and "aided" recall. However. Aspects of brand equity includes: brand loyalty.   Research on metrics There has been discussion in industry and practice about the meaning and value of various brand awareness metrics. and perception of quality. association. that is. Brand recall Brand Recall is the extent to which a brand name is recalled as a member of a brand. or any whisky brands he may know.Either the brand name or both the brand name and category name are presented to respondents. This has led many textbooks to conceptualise brand awareness simply as its measures.g. Recently. Top of mind awareness . Brand recall . Common market research usage is that pure brand recall requires "unaided recall".branding allows them to leverage the equity accumulated in the core brand. An example of such a question is "Do you know of the "Honda" brand?" 9 . knowledge that the brand is a member of a particular product category. actually showing the brand to consumers usually required more expensive face-to-face interviews (until web-based interviews became possible). Examples of such measures include:  Brand recognition . e. as distinct from brand recognition.the product category name is given to respondents who are asked to recall as many brands as possible that are members of the category. For example a respondent may be asked to recall the names of any cars he may know.

in marketing. For example. companies want to look for high levels of unaided recall in relation to their competitors. BRAND LOYALTY Brand loyalty. a lack of viable alternatives. In the case.[2] Such loyalty is referred to as "spurious loyalty". Brand Recognition Brand Recognition is the extent to which a brand is recognized for stated brand attributes or communications In some cases brand recognition is defined as aided recall .In terms of brand exposure. Logo and tagline testing can be seen as a form of brand recognition testing. as it has the first chance of evaluation for purchase. however. or out of convenience. and can bring new customers to the firm. Customers may repurchase a brand due to situational constraints (such as vendor lock-in). if a product name can be associated with a certain tagline. The first recalled brand name (often called "top of mind") has a distinct competitive advantage in brand space. As 10 . is usually the 'rate' of usage. they may cost less to serve. if Joe has brand loyalty to Company A he will purchase Company A's products even if Company B's are cheaper and/or of a higher quality. From the point of view of many marketers. True brand loyalty exists when customers have a high relative attitude toward the brand which is then exhibited through repurchase behavior. "Just do it" . brand recognition is the extent to which a brand name is recognized when prompted with the actual name.[1] This type of loyalty can be a great asset to the firm: customers are willing to pay higher prices.Nike) a certain level of brand recognition is present. in this context. A broader view of brand recognition is the extent to which a brand is recognized within a product class for certain attributes. loyalty to the brand is a key factor: Usage rate in terms of consumer usage Most important of all. 20 percent of users accounting for 80 percent of usage and of suppliers' profit).[1] Brand loyalty is more than simple repurchasing. consists of a consumer's commitment to repurchase or otherwise continue using the brand and can be demonstrated by repeated buying of a product or service or other positive behaviors such as word of mouth advocacy.and as a subset of brand recall. Kotler's 'heavy users' are likely to be disproportionately important to the brand (typically. to which the Pareto 80-20 Rule applies. logo or attribute (safety and Volvo.[3][4] For example.

they target 'heavy users'. Split Loyals . again. suppliers often segment their customers into 'heavy'. While choosing a brand name. Reliance and Dhirubhai Ambani Brand association is anything which is deep seated in customer s mind about the brand.a result. defines four patterns of behaviour: 1. 'medium' and 'light' users. Film Stars as with Lux . signature tune Ting-ting-ta-ding with Britannia. Blue colour with Pepsi. It is related with the implicit and explicit meanings which a consumer relates/associates with a specific brand name. looking for something different). Switchers . Shifting Loyals . is whether the customer is committed to the brand. and superior engineering. 11 . Philip Kotler. It is relating perceived qualities of a brand to a known entity. Brand associations are the attributes of brand which come into consumers mind when the brand is talked about. Hard-core Loyals . Most popular brand associations are with the owners of brand. For instance. Nokia sound.who buy the brand all the time. Brand should be associated with something positive so that the customers relate your brand to being positive.with no loyalty (possibly 'deal-prone'.Bill Gates and Microsoft.loyal to two or three brands. however. 4.moving from one brand to another. constantly looking for bargains or 'vanity prone'. but are images and symbols associated with a brand or a brand benefit. 3. it is essential that the name chosen should reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that forms it s product positioning. fun driving. BRAND ASSOCIATION Brand Associations are not benefits.The Nike Swoosh. Brand associations are formed on the following basis: Customers contact with the organization and it s employees. such as .Power book.Hyatt Hotel is associated with luxury and comfort. 2. etc. Associations are not reasonsto-buy but provide acquaintance and differentiation that s not replicable. BMW is associated with sophistication. Brand association can also be defined as the degree to which a specific product/service is recognized within it s product/service class/category. Loyalty A second dimension. For example. For instance . as far as they can.

12 . POP ( Point of purchase) displays. types of clothes to be washed. in part because it is a perception and also because judgments about what is important to customers are involved. etc PERCIEVED QUALITY Perceived quality can be defined as the customer's perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service with respect to its intended purpose. Perceived quality is. needs. After all. or services included c) Manufacturing quality: conformance to specification.Advertisements. cleaning action. Product class/category to which the brand belongs. and so on that may not match those of all customers. Word of mouth publicity. and preferences. first. Products and schemes offered by competitors. features. It thus differs from several related concepts. customers differ sharply in their personalities. Price at which the brand is sold. An evaluation of washing machines by a Consumer Report expert may be competent and unbiased. Celebrity/big entity association. the "zero defect" goal Perceived quality cannot necessarily be objectively determined. a perception by customers. but it must make judgments about the relative importance of features. such as: a) Actual or objective quality: the extent to which the product or service delivers superior service b) Product-based quality: the nature and quantity of ingredients. Quality of the product. relative to alternatives.

requires recognizable brand associations in the mind of customers. Extended identity: Our planet program for environment. How-ever. emotional. or in other words the brand image. INDENTITY PERSPECTIVE Core identity: unique taste and high quality for health conscious people which satisfies hunger. These associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise to customers from the organization members. corporate awards. See figure 14 13 . To drive positive brand association that customers know and trust.innovation and up-to-date trends integration.a unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain.Perceived quality is an intangible. 2007:99). the identification and measurement of the underlying dimensions will be useful. it usually will be based on underlying dimensions which include characteristics of the products to which the brand is attached such as reliability and performance. without a discrepancy in the brand elements. 1996:68) Brand identity represents how the brand wants to be perceived. The way a brand is perceived by its customers is key to it success. overall feeling about a brand. or self-expressive benefits. strong cultural heritage of quality . it leads brand image and is situated on the sender's side. but the perceived quality itself is a summary. For that the brand identity is one of the main drivers for brand equity.. global construct. To understand perceived quality. purpose and meaning for a brand.. is therefore always on the receiver's side (Kapferer. The brand perception. empowering suppliers. Brand identity should help establish a relationship between the brand and the customer by generating a value proposition involving functional. BRAND IDENTITY PERSPECTIVE According to Aaker brand identity provides strategic direction. Aaker defines brand identity as: "." (Aaker.

2000:82&118). BRAND AS PERSON Brand as a person is a perspective as if the brand was a human being. brand managers are forced to shift their perspective from product to organization attributes. visibility and presence can contribute significantly towards value propositions and customer relationships.3. BRAND AS SYMBOL Brand as a symbol can capture almost anything that represents the brand. Aaker addressed two dimensions within this group (Aaker. perceived quality. Attributes as CRM. 14 . innovation. Aaker addressed six dimensions within this group (Aaker. 2000:78-82). Symbols are very strong if they involve a recognizable. Aaker addressed two dimensions within this group. For that reason it is described in next paragraph 2. Brand personality is a very distinctive brand element and extensively used in many brand equity models. BRAND AS ORGANIZATION By looking at the brand as an organization. A strong symbol can fulfil an important and even a dominate role in brand strategy.BRAND AS PRODUCT The product related attributes will by nature have an important influence on brand identity due to the fact that they are linked to user requirements and product experience. Aaker addressed two dimensions/three types within this group.4. meaningful and trustful metaphor. These are less tangible and more subjective.

VALUE PROPOSITION Value proposition is an offer that describes the quantifiable benefits that individuals or organizations making an offer promise to deliver. One such model[1]. It is also a positioning of value. Offering: which product or service are being offered? 4. costs and value that an organization can deliver to its customers.[citation needed] 15 . Its development is based on a review and analysis of the benefits. Contents 1 Models 2 Strategy and marketing 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Models There are multiple models for creating a value proposition. and cost. proof. and other constituent groups within and outside the organization. Value experience or customer experience: what does the market value most the effectiveness of the value proposition depends on gathering actual market data. Alternatives and differentiation: what alternative options does the market have to the product or service? 6. 3. where Value = Benefits / Cost (cost includes risk)[1]. impact. prospective customers. Market: for which market is the value proposition being created? 2. Proof. the Value Proposition BuilderTM for creating a value proposition includes six stages of analysis containing questions that should be addressed: 1. Neil Rackham believes that a value proposition statement should consist of four main parts: capability. Benefits: what are the benefits the market will derive from the product or service? 5.

Mad includes frustrated. Or." (How often have you been frustrated in a research project when someone responds to 16 . etc. annoyed. your choices increase. lighter weight or improved safety. Some products offer speed. distressed. as you move past functional benefits only. advanced technology. these products are easily differentiated by their brand s functional benefits. there are various gradations. raging. there is little product differentiation yet a multitude of brands are available. For many categories. Differences in product features are often referred to as functional benefits.. soft tip or fountain pen. gloomy. In other product categories where functional benefits aren t easily identifiable or differentiated. Of course. Let s look at an example. FUNCTIONAL BENEFIT You can t drive emotional benefits to the bank. your first choices are likely based upon functional benefits: ballpoint. At an even simpler level. marketers often rely on an additional set of influencers called emotional benefits or self expressive benefits. we can choose from an astounding array of brands. EMOTIONAL BENEFIT An "emotion" is best defined as a state of physiological arousal to which we attach a cognitive label. As a purchaser in today s marketplace. This additional set of influencers is where branding gets real traction. scared and sad. Some of the ways that organizations use value propositions include in marketing communications material or in sales proposals. You can buy brands at a premium price point that offer emotional and self expressive benefits. but you can bank on emotional benefits. you often need a pen.e. are consistent.[3] value propositions are internal documents. Sad includes disappointed. we either feel "good" or "bad. glad. In selecting a pen. used by organizations as a blueprint to ensure that all the messages they communicate. the value proposition statement and template) to external audiences. roller ball. inside and outside the organization. Many marketers immediately try to create a value proposition based entirely upon the brand s functional benefits. bitter. heart broken. As a business person. You can buy any of these pens at a low price point from a variety of brands. combinations and shades of gray regarding all of the four core feeling states. There are only four core emotions " mad.The creation of a value proposition is considered a work of strategy[2] and organizations do not directly communicate the outputs of the value proposition creation process (i.

own a unique position in the mind of consumers. package sizes. these brands offer excellent lessons for brand builders outside the youth market who want to take advantage of consumers' ever-increasing desire for lifestyle-oriented brands and brands that deliver self-expressive benefits.) makes someone "feel" is only minimally useful. Coca-Cola. It is the "emotional benefit" and not the raw "emotion" that is most informative. skateboarding. It tells us nothing about how to set the mood and tone for our advertising or even necessarily how to FIX any bad feelings that emerge. While these brands don't receive the same respect and adulation from the marketing community as Apple. features and functions or brand activity (concepts. etc. Line Extensions occur when a company introduces additional items in the same product category under the same brand name such as new flavors. positive. "It makes me feel good/better/great/wonderful!") Knowing how our brand. names. and snowboarding. forms. cognitive statement that our respondents are able to make about themselves due to their use. taglines."but that is ONLY a measure of valence. advertising. the widely popular apparel brands associated with the lifestyle of active sports such as surfing. colors. Active lifestyle brands transcend the product-only customer relationship and have developed emotional and long-term bonds with an entire generation of young consumers. LINE EXTENSION A product line extension is the use of an established product s brand name for a new item in the same product category. and other universally known "mega-brands. SELFEXPRESSIVE BENEFIT Active lifestyle brands. motivating and useful for brand development." they should be held in the same esteem. An emotional benefit. display and attachment to our brand and its features.your sensitive plea for his or her feeling response by energetically answering. added ingredients. not a physiological state of arousal with a simplistic label. is an often complex. In particular. They represent the attractive lifestyle and values linked to active sports. We definitely want to know if our new commercial makes people feel "glad" or "bad. it does little or nothing to lend direction to our creative efforts. This is as opposed to brand extension which is a new product in a totally 17 .

2. Two-Way Stretch Companies serving the middle market might decide to stretch their line in both directions. or both ways. Texas Instruments (TI) introduced its first calculators in the medium-price-medium-quality end of the market. Splendour Plus 18 . Surf Excel. Down-Market Stretch A company positioned in the middle market may want to introduce a lower-priced line for any of the three reasons: 1. Surf Excel Blue Splendour. This two-way stretch won Texas Instruments (TI) an early market leadership in the hand-calculator market. The company can extend its product line down-market stretch.Line extension occurs when the company lengthens its product line beyond its current range. Gradually. The company may notice strong growth opportunities as mass retailers such as Wal-Mart. higher margins. Note that they invented entirely new names rather than using or including their own names. and others attract a growing number of shoppers who want value-priced goods. The company may wish to tie up lower-end competitors who might otherwise try to move up-market. Nissan's Infiniti. Many markets have spawned surprising upscale segments: Starbucks in coffee. upmarket stretch. If the company has been attacked by a low-end competitor. and at the higher end to compete with Hewlett-Packard. or simply to position themselves as full-line manufacturers. Leading Japanese auto companies have each introduced an upscale automobile: Toyota's Lexus. it often decides to counterattack by entering the low end of the market. 3. Examples include    Zen LXI. it added calculators at the lower end taking the share from Bowmar. Zen VXI Surf.different product category. Up-Market Stretch Companies may wish to enter the high end of the market for more growth. Best Buy. and Honda's Acura. Haagen-Dazs in ice cream and Evian in bottled water. The company may find that the middle market is stagnating or declining.

Package labeling (en-GB) or labeling (en-US) is any written. transports. informs. storage. protects. Diet Coke. sale. warehousing. Reese's Pieces and Reese's Puff Cereal PACKAGING Packaging is the science. business. evaluation. preserves. Packaging contains. institutional.[1] In many countries it is fully integrated into government. logistics. or graphic 19 . and sells. Vanilla Coke Clinic All Clear. Packaging also refers to the process of design. electronic. sale. and use. and personal use. and end use. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport. art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution. industrial. and production of packages.   Coca-Cola. communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label. Clinic Plus Reese's Peanut Butter Cups.

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