This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Department of English Philology
Stylistic Functioning of Colour Vocabulary in a Modernistic Novel (on the basis of The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald )
The Diploma Paper submitted by OKSANA HLUKH Supervised by Associate Professor of The Foreign Languages Department For Humanities V.M.MAKSYMUK
L’viv - 2010 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………..3-6 CHAPTER I. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF COLOUR VOCABULARY 1.1. Interpretation of Colour……………………………………………...7-10 1.2. Structural Peculiarities of Colour Vocabulary……………….....….11-14 1.3. Semantic Structure of Colour Terms………………………………15-17 CHAPTER II. PRAGMASTYLISTICS OF COLOUR VOCABULARY IN THE MODERNISTIC NOVELS OF THE XX CENTURY 2.1. Figurative Function of Colour Vocabulary………….....................18-20 2.2. Semantics of Colour Vocabulary in the Writer’s Usage……….....21-31 CHAPTER III. STYLISTIC FUNCTIONS OF COLOUR VOCABULARY IN MODERNISTIC NOVEL 3.1. Descriptive Function of Colour Vocabulary……………………….32-33 3.2. Expressive Function of Colour Vocabulary…………………….33-34 3.3. Aesthetic Function of Colour Vocabulary…………………...….35-36 CONCLUSIONS……………………………………………………...…….37-39 REFERENCE ……………………………………………………...………40-43 SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………44-45 TABLE 1 ……………………………………………………………………24а
INTRODUCTION The process of studying colours has an important meaning in a human life. Research of artistically-vivid function of colour is stimulated by permanent development of literature, deepening of its subject and active influence on the scientific thought. Functions of colour in literature are not enough investigated. We consider this problem still actual and the one that needs further study. We were interested in the use of colours in modern novel first of all because of the message they are delivering. In different epochs of literature development the writers appeal to colour vocabulary while describing landscapes, presenting portrait characteristics, lyrical digressions and interiors but colours are more than a combination of red and blue or yellow and black. They are non-verbal means of communication. Colours have symbolism and colour meanings. In the language of prose or poetry colour becomes the feature of an individual writer’s or poet’s style. With the help of colour the writers try to: • • • emphasize the formulation or denial of a certain idea; show the psychology and peculiarities of the main heroes’ behaviour; understand deeply the thematic, fundamental part of the work. In order to understand the sense of colours one should enter the depth of the author’s subconsciousness, understand the peculiarity of his creative laboratory as well as author’s individual vision.
In the literature colour makes an impression of trustworthiness. With the help of colour the author shows his attitude to the events, characters; colour can show the depth of the plot and serve as a key to understanding the concealed meaning. Colours in literature influence emotions, they help to comprehend clearly the world created by the author. The topicality of the paper lies in the profound interest in the study of stylistic functions of colours especially in the modern novel. It also lies in the problem of correlation between the semantic structure of colour names, peculiarities of natural signals and their images in the human consciousness. The use of colour vocabulary in modern novel, the way of its interpretation and the message it is supposed to deliver to the reader has not been fully studied by linguists and literary critics, that is why the topicality of the paper is determined by the necessity of solving the mentioned problems. The novelty of the paper reveals itself in the attempt to carry out the complex analysis of the stylistic functions of colour vocabulary basing on two novels, analysis of the semantic structure of colour names and in the attempt to present the frequency of usage of colour names in both novels basing on the method of complete sampling that gives possibility to determine the main principles of forming the colour vocabulary. The aim of the diploma paper finds itself in the study of the stylistic role of colours, ways of their realization and interpretation in the modern novel. To reach this aim we have to fulfill the following tasks: a) to analyze descriptive, expressive and aesthetic function of colour vocabulary. b) to investigate the structural peculiarities of colour vocabulary in the lexical system of the language; c) to establish the main principles of forming the colour vocabulary; d) to provide the results of the method of complete sampling (frequency of usage of colour names);
Colour terms. N. The work of Venkel’ T. The subject of investigation finds itself in the investigation of the peculiarities of stylistic functions of colour vocabulary. statistical method (the frequency of usage of colour names).Lutsenko. also by I. paradygmatic and epidygmatic characteristics of colour adjectives. investigates colour names as fragments of figurative linguistic picture of the world and studies the semantic processes which result in transformation of colour names meanings. In the course of investigation we have used the following methods: structural and contextual analysis. abstract colour words.Venkel’ and others who basing on different language material and in different periods tried to understand the complicated and peculiar nature of this lexical layer. V. g) to analyze the stylistic functions of colour vocabulary in the novels under research (to draw the parallels and to indicate the discrepancies in the colour meaning and its symbolism).Pastushenko. S. f) to determine figurative functions of colour terms. Language material for the complex analysis of stylistic functions of colour vocabulary comes from different sources. Pastushenko T. The analysis of syntagmatic and paradygmatic correlation between the adjectives under study enabled the linguist to determine and to study epidygmatic characteristics of basic . S. h) to study colours as means of revealing the American Dream in the novels. S. T.R. T. descriptive colour words that form the specific colour vocabulary used by the author form the object of current research. The contextual analysis is carried out on the texts novel: The Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald. V. Colour lexicon has repeatedly been the subject of investigations conducted by the linguists especially by S.Grygoruk. Formal markers of semantic transformation of colour names are described by the linguist.5 e) to investigate the characteristics of colours and their interpretation as a stylistic means of rendering certain idea in literary work.Avramenko.Skard.Koval’s’ka. is devoted to the study of syntagmatic.
The diploma paper consists of introduction. References contain 53 Items of sources. The first chapter also deals with semantic structure of colour terms in the lexical system of the language. S. I. . It presents descriptive. studies the colouristic vocabulary in the poetry of G. in writing articles and further investigations dedicated to the subject of colour functions. Chapter III deals with stylistic functions of colour vocabulary in The Great Gatsby by F. R. Theoretical value of the diploma paper lies in the attempt to analyze the use of colour vocabulary in a modernistic novel. Chapter II deals with presenting figurative function of colour vocabulary. structure and specific features of functioning of lexical-semantic field of colour in the language of poetry. The linguist provides a complex analysis of colouristic vocabulary in poetic idiolect of G. Fitzgerald. three chapters. It presents the ways of interpretation of colour in general and describes structural peculiarities of colour vocabulary. Grygoruk S. Semantics of colour vocabulary in writer’s usage is represented basing on the examples of different colour terms. reference list amounting to 53 pages o manuscript. The received results may be applied in students’ research work. to study the functioning of vocabulary as the means of revealing the notion of American Dream described in the novel: The Great Gatsby by F.6 colour adjectives of the English language. Derzhavin (within the context of poetic speech of the epoch). to determine stylistic functions of colour names in the novels. R. Scott Fitzgerald. conclusions. determines quantitative and qualitative composition. Chapter I deals with theoretical aspects of colour vocabulary. expressive and aesthetic functions of colour vocabulary in a modernistic novel. Practical value of the diploma paper lies in the possibility of its further usage in the course of stylistic studies and modern English literature. Derzhavin. Conclusions sum up the results of research.
green. the origin of colour in materials. Colour helps to create bright visual images that make the language colourful.. Seasons also have their own colours: spring – white-pink-green.. Colours have symbolism and colour . Historical and archeological sources prove that different people define colours of months. juicy and emotionally overwhelmed. They are non-verbal means of communication.7 CHAPTER I THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF COLOUR VOCABULARY 1. Colours are more than a combination of red and blue or yellow and black. we are charmed by gorgeous flowering plants and the brilliantly coloured arch of a rainbow. summer – dark green. school or regimental colours) and as a symbol of various moods (ex. red with rage) and qualities (ex. autumn – yellow-orange-golden and winter – white. red.. the main significant colours are black. The science of colour is called chromatics. In the English folklore. worthy of a blue ribbon). days and time in general. It includes the perception of colour by the human eye and brain. The more general is the phenomenon. We delight in colours of magnificent sunset and in the bright red and golden-yellow leaves of autumn. Colour fills the world with beauty. white. the more definite is the symbolic colour representing it. People also use colours in various ways to add pleasure and interest to life. and to a lesser extent blue.1. colour theory in art. Colour has long been used to represent affiliations and loyalties (ex. Interpretation of Colour It is commonly known that colour has specific reflection in human state of mind.
Kay states that colours are considered not in isolation. brown. using methods developed in structural anthropology.54]. For example. Colour conveys meanings in two primary ways – natural associations and psychological symbolism. Colours directly influence consciousness: yellow colour calms. violet. blue. It has been found that a specific colour could have different associations in different conditions. angry person sees red. dark blue to vitality. green. feeling blue or getting the blues represents the extremes of the calm feelings associated with blue. A deep royal blue or azure conveys richness and even a touch of superiority.8 meanings that go beyond ink. black embitters. Warm colours – red. the fact that green is the colour of vegetation can be considered a universal and timeless association. sadness or depression. lilac and red colours correspond to youth full of love. red excites. but mainly in contrasting pairs or in sequences. brown. At the same time different conditions of soul correspond to definite colours: green to calmness. dark blue. P. one may say a sad person sees blue and a jealous one is green with envy. For example. Different types of colours differently influence a state of health and mind. Occurrences of colours in nature are universal and timeless. The names of colours are used in common expressions to describe moods and feelings. lack of strong (violent) emotion. red to excitement. Colour may generate another level . green inspires. Colour associations are analyzed indirectly by a study of oral traditions and legends. blue to hope. yellow to disease. turquoise and lilac cool a body and make one’s mind calm and meditative. black to abstract. cold colours – green. ex. orange heat a person and his mind becomes creative. a coward may be called yellow. yellow. Writers use colours to transfer different periods of human life: blue. and that generally the associations are more abstract than concrete [43. On the contrary. Just as seeing red alludes to the strong emotions invoked by the colour red. dark blue and grey colours symbolize an old age..
3. Cultural associations: the colour of currency. traditions. the green man was the God of fertility in Celtic myths. As such. freshness and ecology. etc. geography. Although there are no absolutes. colour may have both positive and negative symbolism.S. This symbolism arises from cultural and contemporary contexts. celebrations. as the colour of fire and blood. etc. For example. In Scottish Gaelic the word for blue ('gorm') is also the word used for the colour of grass. there are logical sources for the range of complex and sometimes contradictory psychological/cultural meanings of colours. green is associated with extraterrestrial beings.” Red is another example of dual symbolism. On the other hand. South Pacific languages refer to shades of green by comparison to plants in various stages of growth. it can be a symbol of sadness or stability. royalty. (For example. in contemporary Western culture. For example. In stark contrast. it is not universal and may be unrelated to its natural associations. Also. These may arise from any of the following: 1. aggressive and bold colour. political parties. Idiomatic American English reflects these traits in phrases such as “singing the blues” and “blue chip stocks. green may also be symbolic of good luck.9 of meaning in the mind. green’s associations with nature communicate growth. red is used for “STOP” signs throughout the world today. These associations arise from a complex assortment of sources. green is associated with heaven (Muslims) and luck (the U. seasickness.) . Furthermore. although blue is a beautiful colour of the sky on a sunny day. money and greed — all of which have nothing to do with green plants. and Ireland) 2. it is an energizing. On the one hand. fruitfulness. Political and historical associations: the colour of flags. Religious and mythical associations: the colours associated with spiritual or magical beliefs (For example. Linguistic associations: colour terminology within individual languages (For example.) 4.
and associations generated by modern conventions and trends. green has been a popular colour for many decades. In the U. orange-red.) There is also an infinite array of colours that are variations on the basic colours of the spectrum. etc. green is used world wide for traffic lights signifying "go. From there. Each of these colours has slightly different meanings. blue and red are primary colours and are mixed to create secondary colours: green. Yellow. (For example. orange-yellow." In Scandinavia. orange and purple. sports.10 5. Contemporary usage: current colour applications to objects. “avocado green” was a popular colour for appliances in the 1960s.S. These secondary and tertiary colours are more sophisticated ones. tertiary colours are combinations of the secondary colours: yellow-green.. .
“yellow-green”). black. blue. Colour vocabulary – a general notion that combines all the terms used to denote the notion of colour in the sphere of linguistics. “brown”. Colour terms have always been considered as a group of morphemes or words that are related to each other. and gray are definitely abstract colour words. also known as colour name. Krytenko says that red and blue and yellow are more closely related to each other semantically than red and “quick” and “long”. Colour words in a language can also be divided into abstract colour words and descriptive colour words. “sea green”) or multiple basic colour words (e. In books on various linguistic issues they are generally referred to as “colour names”. P. These . though the distinction is blurry in many cases. red. Compound colour words make use of adjectives (e. or “olive”. “colour adjectives”.g. A. brown.11 1. 129]. is a word or phrase that refers to a specific colour. green. A colour term. Structural Peculiarities of Colour Vocabulary While investigating lexical semantic field of colour vocabulary the linguists deal with certain terminology demanded to make any kind of linguistic research.2. such as “red”. The colour term may refer to human perception of that colour (which is affected by visual context).g. compoud colour words and multiple basic colour words. yellow. Monolexemic colour words are composed of individual lexemes. “light brown”. that is why in word field theory colour terms were considered as pertinent examples to explicate and illustrate word field theory [17. or to an underlying physical property. Talking about colour vocabulary some linguists differentiate the following terms: monolexemic colour words. In English white. Abstract colour words are words that only refer to a colour. “colour words”.
Kay suggests the following division of colour names: • abstract colour names – the non-object sensitive colour names. The status of some colour words as abstract or descriptive is debatable. In some languages colours may be denoted by descriptive colour words even though English may use an abstract colour word for the same colour. P. “white lead”. and lilac are descriptive colour words in English because their use as colour words is derived in reference to natural colours of salmon flesh. however. and lilac blossoms respectively. infusions of saffron pistils. Object which serve as colour designator. beryl. Descriptive colour words are words that are secondarily used to describe a colour but primarily used to refer to an object or phenomenon that has that colour. Salmon. saffron. the “concrete” colour names. as for example – red. because the word "pink" (flower) has become very rare whereas "pink" (colour) has become very common. rose.12 words also happen to be “basic colour terms” in English as described above. • • • . bamboo. but colours like maroon and magenta are also abstract though they may not be considered 'basic colour terms' either because they are considered by native speakers to be too rare. in this case red (or maybe purple). The colour pink was originally a descriptive colour word derived from the name of a flower called a “pink”. for example: amber. Often a descriptive colour word will be a subordinate hyponym of a 'basic colour term' (salmon and rose [descriptive] are both hues of pink). rose-pink. as for example: “black winds”. purple. or to be subordinate hues to a higher 'basic colour term'. as for example: golden. pearly. rose flowers. crimson. tawny. scarlet. the object sensitive colour mames. metaphors. black. orange. many native speakers of English use "pink" as an abstract colour word alone and furthermore consider it to be one of the 'basic colour terms' of English. too specific.
amber or aubergine. steel. There’s no great surprise in colours like cinnamon. All other colours are considered by most speakers of that language to be variants of these basic colour terms. though there probably is in puce. lilac." "white. English contains the eleven basic colour terms "black. bright green. hue (red vs. but not "light green" or "forest green"). Today every natural language that has words for colours is considered to have from two to twelve basic colour terms. The colour terms in particular languages constitute a lexical field. apple white. melon. slate. and agreed upon by speakers of that language (this last point. blue) – the basis of colour and usually refers to the name of the colour. chocolate. 2) metaphoric transference of the meaning of adjectives: names of object/liquids: ivory. silver. chocolate-brown." "yellow. The main principles of forming of the colour naming hues are the following: 1) combination of the main colour names with the words which signify brightness (light/dimness): dark green." "red. blue gloom.13 Many other modern colour words are similarly derived from the colours of plants and natural substances. can be ambiguous. however." "brown. orange vs. ivory. oyster. For example. as native speakers may not always agree with each other). dark silver." "blue." "orange. lime. and the meaning of each term depends upon the place it occupies in the field. names of object/liquids + colour names: pearly-white. muslin. which have long been raided by colourists in search for names to apply to the ever-more subtle shades which turn up in commercial colour charts. chocolate. dim brown." "green. olive. There are many different dimensions by which colour varies. a colour which seems intrinsically comic even if somebody doesn’t know that it actually means “flea coloured” (from Latin pulex via French).” To be considered a basic colour term." "pink." "purple" and "gray. high-frequency. the words have to be monoleximic ("green". glacier. tangerine. descriptive .
14 colour names: the colour of robin’s eggs. very blue. redder. the colour of cigar. many terms are created time and time again. and brightness or intensity – the lightness or darkness of a colour. English splits some hues into several distinct colours according to lightness: such as red and pink or orange and brown. golden-brown. Similarly. 1) formation of more intense hues (shades) of the main colours: yellower. brownie.12]. Kay once said about colour terms that there is hardly any other part of the vocabulary of the language in which names are chosen so arbitrarily. Saturation (“deep” vs. 3) formation of derivatives by adding suffixes -y(ie). “pale”) – is a colour intensity of an image. purplish. the blue of a sapphire. P. The adjective "fluorescent" in English refers to moderately high brightness with strong colour saturation. 4) combination of several colour names in order to form denotation of hues (shades): blue-green. languages are selective when deciding which hues are split into different colours on the basis of how light or dark they are. the colour of pearls. . colour with high saturation will appear brighter and more vibrant than the same colour with low saturation. -ish. The number of colour terms is unrestricted. Pastel refers to colours with high brightness and low saturation. which denote colouring of lesser intensity: greenish. Colour terms can be created at any time by any speaker [43.
yellow. blue). principal generic seme in units of a certain class reflecting their common categorial features). P. Colour symbolism is rather posterior and nationally marked phenomenon that can undergo changes from one language to another. Due to the physical nature of colours they are divided into chromatic (black. white and gray) and achromatic (red. green. Complete understanding of the linguistic picture of a colour term is based on the revealing its word wealth and inner form. differential features and elementary features. This main meaning can be divided into smaller elements of the content: semes.3. Colour meaning is an archeseme for such adjectives. Colour symbolism in every language is motivated by . peculiar for a certain ethos. Working as a system all those elements of the meaning create such a perception of a colour term. as well as from one language community to the other one. Semantic Structure of Colour Terms in the Lexical System of the Language Colour indication is transferred by an adjective which forms ready lexical semantic group in the modern language.15 1. Krytenko suggests that colour as a physical phenomenon is given to a person through visual sensation but the concepts about colours find the reflection in the verbal units of the language – in colour terms [17. A.19]. orange. understanding different semantic transformations and symbolization. that objectively exist in the consciousness of the speakers. This group includes the words which belong to the same part of speech and which have not only general grammatical seme but also one or more general semes – archeseme (the most basic.
brown. The core of this category of words comprises nine syntactically independent names that indicate colour without shades: black. pink. Such names are semantically joined around the main colour names (orange. grey. white. yellow. crimson). pink. Transparence of semantics and bright inner form are peculiarities of concrete colour names (crimson. originated on certain associations which represent occasional usage and with time can acquire usual status. It goes beyond saying that colour has a great influence onto the human organism and human physical and mental condition. Abstract names in comparison with concrete ones give wider reflection of colour substance.16 its peculiarities of world view. Colour is considered to be ascribed as one of the main visual perceptions. . into abstract and concrete. Traditionally accepted colour terms exist in the language and their list is open. Connections and relations between the units inside the colour field (between dominant and peripheral lexemes) can be described in the way of opposition of semes and on emphasis of deferential features basing on the definitions from dictionary. blue. violet). by the mentality and communicative pragmatics of the native speakers. red. The farthest periphery includes the words of the minimal activity and frequency of usage (rich red. Mulyar conveys that colour terms are divided into main (kernel) and peripheral. green. Majority of adjectives used for naming colours developed a row of figurative meanings. Other colour terms belong to the peripheral ones that have semes with a shade of the main tone or express additional meanings.12]. S. it means that it can be enriched with borrowed names as well as due to metaphoric ways – on the base of comparison with a certain object that possesses corresponding colour. P. violet). Lexemes of this group possess the meanings. orange. Main colouring markers include the names of the ancient origin [21.
cultural and other scientific researches.17 Colour semantics in language units is not unchangeable. Colours and colour terms that denote them are universal elements of the colourful. Visual aspects of colour terms and associative connections cause the appearance of connotations and can be spontaneously formed in the consciousness of a human being as a result of combining colour images with real or imaginary objects and phenomena. influence of different associative connections that cause the enrichment of the content of adjectives used for colour marking by means of figurative and emotionallyexpressive meanings. We agree with A. Creation of the universal. The main principles that cause the acquirement of new content by colour names are the following: 1) generation of this content by the principle of symbolic chain that is based on the comparison with analogy. psycholinguistic. Mulyar says that semantic structure of colour lexemes is characterized by the complicated combination of objective concepts of colour feature and subjective knowledge that are expressed in connotative semes [21.8]. . P. Colour terms that deliver information about environment are also material for cognitive. each of which has its own structure and function.P. which consists of a range of subsystems. the source of which is extralingual reality.14]. S. 3) individual author’s use of colour names. Krytenko who says that different shifts caused by intralingual as well as extralingual factors occur in colour semantics [17. specific and individual character is a result of each of those processes. It undergoes different transformations – metonymical and metaphorical reinterpretation. symbolic system. 2) acquirement of content from outside.
S. In order to understand the sense of colours one should enter the depth of the author’s subconsciousness. cheerfulness. Skard says that literature does not imitate art but searches for its own reserves to transfer colouring. In Christianity primary colours were red. red meant blood and love. religious aims. the east – yellow and the west – blue. The theory of colour palette has got a long history in the world literature. A long time ago colour was used for religious aims. which had the symbolic value. white and green. green – youth. understand deeply the thematic. his interpretation of this problem. presenting portrait characteristics. According to legends four cardinal points have symbolic colours: the north – white. thoroughly thought over means that helps the author to express his thoughts and feelings.1. The white expressed cleanness and radiance of glory.18 CHAPTER II PRAGMASTYLISTICS OF COLOUR VOCABULARY IN THE MODERNISTIC NOVEL OF THE XX CENTURY 2. show the psychology and peculiarities of the main heroes’ behaviour. lyrical digressions and interiors. the south – brown. Colour is a realized. Ancient people associated colours with mystic forces. With the help of colour they try to emphasize the formulation or denial of a certain idea. fundamental part of the work. understand the peculiarity of his creative laboratory as well as author’s individual vision. From ancient times colours carried definite information and were widely used in folk arts. It is obvious that the writer has his own way of using colours. Colour served since time immemorial to the sacral. finds the words that would influence readers’ . Figurative Usage of Colour Vocabulary Writers appeal to colour terms while describing landscapes.
A painter is deprived of the means of his art: the necessity to move towards the inner comprehension from the outer one and to do this using the outer means.172]. Even if the writer attempts to transfer all the colours and their hues. It is more complicated to present the world picture. Colour palette is functioning as a peculiar component of a landscape and a portrait. Colours in literature influence emotions. without developed emotional and intellectual sphere a reader cannot apprehend colour meaning in the way it was intended by the writer – due to symbolism and emotional inspiration of colour terms.138] In comparison with art. without creative imagination and aesthetic knowledge.A. P. literature is to some extent limited. Kay also says that together with the other stylistic means colour palette . the author can provide the readers with the better understanding of his work.19 imaginations. than the pictorial one. they help to comprehend clearly the world created by the author. Kukharenko states that functions of colour term in the texts are identical to the functions of stylistic means of a certain stylistic method: descriptive. Literature has its own possibilities that are not available to painting. his character. By use of the words that denote colours. colour can show the depth of the plot and serve as a key to understanding the concealed meaning. In the novel a writer presents different means of expressing the inner world of the hero. because he himself can possess an impressive ability of distinguishing hues but is unable to transfer it with the help of words. For the writer it is very difficult to transfer his own vision with the help of words. With the help of colour the author shows his attitude to the events or characters. [19. V. because without life experience. characterizing and specifying. that would concretize everything described and would give more emotionality and poetic character [49. In literature colour makes an impression of trustworthiness. the reader will perceive the colouring due to his own life experience.
which is an integral part of a complicated mechanism of the novel. Krytenko states that while undergoing this process. emotional condition. They are also used while characterizing objects or transferring colour symbolism. that assists in the process of expressing the main idea of the whole work as well as a certain function performed by an episode. The most interesting are those cases in which additional components not only specify the colour. colour terms acquire figurative meaning and can be combined with a large range of nouns belonging to different semantic groups [17. that is caused by this colour (corn-gold hair). reproduces emotions and wishes. Colour terms are widely used by the writers in the system of colour depiction. creates the appropriate originality of depicted life [43.20 studies the characters. that exists only in the presence of all simple parts and details that are as important for penetration into the depth of the novel as the integrity of the work itself. In the novel colour becomes one of the leading elements. but also render subjective attitude. Of a particular interest are those colour names that not only name colours but also express the measure of this colour or the degree of colouring.11]. 198]. In some cases such figurative meaning in a certain context seems to impose onto the direct meaning of the colour name and to interweave with the colour name intensifying its emotional expressiveness. A. reveals the inner world of the heroes. . P.
with their mental representations in the human thinking. Semantics of Colour Vocabulary in the Writer’s Usage A system of colour terms depends on the principles of colour perception of the author and his vision of the world. . the colour of banknote specifies its importance). The coloured epithets execute the following three functions in the literature: 1) semantic (the rose colour while describing a person is a sign of good health. to make apparent the peculiarities of the use of colour terms in the language and characterize their functioning in the context. Colour terms are a powerful means of heroes’ physical and psychological characteristics. specific use in the individual author’s practice were the subjects of many linguists’ investigations. mentality. Every writer has his favourite colour terms that reflect his world outlook and aesthetic position. which in most cases is in harmony with the nature and all this creates a wide range of individual author’s use of colour terms. his psychology and symbolize to a certain extent an appropriate epoch. . Stylistic characteristics of colour terms. on the one hand. The coloured epithets are the result of the writer’s selection. In the language of prose or poetry colour becomes the feature of an individual writer’s or poet’s style. 2) descriptive (a writer uses colour epithets to make the description visible). Investigation of colour semantics demands an assiduous analysis of the correlation of meanings of colour terms with real colour signals. and on the other hand.2. It is stressed that semantic relations in the language system and in that of colour terms interact with individual author's contexts. Such multidimensional approach to the study of meanings helps to reproduce larger pattern of semantic meanings of colour terms.21 2. their functioning in the text. Colour lexicon has repeatedly been the subject of investigations conducted by the linguists who basing on different language material and in different periods tried to understand the complicated and peculiar nature of this lexical layer.
the pin-ups. Analyzing Fitzgerald’s novel one may state that without colour. colour terms and colour symbolism plays a major role in The Great Gatsby. white. Venkel’ in her research paper about colour symbolism says that symbolism is the most powerful device of allowing the reader to gain insight into a character’s personality and of revealing hidden ideas. gray. Each colour or its shade performs evaluating function. T. blue and yellow and some others. The writers managed to draw the reader’s attention to significant details and symbols in the texts in order to make one think about the so-called ‘truths’ in the stories. transfers not only the main idea but also emotional expressiveness. values and profundity [6. The adjective which possesses colour meaning is a bright. the trends. the posters. S. feelings of the heroes are also frequently transferred by colour terms and in the novel they are associated with colours of the nature. The most significant symbolism applied in the texts is colour symbolism. descriptive means that is widely used in literature. . Fitzgerald's exuberant prose. Moods. The use of colours plays an enormous role in the novel under analysis and is considered to be one of those modern techniques that were used by Fitzgerald. We tried to analyze the colour vocabulary in writer’s usage on the basis of the modernistic novel The Great Gatsby by F. the book would be lack of interest or meaning. the ads.22 3) emotional (colours influence human sense and are instrumental in forming a certain mood). emotional experience. Use of the colour terms creates an atmosphere of something extraordinary. particularly in its treatment of colour and smell and its focus on the surfaces of modern life – the popular songs.143]. V. Fitzgerald . Therefore. aesthetic by its content and direction. The most prominent colours that can be found throughout the novels are green. The use of colour terms in literature is not limited only by the portrait characteristics or landscape descriptions.
stagnant in the heat. Gatsby’s only aim left is to reach Daisy’s heart. renewal. This colour also reminds of hope. "Gatsby believed in the green light. As he has already achieved everything in his life concerning financial success. Gatsby watches it almost every night from his lawn across the water. Dark green is masculine.90].112]. It is used to emphasize his desire and his unfulfilled wish to regain his love Daisy. like in "a green old age". Green may also represent the struggle that Gatsby has between his wealth and his dreams.25]. . Sometimes green denotes lack of experience." [39. Green is also jealousy or envy (green-eyed monster). Later the whole water between Gatsby and Daisy gets green "On the green Sound. Green is a restful colour with some of the same calming attributes of blue. "You always have a green light that burns all night at the end of your dock" [39. the green colour stands for his never-ending hope for her love and functions as a symbol of his hope. so he lives in a green house.23 Green is life. Green stands for a variety of meanings. It is the most meaningful colour used by the author as a symbolic device of revealing ideas. and environment. health. The Great Gatsby is a “new money” person. In The Great Gatsby. nature. Gatsby feels that he needs green money to live and to impress Daisy.. "I glanced seaward – and distinguished nothing except a single green light" [39. Green signifies growth. wealth and power. Therefore. as it is mostly associated with the green light at Daisy’s dock. Dark green is also commonly associated with money. spring and youth.. Throughout the novel.171]. Green colour in nature is reminiscent of Spring. the green light functions as a key symbol. surrounded by green lawn. green is associated with Gatsby’s character. but Fitzgerald used it mainly for "not faded". conservative. One may observe that this colour symbolizes new money. and implies wealth. the future that year by year recedes before us" [39.
in his car it depicts the passengers sitting “in a sort of green leather conservatory”. TABLE 1 Of frequency of usage of colour terms in The Great Gatsby Frequency of colour terms’ usage in descriptive function Frequency of colour terms’ usage in expressive function Frequency of colour terms’ usage in aesthetic function General frequency of colour usage Colours . This makes him a man who is “Green with envy”. He knows that he is not old money like the people he invites to his parties. All of these symbols depict Gatsby’s money.24 Symbols of Gatsby’s money included the green ivy growing up his house also. Gatsby is extremely envious of the people that he invites to his house. One of the possible meanings of green in this story is also an envy. Gatsby can be seen as an envious man for a few reasons: he is extremely envious of Tom Buchanan because of the fact that he has the one thing he can’t buy. also. Daisy.
White is associated with kind and light hope. . cleanliness. white at the same time can show dirt.25 Green White Red Yellow Black Blue Grey Gold Silver Pink Violet Orange Purple Crimson Rosy Zink Scarlet Salmon Emerald Pearl Brown 54 51 26 25 33 16 22 10 10 7 4 5 4 17 3 2 6 12 7 4 8 13 23 14 20 31 14 8 8 3 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 10 8 3 6 2 5 2 2 5 1 1 2 69 84 48 48 70 32 35 20 15 9 4 7 6 24 5 2 10 12 9 5 12 Green colour is used in the novels mainly in descriptive function. Daisy is fragile like a flower. Due to the method of complete sampling we managed to provide the results of the frequency of usage of colour terms. and innocence. This innocence is just a surface. not as pure as white. she is almost evil. However. White is a brilliant colour that can cause headaches for someone. but its inside is yellow. White is purity. Too much bright white can be blinding. they cover their dark side behind it. rarely in expressive one and is presented as an abstract colour word. Fitzgerald used this colour to underline the inside of the wealthy people. but deep inside her. like Daisy does. Her name symbolizes a flower: its petals are white.
Even the windows at Daisy's house are white "The windows were ajar and gleaming white" [39.115]. Nick is dazzled by the glowing light. Tom. Gatsby himself lives in a great white mansion and wears white or pink suits. quietness. seriousness. where four candles flickered on the table in the diminished wind" [37. . there is "a half acre of deep.107]. love. with reflected gold" [37. sweetness. there is "a rosy-coloured porch. then yellow or gold. pungent roses" . in some cases it is less violent than red. "His heart beat faster as Daisy's white face came up to his own" [39. it is a calm colour that has nothing to do with sometimes violent and cruel red colour while crimson symbolizes strength. joy. Daisy. adultness and a good taste. . Entering this world of the rich. the French windows are "glowing .26 The major theme in The Great Gatsby is immorality of the people in 1920’s. These people wear white clothes. their dresses become creamy. "They came to a place where there were no trees and the sidewalk was white with moonlight" [39. It's a strong colour that conjures up a range of seemingly conflicting emotions from passionate love to violence and warfare.13].106].353]. Our beautiful white" [39. representing his innocence and pure heart.13]. especially the upper class. trying to appear pure but as Nick learns more about them. and the rosiness: he walks "through a high hallway into a bright rosy-coloured space" [37. shame. and rage.24]. “High in a white palace the king's daughter. and Jordan are “old money” people.243]. For Fitzgerald it is associated with life. Red draws attention and a keen use of red as an accent can immediately focus attention on a particular element. It is presented in the form of abstract and descriptive colour words.178]. but they are immoral inside. the reds. open toward the sunset. Its shade rosy is softer and symbolizes tenderness. the golden girl" [39. live in white houses. White colour performs aesthetic and expressive functions in the novel. When Nick Carraway visited the Buchanan he met two young women: Daisy and Jordan "They were both in white" [39. they have no scruples. Red is hot. "Our white girlhood was passed together there.
". when he enters the Buchanan house for the first time.27 [37." [37. enchantment and dream. to reveal. And Wilson murders Gatsby. the "careless people" who smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness and let other people clean up the mess they had made. later on. simultaneously. a tiny gust of powder rose from her bosom into the air" [39. Yellow symbolizes wisdom. "stood in the center of the crimson carpet and gazed around him with fascinated eyes. her admirers are only yellow "two girls in twin yellow dresses". whose blood leaves "a thin red circle in the water" [39.98]. and we find it significant that Gatsby. Thus the richness is only a cover.. her sweet. Thus it is appropriate that the Buchanans' house is a "cheerful red-and-white Georgian Colonial mansion" [39. Yellow means joy and happiness. Red colour is used to present expressive.136]. Daisy watched him and laughed. whose "thick dark blood" [39. The beautiful reds become the colour of carnage.76]. exciting laugh. Red is wedded to white and yellow. In contrast to the golden girl Jordan.52].42].97]. descriptive and aesthetic functions. we sat down at a table with the two girls in yellow" . On the one hand it denotes happiness and joy but on the other hand yellow is the colour of cowardice and deceit.48]. a short sensation.. Thus Tom breaks Myrtle's nose and there are "bloody towels upon the bathroom floor" [39. in these sentences is glitter.124] mingles with the dust of the Valley of Ashes. Sometimes the gold at Gatsby's house turns to yellow. "the crimson room bloomed with light. like the yellow press for the more offensively sensational press. Red. Daisy runs down Myrtle. but there is another reason for the frequent occurrence of the colour. it is inevitably associated with the violence caused by the people who prey upon Gatsby especially Tom and Daisy. As the colour of blood. both the dreamlike enchantment and the actual brutality. It is used in compound colour words and as descriptive and expressive colour names.78] and on his way home he observes how "new red gas-pumps sat out in pools of light" [37. "…now the orchestra is playing yellow cocktail music" [39.
Black is the colour of authority and power. Remarkably Daisy's daughter has old and yellow hair: "Did mother get powder on your old yellowy hair?" [39. the source of life.111].70]. Blue is cooling and relaxing. Gatsby's yellow car is the murder weapon used to kill Myrtle.. Black is authoritative and powerful. He gained his fortune through dealings with crime.167].151]. desire for wealth and money. like Gatsby” [42. Therefore a lot of things around Gatsby are blue.. dependable and committed. The colour black is used to convey elegance. according to the “American Dream”. sophisticated. moody. Blue is seen as trustworthy. After Myrtle's death people are in a blue mood.41]. The colour of sky and the ocean. Yellow colour is used in aesthetic and expressive function. Black colour is used in descriptive and aesthetic function in the novels.144]. But “newly rich” people are also yellow inside. or perhaps a touch of mystery. because black can evoke strong emotions too much can be overwhelming. "In his blue gardens men and girls came and went" [39. "So when the blue smoke of brittle leaves" [39. like daisies.44]. but. and realized that dawn wasn't far off.. mysterious. The colour symbolism of blue is related to freedom.87]. money should be a reward for honesty and hard work” [42.28 [39. Blue symbolizes water. " .. The . “The immoral people have all the money. Yellow symbolizes also the corruption and death in The Great Gatsby. And this exemplifies a theme of death of the “American Dream”. ". Blue is also the colour of being depressed. ghostly birds began to sing among the blue leaves" [39. sophistication. a blue quickening by the window. strength and new beginnings. Meaning of the colour Black . Yellow illustrates also the greed of the characters. blue is perceived as a constant in people’s lives. flaky women at Gatsby's party swing their yellow gowns wildly as they drink and flirt and cause problems. The rich. About five o'clock it was blue enough outside to snap off the light" [39. Blue skies mean optimism and better opportunities. “Rich people are “rotten” inside. or unhappy.conservative.
turkeys bewitched to a dark gold” [39. 233].29 most unhappy place is the graveyard: "He had come a long way to this blue lawn" [39. Gatsby's dream-like parties are filled with blue music. The only way for Myrtle to get out of the grey was to become Tom Buchanan.48]. 3) success. Gold often symbolizes high quality.. Like black. appear in grey. Grey is a neutral. conservative colour that seldom evokes strong emotion although it can be seen as a cloudy or moody colour. Tom could be seen as a gold person for he has old money.. It is a cool. grey is used as a colour of mourning as well as a colour of formality. Blue may symbolize romance and illusions. Gold evokes the feeling of prestige. dull. In Fitzgerald’s novel it symbolizes also a loss of hope and even death"…grey little villages in France" [39.. wisdom.171]. florid man with a hard.23]"The grey windows disappeared" [39. Gatsby's ideal is gray and empty. 2) happiness or prosperity: golden days.97] about the portrait of Dan Cody in Gatsby's bedroom. when she enjoys the company of Tom Buchanan. At Gatsby's parties even the turkeys turn to gold “. Grey is the colour of sorrow.. 4) value: a golden opportunity.41]. not important balanced colour.. and wealth." [39. golden age. a grey.. The Wilsons. The colour blue in The Great Gatsby is associated with false appearances “In his blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars” [39. Gold is used to be an example of old money.91]. "occasionally a line of grey cars crawls along. Golden is associated with wealth and prosperity. Blue colour performs descriptive function and is used in compound colour words in the novel. ". except for Myrtle. The meaning of gold is illumination. living in the valley of ashes.. unlike green that is used to depict the new money of gold. . Grey colour is realistic colour which is used in the depiction of New York in the form of abstract colour terms Gold stands for: 1) richness. empty face" [39.
Here even the dust in the rooms. "A silver curve of the moon hovered already in the western sky" [39. When Gatsby and Daisy are finally together. Silver represents jewelry and richness. Violet – royal. "The moon had risen higher.48]. It is a quiet colour. “All night the saxophones wailed the hopeless comment of the “Beale Street Blues” while a hundred pairs of golden and silver slippers shuffled the shining dust [39. filling the house with grey-turning.144]. “With Jordan's slender golden arm resting in mine” [39.77]. gold-turning light” [39. Meaning of the colour violet is grace. In The Great Gatsby the moon or moonlight or the stars are often silver: "the silver pepper of the stars" [39. is cool like grey but livelier. acceptance.44]. more playful. 91]. self-worth and love. A mysterious colour. Sometimes Gatsby comes up with the colour pink "the luminosity of his pink suit under the moon" [39. Pink colour performs descriptive as well as expressive function. feminine. especially when describing rich people in the novel. delicate. and floating in the Sound was a triangle of silver scales" [39. silver-haired denotes a graceful aging. Pink is the colour of universal love. less violent than red. Pink provides feelings of caring. tenderness. elegance. metallic silver.25]. Pink is a softer.114]. With a few sentences Fitzgerald throws a light at the turbulent months while Daisy was waiting for Gatsby during the war. “I put my arm around Jordan's golden shoulder” [39. is shining.30 Jordan Baker – the golden girl of golf – is associated with that colour. Gold performs descriptive function. while across the contrast between golden and grey once more in “we went about opening the rest of the windows downstairs.144]. Silver can be sleek and modern or impart a feeling of ornate riches. Silver especially shiny. violet is associated with both . precious. romantic. "there was a pink and golden billow of foamy clouds above the sea" [39. Pink is the sweet side of red. usually grey. While grey-haired men and women are seen as old.136].
Orange is vibrant. in coral and apple-green and lavender and faint orange. The colour of royalty. colour in the Great Gatsby. useless. Fitzgerald used colour to express many personalities. confidence. . The colours which reflect class status are used describing “Valley of Ashes. and a symbolic meaning. wealth. But orange has a bit less intensity or aggression than red. Fitzgerald used colour to express many personalities. A certain colour in the novel is a means to express a character’s personality. and meretricious beauty"—a world of such stirring vividness that it may be represented now by all the colours of the rainbow.” makes the reader think that their house has much beauty and value associated with it." of "a vast. The Buchanan’s “cheerful red-and-white Georgia Colonial mansion. The colour symbolism of orange is creativity. also displays a status of an individual or value of an item. with monograms of indian blue" [39. It's a combination of red and yellow so it shares some common attributes with those colours. colour in the Great Gatsby. Violet is used in descriptive. one’s status. To impress Daisy Jay Gatsby brings up a pile of shirts "and covered the table in many coloured disarray . indicates great number of something. also displays a status of an individual or value of an item. and the sun. It denotes energy. calmed by the cheerfulness of yellow. and sophistication. Writer’s imagination in its own way has created a "universe of ineffable gaudiness. Violet is the colour of good judgment.. Colour is an important part of literature which is used often and will always be an element of a good novel. friendliness and the entrepreneurial spirit. vulgar.” The dark and grey descriptions illustrate a poor. In addition to expressing personalities. A variety of colours presents wealth. and desolate area of land.31 nobility and spirituality. aesthetic and expressive function in the form of abstract colour name. In addition to expressing personalities. intuition. violet connotes luxury. warmth. Lavender is the colour of indulgence..89].
1. literary collage (a concept that involves the assimilation of diverse narrative and visual materials).32 CHAPTER III STYLISTIC FUNCTIONS OF COLOUR VOCABULARY IN A MODERNISTIC NOVEL 3. setting of his moods.Scott Fitzgerald we can state that one of the functions performed by the use of colour vocabulary is a descriptive function. Descriptive Function of Colour Vocabulary in a Modernistic Novel Modernistic novel is characterized by the usage of skillfully weaved together narration. It creates a special atmosphere that modernists fail to achieve while using any other stylistic devices. The mentioned episodes serve as a peculiar background to the development of the main actions or dialogue. serving as a background to the emotional state of a personage. stream of consciousness. Having analyzed the novel The Great Gatsby by F. and quotations from newspapers and magazines. It is as if each enunciation of each colour will . Colour vocabulary is not neglected while presenting interior descriptions. biographies of representative figures. his feelings. performing at the same time informative function due to which the information about the heroes’ social status is provided. Descriptive function is used first and for most in description of nature. While applying all these techniques and methods the modernists appeal to colour vocabulary that possesses an essential value in modernistic prose and poetry. Colour vocabulary performs certain functions in any of modernistic novel. Descriptive function of colour vocabulary is poetically transformed into the attributes of the heroes’ appearance. It is also used in inserted episodes (paragraphs and complex syntactic units which describe nature).
Modernists appeal to colour vocabulary while providing portrait characteristics. clashing contrasts are disturbing. Expressive Function of Colour Vocabulary Colour is a power that directly influences the soul. interior and appearance descriptions. Beyond descriptive function colour terms have expressive qualities: dark hues induce a mood of melancholy. eyes. Description that is based on the use of colour vocabulary influences the reader subconsciously and is a means that creates planned by the author image of each of the characters. bright pinks and pale blues – gaiety.2. The authors appeals to the usage of mostly abstract colour words or as they are called monolexemic colour words while presenting nature. To do this is not an easy task especially if influence is not performed by the painting. gentle gradations suggest harmony. Analyzing the use of concrete colour terms in The Great Gatsby we have come to the conclusion that expressive function of colour vocabulary is aimed at revealing the inner state although sometimes general knowledge of colour terms and its understanding by the reader does not correlate with the main expressive idea that is . clothes providing in such a way a great deal of information about a certain personage. describing heroes’ hair.33 henceforth bear a reference to the characters’ appearance into its poetic and descriptive functions. Expressive function of the language bears a very important part in the process of understanding the main idea of the literary work. The success of presenting the main idea of a certain novel depends on the writer’s ability to use expressive means while encoding the crucial information in such a way it would be interesting for a reader to decode it. 3. complexion. where an artist can easily take advantage of visual abilities of an observer but influencing with the help of simple words – colour terms.
but in The Great Gatsby it is used to show the inside of the wealthy people. because Gatsby’s ideal turned out to be grey and empty and not worth attention. to identify the expressive function of the colour terms that are appealed to. but in Fitzgerald’s novel it symbolizes loss of hope or death. Violet is royal.34 presupposed to be presented. live in white houses but they are immoral inside. . Silver is expressed as colour of wisdom. pathos. Blue is perceived as a constant in people’s lives but in The Great Gatsby it is the colour of being depressed. Modernistic novel is full of artificial colours and the task of linguists is first of all to do the analysis to find out the real purpose of the use of colour terms. romantic colour . desire or unfulfilled wish. All in all expressive function of colour vocabulary in modernistic novel is very essential while doing step by step analysis. For example. In The Great Gatsby it is expresses corruption and even death. Black is sophisticated. Gold symbolizes richness. Yellow symbolizes wisdom but in the novel it is used to illustrate greed and desire for wealth and money. success and is associated with wealth and prosperity. Red colour expresses passionate love or even violence. These people wear white clothes. Grey is neutral. White colour is innocence. who can easily kill a person and forget about the crime the very next day. green colour signifies growth. Gatsby’s yellow car is the murder weapon. The reader makes such conclusion when constantly coming across the phrase “green light” that is a key symbol in the novel. In Fitzgerald’s novel red is expressed as the colour of blood and is inevitably associated with the violence caused by the people who are careless. to express the black side of their character and their life. health but Fitzgerald with the help of this colour expresses never-ending hope. because first of all it is a colour of old people’s hair that symbolizes long life and great experience.
The term "the American Dream" is a subjective one usually implying success and happiness. especially by F. It does . It also implies financial security. In the Great Gatsby the reader comes across the use of black colour in the image of black water towards which Gatsby was stretching his arms. exceeding ethnic or social boundaries or simply living a fulfilling life. Characters’ personal dreams symbolize the large American Dream that never comes about. S. fame. not the one Americans are programmed to have. It is just an illusion that has nothing to base on and there is no real means of its fulfillment in real life. While revealing the notion of the American Dream.3. material goods. The American Dream can be described as a belief in the freedom that allows all citizens and residents of the United States of America to achieve their goals in life through hard work. Fitzgerald appeals to the use of various colour terms and symbols created with the help of colours to portray the lack of moral and spiritual values of people and the different aspects of society in the 1920’s. They do not aim to show their own attitude towards it but to present it as ephemeral idea that will never be realized no matter how hard people work and how passionately they desire to attain it. That is why the writers give the lesson of being true to oneself and following ones own personal dreams. Fitzgerald whose novel form the base of our analysis. Aesthetic Function of Colour Vocabulary Aesthetic function of colour vocabulary in modernistic novel is realized in revealing the notion of the American Dream that was being frequently appealed to by modernists. Fitzgerald proves that the wonderful American Dream is unattainable through their novels.35 3.
to present it to the readers’ attention and to educate them showing it in bright light. the dream proves illusory. The ideal of the American dream in novel proves to be an empty dream. For Fitzgerald. and the reality is the hypocritical society of West Egg. For Gatsby.36 not signify a hope in the form of green light but something that is condemned to death. something with no future. the artist is equated with the romantic.245]. . By the skillful use of colour terms the authors managed to reveal the vainness of the American Dream. as the American Dream appears to be a failure even if it was partly realized but not in honest way. Gatsby’s yellow house symbolizes richness it reflects his success as an American self-made man who buys this yellow house to be closer to Daisy but after Gatsby’s death the mansion is just “huge incoherent failure of a house” [39. and the romantic – such as Jay Gatsby – is lost in that sort of society.
she is almost evil. Colours can symbolize many different things. Literature adopted the concept of colour. Artists use colours in their paintings when they want you to see what they are trying to express. uses colours to symbolize many different intangible ideas in the book. but deep inside her. . and lilac). black. blue and grey. When the artist uses bright colours one may feel happiness. namely – fills it with bright paints. This innocence is just a surface. they cover their dark side behind it. Her name symbolizes a flower: its petals are white. rose. The writer used this colour to underline the inside of the wealthy people. Daisy is fragile like a flower. Then Fitzgerald uses the colour of white to symbolize innocence. not as pure as white. Abstract colour words are words that only refer to a colour (white. It uses the stylistic epithets of colour and also their stylistic functions. If an artist is trying to express sorrow or death he often uses black. yellow. blue.37 CONCLUSIONS As a result of our analysis we have come to the conclusion that colour plays a very important part in human life. and grey). In the novel The Great Gatsby the writer like artists. descriptive colour words are words that are secondarily used to describe a colour but primarily used to refer to an object or phenomenon that has that colour (salmon. like Daisy does. so as interlinked with the art. basically he uses dreary colours. brown. People automatically feel what the artist is trying to express. green. but its inside is yellow. red. saffron. As to the structural peculiarities of colour vocabulary in the lexical system of the language colour words in a language are divided into abstract colour words and descriptive colour words. The widest value of colour is presented in the fine art. Fitzgerald uses the colour of yellow to symbolize moral decay decadence and death.
for S. very blue.38 English contains the eleven basic colour terms ‘black’. mysterious. the words have to be monolexemic. White is purity. Colour due to its nature its an abstract notion and is considered to belong to the symbolism. ‘blue’. ‘purple’ and ‘grey’.Fitzgerald its is associated with life. brownie. golden-brown. ‘orange’. dark silver. peculiar for a certain tradition. shame and rage. chocolate-brown. ‘white’. and innocence. descriptive colour names: the colour of robin’s eggs. Red is hot. Black is associated with conservative. 4) combination of several colour names in order to form denotation of hues (shades): blue-green. the blue of a sapphire. In the modernistic novel The Great Gatsby by F. A system of colour terms depends on the principles of colour perception by the author and his vision of the world. Yellow symbolizes sophisticated. . ‘green’. The main principles of forming of the colour vocabulary: 1) combination of the main colour names with the words which signify brightness (light/dimness): dark green. dim brown. steel. wisdom. ‘brown’. joy. adultness and a good taste. redder. blue gloom. Green is associated with Gatsby’s character. Crimson – symbolizes strength. 2) metaphoric transference of the meaning of adjectives: names of object/liquids: ivory. Colour term – symbols exist in our consciousness as a unity of visual colour image and a lexical unit which perform informative function in the real world and become symblos of different notions and phenomena. love. ‘yellow’. bright green. S. The semantic structure of colour terms is based on understanding different semantic transformations and symbolization. ‘pink’. slate. the colour of pearls. muslin. which denote colouring of lesser intensity: greenish. cleanliness. olive. chocolate. names of object/liquids + coluor names: pearly-white. To be considered a basic colour term. lilac. ‘red’. 3) formation of derivatives by adding suffixes -y(ie). -ish. purplish. seriousness. 5) formation of more intense shades of the main colours: yellower. Fitzgerald the authors’ treatment of colour names is symbolic. the colour of cigar.
Aesthetic function of colour vocabulary in modernistic novel is realized in revealing the notion of the American Dream that was being frequently appealed to by modernists. Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby which proves that the most frequently used colours are ‘black’. ‘purple’ and ‘grey’. It is also used in inserted episodes. The use of colours plays an enormous role in the novel and is considered to be one of those modern techniques that were used by the authors. The aim of the author is to show the American Dream from different points of view. S. Basing on the analysis that was made using the method of complete sampling. ‘orange’. A prime example is F. ‘red’. ‘yellow’. Analyzing the use of concrete colour terms in The Great Gatsby we have come to the conclusion that expressive function of colour vocabulary is aimed at revealing the inner state although sometimes general knowledge of colour terms and its understanding by the reader does not correlate with the main expressive idea that is presupposed to be presented. Fitzgerald whose novel form the base of our analysis. Colour vocabulary is not neglected in presenting interior as well as appearance descriptions. ‘white’. S. ‘brown’. Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. his feelings. setting of his moods. ‘green’. especially by F.39 The stylistic functions of colour vocabulary in a modernistic novel is such as follows: descriptive. Descriptive function is used first and for most in description of nature. A lot of writers explored the colour vocabulary in a literature of modernism. ‘pink’. S. . we managed to determine the frequency of usage of the colour names in F. expressive and aesthetic. serving as a background to the emotional state of a personage. ‘blue’.
Венкель Т. Цветонаименования как характеристика языка писателя. – Вип. Р. Стилістична функція колоративної лексики в романі Еліс Уокер «Колір Пурпурний» // Гуманітарний вісник серія: іноземна філологія – УДТУ 2004 №8. 3.03. – Тарту: Лингвистика. Р. 1963. .1988. 2. История цветообозначений. 12. Особливості асоціативної номінації колірного простору в українській та англійській мовах. – 406с. В. Стилистика. – 166с. 1997. Б. Збірник наук праць. Виноградов В. Теория поэтической речи. Збірник наук. – Л. 51-56. В. праць. Венкель Т. Т. // Наукові записки Кіровоградського держ.40 REFERENCE 1. Колоративна лексика як вираження прагматичної інтерпретації автора // ИНИОН А. 5. Василевич А. Бадилина Н. Дослідження семантичної сполучуваності прикметників кольору в англійській мові. пед. 4. // Науковий вісник Чернівецького університету: германська філологія. – С. – 365с. Авраменко С. – Чернівці: ЧДУ. Алимпиева Р. 53-63. – Вип. Семантическая значимость слова и структура ЛСГ (на материале прилагательных цветообразований). 2002. – 220с. Поэтика. 1981.: ЛГУ. – М. – М: 1975. В. праць. Венкель Т. В. 9.Н. 7. – С. СРСР№332117 від 31. – Кіровоград 2000. Авраменко С. ун-ту.: Высшая школа. 135 – С. – 213с. 142-146. 8. 1986. Збірник наук. 6. До символіки колору в художньому тексті (на матеріалі творів Мюріел Спарк) // Науковий вісник Чернівецького університету: Германська філологія. В. – Чернівці: Рута.
. 300-301. Кухаренко В. Г. І. наук. 1993. Интерпритация текста. А. 20. В.Шевченка. Коротич Т. Романы Френсиса Скотта Фицджеральда. Критенко А. 1967. А. Горьковского гос. — К.. . дис. Державина (на материале наименований со значением синего тона) // Мова і соціальні процеси: Вісник Львівського державного університету ім. М. Кухалашвили В. канд.А. – 325с. Колористика як перекладознавча проблема (на матеріалі українських і англомовних художніх текстів): Автореф. Корсунская Т. Френсис Скотт Фицджеральд и американский литературный процесс 20-30 годов ХХ века. – 1997.Х. 11. – Серія філологічна. – Запоріжжя: Запорізький державний університет. Цветовая лексика в поэтической речи Г. 19. філол. 17. – М. Деменчук О. Из записок по диахроничной семантике: // Нова филология 2004 №1 (20) С. – Київ. наук.:Вид-во Академії наук УРСР. 1963. – 2002. — 19 с. В. – Вип. дис. – С. філол.Франка. 13. Вып.: Просвещение. – 251с. 15. Горбунов А. Семантична структура назв кольорів в українській мові // Славістичний збірник. К: 1983. К. Ин-та иностр. 1993.Н. 16. Науменко. – 344 с. – К. 18. Искуство слова: О художественности литературы. 2001. 1974. А. Пед. 12. Порівняльно-зіставний аналіз функції позначень кольору та світла у казковому та біблійному текстах: Автореф. О системе цветообозначений в русском.25. нац.13 с. – М.26. И. 95-100. Колоративна композита і текст: інтерпретація крізь призму колірної категоризації // Тези V-ої Всеукраїнської конференції “Нові підходи до філології у вищій школі” / За ред..41 10. 1988. Зап. Т. – К. М: Наука. Яз.5-13. 14. Гей Н. английском и немецком языках // Учен. – 364с. Григорук С. Фридман Х. П. канд. – С.К. ун-т ім. Луценко Н. Ковальська І. – Львів: Світ.: Наука..
С. А. Колористична семантика в структурі російського художнього тексту (мова поезії 70 – 80-х рр. – К. – К. Ф. канд. Пелевина Н. филол. филол. – М. канд. Табидзе: Атореф. Цветообозначения в языке и речи: Атореф. наук. праць. – Філологія. Чжун Сяовен. канд. Похилевич Т. №104.: 1971. обозначающих основные понятия цвета в современном английском языке: Автореф. Л. – Частина І. 1974. держ. 29. Лоуренса «Райдуга» // Іноземна філологія. Число 2. – Д. 2002 – 19с. В. №2. дис. 30. – 1998. Київський національний університет ім. Швацая Т. Филол. 24.): Атореф. – 21с. наук. Исследование прилагательных. В. Ф. 1962. Символіка і колоративна лексика у романі Д. – 1997. Місце колоративної лексики і фразеології в мовній картині світу // Філологічні науки: Зб. – Івано-Франківськ. мовлення і перекладу. 164-173.. . дис. – Випуск XVXVIII.филол. наук. – Вип. Ш. дис. Лексико-семантичні зелений // значення Вісник фразеологізмів із прикметниковим компонентом Прикарпатського національного університету ім. Ф. – С. Сер. 92-97. 121-126. С. “Іноземна філологія”. 25. “Філологія”. 31. 633-636. Ругалева А. Cемашко Т. Суми: СумДПУ ім. XX ст. И. наук. Стуруа Л. 22.: 1985.42 21. – М. Ад’єктивний кольоратив та його словотвірна парадигма в сучасній російській мові: Атореф. – 24с. канд.: КДЛУ.: 2003. Макаренка. Пастушенко Т. Художественная функция цвета в поезии Г. Семашко Т. 1: Проблеми сучасної лінгвістики. Т. – Ч. Пастушенко Т. О соотношении языка и действительности (обозначение красного и синего цветов) // НДВШ. 27. наук. дис. 2007. – Тбилиси. филол. Г. канд. 26. Муляр С. – 18с. 28. Сер. – С.. 2007. 40-46. – С. – Черкаси. Конотативні значення кольору в мовній інтерпретації // Вісник Київськ. Стефаника. Науки. Д. филол. наук. дис.4: Актуальні проблеми вивчення мови. Ситуаційно-типова експансія значень кольоронайменувань // гуманітарний вісник. – 1992.В. Шевченка. Лінгвістичного університету: дослідження молодих вчених. П. 23. – С.
44.A. Lectures on Enlish stylistics. After the Lost Generation: A Critical Study of the Writers of Two Wars. 46. Lvov Yniversity Press. Scott Fitzgerald. 38. "The Great Gatsby. Heider E. New York. 42. 43. Marius. 1972. Scott. High.. 1951. McDaniel Ch. №3. An Outline of American Literature. Peter. 35. Skard S. 1985. №1. – 1972. The use of colour in literature // A survey of Research. 37. McGraw-Hill. 93. Aldridge. Chicago: Southern Illinois University Press. 54. John. 41. Scott Fitzgerald and the Craft of Fiction.С. The Great Gatsby. 1945. 33. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby. The American Philosophical Society.. 39.43 32.. "The Great Gatsby. Psychol. Longman Inc. 36." Modern Critical Interpretations F. 1992. Lehan. 1986. http://www.allfreeessays. 1977.allfreeessays. New York. Galperin I. New York. 45."Modern Critical Views F. 40. 1966. – p. Universals in colour naming and memory // Journ. The linguistic significance of the meanings of basic colour terms // Language. Stylistics. Цвет в художественной литературе // Наука и жизнь – 1970. Symbolism of the Green Light. "Third Act and Epilogue. Fitzgerald. Vol. R. "Scott Fitzgerald and the Collapse of the American Dream.R. http://www. F. №8. – 1978. K. . Штенгелов Е. 1946. Brian. – Philadelphia." The New Yorker. 34. Kay P. Smykalova L. Richard D. Н. Kuznetsova L. . 163-203. Death of the American Dream.A. Moscow “Higher school”. Bewley.net/student/Death_of_the_American_Dream. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. Malcolm Cowley.24-26. Macmillan Publishing Company. Way.net/student/Symbolism_of_the_Green_Light. 1986. New York: Chelsea House Publishers." F. Vol. Exp.
експресивну та естетичну функції. героїв. зображаючи особливості портрету. що сумна людина бачить синє. щоби описати примхи і почуття. ліричні відхилення та інтер’єри. Серед яких я виокремлюю: описову. http://www. можна сказати. Назва кольорів використовується замість вираження. пейзажів. На мові прози або поезії колір стає особливістю стилю індивідуального автора або поета.net/student/Great_Gatsby_7. закладеного автором. представленні портретних характеристик. SUMMARY Колоративна лексика завжди привертає увагу як письменників. до якої часто зверталися модерністи. Дана робота є спробою визначити функції колоративної лексики в романах епохи модернізму. ця проблема все ще актуальна і потребує подальшого вивчення. наповнюючи її особистим емоційним навантаженням. експресивну та естетичну. В різні епохи розвитку літератури письменники зверталися до кольорів при змалюванні пейзажів.allfreeessays.44 47. Серед основних функцій виділяють описову. описуючи пейзажі. так і лінгвістів завдяки своїй багатофункціональності.С. тощо. В різні епохи літературного розвитку автор звертається до кольорового словника. ревнива . Експресивна функція полягає у розкритті внутрішнього стану героя. Описова функція полягає у зображенні інтер’єрів. Наприклад. Завдання читача полягає в декодуванні значення. Фітцджеральд. Функції кольорів в літературі недостатньо досліджені. в той час як естетична спрямована на розкриття теми Американської Мрії. його почуттів та думок. На мою думку. зокрема Ф. У кольорів є символіка і значення. Great Gastby 7. Письменник використовує колоративну лексику.
а також при написанні статей на дану тематику. іноді невиконане. Найбільш вживані кольори можуть бути розповсюджені всюди по романах. здоров’я. постійно наштовхуючись на фразу «зелене світло». Наприклад. а боягуза можна назвати жовтим. білий. Результати дослідження можуть бути використанні на практичних заняттях із стилістики англійської мови. синій і жовтий. Читач робить такий висновок. В підсумку. сірий.45 є позеленілим від заздрощів. . зелений колір показує ріст. мені вдалося визначити стилістичні функції кольорового словника та дослідити його структурні особливості. сердитий чоловік бачить червоне. але Фіцджеральд за допомогою цього кольору виражає безкінечну надію. бажання. яка є ключовим символом в романі. а також інші. а саме: зелений.