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# Opposition of Propositions

## Comparison of one proposition

with another
Important in determining truth
and falsity:
Retain subject and predicate terms
Change the quantity or quality or both
Nature of logical opposition:
All truth is based on 3 laws of thought:
The principle of Identity
The principle of Excluded Middle
Square of Opposition:
Laws of Logical Opposition:
Law of Subalternation: A-I and E-O
The truth of the universal involves the
truth of the particular (A to I, E to O); but
the truth of the particular does not
involve the truth of the universal (I to A,
O to E)
Law of Subalternation:
First section:
A: All men are mortal (True)
I: Some men are mortal (True)
E: No men are horses (True)
O: Some men are not horses (True)
I: Some men are Golkar (True)
A: All men are Golkar (False)
O: Some men are not learned (True)
E: No men are learned (False)
I: Some men are mortal (True)
A: All men are mortal (True)
O: Some men are not horses (True)
E: No men are horses (True)
Second Section:
The falsity of the particular involves the
falsity of the universal (I to A; O to E);
but the falsity of the universal does not
involve the falsity of the particular (A to
I; E to O)
I: Some men are donkeys (False)
A: All men are donkeys (False)
O: Some men are not mortal (False)
E: No men are mortal (False)
I: Some men are Golkar (True)
A: All men are Golkar (Can be true or False)
O: Some men are not Golkar (True)
E: No men are Golkar (Can be true or False)
E-I):
First rule: contradictories cannot be true
together
A: All men are mortal (True)
O: Some men aire not mortal (False)
E: No men are donkeys (True)
I: Some men are donkeys (False)
A: All men are Golkar (False)
O: Some men are not Golkar (True)
E: No men are Golkar (False)
I: Some men are Golkar (True)
Law of Contrariety (A-E)
Contraries cannot be true together (1);
contraries may be false together (2).
First rule:
A: All men are mortal (True)
E: No men are mortal (False)
A: All men are donkeys (False)
E: No men are donkeys (True)
Next slides
Second rule:
A: All men are Golkar (False)
E: No men are Golkar (Doubtful)
A: All professors are learned (Doubtful)
E: No professors are learned (False)
Law of Subcontrariety (I-O):
Both subcontraries cannot be false together (1);
but both subcontraries may be true together
(2)
First rule:
I: Some men are donkeys (False)
O: Some men are not donkeys (True)
I: Some men are mortal (True)
O: Some men are not mortal (False)

Next slide …
Second rule:
I:Some men are Golkar (True)
O: Some men are not Golkar (Doubtful)
I: Some men are learned (Doubtful)
O: Some men are not learned (True)
Summary:
Logical Opposition of Modals:
The logical opposition affects the mode
itself:
A = neccesary
E = impossible
I = possible
O = contingent
Logical Opposition of Modals: