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PERANAN PERENCANAAN

DALAM PRAKTEK MANAJEMEN

OLEH :
AMY S. RAHAYU
THE PRIMARY MANAGEMENT
FUNCTION.

• WHY SOME MANAGERS SEE


PLANNING AS THE PRIMARY
MANAGEMENT FUNCTION
AND THINK THAT
ORGANIZING AND
CONTROLLING ARE
SECONDARY ?
THE FOCUS OF PLANNING

• PLANNING FOCUSES ON THE FUTURE : WHAT IS


TO BE ACCOMPLISHED AND HOW. IN ESSENCE
THE PLANNING FUNCTION INCLUDES THOSE
MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES THAT DETERMINE
‘OBJECTIVES FOR THE FUTURE AND THE
APPROPRIATE MEANS FOR ACHIEVING THOSE
OBJECTIVES’

THE OUTCOME OF THE PLANNING FUNCTION IS


A PLAN, A WRITTEN DOCUMENT THAT SPECIFIES
THE COURSES OF ACTION THE FIRM WILL TAKE
THE ELEMENTS OF PLANNING

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF PLANS :


1. OBJECTIVES
SPECIFY FUTURE CONDITIONS THAT A
MANAGER HOPES TO ACHIEVE)
2. ACTION
SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES, PLANNED TO ACHIEVE
THE OBJECTIVES
3. RESOURCES
CONSTRAINTS ON THE COURSE OF ACTION
4. IMPLEMENTATION
WAYS AND MEANS TO IMPLEMENT THE INTENDED
ACTIONS, INVOLVES THE DIRECTION OF PERSONNEL TO
CARRY OUT PLAN
THE PLANNING FUNCTION

• THE PLANNING
FUNCTION IS A SET
OF RELATED STEPS
BY WHICH
MANAGEMENT
DETERMINES WHAT
IS TO BE DONE AND
HOW IT WILL BE
DONE
THE PLANNING FUNCTION

THE PLANNING PROCESS

OBJECTIVE ACTION RESOURCES IMPLEMENTATION

PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES

Source : Donnelly et al , 1998: 141


THE IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING

1. COORDINATING EFFORTS
2. PREPARING FOR CHANGE
3. DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
4. DEVELOPING MANAGERS (ABILITY TO
THINK AS THEY CONSIDER
ABSTRACT IDEAS AND POSSIBILITIES
FOR THE FUTURE)
SETTING OBJECTIVE AND PRIORITIES

MANAGEMENT INITIATES PLANNING TO DETERMINE


THE PRIORITY, TIMING AND PROVIDE
MEASUREMENT OF OBJECTIVES.

• PRIORITY OF OBJECTIVE (ACCOMPLISHING ONE


OBJECTIVE IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN
ACCOMPLISHING OTHERS)
• TIME FRAME OF OBJECTIVE (SHORT-TERM VS
LONG-TERM PLAN, STRATEGIC VS
OPERATIONAL PLAN, LOW RISK VS HIGH RISK
ENVIRONMENT,etc)
• MEASUREMENT OF OBJECTIVE (OBJECTIVE
MUST BE UNDERSTANDABLE AND ACCEPTABLE
TO THOSE WHO WILL HELP TO ACHIEVE THEM,
MEASURABLE OBJECTIVES INCREASE THE
PERFORMANCE OF BOTH EMPLOYEES AND
ORGANIZATION)
MEASUREMENT OBJECTIVES

• IN PRACTICE, EFFECTIVE MANAGERIAL PERFORMANCE


REQUIRES ESTABLISHING OBJECTIVES IN EVERY AREA
THAT CONTRIBUTES TO OVERALL ORGANIZATION
PERFORMANCE, AT LEAST EIGHT AREAS OF
ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE :
1. MARKET
2. INNOVATIONS
3. PRODUCTIVITY
4. PHYSICAL AND FINANCIAL REOSURCES
5. PROVITABILITY
6. MANAGER PERFORMANCE AND RESPONSIBILITY
7. WORKER PERFORMANCE AND ATTITUDE
8. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
( BY PETER DRUCKER)
HIERARCHY OF PLANNING

MISSION
OBJECTIVES
TOP
STRATEGIES MANAGER
STRATEGIC PORTOFOLIO PLAN
PLANNING

FORECAST MID / LOWER


OPERATIONAL BUDGET MANAGER
PLANNING
PROGRAM
THE HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
IN ORGANIZATION

ONE ORGANIZATIONAL ACHIEVE AN ANNUAL RATE OF RETURN ON


OBJECTIVE(PROFITABILI INVESTMENT OF AT LEAST 15 PERCENT
TY OBJECTIVE)

MARKET PENETRATION MARKET DEVELOPMENT


TWO POSSIBLE
ORGANIZATIONAL
STRATEGIES FROM THE IMPROVE POSITION OF FIND NEW CUSTOMERS
MARKET-PRODUCT PRESENT PRODUCTS
FOR PRESENT
WITH PRESENT
CUSTOMERS PRODUCTS

TWO POSSIBLE INCREASE RATE OF DESIGN ADDITIONAL


OPERASIONAL PURCHASE 10 % BY FEATURES INTO
OBJECTIVES YEAR END PRODUCT TO BUYERS

SPECIFIC COURSE OF MARKETING PROGRAMS PRODUCTION


ACTION (PROGRAMS) PROGRAMS
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ORGANIZATION’S
STRATEGIC PLAN AND OPERATIONAL PLANS

STRATEGIC PLAN
CONTRIBUTE TO ACHIEVEMENT OF -MISSION
-OBJECTIVES
-STRATEGIES
-PORTOFOLIO PLAN

OPERATIONAL PLAN
PRODUCTION MARKETING PERSONNEL FINANCIAL FACILITIES
PLAN PLAN PLAN PLAN PLAN

•OBJECTIVES •OBJECTIVES •OBJECTIVES •OBJECTIVES •OBJECTIVES


•FORECAST •FORECAST •FORECAST •FORECAST •FORECAST
•BUDGETS •BUDGETS •BUDGETS •BUDGETS •BUDGETS
•PROGRAM •PROGRAM •PROGRAM •PROGRAM •PROGRAM
•POLICIES •POLICIES •POLICIES •POLICIES •POLICIES
COMMUNICATION PLANNING AND ITS
PROBLEMS

COMMUNICATION IS THE ONE OF THE MOST VITAL


SKILLS THAT MANAGERS NEED. MANAGERS RARELY
WORK WITH THINGS BUT RATHER WITH INFORMATION
ABOUT THINGS. THUS COMMUNICATION PERVADES THE
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS OF PLANNING, ORGANIZING,
LEADING AND CONTROLLING.

THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN THE


‘POLC’

COMMUNICATION PLANNING AND ITS


PROBLEMS
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

STIMULUS

REALITY

PERCEPTION
PERCEPTION
TRANSMISSION
THROUGH A DECODING
INTERPRETATION CHANNEL

INTERPRETATION
ENCODING
FEEDBACK ENCODING

MANAGER A MANAGER B
(EMPLOYEE A) (EMPLOYEE B)
DEFINE THE PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION
PLANNING !
SELECT SOLUTIONS
IMPLEMENT
(SELECT OPTIMAL
SOLUTIONS
CHOICE)
(PREPARE PLAN,
PROPOSE DELEGATE
SOLUTIONS AUTHORITY)
DISCOMFORT
(SELECT
TECHNIQUES,
GENERATE IDEAS)
ANALYZE THE
PROBLEMS
(GATHER FACTS,
CAUSES, SET EVALUATE PLAN
CRITERIA)
(REFIND NEW PLAN, )
DEFINE THE
PROBLEMS
(PROBLEMS,
EFFECTS, STATE THE
PROBLEMS)

A SIX-STEP PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL