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BOYANCY- an upward force on an object immersed in a fluid. DISPLACMENT- the pushing away of a fluid when an object is immersed in it VOLUME- is a measurement of how much space an object occupies Weight of Water = 62 lbs./cu. ft.

**Archimedes Principle states that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the
**

weight of the fluid that is displaced by the object. For example, 1 cu. ft. of water weighs 62 lbs. Transversely, an object with 1 cu. ft. of volume will displace 62 lbs. of water. This means a 1 cu. ft. box will hold up to 62 lbs. before sinking. That box will sit with its top flush with the water's surface if it is supporting 62 lbs. If the box were 2 cu. ft. in volume it would float ½ out of the water. How much would a 1 cu. ft. box weigh if it floated ½ way submerged in water?

boat hull. * 1 ft. we will calculate the buoyancy of a box that is 1ft.=Displacement 2cu. ft.14*Radius2)*Length=Volume 3. before submerging entirely. of water displaced by the box returns a buoyant force up that will hold 124 lbs.875 sq. ft."CALCULATING BOYANCY" To calculate buoyancy you need to determine the relationship between weight and volume.* 2 ft. Find the displacement of a box that is 2 ft. ft. The formula for calculating the volume of a box is: Length*Height*Width=Volume 1 ft. * 62 lbs. per qu. The formula for finding the volume of a cylinder is: (3. by 2ft. = V Volume*62lbs/qu.925 qu. = D 124lbs = D In other words. = V 3. = V 3. or other flotation objects can float you need to multiply their volume by 62 lbs. ft.52 ft. the box will hold 124 lbs.14 * . The 124 lbs. by 1ft.14* . = V Find the displacement of this cylinder. * 2 ft. by 3 ft. = V . ft. ft. = V 2 cu. . = V 1 sq. The weight of the vehicle is most easily calculated with a scale. To calculate the amount of weight the pontoons.25 ft. * 5 ft. * 5 ft. by 2 ft. ft. For example. * 5 ft.

)]*6 ft. * 7 ft =V 4 sq. * 7 ft =V 4 ft. ft.*1 ft.* 1 ft. The formula for finding the volume of a trapezoidal prism is: [½ (base 1+base 2)]*Height*Length=Volume [½ (5 ft.*6ft.The formula for finding the volume of a triangular prism is: [½ (base*height)]*Length=Volume [½ (2 ft. * 7 ft =V 28 qu. ft. ft. = V [½ (2 sq.)]* 1 ft. * 7 ft =V [½ (8 ft. ft.)]*6ft.+3 ft. ft. = V 6 qu. = V Find the displacement of this triangular prism. =V Find the displacement of this trapezoidal prism.= V 1 sq. .)]* 1 ft.

.SHOW ME DON’T TELL ME Calculate the volume and displacement for each of the following forms.

"PONTOON EFFECT" These images show what the "pontoon effect" is and the importance of having each pontoon be capable of supporting the entire weight of the vehicle. With the slightest shift of weight the pontoon goes under and stability is lost. Wind. When perfectly stable the pontoons sit with their tops flush with the surface of the water. While this example uses a catamaran style design for floatation. each capable of 250 lbs. What would be the maximum displacement of a 5 cu. pontoon? When the two pontoons are loaded with ½ of their maximum weight they sit ½ way out of the water. If all the weight is shifted to one of the pontoons.)*(62 lbs. the rocking of a wave. ft.)=124 lbs. total. ft. In this example each pontoon is 4 cu. and entering or exiting the water on ramps all have the potential to put all of the vehicles weight on one pontoon. ft. it is unlikely the pontoon will fully submerge. vehicle with 2 pontoons. of displacement? What would be a more appropriate weight for a vehicle with those pontoons? . each or 248 lbs. shifting position of the passenger. (4 cu. the principals can be applied to most floatation schemes. If the pontoon were to fully submerge the stability of the vehicle would be lost. The second two images show the effect of 100% load.)=248 lbs. 1/2(248 lbs. of water. in volume meaning it will displace up to 248 lbs. Why would it be unwise to build a 500 lbs.

"PONTOON EFFECT" CASE STUDY This example is of a recumbent tricycle design that. What would have been the necessary combined displacement of the front pontoons to correct this design flaw? . Each of the front wheels had a pontoon with a maximum displacement of 100 lbs. While the angled entry down the ramp assured the design flaw would be realized. pushing the front of the boat down. The vehicle remained leaning forward which kept the weight of the vehicle on the front pontoons. while great on land. the front two pontoons were only capable of displacing 200 lbs.)=600 lbs. with the rider. the front pontoons met the water and were totally submerged before the rear pontoons were able to help support the weight. The vehicle weighed a total of 300 lbs. What went wrong? While the vehicle had plenty of displacement overall. The vehicle weighed 300 lbs. total. When the rear pontoons did meet the water their buoyancy only helped keep the back of the boat up.)+2(200 lbs. the placement of the main weight (the rider) mostly over the front pontoons was just as likely to trigger the failure. each with a maximum buoyancy of 200 lbs. the back wheel had a pontoon on each side. Overall the vehicle weighed ½ of it's maximum displacement. As it went down the ramp into the water. 2(100 lbs. was less then successful during it's water entry.

When you swim your hand pulls a higher density of water at you palm and lower density in front creating forward thrust. The way an airplane wing creates lift is similar. The water has a natural tendency to balance. This increases density at the palm of your hand and leaves a void of air on the top. .WATER PROPULTION DIFFUSION . Your hand can create lift and thrust in ways that demonstrate these concepts. opposing the pull of gravity.the concentration of a substance relative to the space it occupies THRUST-force in a forward direction LIFT. Your hand rises as a result of the air attempting to balance the pockets of high and low air pressure creating lift. so the high water density behind the vehicle pushes forward to fill the low density in front of the vehicle creating thrust. As the air passes around the wings surface it travels a longer distance over the top leaving lower pressure above the wing creating lift.the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration DENSITY.force in an upward direction. When you stick your hand out the window of a car you can cup or angle your hand to catch air. called diffusion. Most forms of propulsion in water function by creating a lower density of water in the front direction and increased density in the rear direction.

Drive. Propellers and paddle wheels each have advantages and challenges when building a kinetic sculpture.Propellers work as long as they are submerged. PADDLE WHEEL A paddle wheel works the same way as a propeller except instead of slicing thru the water at an angle it hits straight on.PROPELLER As the propeller spins it directs the water back to form a pocket of water with increased density. . shown here by blue spheres. If the paddle wheel is more submerged then half way it no longer propels forward. The water that has been forced back leaves an area of decreased density in front of the propeller. is submerged. A propeller What is the relationship between diffusion and displacment? spins on a right angle to the wheels and can be more com. Paddle require more precise placement. where the most horizontal motion occurs. shown here as bubbles. Placement.What role does balance of pressure have in propelling a sailboat? plicated to attach to a drive Include a sketch with your answer. They are most efficient when only the bottom edge. train. How does a fish propel itself? Is a fish exploiting diffusion? Include a sketch with your answer. As the process of diffusion takes place the propeller rides the area of high pressure into the area of low pressure creating forward thrust.Paddle wheels rotate on the same axis as the wheels SHOW ME DON’T TELL ME so they are easier to connect to the drive train.

Unfortunately some last minute alterations to the vehicle increased the weight in the rear. The actual waterline was higher and left the paddle wheels fully submerged and useless. Propellers and paddle wheels are by no means the only choices for water prolusion. Pumps that take water in at the front of the vehicle and push it out in the back are a possibility. They were so powerful that they could not be powered by the peddle drive train but had to be pushed by hand.PADDLE WHEELS CASE STUDY The paddle wheels on the vehicle above were well placed and pushed a lot of water. In both buoyancy calculations and water tests the expected waterline put about 1/3 of the paddle wheel submerged. How do they do it? . The vehicle on the left had simple paddle wheels mounted straight to a jackshaft already in the drive train. Most sea life get around with out propellers or paddle wheels. The pilot prevailed and used an oar to successfully navigate the water.

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