101

SHORT CUTS IN MATH ANYONE CAN DO

By

GORDON ROCKMAKER

} I

~

Frederick FeU Publishers, Inc. New York

,New Printing, ]975

Copyright © 19fi5 by Gordon Rock maker

All right, reserved, No par! of this work covered by (be copyright he rcon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any mcans-e-graph ic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording taping, Dr ~lformaliQn storage and retrieval systems ~wi\hQUI permission of the publisher.

For inlormatlon address.

Frederick Fell Pub lishers, Inc.

386 Park Avenue South

New York. N. Y. 10016

U brary of Congress Catalog Card No. 65 ·15500

Published simultaneously itl Caflada by George J, ;\1 cl.ecd, Limi ted, Town to 2B, On tar in

Man ufactu red in the United Stales of America

PREFACE

101 Short Cuts in Math Anyone Can Do will unlock the secrets of the art of calculation. It will increase your power of computation and thereby enable you to get more out of the mathematics you now know. You will soon be amazed at your ability to solve once complex problems

quickly ..

Mathematics is perhaps the most important basic sci-

ence today .. It is a powerful and indispensable tool in every phase of science and engineering. The world of business and finance could not survive without it. From law and medicine to the fine arts, from atomic physics to shopping at the supermarket, mathematics plays an essential role

in our daily lives.

Many people never get farther than grade-school mathe-

matics simply because they become bogged down in the elementary arithmetic operations. For them mathematics is something mysterious and beyond understanding .. They read about electronic computers performing complicated arithmetic operations at speeds measured in microseconds. (a microsecond is a millionth part of a second) and wonder why it is still important to know how to perform these operations themselves.

. The reason is obvious, For most people in their offices, shops, classrooms, stores, or homes, use of such electronic brains is impractical or impossible. The simple fact is that engineers and scientists have yet to develop a computer as compact and efficient as the human brain.

The short cuts in this book cover the basic arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They are used with whole numbers, dectrnals,

v

vi

PREFACE

fractions, mixed numbers. arid percentage. In a word, they range across the whole field of calculation one is likely to use.

In compiling the short cuts to be included in this book, only authentic ones were chosen. An authentic short cut

is one that will produce an answer quickly and easily without the necessity of going through the usual intermediate steps, and it is usually very specific. By cutting through the time-consuming mechanical operations and going straight to the heart of the answer, a tremendous amount of needless work is avoided.

All computations in this book are performed from left to right. This is the first time this approach has been applied to short-cut methods, It permits you to write the answer to a problem immediately in the same sequence in which it is read-from left. to right.

Emphasis has been deliberately placed on general uses rather than on the specific uses of a particular short cut. The practical value of a short cut is that it can be used in a wide variety of applications. By demonstrating only one or at best a few specific applications, the danger exists that the reader will not venture beyond the ones described.

No book can contain every short cut in math, but this book does include some of the most useful modern methods devised.

Perhaps the most important function of this book is to introduce you to the wide practical application of mathematical short cuts. Using your own creative spirit and the curiosity to experiment, there is no limit to the number of short cuts you can devise for your own special needs.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE 'I

INTRODUCTION 1

Chapter 1

SHORT CUTS IN ADDITION 7

1. Adding Consecutive Numbers 9

2. Adding Consecutive Numbers Starting from 1 10

3. Finding the Sum of AU Odd Numbers Starting from 1 11

4. Finding the Sum of All Even Numbers Starting from 2 12

5. Adding a Series of Numbers With a Common Difference 13

6. Adding a Series of Numbers Having a Common Ratio 14

Chapter 2

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION 17

THE mGITS 17

7. Multiplying by Numbers Ending in Zeros 20

8. Multiplying by 2 21

9. Multiplying by 3 24

10.. Multiplying by 4 27

11. Multiplying by 5 29

12. Multiplying by 6 31

13. Multiplying by 7 33

14. Multiplying by 8 35

15. Multiplying by 9 37

vii:

l~ ~_ •• ' I· ,.' • ~ •

NUMBERS BEGINNING OR ENDING IN 1

16. Multiplying by 11

17. Multiplying by 12

18. Multiplying by 111

19. Multiplying by a Multiple of 11

20. Multiplying by 21

21. Multiplying by 121

22. Multiplying by 101

23. Multiplying by 1,001

24. Multiplying by One More Than a Power of 10

25. Multiplying "Teen n Numbers

26. Multiplying by Any Two-Digit Number Ending in 1

NUMBERS BEGINNING OR ENDING IN 5

27. Multiplying by 15

28. Multiplying by 25

29. Multiplying by 52

30. Multiplying a Two-Digit Number by 95

31. Multiplying by 125

32. Multiplying Two Two-Digit Numbers When Both End in 5 and One Tens Digit Is Odd While the Othe r Is Even

33. Multiplying Two Two- Digit Numbers When Both End in 5 and Their Tens Digits Are Either Both Odd or Both Even

34. Multiplying Two Two- Digit Numbers Whose Tens Digits Are Both 5 and 'Whose Units Digits Are Both Odd or Both Even

35. Multiplying Two Two-Digit Numbers Whose Tens Digits Are Both 5 and One Units Digit is Odd While the Other is Even

36. Multiplying Two Two- Digit Numbers Whose Tens Digits Are Both 5 and Whose Units Digits Add to 10

NUMBERS BEGINNING OR ENDING IN 9

37. Multiplying by 19

38. Multiplying by 99

39. Multiplying by 999

40. Multiplying by a Number Consisting Only of Nines

viii

40 41 43 45 47 48 50 51 52 53 55 56

59 60 62 63 64 65

66

67

68

69

70

73

74 75 76 77

41. Multiplying Two Two-Digit Numbers Ending in 9

and Whose Tens Digits Add to 10 78

42. Multiplying by a Two-Digit Multiple of 9 79

43. Multiplying by Any Two-Digit Number Ending in 9 80

SQUARING NUMBERS 82

44. Squaring Any Number Ending in 1 83

45. Squaring Any Two-Digit Number Ending in 5 84

46. Squaring Any Number Ending in 5 85

47. Squaring Any Three-Digit Number Ending in 25 86

48. Squaring Any Four-Digit umber Ending in 25 88

49. Squaring Any Two-Digit Number Whose Tens Digit is 5 92

50. Squaring Any Number Ending in 9 93

51. Squaring Any Number Consisting Only of Nines 94

52. Squaring Any Two-Digit Number 95

MULTIPLY,ING rwo NUMBERS THAT DIFFER

ONLY SLIGHTLY 98

53. Multiplying Two Numbers "'?hose Difference Is 2 99

54. Multiplying Two Numbers Whose Difference Is 3 100

55. Multiplying Two Numbers Whose Difference Is 4 101

56. Multiplying Two Numbers Whose Difference Is 6 102

57. Multiplying Two Numbers Whose Difference Is Any

Small Even Number 103

MORE SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION 105

58. Multiplying Two Two-Digit Numbers Whose Tens

Digits Are the Same 106

59. Multiplying Two Two-Digit Numbers Whose Units

Digits Are the Same 107

60. Multiplying Two Numbers That Are Just a Little

Less than 100 109

61. Multiplying Two Numbers That Are Just a Little

Less than 1,000 111

62. Multiplying Two Numbers That Are Just a Little

More than 100 113

63. Multiplying Two Numbers That Are Just a Little

More than 1.,000 115

64. Multiplying Two Numbers Whose Units Digits Add to

10 and the Other Corresponding Digits Are Equal 117

Chapter 3

SHORT CUTS IN SUBTRACTION

II

119

66. Subtracting a Number from Any Power of 10

65. Subtracting a Number from the Next Highest Power

of 10 120

121

Chapter 4

SHORT CUTS IN DtVISION

DETERMINING A NUMBER'S DIVISORS

67. Divisibility by 2

68. Divisibility by 3

69. Divisibility by 4

70. Divisibility by 5

71. Divisibility by 6

72. Divisibility by 7

73. Divisibility by 8

74. Divisibility by 9

75. Divisibility by 11

76. Divisibility by 13

NUMBERS ENDING IN 5

77. Dividing by 5

78. Dividing by 15

79. Dividing by 25

80. Dividing by 125

MORE SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

1. Dividing by 9

82. Dividing by Factors

x

123

123

125 126 127 128 129 130 132 133 134 135

137 138 139 142 143

145 146 149

Chapter 5

SHORT CUTS WITH FRACTIONS, MIXED NUMBERS, AND PERCENTAGE

153

83. Adding Two Fractions Whose Numerators Are Both 1 154

84. Finding the Difference Between Two Fractions Whose

Numerators Are Both 1 155

85. Multiplying by 3/4 156

86. Multiplying by 2-1/2 157

87. Multiplying by 7-1/2 159

88. Multiplying by 12-1/2 160

89. Multiplying Two Mixed Numbers Whose Whole Num-

bers Are the Same and Whose Fractions Add to 1 161

90. Multiplying Two Mixed Numbers When the Difference Between the Whole Numbers Is 1 and the Sum of

the Fractions rs 1 162

91. Squaring H Number Ending in 1/2 163

92. Dividing by 2-1/2 164

93. Dividing by 12-1/2 165

94. Dividing by 33-1/3 166

95. Finding 16-2/3% of a Number 167

96. Finding 33-1/3 % of a Number 16

97. Finding 37-1/2% of a Number 169

98. Finding 62-1/2 % of a Number 170

99. Finding 66-Z/3% ofa Number 171

100. Finding 87-1/2% of a Number 1 n

Chapter 6

POSTSCRIPT 175

101. Do-It-Yourself Short Cuts 176

xi:

INTRODUCTION

CUTTING CORNERS

Whether due to curiosity or sheer laziness, man has always been experimenting, searching for and stumbling upon ways of making work easier for himself. That anonymous caveman who chipped the corners off a flat rock and invented the wheel started this tradition.

Most of man's efforts in the past were directed at conserving or incr eas ing his muscle power, but as time went on some were aimed at saving wear and tear on another vital organ: his brain. It followed naturally that his attention turned to reducing such laborious tasks as calculating.

WHAT SHORT CUTS ARE

Short cuts in mathematics are ingenious little tricks in calculating that can save enormous amounts of time and labor - not to mention paper - in solving otherwise complicated problems" There are no magical powers connected with these tricks; each is based on sound mathematical prmciples growing out of the very properties of numbers themselves. The results they produce are absolutely accurate and infallible when applied correctly. Short-cut methods are by no means of recent origin; they were known even to the ancient Greeks. The supply of short cuts is unlimited. Many are known, and many are yet to be discovered, The 101 short cuts included in this book have been selected because they are easy to learn, simple to use, and can be applied to the widest range of calculating problems.

1

2

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

3

Decimal Point

PUTTING NUMBERS IN THEIR PLACE

Units ----"""'\ Tens ---------, Hundreds ----" Thousands --"""'\ Ten-thousands~

~~~~~~-thdUSan~

8,367,351.42

~---- Tenths ,----Hundredths r---Thousandths ;- Ten - thousandths Hundred-thousandths

~ MHllonths

,

The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 are called digits.

Integers are numbers consisting of one or more digits. For example, 7'2,958 is an integer consisting of five digits, 7,

2, 9, 5, and 8. In practice, the word number is applied to many different combinations of digits ranging from whole numbers, to fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals. The word integer, however, applies only to whole numbers.

Each digit in a number has a name based on its position in the number. The number system we are accustomed to dealing with is based on the number 10. Each number position in this system is named for a power of 10. The position immediately to the left of the decimal point of a number is called the units position. In the number 1.4 the digit 1 is in the units pOSition and is called the units digit. In fact, any digit that occupies that posrtion is called the units digit. The next poaition to the left of the units position is called the tens postt.ion, and any digit occupying that space is called the tens digit. In the number 51.4 the 5 is the tens digit. Continuing to the left, in order, are the hundreds, thousands, ten-thousands, hundred-thousands, millions positions, and so on.

The positions of the digits to the right of the decimal point also have names similar to those to the left. The position immediately to the right of the decimal point i.s called the tenths position. Notice that the name is tenths and not tens. In fact, aU positions to the right of the decimal point end in ths. The next position to the right of the tenths position is the hundredths position, then the thousandths position, and, in order,. the ten-thousandths, the hundred-thousandths, the millionths.

Remember, the posrtlon names never change. The position to the left of the decimal point is always the units position; the one to the right is always the tenths position, no matter what digit occupies the space.

In addition to the names of the positions as given above, the letters A, B, C, ... will be used in this book to help explain the various short-cut methods. Thus, in some short cuts the digits will be arranged as given below:

ABCDEFGHIJKLM

8 3 6 7 3 5 1.4 2 8 0 3 9

The letters themselves have no significance beyond helping identify and locate a particular digit under discussion in

the short cut. For that reason it is important not only to learn the various position names but also to gain familiarity with the letter notation just mentioned. Both will be used frequently throughout this book.

GETTING THE POINT

All numbers may be considered to have a decimal point.

The point is used to separate those numbers that are equal to or greater than 1 from those numbers that are less than 1. Even if we write a number without a decimal point, it

~ilmiilllilDlilllll '_'_~-"~'--~' .~-,,- •• ,.

4

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

5

is understood that there is one to the right of the units digit. For example, we can write seven dollars and fortynine cents as

TAKING THE SHORT CUT FROM LEFT TO RIGHT

$7.49

Clearly the decimal point separates the dollars figure (lor more) from the cents figure (the part that is less than one dollar). But when we speak of seven dollars alone we may write it as $7 or $7. or $7.00. These three forms are exactly equal. In the first case the decimal is omitted but nevertheless is understood to be to the right of the 7. It is also understood that the only digits that can be placed to the right of the decimal point without changing the value of the number are zeros. And as many zeros may be placed to the right of the decimal point as we wish. Later in the application of many short-cut methods you will see why this is an important property of decimals.

Most of us were taught the arithmetic operations of multiplication, addition, and subtraction from right to left. We always started from the units digit and worked to the left. Mter we got our answer, we reversed the number in QUI' mind and read it from left to right. Not only was the process awkward, but the mental gymnastics wasted time. Take this Simple example:

364 x 7

The product was obtained in the following order: 8, 4, 5, 2

Then to read the answer, it became

LEARNING TO TAKE THE SHORT CUT

2,548

Why cannot answers be obtained in their natural reading order? There is no reason at all why we cannot solve problems just as easily from left to right as we do from right

to left.

In this book all work will be performed in the natural order in which we write and read numbers - from left to right. Initially this method may seem strange; but once mastered, its advantages will become evident and the timesaving ease with which it can be used will prove its worth.

The preceding sections dealt with the language of mathematics. Before studying any of the methods that follow, make certain that you are thoroughly familiar with the terms that will be used. When you read about the "hundreds digit," you must immediately recognize that this refers to

a position in an integer and not the number 1 00. Also,

never confuse the hundreds digit with the hundredths digit.

Once you have familiarized yourself with the language, the next step is to develop a routine for learning and memorizing the short cuts. Maximum efficiency can be achieved only through constant practice. You will SOOI1 discover

that short cuts fall into logical groups or classifications. Short cuts involving numbers ending in 5 are an example

of such a group. Learn to recognize a problem in terms

of its group. It would be pointless to have to refer to this book each time you wanted to apply a short cut.

In this book, the term "first digit" refers to the left_hal!-£lm~~ 9_!__gi.t_~

FOUR TO GO

Here are a few hints to get you started on the right foot.

First, read and reread the Rules as many times as neeessary (at least twice) until a general idea of the short-cut method is established in your thought. Keep in mind that

6

INTRODUCTION

you are studying and not reading a novel. Try to follow the method i.n general terms without thinking of specific numbers at this stage.

Next, follow the sample problems carefully, step by step.

Do not skip steps just because you feel they involve some trivial operation, such as adding 1. After you have read the sample problem a few times, try to do the same problem yourself, writing the numbers as you go along. Do not refer to the book at this point, If you don't get all the steps correct, go back over them again .. You may have to reread the Rule ..

Finally, when you are completely satisfied that you have mastered the short cut, try the Practice Exercises. The answers should be written directly in the space provided. Try doing intermediate steps mentally. Very soon you'll find that you can solve most problems without paper and pencil.

Remember, systematic study and concentration on what you are doing are vital to the mastery of each of the 101 short cuts in mathematics.

,*"

Chapter 1

SHORT CUTS IN ADDITION

Addition is probably the Hrst arithmetic operation most of us learned after we found out what numbers were. Do you remember the admonition, never to add dissimilar objects? One must not add 2 oranges to 2 apples (unless one were making fruit salad). Different methods of adding were usually taught to help speed the process. However, strictly speaking, there are no short cuts to adding random groups of numbers. No matter what method of addition is used, eventually they all require adding digit by digit until the final sum is obtained.

In adding regular sequences of numbers, short cuts are possible .. These sequences can be groups of consecutive aumber s, series of numbers that differ by some constant amount, or series of numbers where each term diflers from the preceding term by some common ratio. An example of the first group would be the numbers

73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81

This is a series of consecutive numbers from 73 to 81. An example of the second series would be the numbers

5, 12, 19, 26, 33

In this series each number is always 7 more than the preceding number. An example of the third group would be the series

7, 21, 63, 189, 567

Here each number is 3 times more than the preceding number.

7

8

SHORT CUTS IN ADDITION

In each case, of course, the sum of the terms in the series can be found by simply adding digit by digit, but briefer, less laborious ways of Bnding these sums are presented in the short cuts that follow.

---

1

ADDING CONSECUTIVE NUMBERS

Rule: Add the smallest number in the group to the largest number in the group, multiply the result by the amount of numbers in the group, and divide the resulting product by 2.

Suppose we want to find the sum of all numbers from 33 to 41. First, add the smallest number to the largest number.

33 + 41 '" 74

Since there are nine numbers from 33 to 41, the next step is

74 x 9 = 666 (see Short Cut 15) Finally, divide the result by 2.

666 + 2 '" 333 Answer

The sum of all numbers from 33 to 41 is therefore 333.

9

--~~-~-------~~~------------~- .. ---------------------------------

2

3

ADDING CONSECUTIVE NUMBERS STARTING FROM 1

FINDING THE SUM OF ALL ODD NUMBERS STARTING FROM 1

Consider the problem of adding a group of consective numbers such as: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. How would you go about finding their sum? This group is certainly easy enough to add the usual way .. But if you're really clever you might notice that the Iir st number, 1, added to the last number, 9, totals 10 and the second number, 2, plus the next to last number, 8, also totals 10. In fact, starting from both ends and adding pair-s, the total in each case is 10, We find there are four pair s, each adding to 10; there is no pair for the number 5. Thus 4 x 10 '" 40; 40 + 5 '" 45 .. Going a step further, we can develop a method for finding the sum of as many numbers in a row as we please.

Rule: Square the amount of numbers in the series.

To show this, the sum of all numbers from 1 to 100

will be calculated. There are 50 odd numbers in this group. Therefore

50 x 50 " 2,500 Answer

This is the sum of all odd numbers from 1 to 100. As a check, we can Compare this answer with the answers found in Short Cuts 2 and 4.

Rule: Multiply the amount of numbers in the group by one more than their number, and divide by 2.

As an example, suppose we are asked to find the sum of all the numbers from 1 to 99. There are 99 integers in this s er i es; one more than this is 1 00. Thus

99 x 100 = 9,900

9,900 .". 2 = 4,950 Answer

The sum of all numbers from 1 to 99 is therefore 4,950.

10

11

4

5

FINDING THE SUM OF ALL EVEN NUMBERS ST ARTING FROM 2

Rule: Multiply the amount of numbers in the group by one more than their number

ADDING A SERIES OF NUMBERS WITH A COMMON DIFFERENCE

Sometimes it is necessary to add a group of numbers that have a common difference. No matter what the common difference is and no matter how many numbers are being added, only one addition, multiplication, and division will be necessary to obtain the answer.

We shall use this rule to find the sum of all even numbers from 1 to 100. Half of the numbers will be even and half will be odd, which means there are 50 even numbers from 1 to 100. Applying the rule,

50 x 51 = 2,550

Thus the sum of all even numbers from 1 to 100 is 2,550.

In Short Cut 2 the sum of all the numbers from 1 to 99 is found to be 4,950; consequently the sum of all numbers from 1 to 100 is 5,050. In Short Cut 3 the sum of all odd numbers from 1 to 100 is found to be 2.500. Our answer for the sum of all the even numbers from 1 tu 100 is therefore in agreement.

Rule: Add the smallest number to the largest number, multiply the sum by the amount of numbers in the group, and divide by 2.

As an example, let us find the sum of the following numbers:

Sum of all numbers 5,050

Sum of

all odd numbers 2,500

Sum of

all even numbers 2.550

87, 91, 95, 99, and 103

Notice that the difference between adjacent numbers is always 4. This short-cut method can therefore be used. Add the smallest number, 87, to the largest number, 103. Multiply the sum, 190, by 5, since there are five numbers in the group.

190 x 5 == 950 (Short Cut 11)

Divide by 2 to obtain the answer.

950 + 2 = 475 Answer Thus 87 + 91 + 95 + 99 + 103 = 475.

(Naturally, this is exactly the same as the rule in Short Cut I, because there we were Simply adding a series of numbers with a common difference of one. So, for ease of remembering, you can combine Short Cuts 1 and 5.)

12

13

SHORT CUTS IN ADDITION

15

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 1 through 6

6

Find the sum in each case,

ADDING A SERIES OF NUM:BERS HAVING A COMMON RATIO

1) All odd numbers from 1 to 23 '"

Rule: Multiply the ratio by itself as many times as there are numbers in the series. Subtract 1 from the product and multiply by the first number in the series. Divide the result by one less than the ratio.

.2) 3 + 6 + 12 + 24 + 48 + 96

3) All numbers from 84 to 105

This rule is best applied when the common ratio is a small number or when there are few numbers in the series. If there are many numbers and the ratio is large, the necessity of multiplying the ratio by itself many times diminishes the ease with which this short cut can be applied, But suppose we are given the series:

53, 106, 212, 424

Here each term is twice the preceding term, and there are four terms in the series, The ratto, 2, is therefore multiplied four times.

2 x 2 x 2 x 2 := 16

Subtract 1 and multiply by the first number.

4) 56 + 59 + 62 + 65

5) .24 + 72 + 216

6) 14 + 15 + 16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 +21 ==

7) All numbers from 1 to 1,000 :=

8) All even numbers from 1 t050

16 - 1 '" 15;

15 x 53 := 795 (Short Cut 27)

9) 132 + 137 + 142 + 147

The next step is to divide by one less than the ratio; however, since the ratio is 2, we need divide only by 1.

Thus the sum of our series is

10) 197 + 198 + 199 + 200 + 201 + 202 + 203

53 '" 106 '" 212 oj. 424

795 Answer

14

Chapter 2

SHORTCUTS IN .MUlTIPUCATION

Multiplication is itself a short-cut process. For example, a problem in repeated addition,

3 +3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 21

is quickly recognized as nothing more than 7 x 3= 21

This shorthand notation led us directly to the answer, eHminating the necessity of six additions along the way ..

For most of us, the multiplication table, drummed into our minds early in our mathematical training, provided the reference source for obtaining the answer. But, happily, proficiency in multiplication does not depend on memor izing tables. The short-cut methods described in this section employ addition, subtraction, division, and, of course, elementary multiphcation. But if you can add two numbers quickly and halve or double a number with ease, you should have no trouble at all.

THE DIGITS

The basic calculating unit is the digit. When two numbers are multiplied, every combination of their individual digits is multiplied, and by correctly adding the results (With proper regard to their position) the product of the two numbers is obtained.

17

18

SHORT CUTS TN MULTIPLICATION

Consider the following example: 432 x 678

The nine possible combinations of digits of the two numbers

are
4 x 6' 3 »: 6; .2 x 6
,
4 x 7' 3 x 7' 2 x 7
I , ,
4 x 8' 3 x 8- 2 x 8
, ,
I By arranging the products according to number position, we can obtain the product desired.

2 4 1 8 1 2 2,712
2 8 2 1 1 4 2,034
3 2 2 4 1 6 1,3 5 6
2,712 2,.034 1,3 5 6 292,896 432 x 678

.2 92,. 89 6 Answer

Thus, by memorizing only the multiplication tables for all digits from 1 to 9 we are able to multiply one number by another, regardless of how many digits each of them contains.

But memor iztng the eighty-one products in the multiplication table is not essential for multiplying by the digits. The methods for multiplying by the digits described in this section involve only addition, subtraction, and doubling or halving.

The rules are given in detail intentionally. For some digits, the rule may appear unusually long. This is only because the presentation must consider all exigencies, Don't be discouraged by what seems like a complicated

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

19

way of multiplying a simple digit. After the second or third reading of the rule a pattern will emerge and the process will become a mere routine.

A rule for multiplication by 1 has been omitted, since the product obtained by multiplying any number by 1 is the original number.

7

MULTIPLYING BY NUMBERS ENOl G IN ZEROS

Numbers ending in z e ros may be thought of as the product of the nonzero part multiplied by a power of 10. For example, 37,000 is really 37 x 1,000. Since multiplying

by zero results in zero, multiplying by numbers ending in zeros may be shortened by ignoring the zeros and then affixing the required amount after the nonzero part has been multiplied.

Rule: Multiply the two numbers as if they did not end in zeros. Then alfix an amount of zeros equal to the sum of all the zeros ignored in the multiplication.

A simple case will be chosen. Let us find the product of 37,000 x 6,000,000

By ignoring the zeros, we have

37 x 8

Using Short Cut 12, we find 37 x 6 = 222. A total of nine zeros was ignored before the multiplication; therefore nine zeros are affixed to the product.

222, 000, 000, 000 Anstver

20

8

MULTIPLYING BY 2

M ltiplying by 2 is another way of saying we are doubl-

. u. ber or simply that we are adding a number to 1t-

109 anum . . l' h d . ckly

self. Doubling a number may be acco~p Is.e qui

without carrying by applying the followmg simple rule.

Rule:

Starting from the first digit of the given number, double the digit if it is 4 or l~s~ and put the answer under the respective digits of the given number. For digits 5 to 9, subtract 5 and double the result. Place the answer under the respective digits of the given number. Now inspect the tentative answer. Each digit of the answer to the immediate left of

a digit in the given number '5 or greater should be increased by 1. The result is the

final answer.

At first reading, this rule may sound more com.plicated than simply adding digit by digit. The be.auty Of. thIS. shortcut method is, however, that the answer is obtained Immediately Irom left to right and we are never bothered by

diait As an ex-

having to remember to carryover any igi s. .

ample, suppose we were asked to multiply 5,377 ~y ~. Fl~St let us write the given number, using our alphabetic identrfication:

ABC D '5 377

Starting from A, double each number less than 5 (but not equal to 5)' if the number is greater than 5, subtract 5 from it and double the result, placing a small line under each digit of the answer that is to the immediate left of a

21

22

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

digit in the given number that is 5 or more. The reason for this small line will be explained shortly. In our given number, the first digit is 5; subtract 5 from this and double the result.

5 - 5 " 0;

Place 0 under the 5 and a small line under the space to the left of the 0 (since there is no number in that space). Our first result will look like this:

A B C D
5 3 7 7 Given number
0 Tentative answer after
first step The next digit is less than 5, so we merely double it, and our answer begins to look like this now:

ABC D

5 3 7 7 o 6

Given number

Tentative answer after second step

The C digit is a 7; subtract 5 from this and double the

result.

7 - 5 == 2;

2 + 2 == 4

This is the C digit of the answer; but remember, a small line must be placed under the next digit to the left in the answer (the 6). We have now come this far in our answer:

ABC D 5 3 7 7 064

Given number

Tentative answer after

third step

Finally, the D digit is more than 5, so once again we obtain 4 and place a small line under the previous 4 in the answer. Our answer now looks like this:

CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION SJ{ORT

-

23

ABC D 5 3 7 7 o 6 4 4

Given number Tentative answer after fourth step

~ I" d digit is increased by 1 to obtain the final

Each under we

al1Swer.

10,754 Answer

9

MULTIPLYING BY 3

Rule: The first tentative digit of the answer is obtained by taking one-half the first digit of the given number.

Next, in turn, each digit of the given number is subtracted from 9, the result doubled, then added to one-half the digit to the right in the given number to obtain each digit of the answer. If the original digit in the given number is odd, add an extra 5. Ignore any fraction that occurs when taking one-half a number.

To find the units digit of the answer, subtract the units digit of the given number from 10 and double the result. Add an extra 5 if the units digit of the given number is odd.

In each of the steps above, record only the units digit in the answer. Any tens digit should be carried and added to the answer digit immediately to the left.

To obtain the final answer from the tentative answer digits obtained above, subtract 2 from the first digit recorded.

Naturally, when multiplying a small number by 3, the "long" way would probably be as quick, though maybe not as simple to use; but when long numbers are multiplied, the short cut explained above is an excellent time and labor saver,

For example: 4,635,117 x 3.

One-half of 4 is the first tentative digit. ¥4) = 2

24

25

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

-

di it of the answer is found by subtracting 4 from

The next 19l it and adding one-half the digit to the

9 d ubling the resu ) t dd d ~ 0 6 S' c e 4 is even, the additional 5 is ~ a e. rIght, . m

4 - 5' 5 x 2 =: 10; 10 + ~(6) = 13

9 - - ,

d th 3 carry the 1 and add it to the 2 previOusly

RecOr e, '

determined. , 6

The next digit in the given number 1S •

9 _ 6 "" 3; 3 x 2 = 6; 6 + H3) '" '7

(The fraction ~ is ignored.) The next digit in the given num ber is 3.

9 - 3 "" 6;

6 x 2

12;

12 + ~(5) :::: 14

14+ 5 19

(The 5 was added because 3 is odd.) Record the 9; ,carry the 1 to the left. The four digits thus far obtamed in the

answer are

3 3 8 9

Continue with the other digits of the given number.

9 _ 5 ~ 4; 4 x 2 8; 8 + ~(1) = 8

8 + 5 13

Record the 3; carry the 1 to the left.
9 - 8' S x 2 16; 16 + t(l ) = 16
1 :::: J
16 + 5 21
Record the 1; carry 2.
9 - 1 :::: 8' S x 2 '" 16; 16 + ~(7) 19
)
19 + 5 :::: 24
Record 4; carry 2.
The units digit is next.
10 - 7 :0 3; 3 x 2 = 6' 6 + 5 :::: 11
J SHORT CUTS FN MULTIPLICATION

Record 1; carry 1. The digits obtained are 33,905,351

The final step involves subtracting 2 from the first digit. 13,905,351 Answer

,

10

MULTIPLYING BY 4

Rule:

The first tentative digit of the answer will be one-half the first digit of the given number. Ignore any fraction i.n this and other steps. The other answer digits are found by subtracting each of the digits of the given number from 9 and adding one-half the digit to the right. If

the digit of the given number is odd, add an extra 5.

To find the units digit of the answer, subtract the units digit of the given number from 10. Add 5 if the units digit of the given number is odd. To obtain the final answer, subtract 1 from the first digit recorded.

In each of the cases, above, if the result of one of the steps is a two-digit number, record the units digit and carry any tens digit left to the preceding answer digit.

As an example: Multiply 37,485,109 by 4:.

The first tentative digit is one-half the first digit of the given number, 3.

t(3) '" 1

(Ignore the fraction.)

In each of the next steps, subtract the digit of the given number from 9, add one-half the digit to the right, and add 5 more if the digit in the given. number is odd.

9-3=6;

6 + i(7) + 5 '" 14

(Here 5 is added because 3 is cdd.)

Record the 4 and add 1 to the 1 previously determined.

27

28

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

The next digit in the given number is 7.

9 - 7 = 2; 2 + H4) + 5 '" 9

(Again, 5 is added because 7 is odd.) Continue in turn with 4, 8, 5, 1, and O.

9 4 =:=: 5' 5 + i(8) 9
,
9 8 l' i + i(5) 3
,
9 5 := 4· 4 + i(1) + 5 9
,
9 1 ,- 8· a + !(O) + 5 13
,
Record 3' carry 1 to the left.
,
9 - 0 = g. 9 + t(9) = 13
, (The zero is considered even.) Record 3; carry 1 forward.

We have now reached the units digit of the given number.

To obtain the units digit of the answer, subtract the units digit of the given number from 10. Add 5, since it is odd.

10 - 9 "" 1;

1 + 5 := 6

We have now obtained the following tentative answer: 249,940,436

The final answer is obtained by subtracting 1 from the first digit, 2.

149,940,436 Answer

n

MULTIPLYlNG BY 5

When any digit is multiplied by 5, the units digit of the oduct is always either 5 or 0 and the tens digit is always ~~ual' to one-half the given digit (ignoring the f~action i)· This interesting property of 5 leads us to the first oftwo short-cut methods for multiplying by 5.

First Method

Rule: The first digit of the answer is equal to onehalf the first digit of the given number. Each succeeding answer digit is equal to 5, if the corresponding digit in the given number is

odd; or 0, if the corresponding digit in the given number is even; plus one-half of the

digit to the right in the given number. The units digit of the answer is 5, if the given number is odd; and 0, if the given number is even. Ignore any fraction resulting from the halving process.

Second Method

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number one place to the right and divide the resulting number by 2.

Although the second method seems simpler at first reading, both methods are equally easy to employ and both will find applications, depending on the problem .. Usually for small even numbers, the second method would probably be used more often. However, both methods will be demonstrated, using the same given number.

29

>

30 SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Multiply 78,439 by 5. 12

ABC D E F

7 8 4 3 9

Given number

MULTIPLYING BY 6

F~rst Method. The first digit of the product (the A digit) wil l be equal to one-half of 7 (ignoring the !).

A

Rule: The first digit of the answer is one-half the first digit of the given number.

The other answer digits are obtained by adding each of the digits of the given number to one-half the digit to its right. An extra 5 is added if the given digit is odd.

Ignore any fraction that occurs when halving a number.

The units digit of the answer is the units digit of the given number, if even .. If odd, add 5 to the units digit of the given number to obtain the units digit of the answer.

In each case, if the result is a two-digit number, record only the units digit. Carry any tens digit left and add it to the preceding answer digit.

3

First digit of product

Since the B digit of the given number is odd, the B digit of the product will be 5 plus one-half the C digit of the given number (5 -+ 4 :: 9). The C digit of the given number is even, so tha.t ~he C digit of the product will be 0 plus onehalf the D digtt (0 -+ 2 :: 2). The D digit of the product is o -+ 1 :: 1. The E digit of the product is 5 -+ 4 :: 9. The F. digit of the product is the units digit in this case, and smce the units digit of the given number is odd. the units digit of the product will be 5.. The final product is

ABCDEF

3 9 2, 1 9 5 Answer

Second Method. Move the decimal point of the given num-

ber one place to the right. '

7 8,4 3 9 . 0 becomes 7 8 4,. 3 9 O.

This short cut may seem like a roundabout way to multiply by 6, but the opposite is actually true. In fact, the beauty of this method is the simplicity and ease with which an answer may be written directly .. You will soon find yourself able to multiply any number by 6, using only a little quick mental addition without bothering to write any intermediate steps ..

As an example of the procedure, we shall multiply

714,098 x 6

The first digit (tentatively) will be one-half of 7, or 3 (neglecting the ~, of course). The answer digits that follow will depend on whether the corresponding digits in the given number are odd or even. Since the first digit is odd,

31

Divide the new number by 2.

784., 390 1- 2 = 392, 1 95 Answer The same result was obtained with the first method.

32

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

add 5 and one-half the next digit to the right.

7 + 5 + ~(1) = 7 +5 + 0 = 12

(Remember, ~ is ignored.) Record the units digit 2 and carry th~ tens digit t.o the left to be added to the 3 previously written. The fIrst two answer digits are

4 2

The next digit of the given number is 1, which is also odd.

1 + 5 + ~(4) := 1 + 5 + 2 = a

Record the 8 and move on to the next digit in the given number, 4. Since this is even, merely add to it one-half the next digit to the right in the given number.

4 + i(O) = 4

Record this in the answer. Thus far we have determined the following digits in the answer:

4 2 84

The next digit is 0 (which is considered even). Therefore, add one-half the next digit to the right.

o + %(9) = 4 (ignoring ~)

The next digit is 9, which is odd.

9 + 5 + Ha) = 9 + 5 + 4 = 18

Record the 8 in the answer and carry the tens digit, 1, left t~ be added to .the preceding digit, 4. The units digit of the grven number 1S next; since it is even it is also the units

digit of the answer. '

The product is therefore

4, 2 8 4, 5 8 8 Answer

13

MULTIPLYING BY 7

Rule: The first tentative digit of the answer is onehalf the first digit of the given number.

The rest of the answer digits are obtained by doubling the digit of the given number and adding one-half the digit to its right. Add an extra 5 if the given digit is odd. The units digit of the answer is twice the given units digit. Add 5 if the given units digit is odd. Ignore any fraction that may occur. Record only the units digit in each case. Any tens digit should be carried and added to the answer digit immediately to the left.

Example: 97,841 x 7.

The first digit is one-half 9.

-H9) '" 4

(Ignore the fraction.) Next, in turn, double each digit of the given number, add one-half the digit to the right, and add an extra 5 if the given digit is odd.

9 x 2 == 18; 18 + ~(7) "" 21 21 + 5 = 26

Record 6 and add .2 to the preceding answer digit, 4.

7 x 2 = 14;

14 + -H8) = 18

18 + 5 == 23

Record 3; carry 2 to the left.

8 x 2 == 16; 16 + i(4)

18

Record 8; carry 1.

4 x 2 == 8; 8 + ~(1) 8

33

34

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Finally, the units digit of the answer is determined.

1 x 2 := 2;

2+5:=7

The digits obtained are

6 8 4. 8 8 7 Answer

>

14

MULTIPLYING BY 8

Rule: Write the first digit of the given number as the first tentative digit of the answer. The next answer digit is obtained by subtracting the first digit of the given number from 9, doubling the result, and adding the second digit of the given number. Continue the process by subtracting each digit of the given number from 9, doubling the result, and adding the next digit to its right. To obtain the units digit of the answer, simply subtract the units digit of the given number from 10 and double the result. In each of the steps above, record only the units digit of the sum; any tens digit should be carried and added to the preceding answer digit, To obtain the final answer, subtract 2 from the first digit obtained.

A typical example is sufficient to show how this short cut works.

Example: 379,146 x 8.

First, write the 3 as the tentative first digit of the answer. Next subtract 3 from 9, double the result, and add the next digit to its right, 7.

9 - 3 := 6; 6 x 2 := 12; 12 + 7 := 19

Record the 9, carry the 1, and add it to the 3 previously recorded. The first two tentative digitS of the answer are

4 9

Proceed with the next digit, 7.

9 - 7 '" 2; 2 x 2:= 4; 4 + 9 13

35

--

r

I

36

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Record the 3, carry the 1, and add it to the previously determined 9. But 9 + 1 "" 1 O. Therefore record the 0 and carry the 1 another digit to the left, adding it to the 4.. The first three digits are now

5 03

Continue this procedure.

9 - 9 := 0; Record 1.

9 - 1 '" Bi

Ox 2

0'

,

0+1:= 1

8 x 2 == 16;

16 + 4 := 20

Record 0 and add the 2 to the 1 preceding. The answer digits obtained to this point are

5 03 3 0

Continue with the process,

9 - 4 =5;

5X2:=10;

10 + 6 = 16

Record the 6; carry the 1. The next digit is the units digit of the given number. Subtract this from 10 and double the result. Record the result as the units digit of the answer.

,

10 - 6 == 4;

4 x 2 == 8

The tentative answer to the problem is 5, 0 3 3, 16 8

To obtain the final answer, we must subtract 2 from the first digit, 5.

3, 033, 1 68 Answer

15

MULTIPLYING BY 9

Rule:

The first digit of the given number minus 1 is the first digit of the answer. The second digit

of the answer is obtained by subtracting the first digit of the given number from 9 and adding, it

to the second digit of the given number. Contlm~e this process by subtracting each digit in the gIVen number from 9 and adding to the result the next digit to its right.. Stop this procedure after the tens digit of the answer is obtained. The units digit of the answer is obtained by subtracting the units digit of the given number from 10. In

each case. if the sum is a two-digit number, record the units digit and carry the tens digit

to the preceding answer digit.

Multiply 7,149 by 9. .

The first digit of the given number minus 1 is the first

digit of the answer.

7- 1 =6

The second digit of the answer is9 minus the fir~t digit of the given number plus the second digit of the gIVen number.

9 - 7 '" 2;

2 + 1 = 3

We now have the first two digits of the answer (at least tentatively).

6 3

To obtain the third digit of the answer, subtract the second digit of the given number from 9 and add the result to the third digit of the given number.

9 - 1 '" 8; 8 + 4 == 12

37

38

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

39

Here the result rsa two -digit number. The units di git is recorded as part of the answer, and the tens digit is carried and added to the 3 previously determined. The first three digits of the answer are now

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 7 through 15

9 - 4 == 5;

5 + 9 == 14

1) 47,821 x 5 eo
2) 8,300 x 2,000,000
3) 7,914 x 8 ==
4) 682 x 9 eo
5) 1,356 x 7 eo
6) 51,.007 x 2 =
7) 6,045 x 6 == 642

The tens digit and the units digit of the given number are used to obtain the tens digit of the answer.

Record the 4, carry the 1, and add it to the 2 previously determined. The units digit of the answer is merely 10 minus the units digit of the given number.

10- 9 == 1

The product is therefore 7,149 x 9

64,341 Answer

8) 497 x 3 ==
9) 12,.760,195 x 4 ==
10) 1,116 x 9
11) 436 x 5 ==
12) 31,875 x 3
13) 613,767 x 7 ==
14) 44,060 x 6 ==
15) 831,615 x 8 = NUMBERS BEGINNING OR ENDING IN 1

, When a given number is multiplied by 1, the product

IS the same given number. This unique property of 1 is used to good advantage in numerous short cuts. When a multiplier containing 1 is used, somewhere in the answer IS the number being multiplied. This fact forms the basis of many of the short cuts that follow.

40

16

MULTIPLYING BY 11

Rule: The first digit of the given number is the first digit of the answer. Add the first digit to the second digit of the given number to obtain the second digit of the answer. Next, add the second digit of the given number to the third digit of the given number to obtain the third digit of the answer. Continue adding adj.acent digits until the tens digit of the given number is added to the units digit of the given number to obtain the tens digit of the answer. The units digit of the answer will be the units digit of the given number. If any of the sums are two-digit numbers, record only the units digit and add the tens digit to the preceding answer

digit.

Two examples will best show how to use this short cut, Example No.1:, Multiply 81,263 by 11.

The first digit of the answer will be 8, the first digit

of the given number. The second digit of the answer will be the sum of the first and second digits of the given number, 8 + 1 = 9. Continuing from left to right, the sum of adjacent digits in the given number will produce digits of the answer. The result is shown below:

8 1 2 6 3

/~/"./~/'\./~

8 9 3 8 9 3

Given number

Answer

41

42

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

In the example above, each sum was less than 10. But what would happen if the sum was 10 or more?

Example No.2: Multiply 67,295 by 11.

The 6 is the tentative first digit. The second digit is the sum of 6 and 7,. or 13. Here the sum is greater than 10. The 3 becomes the tentative second digit of the answer, but the 1 is carried left and added to the first digit.

6 + 1== 7

17

MULTIPLYING BY 12

Rule: Precede the given number with a zero. Starting from this zero, double each digit and add to it the next digit to its right. Record the sum .. When the units digit of the given number is reached, simply double it and record the sum. In each step, if the doubling process results in a two-digit number, record only tne units digit and add the tens digit to the preceding answer digit.

This is the new first digit of the answer. The third digit of the answer is found by adding the second digit of the given number to the third digit, 7 +2 := 9. The next digit in the answer is 2 + 9 := 11. Again the units digit becomes part of the answer, and the tens digit is carried left to the previously determined answer digit,

9 + 1 := 10.

This simple short cut is particularly handy when we want to project some monthly event over the ~ntire .rear. Suppose we are asked to find the total rent paid dur-ing the year if the monthly rental is $132.50. To do this we multiply the monthly rental by 12 .. Our problem then becomes

$132.50 x 12

First, place a zero in front of the number.

01 3 2. 5 0

Next double each digit and add to it the digit to the right. Addi~g 1 to 0 gives the first digit of the answer, 1. Adding twice 1 (the second digit of the given number) to 3 (its neighbor to the right) gives the second digit of the answer, 5. Continuing in this manner, we obtain the answer.

o 13 2. 5 0 Given number

$ I, 5 9 o. 0 0 Answer

Notice that in doubling the 5 in the given number the result was 10. The 0 was recorded and the I was added to the preceding digit. The preceding digit, however, was a 9, which when increased by 1 became 10. Again the 0 was

The 0 is the new third digit of the answer, and the 1 is carried still further left to the second digit, 3 + 1 = 4. This is the new second digit. Continue in this fashion until all adjacent digits have been added. The final digit in the answer is 5. This process is shown pictorially thus:

6 7 2 9 5 Given number

r-. ('" /~ -<. ,/ -,

~ 1 ~. 11 14 5

+/ +/+/

1 1 1

~ 3 It

I il

7 4 2 4 5 Final answer

43

44

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

re~or~ed ~nd. the 1 again carried another step to the left. Thl~ time It mcreased the previously determined B to a 9. Unti.l the 5 was doubled, the answer digits were 1,589.

18

MULTIPLYING BY 111

Rule: Imagine a number whose digits are ABCDEFGHIJKLM

The first digit of the answer will be A. The second digit will be A + B. The third digit will be A + B + C. The fourth digit will be B + C + D. The fifth digit will be C + D + E. This procedure is followed, adding three adjacent digits together, until the final three digits are reached. The hundreds digit of the answer will be K +

L + M. The tens digit of the answer will be

L + M. The units digit of the answer will always be the units digit of the given number, in this case, M. Remember that whenever the sum is

a two-digit number, the units digit is the answer portion and the tens digit is added to the preceding answer digit. 'I'hus, if I + J + K is a twodigit number, the tens digit will be added to the sum of H + I + J previously determined.

Follow the next example step by step. 6 5 9, B 4 5 x 1 1 1

The first digit of the answer will be the first digit of the given number, 6. The second digit of the answer Is

6+5::11

Write the 1 and carry the tens digit (also 1) left. 6+1==7

The next digit is

6 + 5 + 9 == 20

45

46

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Write the 0 and. carry the 2 left. 1 + 2 '" 3

The three digits we have found thus far are

730

Now begin adding the digits of the given number in groups

of three.

5 + 9 + 8 = 22 Write 2; carry 2.

9 + 8 + 4 = 21

Write 1; carry 2. Continue this process until the last three digits, 845,. are reached.

8 + 4 + 5 = 17

19

MULTIPLYING BY A MULTIPLE OF 11

Rule:

Multiply by the units digit of the multiple of ~ 1 (using the appropriate short cut). Then multtply by 11 (Short Cut 16)..

Although the beginner will usually apply this short cu~ in two separate operations, as he becomes more expert 10 its use the final answer will be obtained in only one operation. The explanation given below is in two distinct steps, since- this presentation is easier to follow ..

Multiply 84,756 by 66.

Here we are multiplying by the sixth multiple of 11, since 6 x 11 = 66. First, apply Short Cut 12 for multiplying by 6. Next, multiply the result by 11, using Short Cut 16.

Write 7; carry 1.

4 + 5 = 9

Write 9; no carry.

The final digit of the answer will be the units digit of the given number, 5.

In pictorial form, the entire example looks like this:

6 x 84,756 = 508,536

6 5 9, 8 4 5

11 x 508,536 = 5,593,896 Therefore

84,.756 x 66 '" 5,.593,896 Answer

73,242,795 Answer

47

20

MULTIPLYING BY 21

Rule: The first digit (or digits) of the answer will be twice the first digit of the given number. The second digit of the answer wiU be the first digit of the given number plus twice the second digit of the given number. The third digit of the answer will be the second digit of the given number plus twice the third digit of the given number. Continue the process until the tens digit of the given number is added to twice the urn ts digit of the given numb e r. This s urn is the tens digit of the answer. 'I'he units digit

of the answer is the units digit of the given number. Whenever a sum is a two-digit number, record its units digit and add the tens digit to the preceding answer digit.

This rule is very much like the one for multiplying by 1 L In fact, since 21 is the sum of 11 and 10, it does belong to the same family of short cuts ..

As an example, we shall multiply 5,392 by 21.

The first digits of the answer will be equal to twice the first digit of the given number ..

5 x 2 '" 10

Next, add the first digit of the given number, 5, to twice the second digit, 3.

5 + (2 x 3} '" 11

The units digit becomes the next answer digit, and the tens digit is added to the 1 0 previously determined. The first three digits up to this point are

1 1 1

48

SJ-{ORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

49

The next digit is obtained by adding 3 to twice 9. 3 + (2 x 9) := 21

Record the 1 and carry the 2 to the l.eft. The first four digits of the answer are now

1 131

The tens digit of the answer is obtained ~ya~d~ng the tens digit of the given number to twice the units digit of the

given number ..

9 + (2 x 2) '" 13

Record the 3; carry the 1 to the left. The units digit of the answer is the units digit of the given number, 2.

The product is therefore

5,392 x 21 = 113. 232 Answer

21

MULTIPLYING BY 121

Rule: Multiply the given number by 11, using Short Cut 16. Multiply the product obtained by 11 again.

The ease with which Short Cut 16 can be used permits even a two-step method such as this to be applied with rapidity. When used with small nurnber s, say, two- or three-digit numbers, the numbers obtained in the first step may be retained in the mind and the second step performed by writing the answer immediately. In the sample problem, the two steps will be shown.

Multiply 8,591 by 121.

Multiply the given number by 11, using Short Cut 16.

8.591 x 11 == 94,501

Multiply the result by 11.

94. 501 x 11 == 1, 039. 511 Answer

50

22

MUL TIPL YlNG BY 101

Rule: Fi.rst,. write the first two digits of the given number as the first two answer digits. Then, starting from the third digit of the given numbe r, add each of the di gi ts of the given numbel' in turn, adding the third digit to the first digit, the fourth digit to the second digit, and so on. When the last digit of the original number is reached, continue writing the remaining digits of the given number.

For example: 164,759 x 101.

The first two answer digits are

1 6

Starting from the third digit, 4, add in turn the digits of the given number, 1-6-4-7-5-9.

1 + 4 :=5; 6 +7 := 13; 4 + 5 := 9; 7 + 9 := 16 The 9 is the last digit of the original given number. Thereafter merely record the balance of the digits of the given number not added: in this case, '5 and 9. Naturally, in the additions performed above, the units digit is recorded as the answer digit; any tens digit is added to the preceding

answer digit.

Therefore

164,759 x 101

16. 640,659 Answer

51

2.3

MULTIPLYING BY 1,001

Rule: First, write the first three digits of the' given numb,er as the first three answer digits .. Then, startmg from the fourth digit of the given number, add each of the digits of the given number in tu~n, a~d~ng the fourth digit to the first digit, the fifth digit to the second digit, and so on. When the last digit of the original given number is reached, continue writing the remalnins digits of the given number. l;>

For example; 23,107 x 1,001. The first three answer digits are

231

Starh.·ng. from the .fourth digit of the <riven numbar, 0 dd

th d l;>- ,. a .

e . igits of the given number in turn.

2 + 0 = 2;

3 +7 '" 10

The 7. is t~e. Last digit of the original given number; therefore the dtgtts of the given number not yet added, 1, 0, and 7, are merely written as the answer digits. .

. ~henever a sum is greater than 9, record the units digit and add the tens digit to the preceding answer digit.

23,107 x 1,001 '" 23,130,107 Answer

52

24

MULTIPLYING BY ONE MORE THAN A POWER OF 10

Rule: Write as many digits of the given number as there are digits in the multiplier less one. Then, starting from the digit whose place is equal to the number of digits in the multiplier, add, digit by digit, the given number to the original given number.

What this rule means is that if the multiplier has seven digits,. the addition should start from the seventh digit, The first digit of the given number is to be added to the seventh digit of the given number, the second digit added to the eighth, and so on. Naturally, the first six digits of the answer will be the same as the first six digits of the given number unless they are changed by some digit that is carried forward.

For example: 66,809,542 x 100,001.

There are six digits in the multiplier; therefore write the first five digits of the given number as the first five answer digits. Starting at the sixth digit of the given number, add the digits of the given number.

6 + 5 '" 11;

6 + 4 = 10;

8 + 2 '" 10

The balance of the digits not added are merely written as given in. the original number .. When the sums are twodigit numbers, record the units digit as part of the answer and add the tens digit to the preceding answer digit. Thus, in the three sums shown above, 1 is recorded and 1 is carried forward; 0 is recorded and 1 is carried forward; 0 is reoorded and 1 is carried forward. The rest of the digits are recorded as they appear in the original given number.

o 95 4 2

53

54

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

The product is therefore

66,809,542 x 100,001 '" 6,681,021,009,542 Answer Which, in case you are interested, can be read as: Six trillion; six hundred eighty-one billion; twenty-one million; nine thousand; five hundred and forty-two.

2.5

MULTIPLYING "TEEN" NUMBERS

To one of the numbers, add the units digit of the other number. To the result, affix the units digit of the product obtained by multiplying the units digits of the given numbers. Any tens digit should be added to the sum found in the first step.

Rule:

The teen numbers include all numbers from 1 0 to 19. Example: 13 x 17.

The units digit of the first number may be added to the

second number, or the units digit of the second number

may be added to the first number. In either case the result

is the same.

13 + 7 '" 20

or

17+3=20

Affix the units digit of the product obtained by multiplying the units digits of the given number.

7 x 3 =' 21

Affix the units digit, 1; the tens digit, 2, is added to the sum found in the first step.

20 + 2 =' 22 Thus

13 x 17 = 221 Answer

55

26

MULTIPLYING BY ANY TWO-DIGIT NUMBER ENDlNG IN 1

Rule: Multiply the first digit of the given number by the tens digit of the multiplier, The product is the first digit (or digits) of the answer. The next digit is obtained by adding the first digit

of the given number to the product of the second digit of the given number and the tens digit of the multiplier. Continue this process until the tens digit of the given number is added to the product of the units digit of the given number and the tens digit of the multiplier. This will be the tens digit of the answer. The units digit of the answer will always be the units digit of the given number. Notice that only the tens digit of the multiplier is used in the various steps. Keep in mind that whenever a two-digit sum is obtained, the units digit is recorded while the tens digit is added to the preceding answer digit.

The beauty of these general short cuts is that they permit the choice of many different methods for obtaining an answer, depending on the tens digit. If we were called upon to multiply by 91, the rule above might not be as easy to use as some other rule. for example. Short Cut 60.

Multiply: 843 x 31.

The first digits of the answer will be three times the first digit of the given number.

8 x 3 =' 24

The next digit is the sum of the first digit of the given number, 8, and three times the second digit of the given number,

56

SHORT CUTS IN" MULTIPLICATION

57

4. The three, of course, comes from the tens digit of the multiplier, 310

8 + (.3 X 4) = 20

Record the 0 and carry the 2 to t~e.left. Next, add 4 to three times 3 to obtain the tens digit of the answer.

4 + (3 x 3) = 13

Record the 3 and car ry th eLSa far, our answer looks like

this:

2 I) 1 3

Only the units digit is yet to be determin~d.. .

The units digit of the answer is the units digit of the

given number, 3.

Therefore

843 X 31 "" 26,133 Answer

58

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 16 through 26

1) 6,528 x 33 =
2) 172,645 x 11
3) 956 x 121
4) 13 x 18 =
5) 2,742 x 1,001
6) 24,.863 x 21
7) 726 x 111 =
B) 2,665 x 12 =
9) 547 x 10,001
10) 42 x 111 =
11) 23,316 x 11 =
12) 167 x 101 =
13) 74,155 x 41
14) 89 x 12 =-
15) 1,038 x 121 = NUMBERS BEGINNING OR ENDING IN 5

The number 5 is perhaps the most interesting one to work with as well as one of the simplest. When we multiply a number ending in 5 by any other number, the units di.git of the product is always either ° or 5, depending on whether the given number is even or odd .. In fact, the ease with which 5 is multiplied permits us to adapt short cuts to numbers having 5 in a position other than at either end. Short Cut 36, for exampie, can be applied even when 5 appears in the middle of a number. Thus, although this section concerns itself particularly with numbers having '5 at either end, the methods are by no means restricted to such numbers.

59

27

MULTIPLYING BY 15

Rule: Add one-half the first digit to itself to obtain the Iir st answer digit (or digits).

Continue this process until the units digit is reached. Add an extra 5 if the digit to the left of the given digit is odd.

Ii any of the sums is more than 9, record the units digit and add the tens digit to the preceding answer digit.

Ignore any fractions that may occur,

If the units digit of the given number is even, the units digit of the answer is O. If the units digit of the given number is odd, the units digit of the answer will be 5.

For instance, multiply 738 by 15.

Add 7 to one-hali itself, ignoring the fraction.

7 + ~(7) = 10

These are the first two answer digits. Next, add 3 to onehalf itself.

3 + ~(3) = 4.

The number to its left is 7, which is odd. Therefore add 5.

4 + 5 = 9

This is the third answer digit. 109

The next digit is 8, and there is an odd digit to its left. 8 + ~(8) + 5 == 8 + 4. + 5 :. 17

60

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

61

Record the 7 and add the 1 to the preceding 9, which becomes 10. Record the 0 and add 1 to the answer digit pre-

ceding it.

a + 1 ::= 1

The answer digits are now 1 1 07

The units digit of the given number is even; therefore, the units digit of the answer is O.

1 1, 0 7 0 Answer

28

MULTIPLYING BY 25

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number two places to the right and divide by 4.

What, i~ being done here is to substitute multiplication of a two-digit number with division by a single digit, 4.

Multiply 649,372 by 25.

First, move the decimal point two places to the right.

649,372.00 becomes 64,937,200.

____."

Next, divide the result by 4.

64,937,200 .;- 4== 1 6,23 4,3 0 0 Answer

62

29

MULTIPLYING BY 52

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number two places to the right and divide by ,2. Add twice the original number to the result.

Suppose we wanted to hnd the yearly salary of someone earning $117 per week. Since there are 52 weeks in the year, the problem becomes

117x52

Move the decimal point of the given number two places to the right.

11 7.00 becomes

-

11,700

Divide by 2,.

11,700 .;- 2 ::= 5,850.

To this add twice the original number.

5,850 + 234 6,084

Thus the yearly salary of someone earning $117 a week is $6,084.

2 x 117 == 234;

63

30

MULTIPLYING A TWO-DIGIT NUMBER BY 95

Here is a case where a series of short-cut methods, each capable of being done mentally, are strung together into one unified short-cut method.

Rule: Subtract 5 from the given number and affix two zeros to the result. This will be called the partial product. Next, subtract the given number from 100 and multiply the result by 5. Add

this product to the partial product to obtai n

the final answer.

This can be best demonstrated by trying the example: 95 x 73..

First subtract 5 from the given number and affix two

zeros to the result.

6,BOO

(This is the partial product.) Next, subtract the given number from 100 (Short Cut 66).

100 - 73 := 27

Multiply by 5 (Short Cut 11).

27 x 5 := 135

(Note that the tens digit and the units digit of this product are always the tens digit and the units digit of the final answer . .)

Finally, add this product to the previously determined

partial product.

6,800 + 135 '" 6,935 Answer

64

31

MULTIPLYING BY 125

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number three places to the right and divide by B.

Dividing by 8 may not seem to be much of a short cut at first, but a simple application of the method will prove

its worth.

Multiply 1,483 by 125.

The usual multiplication process would require twelve

multiplication steps plus many steps in addition. The shortcut method uses one step in division. First, move the decimal point of the given number three places to the right.

1,483.000 becomes 1,483,000.

-

Next, divide by 8. Division by 8 can be simplified by dividing the gJven number by 2, then dividing the quotient by 2, and finally dividing the second quotient by 2. This third quotient is the final answer. ThUS, 1,483,000 can be mentally divided by 2, giving us 741,500. Inspection shows that 741, 500 can one e agai n be eas i ly divided by 2 , giving 370,750. Each time we halve the given number, the divisor

8 must also be halved.

8/2 '" 4;

4/2 := 2

To obtain the product we are looking for, we need merely divide 370,750 by 2.

370,750.;- 2 '" 185,375

Answer

Naturally, the same answer would have been obtained by dividing by 8 directly.

1,483,000.;- 8 := 185,375

Answer

65

,.

32

33

MULTIPLYING TWO TWO-DIGIT NUMBERS WHEN BOTH END IN 5 AND ONE TENS DIGIT IS ODD WHILE THE OTHER IS EVEN

MULTIPLYING TWO TWO-DIGIT NUMBERS WHEN BOTH END IN 5 AND THEIR TENS DIGITS ARE EITHER BOTH ODD OR BOTH EVEN

Rule: To the product of the tens digit add one-half their sum (ignoring the fraction i-). Affix 75 to the result.

Rule: To the product of the tens digits add one-half their sum. Affix 25 to the result.

This short cut will be tried with the numbers 75 and 45.

The product of the tens digits is

7 x 4 = 28

One-half the sum of the tens digits (neglecting 4) is i-(7 + 4) == 5

The sum of these two numbers is 33. Affix 75. 3,375

Thus

75 x 45 == 3,375

A word of caution about "affixing a number." This merely means the number is attached or tagged on at the beginning or end of a group of numbers; it does not mean the number

is to be added to another number. -

Although to use this short-cut method both tens digits must be either odd or even, they need not be equal.

H we are asked to multiply 65 by 45, we observe, first, that both tens digits are even and this method may be used. The product of the tens digits is 6 x 4 = 24. To this, onehalf the sum of the tens digits is added.

6 + 4 = 10; i- x 10 == 5 24 + 5 = 29

Affix 25. 2,925 Thus

65 x 45

2,925 Answer

66

67

35

34

MULTIPLYING TWO TWO-DIGIT NUMBERS WHOSE TENS DIGITS ARE BOTH 5 AND WHOSE UNITS DIGITS ARE BOTH ODD OR BOTH EVEN

MULTIPLYING TWO TWO-DIGIT NUMBERS WHOSE TENS DIGITS ARE BOTH 5 AND ONE UNITS DIGIT IS ODD WHILE THE OTHER IS EVEN

Rule: Add one-half the sum of the units digits to 25, ignoring the fraction~. Add the product of the units digits to 50 and affix the result to the sum obtained in the first step ..

Rule: Add one-half the sum of the units digits to 25.

Affix the product of the units digits to the result. If the product is less than 10, precede it with

a zero.

In this case we need not worry whether the product of the units digits is greater or less than 10 since it is eventually added to 50.

Let us find the product of 54 and 59. One units digit is

odd, while the other one is even. One-half the sum of the units digits is 6~. Ignoring the fraction and adding this to

25, we obtain

25 + 6 = 31

The product of the units digits is 36. This is added to 50 and the sum affixed to 31.

If we are asked to multiply 52 by 58 we see that the units digits are both even and therefore this short cut can be used. The sum of the units digits is 10 and one-half

this is 5. '

25 + 5 =30 Multiply the units digits. 2 x 8 = 16

Affix this to the 30 obtained above.

3, 016 Answer

Suppose we are asked to muitiply51 by 57. This time the units digits are both odd. Again the short cut is applicable. One-hali t~e ~um of the digits is 4; with this added to 25, the result is 29. However, in this case the product of the units digits is 7, which is less than 10; therefore a zero precedes the product before it is affixed to the 29.

2, 907 Answer

50 + 36 = 86

3,186 Answer

69

68

36

MULTIPLYING TWO TW'O-DIGIT NUMBERS WHOSE TENS DIGITS ARE BOTH 5 AND WHOSE UNITS DIGITS ADD TO 10

Rule: Affix the product of the units digits to 30. If the product is less than 10, precede it with a zero.

Multiply 53 by 57.

The units digits, 3 and 7, total 10 so that this short-cut method can be used. The first two digits of the answer are

30. The product of the units digits is

3 x 7 = 21

Affix this to 30,. resulting in the product: 3,.021

Through an interesting property of numbers, this same short cut can be applied to numbers of more than two digits. The short cut for multiplying numbers in their teens will

be used as an example.

Multiply 152 by 158.

Imagine just for this example that 5.2 and 58 may each be considered as if they were units digits, In actuality, only the 2 of the first number and only the B of the second number are the units digits. But what happens if we treat 52. and 58 as units digits? The rule for multiplying teen numbers (Short Cut 25) requires adding the units digit of one number to the other number 0 This provides the first two digits of the answer, The product of the units digits gives the units digit of the answer with any tens digit being added to the previously determined sum. Now our "teen"

70

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

71

number is 152, and the units digit of the other number is

58. Therefore thei.r sum is

152 + 58 '" 210

The product of the "units" digits is

52 x 58 = 3.,016

Remember, we are treating the last two digits as the units digits in this example. Therefore 1 and 6 are the final two digits in the answer, and the 30 is added to the previous sum.

210 + 30 =' 240

We now have the result.

152 x 158 '" 24,016 Answer

This is just one way in which a short cut of apparently limited application may have its usefulness enhanced. By redefining our terms and following through correctly, almost any short-cut's area of application may be broadened. Careful practice and a working knowledge of the intricacies of numbers as discussed throughout this book are all that

is necessary.

72

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 27 through 36

NUMBERS BEGINNING OR ENDING IN 9

1) 713 x 52 '"

8) 64 x 95 =

All numbers ending in 9 are one less than a multiple of 10. All numbers beginning with 9 ar e s om e power of 10 lesS than a number beginning with 10. These two characteristics of numbers beginning or ending in 9 are used to good advantage in the short cuts that follow.

For example, if we increase a number ending in 9 by one, the units digit of the new number is zero. Therefore, we have one less digit to multiply, and a simple subtraction restores the original multipLier. When a number begins with 9, it can also be increased easily to a simpler form. Thus 942 can be c hanged to 1,042 by adding 1 00 (w hi ch is

10 x 10) .. Although the new number has four digits, one of them is zero and the other is one; both are much simpler

multipliers than 9.

2) 29,621 x 125 =
3) 6,104 x 15
4) 51 x 59 =
5) 53 x 56 6) 8,298 x 25

7) 65 x75

9) 3,.871 x 125

10) 52 x 54 =

11) 81,927 x 25
12) 25 x 65 =
13) 144 x 5.2 =
14) 92 x 95
15) 54 x 56 = 73

37

38

MULTIPLYING BY 19

MULTIPLYING BY 99

Rule: Double the given number and affix a zero to the result. Subtract the given number.

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number two places to the right and subtract the given number.

Example: 7,390,241 x 19. Double the given number.

2 A 7,390,241 == 14,780,482

Affix a zero and subtract the given number. 1 4 7, B 0 4, 8 2 0

7, 3 9 0, 2 4 1

Multiply 1,152 by 99. .

Move the decimal point two places to the r-ight and sub-

tract the given number from the result.

1,152.00 becomes 115,200.

-

115,200

1,152

114.048 Answer

1 4 0, 4 1 4. 5 7 9 Answer

74

75

39

40

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number three places to the right and subtract the given number.

MULTIPLYING BY A NUMBER CONSISTING ONLY OF NINES

MULTIPLYING BY 999

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number to the right as many places as there are nines in the multiplier. Then subtract the given number.

Example: 1,152 x 999.

Move the decimal point three places to the right.

1,152.000 becomes 1,152,000.

-

Multiply 73 by 9,999,999.

There are seven nines in the multiplier; therefore the decimal point in the given number will be moved seven places to the right,

73.0000000 becomes 730,000, 000.

Subtract the given number. 730,000,000

73

Subtract the given number. 1,152,000

1,152

1,150,848 Answer

729,999,927 Answer

76

77

41

42

MUL TIP LYING TWO TWO-DIGIT NUMBERS ENDING IN 9 AND WHOSE TENS DIGITS ADD TO 10

MULTIPLYING BY A TWO-DIGIT MULTIPLE OF 9

Rule: Add 9 to the product of the tens digits and affix 81 to the result.

Rule: Multiply the given number by one more than the tens digit of the multiplier. Move the decimal point of the product one place to the right and subtract the original product.

Note that the number 81 is merely attached to the end of the previously determined sum; 81 is not added to the sum.

For example: Multiply 39 by 79.

Sinc e the sum of the t ens digits, 3 and 7, is 10 this shortcut method can be us ed, The product of the tens digits is

3 x 7 '" 21

To which 9 is added. 21 + 9 = 30

Affix 81 to this sum and obtain the product. 3, 081 Answer

Of course, the usefulness of this short cut is increased if the short cuts for multiplying by each of the digits is known.

As an example, multiply 87 by 63.

63 is a multiple of 9 (that is, 9 x 7 = 63). One more than the tens digit of the multiplier is 7.

Multiply the given number by 7, using Short Cut 13.

87 x 7 == 609

Move the decimal point one place to the right. 609.0 becomes 6,090 .

............

Now subtract the original product, 609.

6,090.

- 609.

5,481. Answer

78 79

43

MULTIPLYING BY ANY TWO-DIGIT NUMBER ENDING IN 9

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number one place to the right and multiply by one more than the tens digit of the multipli er, Subtract the given number from the result.

Multiply 713 by 39.

Move the decimal point of the given number one place to the right.

713.0 becomes

-

7,130.

One more than the tens digit of the multiplier is 4. Multiply 7,130 by 4, using Short Cut 10.

7,130 x 4 = 28,520

Subtract the given number.

28,520

713

27, 807 Answer

80

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

81

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 37 through 43

1) 5,803 x 999 =

2) 437 x 39

3) 598,974 x 36 =

4) 1,325 x 19

5) 710 x 99

6) 423 x 99,999

7) 29 x 89

8) 53,161 x 19

9) 1,524 x 59 '"

10) 69 x 49

SQUARING NUMBERS

When we speak of "squaring" a number, we mean multiplying the number by itself. To square 23 we write

23 x 23 (or commonly .232)

The process of multiplying a number by itself follows a systematic pattern which lends itself readily to short-cut methods. The simple rules explained in this section cover an amazingly wide range of numbers. Most of the short cuts included here involve two-digit numbers, but a few involve three- and four-digit numbers. With a little ingenuity, numbers of any size can be squared easily, using the short cuts that follow as the basis for many others. But there is a law of diminishing returns in using larger numbers; then, instead of saving time and labor, the short cut becomes merely a "stunt."

The squares of numbers play an important role in many other short-cut methods. By means of the few very basic methods in this section, the range of the multiplication problems which may be performed by short-cut methods becomes practically unlimited.

82

44

SQUARlNG ANY NUMBER ENDING IN 1

Rule: First, square the number to the left of the units digit. Then double the number to the left of the units digit. Affix the units digit of this result to the square found in the first step. If the result is more than 9, add the part to the left of the units digit to the square found in the first step. The units digit of the answer is always 1.

Consider the following example: Square 251.

The number to the left of the 1 is 25. Using Short Cut 45, we find the square of 25 is 625. Next, twice 25 is 50. Mhx the zero in 50 to 625 and add the 5 to 625.

625 + 5 '" 630

To which are affixed the 0 and the units digit (which is always 1).

63, 001 Answer

83

45

SQUARING ANY TWO-DIGIT NUMBER ENDING IN 5

Squaring a two-digit number ending in 5 is a special case of the short cut for multiplying any two-digit numbers ending in 5. In this particular case, the tens digits are equal.

Rule: Multiply one more than the tens digit by the original tens digit and affix 25 to the result.

For example, we shall square 45. First, add 1 to the tens digit.

4 + 1 = 5

Next, multiply by the original tens digit. 4 x 5 = 20

To this affix 25.

2,025

and we have the answer.

45 x 45 = 2,025

Remember to merely attach the 25 to the product: do not add it to the product.

From this rule we see that the square of any two-digit number ending in 5 always has 5 as its units digit and 2 as its tens digit.

84

46

SQUARING ANY NUMBER ENDING IN 5

Rule: Multiply the complete number to the left of the 5 by one more than itself and affix 25 to the result.

To demonstrate, we shall find the square of 195. The complete number to the left of the 5 is 19. Raising this one number higher gives us 20.

20 x 19 = 380

To which 25 is affixed.

38,025 Answer

85

47

SQUARING ANY THREE-DIGIT NUMBER ENDING IN 25

The square of 25 is 625. Oddly enough, these are the last three digits in the square of any three-digit number ending in 25. Since squaring a three-di.git number results in at most six digits, the problem here is merely to find the first three digits of the answer.

Rule: The first two digits (that is, the hundredthousands digit and the ten-thousands digit) are found by squaring the hundreds digit of the given number and adding to the result one-half the hundreds digit of the given number (ignoring the fraction ~ if it occurs). If the result is a onedigit number, then there is no hundred-thou-

a ands di git in t he a nsw er and the res ult is the ten-thousands digit of the answer. The thousands digit of the answer is 5 if the hundreds digit of the given number is odd and 0 if the hundreds digit of the given number is even ..

Mfix 625 to obtain the final answer.

Two illustrative examples will be used to demonstrate the ease with which this short cut may be used.

Example No.1: Square 225

First, square the hundreds digit of the given number, to obtain

4

To this add one-half the hundreds digit of the given number. 4 + 1 == 5

Since the answer is a one-digit number, 5 is the ten-

86

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

87

.. sands digit of the answer. The thousands digit of the thoU er will be 0 since the hundreds digit of the given numansw2· is even. 'To this we affix 625 to obtain the final

ber, . ,

anSwer.

50,625

Example No.2: Square 7.25 .

. t square the hundreds digit of the given number.

FIrs,

7 x 7 == 49

To this add one-half of 7 (ignoring the 4)·

49 + 3 =- 52

Th first digit 5 is the hundred-thousands digit of the

e . , , di it f

answer; the second digit, 2, is the ten-thousand~ Igl.0

the answer. The thousands digit of the answer IS 5, smc e the hundreds digit of the given number is odd. Affix 625 to obtain the final answer.

725 x 725 '" 525,625 Answer

48

SQUARING ANY FOUR-DIGIT NUMBER ENDING IN 25

The explanation for this short-cut method will be made a little clearer if the digits of the given number are assigned letters. The thousands, hundreds. tens, and units digits will be designated A, B, C, and D respectively.

Rule: Square digit A of the given number to obtain the tentative ten-millions and millions answer digits (if there is only one digit. it is the millions answer digit).

Double the product of A and B to obtain the hundred-thousands digit of the answer. If the result in this and subsequent steps is a twodigit number, the units digit is the answer digit; the tens digit should be added to the preceding answer digit.

To 5 times A add the square of B. The sum is the ten-thousands digit of the answer.

Multiply B by 5. This product is the thousands digit of the answer.

Affix 625 to the answer digits found above to obtain the final answer.

This short-cut method will be tried in two illustrative examples.

Example No.1: Square 2,825. Line the numbers up with their res pective letters.

ABeD 2 825

Square A.

2 x 2 4

88

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

89

The square has only one digit: therefore this is our tentative millions digit. Multiply A by B, and double the result.

2 x 8 x 2 == 32

The 2 is the hundred-thousands digit. The 3 is added to the 4 obtained in the first step.

3 + 4 = 7

Thus 7 is now the millions digit.

Add 5 times A to the square of B.

(5 x 2) + (8 x 8) = 74

The q is the ten-thousands digit. Add the 7 to the preceding answer digit.

2 + 7 = 9

The 9 becomes the new hundred-thousands digit, Stop and recapitulate what we have:

Millions digit

Hundred-thousands digit ~ -- 'I'err-thousands digit 794

Multiply B by 5. 8 x 5 = 40

The 0 is the thousands digit. Add the 4 to the preceding answer digit.

4 + 4 = 8

The final ten-thousands drgit is 8. The previous digits, 7 and 9, now are also final. Affix 625 to obtain the answer.

90

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

91

The square of 2,825 is therefore 7,980, 625 Answer

Example No.2: Square 7,325. Again the digits wUl be lined up with their respective letters.

ABeD 7 3 2 5

4 (the tens digit) is added to the hundred-thousands digit, 2. 4 + 2 "" 6

This is the new hundred-thousands digit. Multiply B by 5.

3 x 5 = 15

The 5 is the final thousands digit. The 1 is added to the ten-thousands digit.

4 + 1 =5

The 5 is the final ten-thousands digit. Since there is no digit to carry, the previous digits become final.

Affix 625 to obtain the final answer.

53,655,625 Answer

Square A.

7 x 7 :: 49

Since the answer is a two-digit number, the first digit, 4, is the ten-millions digit and the 9 is the millions digit.

Multiply A and B and double the result.

7x3x2=-4Z

The 2 is the hundred-thousands digit. The 4 is carried to the left and added to the previous millions digit, 9.

4 + 9 :: 13

The 3 becomes our new millions digit, and the 1 is added to the ten-millions digit.

4 + 1 :: 5

This is the new ten-millions digit. At this paint let us write the digits we have determined:

Ten-millions digit

I jMilliOnS digit

I I Hundred-thousands digit 5 3 2

Add five times A to the square of B. (5 x 7) + (3 x 3) '" 44

One 4 (the units digit) is the ten-thousands digit; the other

-,.....

II

49

50

SQUARING ANY TWO-DIGIT NUMBER WHOSE TENS DIGIT IS 5

SQUARING ANY NUNlBER ENDING IN g

Rule: Multiply the number to the left of the 9 by two more than itself .. Affix an 8 to the result and subtract twice the number to the left of the 9 .. Affix a 1 to the result.

Rule: Add the units digit to 25 and affix the square of the units digit to the result. If the square of the units digit is a one-digit number, precede it with a O.

Find the square of 53, using this method. First, add the units digit, 3, to 25 ..

2~5 + 3 == 28

This short cut can be applied to any number, no matter how many digits it has, so long as the units digit is 9. Of course, as the number gets larger, multiplying the two numbers of the first step will become cumbersome unless

a short cut can be used. However, most two- and threedigit numbers ending in 9 can be readily squared, once a facUity with the other short-cut methods has been achieved.

Example: Square 149.

The number to the left of the g is 14. Two more than this is 16. Multiply 14 by 16. (Short Cut 53 can be used here).

14 x 16 = 225 - 1 = 224 Affix 8.

2,248

Subtract twice the number to the left of the g, 2,248 - (2 x 14) = 2,248 - 28 = 2,220 Affix a 1 to obtain the final answer.

22,201 Answer

Next, affix the square of the units digit to the result. 3 x 3 = 9

Since the answer is a one-digit number, plac-e a zero in front of the 9 before affixing it to the 28.

2,809 Answer

As another example, find the square of 57. Again, the units digit is added to 25.

25 + 7 '" 32

Next, square the units digit 7 X 7 = 49

and affix to the previous result.

3,249 Answer

This time the square of the units digit was a two-digit number, and therefore it was not necessary to precede it with a zero.

92

93

I.I!

51

52

SQUARING ANY NUMBER CONSISTING ONLY OF NINES

SQUARING ANY TWO-DIGIT NUMBER

Rule: Write one less 9 than there is in the given number. Follow this with an 8. Then write as many zeros as the nines previously written. Finally, write a 1 as the units digit.

Rule: Square the tens digit and affix the square of the units digit to the result. If the square of the units digit is less than 10, prec ede it with a zero before affixing it to the square of the tens dtgit, Double the product of the digits of the given number. Add the units digit of this product to the tens digit of the previous number and add the tens digit of the product to the hundreds digit of the previous number.

This method is purely mechani.cal and requires nothing more than being able to count the nines in the given number.

Square 9,999.

There are four nines; therefore write three nines as the first part of the answer and follow with an 8. Next, write three zeros and end with a 1.

99.980,001 Answer

Example: Square 63. Square the tens digit.

6 x 6 '" 36

Square the units digit,

3 x 3 = 9

Precede this with a zero, since it is less than 10, and affix it to the result above.

3,609

Double the product of the digits.

(6 x 3) x 2 '" 36

Add the units digit, 6, to the tens digit of 3,609 and add the tens digit, 3,. to the hundreds digit of this number ..

94

95

96

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

3, 6 0 9 + 36

---

3, 969 Answer

--............--

SHORT CUTS IN MULTrPLICATION

97

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 44 through 52 Square each of the following numbers.

1) 59

2) 73

3) 425

4) 621

5) 99,999

6) 65
7) 175
8) 47
9) 119
10) 1,925
11) 52
12) 81
13) 535
14) 1,425
15) 34 MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS THAT DIFFER ONLY sue an y

Once you have mastered the art of squaring a number, you have in your possession a powerful tool applicable to more general problems in multiplication. The- product of two numbers that differ from each other only slightly is nearly equal to the square of the number midway between the given numbers. (This is particularly true of differences of up to about 20). The definite mathematical relationship which exists between the product and the square will be employed in the short cuts that follow. Since the squaring process is so important in all these methods, a review of the short cuts used in squaring numbers is recommended

at this time.

53

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS WHOSE DIFFERENCE IS 2

Rule: Square the number between the two given numbers and subtract 1.

This short cut is Simple to apply when the square can

be found easily. For example, suppose we have to multiply 24 by 26. The number between the two given numbers is 25. The square of 25 is quickly found to be 625 (Short Cut 45).

24 x 26 = 625 - 1 = 624 Answer Multiply 67 by 69.

Here the number between the given numbers is 68. Its square is

4,624.

Therefore

67 x 69 " 4,623 Answer

98 99

54

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS WHOSE DIFFERENCE IS 3

Rule: Square one more than the smaller number and add one less than the smaller number to the result.

Example: Multiply 34 by 37.

One more than the smaller number, 34, is 35. Square 35 (Short Cut 45).

35 x 35 == 1,225

Add one less than 34 to the result. 1,225 + 33 = 1,258 Therefore

34 x 37 =: 1,258 Answer

100

- p:z

55

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS WHOSE DIFFERENCE IS 4

Rule: Square the number midway between the two given numbers and subtract 4.

Naturally the success of thi.s short cut will depend on how easy it is to square a number. For example, if the number midway between the two given numbers ends in 5, Short Cut 45 can be applied very simply and the answer obtained as quickly as it takes to write the digits .. There are numerous other short cuts which can also be used in conjunction with this one. Take the following example:

Multiply 69 by 73.

The number midway between the two numbers is 71.

Short Cut 26 shows how to square any two-digit number ending in 1. Applying this short cut, we find

71 x 71 = 5,041 Therefore

5,041 - 4 = 5,037

69 x 73

" 5, 037 Answer

101

56

57

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS WHOSE DIFFERENCE IS 6

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS WHOSE DIFFERENCE IS ANY SMALL EVEN NUMBER

Rule: Square the number midway between the two given numbers and subtract 9.

Rule: Square the number midway between the two given numbers; then square one-half the difference between the two given numbers and subtract the result from the square obtained in the first step.

Example: 48 x 54.

The number midway between the two given numbers is 51. Short Cut 26 can be used to square 51, since it ends in 1, o~ Short Cut 49 can be used. since its tens digit is 5.

In either case, the square of 51 is found to be 2,601.

Next, subtract 9 ..

2,601 - 9 '" 2,.592 Answer

This rule may be applied to numbers of any size. The limiting factor, however, is the calculation of the square. Take, for example, the following problem:

Multiply 109 by 121.

The number midway between the given numbers is 115.

It can be squared easily by using Short Cut 46.

115 x 115 '" 13,225

Square one-half the difference between the two given numbers.

121 - 109 1.2
t(12) '" 6
6 x6 ~ 36 Subtract the result from the square obtained in the first step.

13,225 - 36 '" 13,189 Thus

109 x 121 ;:

13,189 Answer

102

103

104

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 53 through 57

1) 31 x 43 :=

2) 113 x 121

3) 21 x 23

4) 88 x 92 :=

5) 79 x 81

6) 98 x 101

7)62 x 66

8) 322 x 326 :=

9) 102 x 108

10)51 x 54 =

II

M.ORE SHORTCUTS IN MUl.TlPLICATION

The short cuts that follow do not fall within any special category .. They do not involve a common number or a common factor. As a matter of fact, some are generalizations of specific short cuts discussed elsewhere in this book. Because they are so easy to use, they are often applied to problems in place of the more specific methods. Remember that although there may be a number of short cuts which can be used to solve a particular problem, the important thing is to be able to choose the most effective method posstble,

105

58

MULTIPLYING TWO TWO-DIGIT NUMBERS WHOSE TENS DIGITS ARE THE SAME

Rule: Add the units digit of one number to the other number, Multiply the result by the tens digit and affix a zero to the product. Add the product of the units digits to the result.

Since multiplication by the digits is the key step in this short cut, a review of Short Cuts 8 to 15 is recommended.

Example: Multi.ply 72 by 79.

Add the units digi.t of one number to the other number.

It does not matter whether 72 is added to 9 or 79 is added to 1; the result is the same ..

72 +9 '" 81

or

79 + 2 == 81

Multiply by the tens digit, 7.

81 x 7 = 567 (Short Cut 13) Affix a zero

5,670

and add the product of the units digits. 2 x 9 == 18

5,670 + 18 = 5,688 Therefore

72 x 79 "" 5,688 Answer

106

59

MULTIPLYING TWO TWO-DIGIT NUMBERS WHOSE UNITS DIGITS ARE THE SAME

Rule: Multiply the tens digits .. Next, add the tens digits and multiply the sum by the units digit. Add any tens or hundreds digit of the result of this step to the product obtained in the first step and affix the units digit obtained in this step to the result. Square the units digit and add any tens digit to the preceding number. The units digit of the answer will be the units digit of the square.

As an example, we shall multiply 76 by 46. The product of the tens digits is

7 x 4 ::= 28

Add the tens digits and multiply the sum by the units digit.

7+4=11

11 x 6 = 66

Add the tens digit, 6, to 28 and affix the units digit, also 6 in this case, to the result.

28 + 6 ::= 34

346

Square the units digit of the given number. 6 x 6 '" 36

Add the tens digit, 3, to the answer digits already obtained 346 + 3 ::= 349

and affix the units digit of the square. 3,496

107

~---.-~-~-~ ....... -_.---

108

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Therefore

76 x 46

3,496 Answer

60

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS THAT ARE JUST A LITTLE LESS THAN 100

Rule: Subtract each number from 100. Subtract one of the differences from the other given number. The result is the first two answer digits. Affix the product of the differences, which then becomes the last two digits of the answer, If the product of the differences is a single digit, precede it with a zero before affixing it to the first two answer digits. If the product of the differences has a hundreds digit, add it to the preceding answer digit.

Two examples will be used to demonstrate this shortcut method.

First, we shall multiply 86 by 78"

The difference between each number and 100 is obtained.

100 86 = 14 100 78 22

Subtract either difference from the other given number; in each case the result is the same.

78 - 14 = 64

86- 22 = 64

or

The first two digits of the answer are therefore 64.

Multiply the differences.

22 x 14 :: 308 (Short Cut 19 can be used here)

Affix 08 to the previously determined answer digits and add the 3 to the hundreds digit of the new number,

6 (4 + 3) 0 8

109

110

SHORT CUTS [N MULTIPLICATION

6,708 Therefore

78 x. 86 =: 6,708 Answer

Next, we shall try this short cut on the example: 97 x 98

First, find the difference between each number and 100.

100 - 97 '" 3

100 - 98 =: 2

Subtract either difference from the other given number. Notice again that the result is the same, no matter which difference is used.

98 - 3 '" 95

or

97 - 2 '" 95

Next, multiply the differences and affix to 95. 3 x 2 = 6

In this case the product is a one-digit number, which means we must precede the 6 with a zero before affixing it to the 95.

I II

I

9.506 Answer

61

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS THAT ARE JUST A LITTLE LESS THAN 1,000

Rule: Subtract each of the given numbers from 1,000.

Subtract one of the differences from the other given number. The result is the first three answer digits. Affix the product of the differences to obtain the final answer.

The question one might ask is, "What constitutes a little less than 1,OOO?" Actually, the answer depends on the parttcular problem. The ease and rapidity with which the dUferences can be multiplied will often be the determining factor.

With this short-cut method it is possible to multiply 998 by 996 as quickly as the answer can be written.

The difference between each of the given numbers and 1,000 is 2 and 4 respectively. Subtracting 4 from 998, or 2 from 996 (the result is the same), produces the first three answer digits. Using the ABC notation, the answer digits are

ABC D E F 994

Only the letters A to F are necessary, since the product of two numbers just a little less than 1,000 is a six-digit number.

The last three digits are obtained by multiplying 4 by 2.

Since the product has less than three digits, the D and E digits will be zero.

ABC D E F 994008

Therefore

111

112

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

998 x 996 '" 994, 008 Answer

The prec eding a ns w er was obtained with th e si m p les t mental arithmetic. The given numbers were only two and four less than 1,000. But suppose the two given numbers were alrnos t a hund red les s than 1,000; can this short cut still be used? The answer is that this method is applicable no matter how much less than 1,.000 the given numbers are. However, it becomes a "short cut" only when the necessary steps can be handled quickly.

:rhe following example will demonstrate this point,

966 x 964

62

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS THAT ARE JUST A LITTLE MORE THAN 100

Rule: Subtract 100 from each of the given numbers.

Add one of the differences to the other given number. The three digits of the sum are the first three digits of the answer. Multiply the differences and affix the product to the first part of the answer to obtain the final answer.

The operations are:

1,.000 - 966 = 34 1,000 - 964 = 36

964 - 34 = 930 or 34 x 36 = 1,224

Short Cut 58 made the last step simple. The first three digits are:

966 - 36

930

When multiplying two numbers that are just a little more than 100, the product will be somewhere between 10,000

and 15 000 or perhaps a little larger ... But it will be a fivedigit n~mber. We can therefore denote the answer digits by

ABC D E

The following example will be used to show how this short cut works.

ABC D E F 930

117 x 109

Subtract 100 from each of the given numbers.

Since the product of the differences is a four-digit number, record only 224 in D, E, and F respectively, Carry the 1 left and add it to the C digit.

The final product is therefore

931, 224 Answer

117 - 100 "" 17

109 - 1 00 == 9

Add one of the differences to the other given number. It does not matter whether we add 9 to 11 7 or 17 to 109; the result is the same.

117 + 9 '" 126

or

109 + 17 == 126

The digits, 1, 2, 6, are the A, B, C digits.

ABC D E 126

Multiply the di.fferences to obtain the D and E digits. 17x9=153

113

114

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Since the product is a three-digit number, the last two digits are recorded as D and E. The 1 is carried left and added to the previously determined C digit.

ABC D E 1 275 3

Therefore

117 x 109 = 12,753 Answer

If the product of the differences was a one-digit number, it would he recorded as the units digit of the answer (the E portion) and a zero would be placed in the D position.

63

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS THAT ARE JUST A LITTLE MORE THAN 1,000

Rule; Subtract 1,000 from each of the given numbers.

Add one of the differences to the other given number. The four digits of the sum are the first four digits of the answer. Affix the product of the differences to obtain the final answer.

The product of two numbers just a little more than

1 000 is a seven-digit number. The answer can therefore b~ shown using the letter notation,

ABC D E F G

Multiply 1,078 by 1,0150

Subtract 1,000 from each of the given numbers ..

1,078 - 1,000 ~ 78 1,015 - 1,000 = 15

Add one of the differences to the other given number.

1,078 + 15 = 1,093 or 1,015 + 78 = 1,093

These are the first four answer digits.

ABC D E F G 1 ° 9 3

Multiply the differences (Short Cut 27 can be used here) ..

78 x 15 = 1,170

The last three digits, 1, 7, 0, are the last three digits of the answer. The thousands digit, 1, is added to the preceding answer digit.

ABC D E F G 1 094 1 7 0

115

116

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Therefore

1,078 x 1,015 :: 1,094,170 Ansbcer

Note that if the product of the differences was less than a three-digit number, zeros would occupy the E or E and F positions, depending on whether the product was a two- or one-digit number.

64

MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS WHOSE; UNITS

DIGITS ADD TO 10 AND THE OTHER CORRESPONDING DIGITS ARE EQUAL

Rule: Multiply the number to the left of the units digit by one more than itself. Affix the product of the units digits to the result.

This short cut can be used with numbers of any size providing the corresponding digits to the left of the units digits are the same and the units digits add to 10.

For example, multiply 324 by 326.

The units digits add to 10, and the other digits are the same in each number. Multiply 32 by one more than 32"

32 x 33 '" 1,056 (Short Cut 19 or 58)

Multiply the units digits.

4 x 6 :- 24

Affix this product to the result of the first step. If the product of the units digit was a one-digit number, a zero would precede it before it was affixed to the product obtained in the first step.

105,624 Therefore

324 x 326

105,624 Answer

117

118

SHORT CUTS IN MULTIPLICATION

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 58 through 64 1) 92 x 97

2) 73 x 75

3) 975 x 997 ::=.

4) 43 x 73 '"

5) 81 x 83

6) 12 x 32 '"

7) 987 x 991 '"

8) 1,042 x 1,011

9) 106 x 121 '"

10) 89 x 93 '"
11) 103 x 108
12) 356 x 354
13) 1,213 x 1,217
14) 998 x 998 =
15) 95 x 91 = Chapter 3

SHORT CUTS IN SUBTRACTION

Like addition, subtraction does not lend itself to true short cuts. Unlike addition, there are no sequences of subtraction for which short cuts may be used. For this reason, only a few simple problems in subtraction can be aided through t he us e of short - cut methods. Two of the best are given here.

119

65

SUBTRACTING A NUMBER FROM THE NEXT HIGHEST POWER OF 10

Starting from the first given digit, record th-;-i

difference between the digit and 9 ... COl1tinu~~ I

this process thr~ugh th .. e tens digi.t of the given I

number. The units digit of the answer is ob-

tai ned by subtracting the given units digit frum I 10,

'-------- -- --- --- --- -- ---

Rule:

The nearest power of 10 which is greater than a given number is a 1 followed by as many zeros as there are digits in the given number. The near-est power of 10 to a number in the "teens" is therefore 100; the nearest power of IOta a number in the tens of thousands is 100 000 and

, ,

so on.

The following table will help you with the differences required in this short cut. It is recommended that you memorize them until they become second nature ..

Given digit: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Difference with 9: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a Subtract 762 from 1, 000.

One thousand, of course, is the next highest power of 10 to 762.

, Subtract each of the digits from 9, starting from the Iirst. Stop at the units digit. The first two answer disrits

are therefore b

23

Subtract the given units digit, 2" from IOta obtain the units answer digit.

238 Answer

120

66

SUBTRACTING A NUMBER FROM ANY POWER OF 10

Short Cut 65 can be extended to include subtraction

from any power of 10 by affixing zeros in front of the given Ilumber and proceeding as before. What we are doing is increa.sing the, number of digits (even though the new digits are all zeros) so that we are, in effect, subtracting from the next highest power of 10.

Rule: Affix as many zeros in front of th.e, given num:lber as are necessary to give the given number

one less digit than the power of 10. Proceed

as in Short Cut 65. __j

1.--____ ---

Thus, if our given number has three digits and we want to subtract it from 1,000,000, we must affix three zeros

in front of the given number. It will then have six digits, while the power of 10 from which the number is being subtracted has seven digits ..

As an example, let us subtract 78,215 from 10,000,000, There are eight digits in the power of 10 and only five digits in the given number; therefore four zeros (5 - 1) must be attached to the given number.

o 0 007 821 5

Now record the difference with 9 for each digit under the corresponding digits of the given number except the units digit, where the difference with lOis used.

o 0 0 0 7 8 2 1 5 Given number 999,.921,785 Ansu,'er

121

122

SHORT CUTS IN SUBTRACTION

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 65 and 66

1) 1, 000 - 4.2 ==

2) 1,000,000 - 23,680

3) 100 - 83

4) 10,000 - 9,014

5) 1,000,000 - 103,855

Chapter 4

SHORT CUTS IND'IVISION

Division can be considered a short cut for repeated subtraction.

For example, when we say 8 goes into 72 nine Urnes, we mean 8 can be subtracted from 72 nine times. We can obtain this answer by subtracting 8 from 72 over and over until nothing remains, then counting the number of times we subtracted. The same result is obtained by dividing

72 by 8.

Like multiplication, division lends itself to many interesting and useful short cuts. Many of them, in fact, involve multiplication .. Consequently short cuts 7 to 64 will find frequent use in the methods that follow.

DET'ERMINING A NUMBER'SDIVIS·ORS

Many times it is useful to know whether or not a number can divide another number evenly, One method of making such a determination is to actually carry out the division. Unfortunately, when the given number is very large this process can be quite laborious. The short-cut methods that follow eliminate the necessity of such work. Rules are included for all single digits and 11 and 13. These rules also form the foundation for determining many other divisors. For example, if a number is found to be evenly divisible by 2 and 7, it is evenly divisible by 14

(that is, 2 x 7); if a number is evenly divisible by 3 and

5, it is evenly divis ible by 15 (that is, 3 x 5). The rule

for divisors is therefore clear.

1.23

124

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

Rule: If a given number is evenly divisible by each

of several digits, which themselves do not have common divtsor s, then the given number is evenly divisible by the product of these digits.

Short Cuts 67 to 76 are among the most useful ones you will learn.

67

DIVISIBILITY BY 2

Rule: If the units digit of the number is even, the number is evenly divisible by 2.

This rule is clear and straightforward, so that no example is necessary.

125

68

DIVISIBILITY BY 3

Rule: Add the digits of the given number. If the sum contains more than one digit, continue adding subsequent sums until a one-digit answer is obtained. If the answer is 3, 6, or 9, the given number is evenly divisible by 3.

Determine whether or not 9,781,052,214 is evenly divisible by 3.

Add the digits.

9 + 7 + 8 + 1 + 0 + 5 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 4 = 39 Since the sum has two digits, add again.

3 + 9 = 12

Again the sum has two digits. Add once more. 1 + l = 3

This time the result is a single digit. Since the sum is 3, the given number is evenly divisible by 3.

126

69

DIVISIBILITY BY 4

Rule; If the number formed by the last two digits is evenly divisible by 4, the entire number is evenly divisible by 4.

Determine whether or not 763,052 is evenly divisible by 4.

The last two digits are 52. Divide by 4.

52 + 4 = 13

Therefore the entire number is evenly divisible by 4.

Is 614 evenly divisible by 4?

The last two digits, 14, are not evenly divisible by 4.

14 + 4 = 3t

Therefore 614 is not evenly divisible by 4.

127

70

DNISlBILITY BY 5

Rule: If the number ends in 0 or 5 it is evenly divisible by 5.

No example is necessary, since the meaning of this rule is very clear.

128

--

71

DIVISIBILITY BY 6

Rule: If the sum of the digits of an even number is 3, 6, or 9, the entire number is divisible by 6.

As in Short Cut 68, the digits of the sums should con-

tinue to be added until a one-digit answer is obtained.

Deter mine if 866,125 is evenly dtvtst ble by 6.

Since this an odd number, it is not evenly divisible by 6, Is 1,274 divisible by 6?

The digits ultimately add to 5, so that the number is not evenly divisible by 6. If 1 were added to any of the digits

so that the given number became 2,274 or 1,374 or 1,284

or 1,275, the digits of these numbers would ultimately add t06. The first three are evenly divisible by 6 but the fourth, 1,275, is an odd number and therefore is not.

129

72

DIVISIBILITY BY 7

Rule: Mark off groups of three digits, starting from the right .. Add alternate groups, Find the difference between the two sums thus obtained. If the difference is zero or a multiple of 7, the given number is evenly divisible by 7.

This method works only if the given number has four or more digits.

Determine whether or not 58,556,344 is evenly divisible by 7.

Divide the number i.nto groups of three digits, starting from the right.

58

556

344

Add the first and third groups. Find the difference between this sum and the second group.

344 + 58 == 402

556

-402

154

To determine whether or not 154 is a multiple of 7, divide it by any apparent divisor. In this case it is obvious that 2 is a divisor.

154 -;. 2 == 77

Since 77 is a multiple of 7, the given number 58,556,344 is evenly divisible by 7.

It does not follow that as the given number becomes larger, the difference will become Larger.. Consider the following.

130

StlORT CUTSIN DIVISION

131

Is 1,636,871,900,629 divisible by7? The alternate groups are

1 871 629 and 636 900

The two sums are

1 + 871 + 629 == 1,501

and 636 + 900 == 1,536

Their difference is 35, wh.ich is a m~lt.i.p,le of 7 .. Conse-

tlY the given number IS evenly dlvis ible by 7. quen

-

73

74

DIVISIBILITY BY 8

DIVISIBILITY BY 9

Rule:

If the sum of the digits of the given number is equal to 9 or a multiple of 9, the given number is evenly divisible by 9.

Rule: If the number formed by the last three digits of the given number is evenly divisible by 8, the entire number is evenly divisible by 8.

Of course, the first requirement is that the given number is even. A further test that can be made by inspection is to see whether or not the given number is evenly divisible by 4 (Short Cut 69) .. If it is not, then it cannot be evenly divided by 8.

For instance, which of the following numbers is evenly divisible by 8?

8,241

537,104

9,468,188

12,726

The first number is ruled out because it is not even.

The fourth number is ruled out because it is not divisible by 4.

The second and third numbers are possibilities. It is therefore necessary to apply the rule lor divisibility by 8.

1047813

188 7 823~

Thus, 537, 1 04 is evenly di vis i ble by 8, but 9,468, 188 is not.

The digits of the given number should "be added an~ the dl tts of the resulting sums re-added unhl a number IS obt~~ed which is clearly recognized as a multiple of 9 or not.

The sum of the digits of

34,762,195

is 37, which is not divisible by 9. But the digits of

24,762,195 or 34,762,194 or 3~,662,195

each total 36, and therefore each of the numbers IS evenly divisible by 9.

132

133

75

76

DIVISIBILITY BY 11

DIVISIBILITY BY 13

Rule: Mark off groups of three digits, starting from the right. Add alternate groups and find the difference between the two sums thus obtained. If the difference is zero or a multiple of 13, the given number is evenly divisible by 13.

Rule: Add alternate digits to obtain two sums. If the difference between the two sums is equal to zero or a multiple of 11, the given number is evenly divisible by 11.

To determine if

It is interesting to note the Similarity between this short cut and Short Cut 72. In either case, when the difference

is zero, the given number is evenly divisible by both 7 and 13.

Determine whether or not 82,108 is evenly divisible by 13.

Mark off alternate groups of three digits, starting from the right.

4,372,258

is divisible by 11, add alternate digits,

4 + 7 + 2 + 8 21

3 + 2 + 5 10

Find the difference between the two sums. 21 - 10 :: 11

82

108

Therefore the given number is evenly divisible by 11.

The number 3,289 is evenly divisible by 11 because the difference of the Sums of alternate digits is equal to zero.

3 9

t---...!! + 2

11 11

11-11=0

Similarly 93,819 is divisible by 11 because 9

In this case we merely find the difference between the two groups.

108 - 82 = 26

Since 26 is a multiple of 13, the given number is evenly divisible by 13,

The following example shows how this short cut works with larger numbers.

Is 1,116,248,953,781 evenly divisible by 13?

Add alternate groups of three digits, starting from the right.

8 9 26

3 +1 4

1 + 248 + 781 116 + 953

1,030 1,069

26 - 4 '" 22

The difference between these two sums is J9, Since it is a multiple of 13, the given number is evenly diviSible by 13.

and 22 is a multiple of 11.

134

135

136

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION Practice EXercises for Short Cuts 67.through 76 Determine whether the following numbers are evenly divisible by I 2 3 4 5 6 7 B

, , , , , j , , 9, 11, 13.

1) 69.0

2) 1,.309

3) 216

4) 1,001

5} 1,079

NUMBERS ENDING IN 5

When dividing by a number ending in 5, the number 2, oddly enough, plays a very useful role. This is because 5 can be written in this form

~x 10

Now if we divide by this new number,. which you must remember is only 5 in a slightly different dress, we are in effect dividing by ~and by 10. Division by ~is the same as multiplication by 2. Division by 10 simply involves moving the decimal point of the given number one place to the left.

137

77

DIVIDING BY 5

Rule: Double the number and move the decimal paint one place to the left.

By using Short .C.ut 8 the answer can be written directly, except for the posttion of the decimal point. If the number is no~ evenly divisible by 5, there will always be digits to the r ight of the decimal point in the final answer.

Divide 8,327 by 5.

From Short Cut 70 we know that the given number is not evenly divisible by 5.

Double 8,327. The result may be written directly. 16,654.

Move the decimal point one place to the left.

16,654. becomes 1,665.4

-

Thus

8,327 -;. 5 " 1,665.4

The decimal remainder, .4, is the same as 4/10 or 2/5. If 8,327 had been divided the usual way, the remainder would have been 2.

8, 327 -;. 5 = 1, 665 -2/5 Quotient The decimal equivalent of 2/5 is 0.4.

138

-

78

DIVIDING BY 15

Rule: Move the decimal point of the given number one place to the left. Double the result and divide by 3.

Essentially this short cut involves three separate steps, and the beginner would do well to approach it that way. But once mastered, the entire process can be condensed into one step. The three separate steps will be outlined in the first explanation given below. Mter that the shorter onestep method will be examined.

Divide 8,371 by 15.

Move the decimal point one place to the left.

8,371.

becomes

837.1

-

Double the number.

837.1 + 837.1 1,674.2

Divide by 3.

1,674.2 -;. 3 == 558.06-2/3

The fact that the sum of the digits of 1,674.2 is equal to 20 indicates that the number is not evenly divisible by 3.

The same result may be obtained in one step as follows.

Start with the doubling process, keeping the result in your mind instead of writing it down; then mentally divide by 3. Do this digit by digit, starting from the left.

USing the same number as in the example above, follow each operation carefully. Double the 8 but do not record the result. Instead, divide by 3 and record the quotient.

139

140

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

8 + 8 '" 16;

16 .;. 3 '" 5 + 1 remainder

Record the 5 as the first answer digit. Next, double the second digit in the given number.

3 + 3 == 6

Precede it with the remainder 1, obtained in the previous

step. '

16

Do not record this number, but divide it by 3 and record the r esult,

16 -;- 3 '" 5 + 1 remainder

Record the 5 again, so that the first two answer digits are 55

Double the third digit of the given number. 7 + 7 = 14

The remainder, 1, obtained in the previous step precedes the 4, but since a 1 already precedes the 4 the two ones must be added to obtain 24.

Divide the resulting number by 3.

24 -;- 3 = 8

This is the third answer digit. 558

Double the next number and divide by 3.

1 + 1 == 2 2 ~ 3 = 2/3

This time the result is less than 3. Therefore record a zero in the answer.

5,580

Affix a zero to the 2 and divide again by 3. 20 .;. 3 '" 6-2/3

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

141

Record this as the final part of the answer.

55,806-2/3

The decimal point is located by counting one less digit to the left of the decimal point than appeared in the given number. The given number in this case had four digits to the left of the decimal point; therefore the answer will have th.ree digits to the left of the decimal point.

558.06-2/3 Answer

Actually the answer could have been extended by continuously obtaining a remainder of 2. Since in this case all digits to the right of the decimal point in the given number are zeros, this would amount to repeatedly dividing 20 by

3 to obtain 6 and a remainder of 2. If the given number was evenly divisible by 15, the last division by 3 would be exact without any remainder.

79

80

DIVIDING BY 25

DIVIDING BY 125

8,639.705

becomes

8.639705

Rule: Move the decimal paint two places to the left and multiply by 4.

Rule: Move the decimal point three places to the left and multiply by 8.

Multi pli cati on by 4: is dis c us s ed in Short Cut 1 O. Di vision by 25 then becomes merely a problem of Simple addition and multiplication. But watch the decimal point carefully.

Divide 1,387.76 by 25.

Move the decimal point two places to the left.

1,387.76 becomes 13.8776

Multiplication by 8 is discussed in Short Cut 14. Divide 8,639.705 by 125.

Move the decimal point three places to the left.

-

-

Multiply by 8.,

8.639705 x 8 69.117640

Multiply by 4.

13.8776 x 4: 55.5104

Thus

8,639.705 + 125 - 6.9.117640 Answer

Thus

1,387.76

25

55.5.104 Answer

142

143

144

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

Practice Exercises jor Short Cuts 77 through 80 1) 87 .;. 25 ~

2) 1,427,006 5 =

3) 192.38

125 ::=

4) 58 -r- 15

5) 239

25

1

MORE SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

The first of the two short cuts that follow is interesting and unique because it requires only the use of addition. It is based on an unusual property of 9. If any digit from 1 to 8 is divided by 9, the result is a decimal point followed by the numerator continuing indefinitely. For instance,

1/9 = .111111 ...

(The three dots indicate that the ones continue on without end.)

Reducing a number to its various factors helps us to learn many things about the number. By using factors, we are able to find the highest common multiple as well as the lowest common denominator of a group of numbers. We

can also cancel common factors and thereby simplify otherwise complex problems in division. The latter property is the basis of the second short cut in this section.

145

81

DIVIDING BY9

Rule:

The first digit of the answer is equal to the first digit of the given number. The second answer digit is equal to the sum of the first and second digits of the given number. The third answer digit is equal to the sum of the first second

and third digits of the given number: Contidue this process until all digits of the given number are added except the units digits. This sum is the units digit of the answer. The sum of all digits of the given number is the tentative remainder. Repeat this sum three times .. If any

of the sums are two-digit numbers, record

only th~ units digit and add the tens digit to the p~eCedlllg answer digtt, The first digit to the r'Ight of the units digit of the answer is the remainder. If the remainder is 9, cross it out

and add 1 to the units digit of the answer. The rest of the digits to the right of the remainder may be discarded.

The lette.rs A, B, C, and so forth will be used to designate the dtgits of the given number; the letters abc and so forth will designate the answer digits. The fi~st digit of t~e. answer IS equal to A and should be placed over the B digit of the given number in this fashion:

a

ABC D ...

Answer digits Given number

A + B = b, which goes over C and is the second digit of the answer. A + B + C := c, which goes over D. The u?its digit of the answer is the sum of all digits in the gwen number except the units digit. The sum of all digits

146

-'I"'"

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

147

in the given number is the tentative remainder digit. Repeat the process of adding all digits in the given number and record each result until there are three digits after

the units digit of the answer. The digits appearing over

the digits of the given number constitute the quotient. The first digit to the right of the units digit in the quotient is

the remainder. If the remainder is 9, cross it out and

add 1 to the units digit of the quotient. The balance of the digits to the right of the remainder digit may be discarded. Remember, if any of the sums is a two-digit number, carry and add any tens digits to the preceding answer digits.

As an example we shall divide 63&,125 by 9.

We shall use the A, B, C notation to make it easier to follow the explanation.

ABC D E F 6 3 9 1 2 5

Given number

The A digit, 6, goes over B as the Hrst digit in the answer.

6

ABC 0 E F 639125

Answer digits

Given number

Next, we add 6 + 3 and put the answer over C; 6 + 3 + 9, and put the answer over D (carrying left the tens digit of the sum); 6 + 3 + 9 + 1 goes over E (remembering to carry the tens digit again). The answer thus far looks like this (taking into account all tens digits that were carried, of course):

7 0 9 9 ABC D E F 6 3 9 1 2 5

Given number

Answer digits

The sum 6 + 3 + 9 + 1 + 2 will give the units digit; the sum of all digits 6 + 3 + 9 + 1 + 2 + 5 will give the tentative remainder. Repeat this sum until three digits are given after the units digit of the quotient. The answer will now look like this:

148

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

7 1 ° 1 3 8 8 6 ABCDEF

6 3 9 1 2 5 Given number

The q~Otie~t.is 71,013; the remainder, the first digit after !he units digft of the quotient, is 8. The complete answer IS therefore

Answer digits

71,013-8/9 Answer

82

DIVIDING BY FACTORS

Rule: Determine the factors of the given number and the divisor, Cross out the factors that are common to both. Divide the resulting given number by the resulting divisor.

A number that divides another number evenly is called a factor of the larger number .. Thus 2, 3, 4, 6 are all [actors of 12 since each of them divides 12 evenly.

Short Cuts 67 to 76 will be used to determine the factors in the example given below, but sometimes simple trial

and error is just as easy.

For example: Divide 435,240 by 14,040.

Start from the highest factor. Using Short Cut 76, we see that both the given number and the divisor are evenly divisible by 13, The digits of the given number add to 18 and the digits of the divisor add to 9, Therefore both numbers also have a factor of 9. Likewise they both have a factor of 8 and 5,. We can also show that 7 is not a factor of either of the numbers.

At this point we can stop determining the factors for a while, It is apparent that the digits 2, 3, 4, and 6 are factors of both numbers since each of these digits have common factors with the numbers 8 and 9 previously determined,

Now divide by the factors 13, 9, 8, and 5.

435,240 -r- 13 - 33,480 14,040 13 1,080
33,480 9 3,720 1,080 9 '" 120
3,720 -r- 8 465 120 ... 8 = 15
465 -r- 5 = 93 15 5 3 Now we can easily divide 93 by 3.

149

150

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

93 .;. 3 = 31 Thus

435,240 -i- 14, 040 '0 31 Answer

SHORT CUTS IN DIVISION

151

Practice Exercises for SOOrt Cuts 81 and 82 1) 387 -+ 9 =

2) 4,100.4 9 '"

3) 1,218 210 '0

Chopter 5

SHORT CUTS WITH FRACTIONS, MIXED NUMBERS, AND PERCENTAGE

Fractions and mixed numbers are not as difficult to work with as many people believe. Since they follow the rules used with whole numbers, no new operation needs to be learned. However, special care is necessary to avoid overlooking intermediale steps and seeing that numbers are put in their proper place .. A number of the short cuts are merely extensions of short cuts used elsewhere in this book for whole numbers and decimals.

Percentages represent fractional parts of 100. When we say "'30%" we mean "fifty-hundredths" or 50/100, which is merely!. Since percentages are fractions., a "percent"

of a given number is less than the given number,. provided the "percentage'" is less than 1 00. Percentages greater than 100 are really mixed numbers, with the digits to the left of the tens digit being the whole number and the tens and units digits making up the fractional part of 1 00. Thus 215% is actually the mixed number 2-15/100.

153

83

ADDING TWO FRACTIONS WHOSE NUMERATORS ARE BOTH 1

Rule: Write the sum of the denominators over the product of the denominators.

The numerator is the number over the fraction line and of course, the denominator is the number under the frac- ' tion line.

To find the sum of

1 1

'1 + 12

merely add the denominators, 7 + 12 := 19

and put the sum over the product of the denominators. 7 x 12 := 84

Thus

1/7 + 1/12 '" 19/84 Answer

It is always a good idea to reduce any fractional answer to its simplest form by canceling any common factors.

In the example above, 19 and 84 have no common factors' therefore 19 is the Simplest form of the fraction. '

84

154

84

FINDING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO FRACTIONS WHOSE NUMERATORS ARE BOTH 1

Rule: Write the difference between the denominators over the product of the denominators.

Watch how a couple of simple short cuts can save a lot of work and time in solving an otherwise difficult problem, Subtract 1 from 1.

87 83

The difference between the denominators is 4.

The product of the denominators is

83 x 87 := 7,221 (Short Cut 55)

The answer is

4 7,.221

A fractional answer should always be tested to see if it can be reduced to a simpler form by can-celing common factors in the numerator and denominator .. In the case above, it

is obvious that the only factors of 4 are 2 and 4.. But since 7,221 is an odd nu mber, it does not contain either a 2 or

4, so that 4 is the simplest form of the fraction.

7,221

155

85

MULTIPLYING BY 3/4

Rule: Divide the given number by 4 and subtract the result from the given number.

Multiply 8,924 by 3/4.

Divide B,924 by 4 and subtract the result from the original number.

4} B,924 -2,231 6,693

Therefore

Given number Quotient Answer

8,924 x 3/4

6,693 Answer

156

86

MULTIPLYING BY 2t

Rule: Starting from the first digit of the given number, double each digit and add one-hall the given digit. Ignore any fractions. Add any tens digits to the previous answer digit. Add 5 if the preceding digit of the given number is odd. Affix tto the answer if the given number is odd.

Use this short cut when the given number is an integer or a decimal number. Mixed numbers and fractions are difficult to handle with this method.

This short cut will be used in the example:

517,849 x 2t

Double the 5 and add one-half of itself to obtain the first answer digit.

5 + 5 = 10:

10 + ~(5) = 10 + 2 = 12

(The fraction ~ is ignored.)

Record 12 as the first two answer digits.

Double 1. One-half of 1 is t, which is ignored. But since the preceding given digit is odd, add 5 to the result of this step.

1 + 1 = 2;

2 + t(l) '" 2 + 0 == 2

2 + 5 = 7

Record the 7 as the next answer digit. 127

The next given digit is 7.

7 + 7 = 14; 14 + ~(7) = 14 + 3 = 17

The previous given digit, 1, is odd; therefore add 5.

157

158

SHORT CUTS WITH FRACTIONS

17 + 5 := 22

Record the units digit, 2, as an answer digit. Carry the tens digit, also 2, and add it to the previous answer digit, The answer thus far is

1292

Continue this process with the balance of the given digits.

B + B := 16j

16 + 4 := 20;

20 +5 := 25

Record 5; add the 2 to the previous answer digit. The answer at this point is

12945

The 4 is next. 4 + 4 := 8.;

8 + 2 := 10

Record 0; add 1 to previous answer digit. 129460

Next is 9.

9 + 9 := 18;

18 + !(9) := 18 + 4 = 22

Record 2; add .2 to the previous answer digit. 1,294,622

This is the last digit of the given number, Since the given number is odd, affix! to the answer.

1,294,622-1/2 Answer

87

MULTIPLYING BY H

Rule: Move the decimal point one place to the right, divide by 4, and subtract the quotient from the number first divided.

Since difficulties are sometimes encountered when moving the decimal point of a fraction or mixed number, limit the use of this short cut to integers and decimal numbers.

Multiply 63 by 7~·.

Move the decimal point one place to the right.

63.0

becomes

630.

-

Divide by 4 and subtract the quotient from 630. 630 -;- 4 := 157!

630

-157 ~

472!

Thus

63 x 7-1/2 = 472-1/2 Answer

159

88

MULTIPLYrNC BY 12t

Rule: Move the decimal point two places to the right and divide by 8.

Use this short cut on whole numbers and decimal numbers only. Odd whole numbers wHl always end in ~; i.e., the remainder after dividing by 8 will be 4.

As an example: Multiply 631 by 124.

Move the decimal point two places to the right.

631. 00 becomes 63,100.

-

Divide by 8.

63,100 8 = 7,887t

Therefore

631 x 12-1/2 '" 7,887-1/2 Answer

160

89

MULTIPLYING TWO MIXED NUMBERS WHOSE WHOLE NUMBERS ARE THE SAME AND WHOSE FRACTIONS ADD TO 1

Rule: Multiply the whole number by one more than itself. Affix the product of the fractions.

Multiply 9-4/9 by 9-5/9.

Multiply the whole number by one more than itself.

9 X 10 == 90

Affix the product of the fractions. 4/9 x 5/9 == 20/81

9-4/9 x 9-5/9 '" 90-20/81 Answer

161

90

MULTIPLYING TWO IvIlXED NUlvIBERS WHEN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE WHOLE NUMBERS IS 1 AND THE SUM OF THE FRACTIONS IS 1

Rule: Increase the larger of the whole numbers by one and multiply by the other whole number. Square the fraction of the larger number and subtract the square from 1. Affix the result to the product obtained in the first step.

For the sum of two fractions to be equal to 1,. their denominators must be the same (at least when both fractions are written in their Simplest form) and the sum of the numerators must equal the denominator.

Multiply 15-3/4 by 14-1/4.

Increase the larger whole number by one and multiply by the smaller whole number.

15 + I '" 16;

16 x 14 '" 224 (Short Cut 53 or 25)

Square the fraction of the larger number 3/4 x 3/4 == 9/16

Subtract the result from I.

1 - 9/16 '" 7/16

Affix the result to the product obtained in the first step.

224-7/16 Answer

162

91

SQUARING A NUMBER ENDmG IN ~

Rule: Multiply the whole-number part of the given number by one more than itself and affix 1/4.

Naturally the ease with which the whole number is multiphed by one more than i.tself will determine when this short cut is used. Often other short-cut methods can be applied to reduce the job of multiplying the whole numbers.

Square 87!

Multiply the whole number, 87, by one more than itself (Short Cut 58 01'62 can be employed here).

87 x 88 == 7,656

Affix 1/4.

7,656-1/4 Answer

163

92

DIVIDING BY 2t

Rule: Move the decimal point one place to the left and multiply by 4.

If enough zeros are added to the right of the decimal point of the given number, there will never be a fractional remainder left after di.viding by 4.

Di.vide 87,6 by 2!.

Move the decimal point one place to the left.

87.6

becomes

8.76

--

Multiply by 4 (Short Cut 10) ..

B.76 x 4 == 35.04

Therefore

87,6

2-1/2 '" 35.04 Answer

164

93

DIVIDING BY 12+

Rule: Move the decimal point two places to the left and multiply by 8.

Use this short cut on integers and decimal numbers.

Fractions and mixed numbers sometimes present problems in moving their decimal point.

The use of Short Cut 14 will naturally facilitate multiplication by 8.

Example: 57,813.,. 12t.

Move the decimal point two places to the left.

57,813. becomes 578.13

-

Multiply by 8,

578.13 x 8 =' 4,625.04 Therefore

57,813 7- 12-1/2 = 4,625.04 Answer

The answer is a decimal number, This will always be true (although, of course, the decimal portion can be zero at times),

165

94

DIVIDING BY 33-1/3

Rule: Multiply the given number by3 and move the decima.l point two places to the left.

Divide 83 by 33 ~ 1/3.

Multiply by 3 (use Short Cut 9 if necessary).

83 x 3 = 249

Move the decimal point two places to the left.

249.0

becomes

2049

-

Thus

83 .. 33-1/3 '" 2.49 Answer

95

FINDING 16-2/3% OF A NUMBER

[ Rule: Divide the given number by 6 ..

If the given number is odd, the answer will contain a fraction. See Short Cut 71 for the rule for divisibility by 6.

Find 16-2/3% of 132.00

Short Cut 71 shows that this number is evenly divisible by 6.

132 + 6 = 22

Therefore

16 -2/3% of 132 '" 22. 00 Answer

166 167

96

FINDll\IG 33-1/3% OF A NUMBER

1 Rule: Divide the given number by 3.

Short Cut 68 will indicate whether or not the given number is evenly divisible by 3. U it is not, the answer will have a fraction.

What is 33-1/3%0£ 127 Divide by 30

12 .;.. 3 = 4

Therefore 4 is 33-1/3% of 12.

168

J

97

FINDING 37~% OF A NUMBER

Rule: Multiply the given number by 3 and divide the result by 8.

Either operation may be performed first; the answer will be the same.

For example: Find 37i% of 7,216. Multiply by 3 (Short Cut 9).

7,216 x 3 = 21,648

Divide by 8.

21,648 .;.. 8 = 2,70£ Therefore

37-1/2% of 7,216 = 2,706 Answer

U the order of operation were changed, 2,70£ would again be obtained. This time, divide by 8 first.

7,216 .;.. 8 = 902

(This can be obtained almost by inspection.) Next, multiply by 3.

902 x 3 = 2,706

It is evident that in this particular example the second order of operation is the one that produces the answer with the least mental effort.

169

98

FINDING 62f% OF A NUMBER

Rule: Move the decimal paint one place to the right and divide by 16.

Dividing by 16 is not as formidable as it may seem at first. As a matter of fact, it can usuaUy be done easier in two steps. Dividing the given number by 2 and then divi.ding the result by 8 is one way of simplifying this divis ion, Another way is to divide the given number by 4 and then divide the result by 4 again.

Both methods will be demonstrated in the example below; but first. division by 16 will be shown.

Find 621% of 512.

Move the decimal point one place to the right.

512.0

becomes 5,120.

-

Divide by 16.

5,120 T- 16 '" 320 Answer

The same number, 5,120, will be divided by .2 and the result divided by 8.

5,120 + 2 '" 2,560

2, 560 T- 8 '" 320 Answer

Next, the number will be divided by 4 and the result again divided by 4.

5,120 + 4 = 1,280

1,280 T- 4 = 320 Answer

In a given problem, at least three choices are open, depending On what the given number is and how eastly it can be divided by 2, 4, or 8.

170

99

FINDING 66-2/3% OF A NUMBER

Rule: Divide by 3 and subtract the result from the given number.

Find 66-2/3% of 75.

Divide by 3 and subtract the result from the given number,

75 + 3 = 25 75 - 25 '" 50

Therefore 50 is 66-2/3% of 75.

171

I I

100

FINDING 87~% OF A NUMBER

Rule: Divide the given number by 8 and subtract the result from the given number ..

By carrying on the division under the given number, the subtraction can easily follow.

Find 87t% of 37.52.

Divide the given number by 8.

8) 37.52

- 4.69 32.83

Given number Quotient Difference

Thus

87-1/2% of 37.52

32" 83 Answer

172

FRACTIONS, MIXED NUMBERS, PERCENTAGE 173

Practice Exercises for Short Cuts 83 through 100

1) 57 x 21 ==

2) 14-1/7 x 14-6/7 ==

3) 84 x 8~ ==

4) 7,018 x 3/4

5) 27-1/3 x 26-2/3

6) 1/23 + l/G?

7) 13 x 12~ "

8) 374% of 1,250

9) 1/11 - 1/17 ==

10) 87~% of 43 -
11) 382 X 7.! ==
2
12) 63~ x 62~ ==
13) 2,408 12k ==
14) 16-2/3% of 12 =
15) 1,659 124 =
16) 33-1/3% of 57
17) 66-2/3% of 9,072
18) 42 2.! '"
2
19) 624% of 888 "
20) 104 ,,- 33-1/3 == Chapter 6

POSTSCRIPT

One hundred is a nice number, and it is always pleasant to conclude things in a nice fashion. But the 100 short cuts you have just learned do not constitute the conclusion of this book. The previous 100 short cuts were only an introduction-something to whet your appetite while at the same time serving a useful purpose. The one hundred and first short cut is therefore not a summary but rather a "foreword." Here, then, is Short Cut 101, with the hope that very shortly you will be the one to make it 102, 103, 104 .

175

101

DO-IT-YOURSELF SHORT CUTS

The first one hundr:d short cuts in this book are merely the prelude to the fascInatIng art of "do-it-yourself short cuts." There is an old proverb that says. "Necessity is the mother of invention," and in mathematics we find Some of the best examples of this.

The salesman who has to figure the price of an article if it is sold at a discount of 33 -1/3 % off list soon discovers a quick way of performing that particular calculation in

his head. The mechanic, the engineer, the housewife-each of them meets with dozens of problems in mathematics each day. Many of the problems are repetitious or else involve specific numbers or groups of numbers. Before long a method is evolved for reducing paper work, and so another short cut is born.

To be able to invent short cuts, one must first have a good, solid familiarity with numbers and the various forms in which they appear - fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and integers. One must recognize that a number's value may be changed by the position of a decimal point while

its appearance as a group of digits can remain the same.

For example, if we know a short cut for multiplying by 25 we can eaSily extend it to include 2.5, 0.25, 250, or even 25,000,000] The important thing to remember is the position of the decimal point alter the answer is obtained. It

is also very important to be able to convert from a decimal to a fraction and from a fraction to a decimal,

For instance

1 2"

0.5

4/8

have exactly the same value. Thus if we are given the following problem:

176

POSTSCRIPT

2.5 x 2-7/14

we should be able to see it as 2 .. 5 x 2.5

or

25/10 x 25/10

or

24 x 2~

Some of these are forms for which short-cut methods have already been diScussed.

Suppose we are given the problem of finding a short cut for squaring mixed numbers ending in 1/4. In decimal form, 1/4 is equal to 0.25. Short Cut 47 can be used for squaring numbers ending in 25. With a little ingenuity it can also be applied to numbers ending in 1/4.

Take the example: Square 9-1/4,

This can be written as 9.25 or 92,.5/10 or even 925/100. In this last form the example becomes

925/100 x 925/100 or 925 x 925

10,000

Short Cut 47 tells us to square the hundreds digit (remember, this was the whole-number portion of our original given number). Then add one-half the hundreds digit. Follow this with a 5 or a zero, depending on whether the hundreds digit is odd or even. The last three digits of the answer will be 625. Thus the last four digits are always either 5625 or 0625.

Let us go back to our original number, 9-1/4. From the procedure above we see that only the whole number is involved in the short cut. It is squared.

9 x 9 " 81

One-half itself is added to the result (ignoring any fraction). ~ of 9 == 4 (ignore 4)

81 + 4 == 85

177

178

POSTSCRIPT

The next step is to affix 5625, since 9 is odd. But 56.25 actually represents 0.5625, and 0.5625 is 9/16 in fractional form. Thus we need affix only the fraction, 9/16, to obtain the answer. If the whole number were even, we would affix 0.0625, which is equal to 1/16. From what has just been explained, see if you can formulate a short cut for squaring any mixed number ending in 1/4.

By simply interchanging fractions and decimals and manipulating the decimal point, an entirely new area of short-cut methods is opened up.

Anyone can be a "do-it-yourself short cutter." All he needs is a good working knowledge of numbers and an ability to visualize a problem in a variety of different forms. Given the job of performing routine arithmetic operations and enough laziness to want to reduce the amount of work as much as possible, there is no limit to the number of short-cut methods one can invent.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful