GSM Timers Timer Name Description Value 4 SACCH multiframes.

T100 RADIO-LINK- Detects the presence of the radio link by detecting SACCH frames every That is 1.92 seconds if TIMEOUT 480 ms. the SACCH is completely absent. T200 Data link timer T301 Alerting (ringing) timer T303 Mobility Management connection timer T305 Release timer Used for re-transmission on the data link. The value varies depending on the message type. Timer used to limit the amount of time a user has to answer a call. Time the network waits after sending a CM SERVICE REQUEST until receiving a response. This occurs before initiating call clearing procedures towards the MS. Time the network waits after transmitting a DISCONNECT message until receiving a RELEASE message. 155 ms for FACCH 20 seconds 10 seconds 10 seconds 10 seconds

Time the network waits after transmitting a DISCONNECT message while T306 In-band tones in-band tones/announcements are provided, until receiving a RELEASE release timer message. Time the network waits after sending a RELEASE message until receiving T308 Release timer a RELEASE COMPLETE message. This occurs before re-transmitting the RELEASE or releasing the Mobility Management connection. T310 Call proceeding timer T313 Connect acknowledge timer T323 Modify complete timer T3101 Immediate assignment timer Time the network waits after receiving a CALL CONFIRMED message until receiving a ALERTING, CONNECT, or DISCONNECT message before initiating clearing procedures towards the MS. Time the network waits after transmitting a CONNECT message until receiving the CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE message before performing clearing procedures with the MS. Time the network waits after sending a MODIFY message during call mode changes, until receiving a MODIFY COMPLETE or MODIFY REJECT message before initiating call clearing procedures. Time the network waits after sending the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT or IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message until the main signalling link is established before releasing the newly allocated channels. Time the network waits after transmitting a HANDOVER COMMAND message until receiving HANDOVER COMPLETE or HANDOVER FAILURE or the MS re-establishes the call before the old channels are released. If the timer expires and the network has not received a correctly decoded L2 (format A or B) or TCH frame, then the newly allocated channels are released. Time the network waits after sending the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message until receiving a correctly decoded L2 (format A or B) or TCH frame. This occur before re-transmitting the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message or releasing the newly allocated channels.

10 seconds

10 seconds

10 seconds

10 seconds

1 second

T3103 Handover timer

2 seconds

T3105 Physical information repetition timer

50 ms

Time the network waits after transmitting an ASSIGNMENT COMMAND T3107 Channel message until receiving the ASSESSMENT FAILURE message or the MS assignment timer re-establishes the call before releasing the old and the new channels. T3109 Signaling Time the network waits after sending the CHANNEL RELEASE message disconnection timer before disconnecting the signalling link. T3111 Channel deactivation after disconnection timer T3113 Paging timer Time the network waits after disconnecting the signalling link before deactivating the channel. Time the network waits after transmitting the PAGING REQUEST message until receiving the PAGING RESPONSE message. This occurs before re-transmitting the PAGING REQUEST (if the maximum number of

3 seconds 5 seconds 500 ms 5 seconds

Timer Name

Description re-transmissions have not been exceeded). The location update timer is set to zero, periodic location update by the MS are disabled. If the MS camps to the BCH and decodes a new MCC or MNC from the one it last camped on, it should perform a location update. Time the network waits after sending the TMSI REALLOCATION COMMAND until receiving TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE. This occurs before aborting the procedure and releasing the Radio Resource connection. Time the network waits after an AUTHENTICATION REQUEST until receiving AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE. This occurs before aborting the procedure and releasing the Radio Resource connection.

Value

T3212 Location update timer

zero = infinite time

T3250 TMSI reallocation timer T3260 Authentication response timer

5 seconds

5 seconds

GSM Frame Erasure Rate (FER) Measurement Description This section is only applicable to the lab applications and is not applicable to GPRS or EGPRS. You can use the GSM Frame Erasure Rate (FER) measurement to verify the mobile station's reference sensitivity for control channels. How is the FER Measurement Made? The test set measures FER by sending a Layer 3 message that does not require a Layer 3 response from the mobile station. It does require acknowledgment in the form of an RR frame from the mobile station. When the test set does not receive the RR frame in acknowledgment, it retransmits the Layer 2 message. The test set counts the number of times it resends Layer 2 messages. The test set uses an MM Information message with all the optional fields omitted for the Layer 3 message. You can make the Frame Erasure Rate Measurement on a full-rate FACCH channel (FACCH/F) or a half-rate FACCH channel (FACCH/H). Operating Considerations The FER measurement can only be performed in Active Cell Operating Mode. The connection type must be Auto. FER Measurement Parameters

• • • • •

Samples to Test - The number of samples to be taken by the measurement. Minimum Frame Interval (FACCH/F)- The minimum interval between FACCH frames (full rate) being sent to the mobile station. Minimum Frame Interval (FACCH/H)- The minimum interval between FACCH frames (half rate) being sent to the mobile station. Trigger Arm Measurement Timeout

plus the value of T3124. T3107: This timer is started by the sending of an ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the new channels. Its value is network dependent. Its value is equal to the value of T3110.The ratio of Frames Erased to Frames Sampled 0 comments Links to this post GSM Timers-Network side Timers on the network side T3101: This timer is started when a channel is allocated with an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. Its value is network dependent. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. Its value is network dependent. Frames Erased . Its value is network dependent. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum time for a L2 establishment attempt. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message plus twice the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link multiframe mode. NOTE: Its value should be large enough to ensure that the MS detects a radio link failure. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the HANDOVER COMMAND. T3109: This timer is started when a lower layer failure is detected by the network. plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode.The count of samples tested. It is also used in the channel release procedure. Its purpose is to keep the old channel sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. NOTE: The value could allow for repetitions of the Channel Request message and the requirements associated with T3101. T3115: This timer is used for the repetition of the VGCS UPLINK GRANT message during the uplink access procedure. when it is not engaged in a RF procedure. Its purpose is to keep the old channel sufficiently long for the . T3113: This timer is started when the network has sent a PAGING REQUEST message and is stopped when the network has received the PAGING RESPONSE message. Frame Erasure Rate . Its value is network dependent.The count of frames requiring retransmission by the test set. NOTE: This timer may be set to such a low value that the message is in fact continuously transmitted.FER Measurement Results • • • Integrity Indicator Frames Sampled . It is stopped when the MS has correctly seized the channels. T3103: This timer is started by the sending of a HANDOVER message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the new channel.) T3105: This timer is used for the repetition of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message during the hand-over procedure. Its purpose is to release the channels in case of loss of communication. T3117: This timer is started by the sending of a PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly accessed the target TBF. Its value is network dependent. Its value is network dependent. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its purpose is to let some time for possible repetition of the disconnection. T3111: This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after disconnection of the main signalling link. NOTE: This timer may be set to such a low value that the message is in fact continuously transmitted.

Its value is network dependent. Its purpose is to detect the lack of answer from the network to the special signal. whichever occurs first.MS to be able to return to the old channels. At its expiry. T3124: This timer is used in the seizure procedure during a hand-over. plus T3134. or an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. when the two cells are not synchronized. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the RR_CELL CHANGE ORDER. T3128: This timer is started when the mobile station starts the uplink investigation procedure and the uplink is busy. At its expiry. Its value is network dependent. the immediate assignment procedure is aborted. The maximum value of this timer is 5 seconds. T3119: This timer is started by the sending of a RR-CELL CHANGE ORDER message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly accessed the new cell. Its value is set to 675 ms if the channel type of the channel allocated in the HANDOVER COMMAND is an SDCCH (+ SACCH). Its value is set to such that the DISC frame is . Its purpose is to let some time for disconnection of the main signalling link. It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. At its expiry. the uplink access procedure is aborted. otherwise its value is set to 320 ms. 0 comments Links to this post GSM Timers-MS side GSM Timers Timers on the mobile station side T3122: This timer is used during random access. It is stopped when the mobile station has correctly seized the temporary block flow. after the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message. It is stopped at receipt of a VGCS ACCESS GRANT message. It is stopped at receipt of the first UPLINK FREE message. The value of this timer is set to 5 seconds. The minimum value of this timer is equal to the time taken by T+2S slots of the mobile station's RACH. The value of this timer is set to 1 second. T3130: This timer is started after sending the first UPLINK ACCESS message during a VGCS uplink access procedure. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message plus T3132 plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. T3110: This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after the receipt of a (full) CHANNEL RELEASE. Its purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels. Its value is network dependent. and to release the channels if the MS is lost. plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. Its value is given by the network in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message. the uplink investigation procedure is aborted. Or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. T3126:This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL REQUEST messages during an immediate assignment procedure. S and T. T3141: This timer is started when a temporary block flow is allocated with an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message during a packet access procedure.

Usually approximately 20-25dB.3.Defined as the amount of power in Front direction relative to Back direction.sent twice in case of no answer from the network. (It should be chosen to obtain a good probability of normal termination (i.Defined by –3dB power points on both vertical and horizontal planes. 0 comments Links to this post Basic Antenna Definitions Beamwidth . .It is stopped at the receipt of a RLC/MAC block on the assigned temporary block flow. Its purpose is to detect the lack of answer from the network or the lack of availability of the target cell. At expiry.2dB). T3146:This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL REQUEST messages during a packet access procedure. S and T are defined in section 3.2. The value of the timer is 5 seconds. the packet access procedure is aborted. Front-to-Back Ratio . Its value is set to 5 seconds.e. T3142: The timer is used during packet access on CCCH. see GSM 04. Gain . Or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message during a packet access procedure. The minimum value of this timer is equal to the time taken by T+2S slots of the mobile station's RACH. see GSM 04.1.Usually affects the physical size of the antenna.60. the mobile station returns to the packet idle mode. It is stopped at the transmission of a RLC/MAC block on the assigned temporary block flow.Defined as the power output relative to an isotropic antenna (Gain 0dB) or Dipole antenna (Gain 2. . It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. The maximum value of this timer is 5 seconds. T3164: This timer is used during packet access using CCCH. At its expiry. or an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message. the mobile station returns to the packet idle mode. after the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. no time out of T3109) of the channel release procedure. . T3190: The timer is used during packet downlink assignment on CCCH.) T3134:This timer is used in the seizure procedure during an RR network commanded cell change order procedure. It is started at the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message or of an PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message when in dedicated mode. The value of the timer is 5 seconds. Its value is given by the network in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. It is started at the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. whichever occurs first.60. At expire.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) requires precise timing of both the MS and BTS systems. Polarisation usually refers to the direction of the Electric field relative to the intended direction of use for the antenna. depending on the manufacturer.Polarization . the longer it will take the access burst to arrive at the BTS. Determination of the TA is a normally a function of the Base Station Controller (BSC). due to propagation delay. it sends an access burst on the RACH.power where signal is desired (Coverage). an access burst has 68. Access Burst As you recall from the TDMA Tutorial. 0 comments Links to this post Timing Advance With Calculation A Timing Advance (TA) is used to compensate for the propagation delay as the signal travels between the Mobile Station (MS) and Base Transceiver Station (BTS). It allows an access burst to arrive up to 68. Eventually there comes a certain point where the access burst would arrive so late that it would occur outside its designated timeslot and would interfere with the next time slot. The further away the MS is from the BTS. Downtilt . This guard time is to compensate for propagation delay due to the unknown distance of the MS from the BTS. . The Base Station System (BSS) assigns the TA to the MS based on how far away it perceives the MS to be. When a MS wants to gain access to the network.Downtilt is required to focus max.Electromagnetic wave consists of both an E Field and H Field. bit this function can be handled anywhere in the BSS. -Downtilt is required to prevent interference to other coverage areas (Interference).25 bits later than it is supposed to without interfering with the next time slot.25 guard bits at the end of it.

To do this.69µs × 68. so we must convert 68. This means that a signal from the MS could arrive up to 252µs after it is expected and it would not interfere with the next time slot. Calculate duration of a bit. So now we know that it takes 3. the duration is the amount of time it would take to transmit a single bit. if an access burst has a guard period of 68. which has a data throughput of 270.69µs to transmit a single bit. . it is necessary to calculate the duration of a single bit.25 bits into a frame of time.68.25 bits doesnt mean much to us in the sense of time.25 bits). Duration of a Single Bit As you recall.833 kilobits/second (kb/s). Propagation Delay Now. GSM uses Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) as its modulation method.25 bits this results in a maximum delay time of approximately 252µs (3.

.

it synchronizes its time with the timing of the system. this would be the theoretical maximum distance that a MS could transmit and still arrive within the correct time slot. However. we can determine that a MS could theoretically be up to 75. Therefore. by the time the signal arrives at the MS. We must account for the time it takes for the synchronization signal to travel from the BTS to the MS. So.The next step is to calculate how far away a mobile station would have to be for a radio wave to take 252µs to arrive at the BTS. However. the timing of the BTS has already progressed some. . When the MS receives the synchronization signal from the BTS. the timing of the MS will now be behind the timing of the BTS for an amount of time equal to the travel time from the BTS to the MS. So.000 km/s. Using the speed of light. it has no way of determining how far away it is from the BTS.6km away from a BTS when it transmits its access burst and still not interfere with the next time slot. we can calculate the distance that a radio wave would travel in a given time frame. we must take into account that the MS synchronizes with the signal it receives from the BTS. The speed of light (c) is 300. when the MS receives the syncronization signal on the SCH.

25 bits of guard time would absorb some of the delay of 136. It would take 252µs for this signal to return to the BTS. The 68. then it would take 252µs for the signal to travel from the BTS to the MS. by the time the signal from the MS arrives at the BTS.5 bits. 504µs equals about 136. if a MS were exactly 75. So. The total round trip time would be 504µs.25bits.6km away from the BTS. The MS would then synchronize with this timing and send its access burst on the RACH. but the access burst would still cut into the next time slot a whopping 68.For example. .5 bits. it will be 504µs behind the timing of the BTS.

dividing 75. the MS will start its transmission 3.Maximum Size of a Cell In order to compensate for the two-way trip of the radio link.8km and the access burst should arrive within the guard time allowed for an access burst and it will not interfere with the next time slot. If the delay is less than 3. Any distance less than 37.69µs. How a BSS Determines a Timing Advance For each 3. the maximum distance of a cell is standardized at 35km. If a MS is further out than 37.69µs (or one bit) early.8km and transmits an access burst it will most likely interfere with the following time slot. no adjustment is used and this is known as TA0. we get approximately 37. Each TA is essentially equal to a 1-bit delay detected in the synchronization sequence. which is explained below. the TA will be incremented by 1.69µs of propagation delay. In GSM. So.6km in half. For every TA. .8 km. we must divide the maximum delay distance in half. Each TA really corresponds to a range of propagation delay. This is due mainly to the number of timing advances allowed in GSM.

In order to determine the propagation delay between the MS and the BSS. the BSS uses the synchronization sequence within an access burst. . if the BSS sees that the synchronization is late by a single bit. if the BSS determines the total propagation delay to be 3. and the second leg is the access burst traveling from the MS to the BTS. If we want to know the true distance of the MS from the BTS.69µs. we must remember that the total propagation delay accounts for a two-way trip of the radio wave. The BSS examines the synchronization sequence and sees how long it arrived after the time that it expected it to arrive. we must divide the total propagation delay in half. The Distance of a Timing Advance When calculating the distances involved for each TA.69µs. For example. the duration of a single bit is approximately 3. then it knows that the propagation delay is 3. So. The first leg is the synchronization signal traveling from the BTS to the MS.69µs. we can determine the distance of the MS from the BTS. This is how the BSS knows which TA to send to the MS. As we learned from above.

So.up to mustTA becomesnotmore than68.25 theWith a is supposedof to using athe normalwith the radio transmit the MS MS does have the 15.25 order guard received The . We just learned that a propagation delay of 3. if so the normal transmit withvery importantwith bitsafter ittimetime. we see that each TA is equal to a distance of 553. data. 30. over then burst interfere 8.44µstransmits not interfere when of guard slot.the MS switchesBecause bits.5m.5 meters from the tower.22µs next guard time normal the only has burst can only be time. Starting from the BTS (0 meters) a new TA will start every 553.5 meters. two-way trip in bits of to signal. The burstlate andmore precise timing.69µs equals a one-way distance of 553.25of it willnormal burstof the next time slot.69µs the TA is inceremented by one. The to8.We determined earlier that for each propagation delay of 3.

(run commands: RXELP & RXMFP to look the hardware faults log) · Check if ICM is indicating uplink interference in the cell. which would indicate a ‘false’ excessive timing advance Location Parameter setting How to analyze: · Check cell parameter MAXTA and TALIM.g. If any of the above drop reason didn’t meet the criteria. .g. Extended Range feature might be useful to be considered. Probable Reason Hardware Problem (Managed Object in BTS) Link/ Transmission disturbance problem Wrongly defined setting (for e. LAC – Location Area Code) MS problem Interference problem (Uplink) H/W fault Disturbance Parameter Setting Mobile Station Interference How to analyze: · Check the BTS error log for hardware faults. it is possible to setting of the cell parameters MAXTA and TALIM to a higher value (for e.Excessive Timing Advance (TA) Another Problem Excessive Timing Advance (TA) Drop call due to excessive TA happens when the TA value at drop call connection is higher than the cell parameter TALIM (TADROP > TALIM) and from this counter TFDISTA is incremented. the reason for drop will be in the ‘Other Reason’. Other Reason Drop due other reason equal to total number of drops subtracts all drops with reason. changing antenna or reducing output power · If it is a rural area and need to cover a larger area. TALIM=62) · If the cell is really covering far away from the site. MAXTA=63. Probable Reason High sites or sites next to water pick up traffic from far away Very low TALIM setting. reducing antenna height. If it covers far coverage. other options are reducing the coverage by down tilting the antennas.

SDCCH Congestion .planning. It might be intermittent link connection. otherwise a new site must be implemented. HW problems and service affecting maintenance work during the time period. · Check object type MOTS. · 2: Long term growth If there is a long-term growth the network capacity has to grow according to the demand. conference. Congestion on both SDCCH and TCH may mean that the only way to get rid of the congestion is to add more physical capacity in terms of transceivers or sites. Traffic congestion is one of the major network problems in a mobile system. fairs.optimization@gmail. If possible. Consider how many channels that are allocated in the cell. Happy Learning :) mail me At cellular. Microcells could be used to take traffic in severe congested areas. The average cell downtime and TCH availability should also be check. Frequency planning schemes such as MRP and FLP could be used to relieve congestion. like sports event. A high congestion deteriorates the overall performance of the network and should be minimized. which is based on drop on Timeslot (TS) in order to find faulty devices. Type of Congestion The congestion analysis begins by identifying if there is only SDCCH or TCH congestion or both. a temporary solution might be considered.· Check with O&M regarding transmission problems.com 0 comments Links to this post Congestion Analysis Hi all This is second topic for today that is "Congestion Analysis" a well known word for Telecom professionals . expand the capacity with new transceivers. · 1: Short term growth If the high traffic related to an occasional event.

the time congestion should be used instead of congestion based on access attempts as there is no way to estimate the number of access attempts a single mobile does.In R8. Let me know your suggestions and feedback Happy learning 0 comments Links to this post Low Signal Strength Analysis lets starts todays topic that is Low signal strength analysis What could be the probable cause of low signal while you drive or optimize. The flowchart below. The next section describes the action points in this flowchart. explains a general approach to investigate SDCCH Congestion. The reference to each action point is indicated on the flow chart as well. First see the following flow chat and try to understand the things .

drop calls due to excessive TA. Just try to observed what could be the right cause :- The following procedure should be performed for low signal strength analysis: 1: Identify the baseline requirement of design and BSC exchange property (setting for LOWSSUL/LOWSSDL). No dominant cell Cell might be isolated or standalone. poor handover performance and poor call setup performance. 2: . It is because drop due to SS is more priority than Quality. Output Power Low output power might cause smaller border cell. Antenna tilt & Too much downtilt sometimes might not orientation cover a larger area and the subscriber might lose the SS. What could be the probable reasons Probable Reason Poor BSC High LOWSSDL & LOWSSUL will give Exchange more drop reason due to SS and this might Property setting not show the actual drop.Remember that Low Signal strength is one of the reason of drop call. It can be indicated by many calls disconnected at low signal strength by subscriber.

Change the direction or tilt if it is too much downtilt or pointing to a wrong direction. increase the output power. Need Your suggestions and doubts and let me know if problem is still there. 3: Check the site position. 10: Check if the cell has indoor coverage problem. If yes. If it is not.. set the cell into sectorized cell. add micro site instead. Mostly. Radio Link Time-Out . happy learning 0 comments Links to this post TCH Drop Analysis 1. run Cell Traffic Recording (CTR) to that particular cell.Check the value for LOWSSDL & LOWSSUL. 5: Check if the signal strength is uplink or downlink limited. change the parameter to a reasonable value since the drop reason will be more priority to SS compared to Quality. Check output power and if it is low. check the antenna tilt and orientation. antenna direction. 8: Check cell whether it has hotspots from drivetests. adding new site is recommend. position etc. If found. It is designed to be downlink limited. low output power might cause low SS. Good map is needed for this. 7: Sometime. If it is higher than ACCMIN.. This is to ensure the possible location is open to interference (open water environment) or isolated. If it is Omni. 6: Check the coverage cover expected area from the planet. 4: Check if the site is sectorized or Omni. 9: In order to check power distribution.

timer expired) to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC. To be sure that the mobile has stopped transmitting. the value can not exceed the initial value. Layer 2 Time-Out If the BTS never get an acknowledge on a Layer 2 message after the time T200XN200. If the mobile moves out of coverage and no measurement reports are received in the BSC. However. . not during handover or assignment. i. This is only valid if the call is in steady state. the BSC now waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can be established on the channel. unspecified) is sent to the mobile station and the SACCH is deactivated in the BTS. If the message can be decoded the counter is incremented by 2. The SACCH is deactivated and the BSC waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can use the channel. the BTS will send Error Indication (cause: T200 expired) to the BSC. The initial value is set by the parameter RLINKT for radio link time-out in the mobile station and by RLINKUP for timeout in the BSC.e.Every time a SACCH message can not be decoded the radio link time-out counter is decreased by 1. A Clear Request message is sent to the MSC. 2. there will be a radio link time-out and the message Channel Release (cause: abnormal release. which will send Channel Release (cause: abnormal release.

the MSC will send a Clear Command to the BSC. the following two criterion have to be fulfilled: . If the connection was a Location Update it will be a Location Update Reject (cause: network failure) and if the connection was a mobile originating call (CM Service Request) a CM Service Reject (cause: network failure) will be sent. Identity Request) and there is no radio link time-out or layer 2 time-out.g. If such a message is received unexpectedly this will usually cause radio link time-out or timer T200 expiration as the mobile station stops the transmitting of measurement reports.3. 4. The MSC will then send a Clear Command to the BSC and the call is cleared by Channel Release (cause: normal release). the MSC will send a reject message. Assignment to TCH Before sending an Assignment Command from the BSC at TCH assignment. 5. MSC Time-Out Normal Release: If the MSC never received a response on a message (e. It is also possible that the release will be normal depending on when the Release Indication is received. When receiving Clear Command. Release Indication When the BTS received a layer 2 DISC frame from the mobile it replies with a Layer 2 UA frame to the mobile station and a Release Indication to the BSC. The time-out is depending on the message. The system does only react on Release Indication if it is received during a normal disconnection situation. Reject (only SDCCH): If the MSC never receives a response on the first message after Establish Indication. the BSC will send a Channel Release (cause: normal release) and then deactivates the SACCH.

i.Sudden Loss of Connection 5. only Drop due to Low SS BL will pegged. The locating algorithm must have received at least one valid measurement report. LOWSSDL and LOWSSUL are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. unspecified) will be sent to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC. Check output power. etc. for co-channel cells. Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < "63" Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. TCH Drop Reasons (2) Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Low Signal Strength will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is below the LOWSSDL and/or LOWSSUL Thresholds. Bad tunnel coverage cause many dropped calls as well as so called coverage holes. the last Timing Advance value recorded was higher than the TALIM Parameter. If both UL and DL Signal Strength are below the thresholds. TCH Drop reason (1) The classification of TCH Drop Reasons are arranged in the order of priority: 1. Bad indoor coverage will result in dropped calls.ExcessiveTiming Advance 2. This drop reason is commonly apparent to isolated or island sites with a wide coverage area. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power. If either of the criterion is not fulfilled. Normally a call is dropped at the border of large rural cell with insufficient coverage.Low Signal Strength 3.e.Bad Quality 4. Check power balance and link budget.Other Reasons Excessive Timing Advance The TCH Drop counters due to Excessive Timing Advance will pegged when the during the time of disconnection. Building shadowing could be another reason. There must be a TCH channel available. . Assignment Command will not be sent and a Channel Release (cause: abnormal release. Action: Check coverage plots.a. no congestion b.

Check antenna installation. only Drop due to BAD Quality BL will pegged. Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Check Frequency Plan (Co-BCCH or Co-BSIC Problem). Problem on Bad Quality is usually associated with Co-channel Interference on BCCH or TCH. Check for External Interference. Perform drive tests. Check MAIO. HOP. Perform drive tests & site survey. Check TRX/TS with high CONERRCNT.Check if Omni site. Use available radio features. Check FHOP if correctly configured (BB or SY). Check antenna configuration & type. Change FHOP. Solution: Add a repeater to increase coverage in for example a tunnel. Faulty MAIO assignment can cause frequency collisions on co-sited cells especially on 1x1 Reuse. Add a new base station if there are large coverage holes. HSN. Record RIR or on-site Frequency Scanning to identify source of interference. Change BSIC. HOP. External interference is also one possible cause of problem on quality. Block/Deblock TRX TCH Drop Reasons (3) Poor Quality on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Bad Quality will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is above the BADQDL and/or BADQUL Thresholds. . If both UL and DL Quality are above the thresholds. Solution: Change BCCH frequency. HSN parameters. BADQDL and BADQUL (expressed in DTQU) are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. Change to a better antenna (with higher gain) for the base station. Change MAIO.

etc. There are some common scenarios that could lead to Sudden Loss of connections such as very sudden and severe drops in signal strength. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. elevators. MS runs out of battery during conversation. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. bad quality or hardware (other) reasons. Low SS. Check Alarms and Fault Codes. Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. Alarms and Fault Codes. and MS Faults. and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement results from the MS. BTS HW faults. Check LAPD Congestion.TCH Drop Reasons (4) Sudden Loss of Connection Drops due to Sudden Loss are drops that have not been registered as low signal strength. excessive timing advance. and sometimes Handover Lost. parking garages. Ater or Ainterfaces. . Check for DIP Slips. Check Transmission Link (A-bis). Handover Lost. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. such as when subscribers enter into buildings. Change CONFACT or increase Transmission Capacity Investigate HO Lost Problem TCH Drop Reasons (5) TCH Drops due to Other Reasons TCH drops due to Other Reasons are computed by subtracting the sum of drops due to Excessive TA. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Sudden Loss Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. very sudden and severe occurrence of interference. transmission link problems on A-bis. Synchronization or A-bis link fault (transmission faults).. Bad Quality and Sudden Loss from the Total TCH Drop Counts. Drops due to Other Reasons are generally associated with hardware problems. Check Transmission Link (A-bis).

Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. etc. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Other Reasons Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power. Check BTS error log Solution: Add new sites. Repair faulty equipment. Too High Timing Advance Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < style="font-weight: bold. Check frequency plan.">Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. Investigate HO Lost Problem Problem reason of drop in SDCCH Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink The reason for poor coverage could be too few sites. . Subscriber Behavior Poorly educated subscribers could use their handsets incorrectly by not raising antennas. Poor Quality on Down or Uplink Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Use available radio features. choosing illadvised locations to attempt calls. the call will be registered as dropped call due to low signal strength or others. Perform drive tests. Solution: Inform operator. Battery Flaw When a subscriber runs out of battery during a conversation.Check for DIP Slips.Check output power. for cochannel cells. etc. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. Action: Check coverage plots. Action: Check MS fleet. Another reason is that the MS is damaged and not working properly. wrong output power. Perform drive tests. Solution: Change frequency. no indoor coverage or network equipment failure. shadowing. Action: Check customer complaints and their MS. Mobile Error Some old mobiles may cause dropped calls if certain radio network features are used. Increase output power.

---Bad Antenna Installation Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. Action: Check TCH congestion Solution: Increase capacity on TCH or using features like Assignment to another cell. Action: Check TCH congestion. ---Permitted Network Color Code problem Action:Check NCC Permitted ---HW faults. Cell Load Sharing. Action: Check BTS error log. Congestion on TCH The SDCCH is dropped when congestion on TCH. Action: Check coverage. Check if DTX uplink is used. ---Blocking on Target Cell Action:Remove Blocking on Tager Cell ---Congestion A high congestion might lead to dragged calls (handover performed at a not intended location) and a lot of unsuccessful handovers. ---Timer Expire After MS is Lost The MS never answers the base station. Perform site visit. ---Link Connection or HW Failure Action: Check BTS error log. Perform link performance measurements.Action: Check if MS power regulation is used. HCS. Check antenna cabling. ---Missed measurement frequencies in BA-list Action:Check measurement frequencies list. . Dynamic Half-Rate Allocation and FR-HR Mode Adaptation etc HOSR Analysis Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance ---Neighboring Cell Relation Action:Add neighbor cell relation. Check interference.

Check if many handovers are performed due to downlink or uplink bad quality. ---Bad Radio Coverage Action: Check coverage plots. Action: Check handover parameters. Check RBS HW and Error log of the target cell ---Poor Inter-MSC/BSC Handover Performance For outer or external cell. Many measurement frequencies mean few samples per frequency and problem for mobiles to decode the BSIC. Action: Check interference. ---Delayed Handover Decision A delayed handover decision can be due to congestion in the target cell.---Many Neighbors Defined Many defined measurement frequencies defined (>16) will decrease the accuracy of the mobile measurements to locate the best six servers. Outgoing handover due to bad uplink quality may indicate interference from co-channel another MS. ---High Interference. the quality may be rather bad and the signal strength low. ---Receiver Antenna Problem or RBS HW problems (in candidate cell) Action: Check antenna installation. Action: Check number of definitions. Solution: Correct antenna tilting . Co-Channel or Adjacent The potential handover candidate is disturbed by interference. Bad downlink quality may indicate interference from another co-channel base station. wrong definitions in either MSC or BSC may be reason for the problem. ---Wrong Locating Parameter Setting Action: Check locating parameters. ---Incorrect Down Tilt Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. Action: Check inter-MSC/BSC handover performance. On the border.

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