LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines

-1- Hydraulic Turbomachines: Different Types and Application Areas
Prof. François Avellan francois.avellan@epfl.ch
Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne

Mechanical Engineering Bachelor: 6th Semester Introduction to Hydraulic Turbomachines

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines

Content
Pumps and Turbines Hydropower
Turbines: Pelton, Francis, Kaplan, Bulbs Storage pumps and Pump-Turbines

Power Generation Pumps for Thermal Power Generation Pumps for Oil & Gas Desalination Pumps for Rocket Engines Power Hydraulic

2

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines

Hydraulic Turbines
Driving Machines
Driving Power defined as positive P = ω ⋅ T > 0 P = η T × Ph P Machine Power Ph Available Hydraulic Power Ph = ρ × Q × E Turbine Efficiency
P η = Ph Discharge Specific Energy
T

Q … ⎡m3 ⋅ s−1 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ E … ⎡J ⋅ kg−1 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦
3

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines

Pumps
Work Absorbing Machines
Pump Power defined as negative P = ω ⋅ T < 0 P Machine Power Ph = η P × P Ph Resulting Hydraulic Power Ph = ρ × Q × E Machine Efficiency

ηP =

Ph P

4

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines ZB Specific Energy Balance Turbine E = gHI − gH I = g ( ZB − ZB ) − ∑ gHrT ZB I I Hydrodynamics 5 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Machine Nomenclature Hydrodynamics .

Canada.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Runner or Impeller Power Transfer Traversing Discharge Qt … ⎡m3 ⋅ s-1 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Transferred Specific Energy gH1 − gH 1 = Et ± Erb … ⎡J ⋅ kg-1 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Pt = ρQt Et …[MW ] Power Transfer 1 1 Driving (Turbines) P >0 P <0 Qt Brillant Extension Project.asp Being Driven (Pumps) Energy Conversion .columbiapower. PF2 EPFL Test Rig http://www. British Columbia. Kaplan Turbine CAD Model.org/projects/brilliantdam.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Classification of Hydraulic Runners Specific Energy Transfer Et = gH1 − gH 1 2 C1 ⎤ ⎡ p1 C12 ⎤ ⎡ p1 = ⎢ + gZ1 + ⎥ ⎥ − ⎢ + gZ 1 + 2 ⎦ ⎣ρ 2 ⎦ ⎣ρ Subscript 1: High Energy Side Subscript -1: Low Energy Side = ⎣gZ1 − gZ 1 ⎤ + ⎡ ⎦ Water Wheel ⎡ p1 p1 ⎤ ⎢ρ − ρ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Displacement Machine 2 ⎡ C12 C1 ⎤ +⎢ − ⎥ 2 2 ⎦ ⎣ Impulse Turbine Reaction Machine Z : Elevation g : Gravity p : Absolute Pressure ρ : Density C : Flow Velocity 8 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Transfer Modes Types of Energy Conversion Reaction 2 ⎡ p1 p1 ⎤ ⎡ C12 C1 ⎤ − Et = ⎢ − ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ + ⎡gZ1 − gZ 1 ⎤ ± Erb ⎦ ρ ρ⎦ ⎣2 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ Water Wheel Displacement Impulse Turbine Energy Conversion .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 3 Types of Water Wheels Overshot Norse Mill Undershot Energy Conversion 10 .

Al Jazzari.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Water Supply Noria Seqia. XIII Iraq Energy Conversion 11 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Medieval Roots of the Industrial-Revolution Main Medieval Prime Movers 8th Century The Water Wheel: Labor Saving Potential Monastic Orders > 40 Industrial Processes 16th Century Industrial Revolution Precursor 18th Century Prime Mover of Cotton Mills 200 kW Max. "De re metallica". Power Georgius Agricola. 1556 Energy Conversion 12 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Hydroelectric Power Development Water Turbine Development Fourneyron (1830s) Francis Turbine (1840s) Pelton (1880s) Kaplan (1910s ) Trend to High Specific Power Machines 13 .

br/ EPFL .LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Largest Hydropower Plants in the World Hydropower Plant 3 Gorges Itaipú Guri (Raúl Leoni) Grand Coulee Sayano – Shushensk Krasnoyarsk Churchill Falls La Grande 2 Bratsk Ust-llim Tucurui Country China (2009) Brazil / Paraguay Venezuela USA Russia Russia Canada Canada Russia Russia Brazil Capacity 18'200 MW 12'600 MW 10'000 MW 6'494 MW 6'400 MW 6'000 MW 5'428 MW 5'328 MW 4'500 MW 4'320 MW 4'245 MW Tucurui Dam & Power Plants http://www.gov.eln.

4 m3/s 1.4 m3/s < 300 kW < 300 kW < 300 kW 1'500 rpm 2'500 rpm 2'500 rpm 900 kW 1000 kW 2 x 400 kW Max Head: Max Discharge: Generating Power: Max Speed: Pumping Power: Machines .4 m3/s 1.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines World Class Experimental Infrastructure • Research • Education • Experimental Validation EPFL Testing Facilities Complying IEC 60193 Standards Efficiency Uncertainty <2 ‰ PF 1 PF 2 PF 3 100 mCE 120 mCE 100 mCE 1.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Scale Model PF2 EPFL Test Rig Machines .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Classification of Hydraulic Runners Fourneyron’s Turbine Piccard-Pictet ~1850 Niagara Falls Machines 17 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Classification of Hydraulic Runners Pelton Wheel Impulse turbine Tangential flow High head 18 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Pelton’s Turbine Machines 19 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Pelton Turbine 20 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Cleuson-Dixence Pelton Turbine.htm 21 . Power ~28 t Runner Mass http://www. 5 jets 423 MW Unit Max.ch/home.cleuson-dixence.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Classification of Hydraulic Runners Francis Turbine Reaction machine Radial flow Medium Head 22 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Francis Turbine Voith .1880 Machines 23 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Pump-Turbine 24 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Francis Turbine 25 .

Paraguay) 18 Francis Turbines 740 MW Unit Max.itaipu.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Itaipu (Brazil. Power ~ 300 t Runner Mass http://www.gov.br PF1 EPFL Test Rig 26 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Columbia Basin 27 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Columbia Basin 28 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Grand Coulée Dam 9+9 125 MW Francis Units 3 x 690 MW + 3 x 805 MW http://www.html 29 .gov/power/data/sites /grandcou/grandcou.usbr.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 3 Gorges Project (Yang Tse River) 30 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 3 Gorges Project 14 + 12 Francis Turbines 700 MW Unit Max Power 110m Head 31 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 3 Gorges Project Spiral Casing 32 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 3 Gorges Project Runner Unit #3 33 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 3 Gorges Project Runner Outlet 34 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 3 Gorges Project Draft Tube Cone 35 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Classification of Hydraulic Runners Kaplan Turbine Reaction machine Axial flow Low head 36 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines

Kaplan Turbine

37

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines

Bulb Turbine

38

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines

Gezhouba

Kaplan Turbine 176-129 MW Unit Max. Power ~ 420 t Runner Mass
39

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines

Yacyretá Power Plant
20 Kaplan Units 120 MW Unit Max Power 9. 5 m Runner Dia. 3200 MW

40

g.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines IEC 60193 Validation Tests: e. 2003 120 MW Kaplan 41 . Brilliant Expansion Project Cavitation Tests PF2 EPFL Test Rig.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines La Rance Tidal Power Plant 24 Bulb Units 10 MW Unit Max Power 5.35 m Runner Dia. 540 GWh/year 42 .

0% 0.4% 4.1% 43 .5% 5.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Source of Energy Key World Energy Statistics 2007 World Resources TWh/y Africa Source of Energy Comb. Fossil Nuclear Hydraulic Other Total America Asia Oceania Europe Total 2'001 12'086 14'227 13'356 41'670 7 712 348 1'039 2'106 55 1'072 542 689 2'358 2 31 25 24 82 2'065 13'901 15'142 15'108 46'216 4% 30% 33% 33% 90.

1% 0.9% 17. Fossil Nuclear Hydraulic Other Total America Asia Oceania Europe Total 275 7 55 1 338 3% 2'663 712 1'072 28 4'475 37% 2'457 348 542 11 3'358 28% 2'271 7'666 1'039 2'106 689 2'358 10 50 4'009 12'180 33% 62.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Electrical Energy World Consumption TWh/y Africa Source of Energy Comb.5% 44 .5% 19.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Hydroelectric Powerplants Total Used Area Potential Potential TWh / y North America South America Europe Africa Asia Australia/Oceania Total Stocked Potential 1'100 2'300 800 1'000 3'600 105 8'905 TWh / y 61% 19% 65% 7% 20% 40% 27% 2'438 39% 81% 35% 93% 80% 60% 73% 6'467 45 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines World Hydro in 2003 46 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 2006 Energy Consumption Balance in Switzerland “Statistique globale suisse de l’énergie 2006” Office fédéral de l’énergie Statistiques 2006 47 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Swiss Power Generation Statistique suisse de l'électricité 2006 70'000  [GWh] 60'000  Total Annual Power Generation 50'000  Swiss Annual Power Consumption 40'000  Storage Power Plants 30'000  20'000  Run‐off Power Plants 10'000  ‐ 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 48 .

4% Centrales thermiques classiques Centrales au fil de l'eau. 26% Centrales thermiques nucléaires. 38% Centrales à accumulation.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Power Generation in Switzerland Pompage. 28% Centrales thermiques nucléaires 39% Centrales thermiques classiques 45% Centrales hydrauliques 16% 49 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Swiss Large Dams L’Hongrin Mauvoisin Grande Dixence 50 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Types of Swiss Power Stations Run-of Hydro-Power Plants Storage Hydro-Power Plants Pumping Storage Hydro-Power Plants Nuclear Power Plants Thermal Power Plants 51 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Run-Off Hydro Power Plant 52 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Storage Power Plant 53 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Annual Water Storage 54 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Hydraulic Machines: Application Areas Power Generation Hydro-Power Turbine. Storage Pumps & Pump-Turbines Nuclear Power and Thermal Power Station Reactor Circulation Pumps Boiler Feed Pumps Booster Boiler Circulation Pumps Cooling Water Pumps Condensate Extraction Pumps Emergency Cooling Pumps Auxiliary Pumps 55 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Steam Generator 56 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Power Generation 57 .

cfm 58 . BWR 990 MW Gösgen.kkg. PWR 950 MW http://www.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Leibstadt.ch/home2/home.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Pumps for Nuclear Power Plants Main Circulating Pumps Reactor Cooling Pumps Boiler Feed Pumps 59 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines PWR Nuclear Power Plant 60 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Reactor Circulating Pump 61 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Boiler Feed Pump 62 .

Water Treatmant Auxiliary Pumps… 63 .LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Hydraulic Machines Areas Onshore & Offshore Oil and Gas Water Injection Pumps Sea Water Lift Pumps Multiphase Pumps Pipeline Pumps Fire Fighting Pumps Process Pumps Desalination.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Deep Sea 64 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 65 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines 66 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Multiphase Pump MPP Multiphase Pump MPP Total volume flow up to 4000 m3/h Differential pressure up to 80 bar Gas liquid ratio up to 95 % Power up to 5000 kW MPP for Total Dunbar Installation on Dunbar platform 67 .

6 MW 68 .LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Helico-axial multiphase pump Present status Up to 15 stages Up to 6.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Injection Barrel Pumps 69 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Injection Barrel Pump GSG New features New twist lock cover closure Opposed impeller design New radial inlet 70 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Reverse Osmosis Desalination High Pressure Feeding System 68 Bars Membrane Pressure Brine Flow Power Recovery 8-150 10-3 m3/s >70 % of the Sea Water Flow 71 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Ariane V Rocket Engine Propulsion Vulcain Engine 72 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Vulcain Rocket Engine 73 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Ariane V Liquid Propulsion 815 kN 255 kg/s 105 bars LOX ~ 3 MW @ 13’500 rpm LH2 ~11 MW @ 34’900 rpm Vulcain Engine 74 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines LOX Pump 75 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines LH2 Pump 76 .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines LH2 Inducer Cavitation Development 77 .

FARHAT. AIT-BOUZIAD. JL. "Effect of cavitation on the structure of the boundary layer in the wake of a partial cavity" CAV2006.. H.. EPFL Doctoral Thesis N° 3353. F. MIYAGAWA. 2004 78 . AVELLAN.. June 29 .. F. FARHAT. Wageningen.20 SARRAF.LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Industrial Inducer Q Qn = 80% Q Qn = 100% Q Qn = 120% ψ c = 0. Stockholm. Proceedings of the 22nd IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. DJERIDI. AIT-BOUZIAD. J. Sweden.Y. C. (2004): "Evaluation of Physical Models for Cavitation Simulation of an Industrial Inducer".. BILLARD. DENISET. Y.. K...July 2. M. Y.. AIT BOUZIAD Y.. (2005): "Physical modeling of leading edge cavitation: computational methodologies and application to hydraulic machinery". (2006). KUENY. M.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Power Hydraulics Displacement Machines 79 .

2-250 cm3 Nominal pressure 63-160 bars Total Efficiency 80-91% .LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Gear Pump Externally Toothed Speed Range 300-3’500 rpm Displacement volume 1.

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Gear pump Internally Toothed Speed Range 500-3’500 rpm Displacement volume 4-250 cm3 Nominal pressure 160-250 bars Total Efficiency 80-91% .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Screw Pump Speed Range 500-4’000 rpm Displacement volume 4-630 cm3 Nominal pressure 25-160 bars Total Efficiency 70-84% .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Rotary Vane Pump Speed Range 960-3’000 rpm Displacement volume 5-160 cm3 Nominal pressure 100-160 bars Total Efficiency 80-93% .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Axial Piston Pump Speed Range 750-3’000 rpm Displacement volume 25-800 cm3 Nominal pressure 160-320 bars Total Efficiency 80-92% .

LMH Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines Radial Piston Pump Speed Range 960-3’000 rpm Displacement volume 5-160 cm3 Nominal pressure 160-320 bars Total Efficiency 90% .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful