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Joseph’s College of Engineering

Chennai- 119

A ready reference for 186101 - Technical English I

(I semester B.E /B.Tech Anna University Examinations Jan -2011.)

Part -A
1. Cause and Effect
Cause and Effect types of sentences are in common use in technical writing. The
common cause and effect expressions are because, since, as, so, therefore, consequently,
and hence. Certain phrases used for the same purpose are – in view of the fact, on
account of the fact owing to the fact, as a result of and due to.


He went to the station late: Cause

He missed the train: Effect

* Now we have to use the expression of Cause and Effect to make them into one
Sentence, expressing their causal relationship.

He went to the station late *so he missed the train.

He missed the train *because he went late to the station.

* *As he went late to the station, he missed the train.

He went to the station late *as a result he missed the train

He went to the station late *consequently he missed the train

He went to the station late *therefore he missed the train

**Owing to the fact that he went to the station late, he missed the train

The apprentices had very little learning: Cause

Their work was found to be unsatisfactory: Effect

* Now we have to use the expression of Cause and Effect to make them into one
Sentence, expressing their causal relationship.

* On account of the fact that the apprentices had very little learning, their work was
found to be unsatisfactory.

*The work of the apprentices is found to be unsatisfactory because of their little learning.

Note: The clause has to be converted into phrase when we use expressions like because
of, on account of. due to, owing to etc.,

2. Conditional Sentences (If Clause)

The conditionals indicate the common way of showing that one event is dependent in
some way on another event. A conditional sentence begins with ‘if ‘. There are types of
conditional sentences.

1) Probable
2) Improbable
3) Impossible

1. Probable condition: It indicates something will happen if something else happen

Ex: If the weather is good we will start the match
If the water is pure we will use it for cooking purpose.
If you give my dog a bone it will eat quickly.
2. Improbable condition: In this type of conditional we imagine something
happening which is in fact unlikely to happen.

Ex: If I were a millionaire, I would buy a car.

If my father was alive, I would study in USA.

3. Impossible Condition: In this type of conditional we discuss about a condition

which cannot be fulfilled at all.

Ex: If he had reached the theatre fifteen minutes earlier, we would have got
the tickets.
If the work had not been finished on schedule, the contract would have
been cancelled.
A simple Formula to remember:

Conditionals If Clause Main Clause

Probable Simple Present Future
Improbable Past tense Would/should + base form of the verb
Impossible Past Perfect Would have /Should have + past

* Let us know
The other forms of conditional are – unless, should and or
Ex: Unless you work hard you will not get through the exam.
Pay the dues or leave the office
Should you work hard you will pass.

3. Single Sentence Definition: A definition is that which explains the meaning

of a term (a word, phrase or other set of symbols), or a type of thing. It has the structure
shown below.

The term to be defined + the group or class it belong s to + its characteristic Feature

Ex: A Barometer is a device used for measuring atmospheric Pressure.

A Planet is a Celestial body in space that revolves around the star.

4. Comparative Adjectives

In grammar, the comparative is the form of an adjective which denotes the

degree or grade by which a person, thing, or other entity has a property or quality greater
or less in extent than that of another, and is used in this context with a subordinating
conjunction, such as than,, etc. If three or more items are being compared, the
corresponding superlative needs to be used instead.

The structure of a comparative in English consists normally of the Positive form of

the adjective Plus the Suffix –er. If the adjective ends with ‘Y’ we remove ‘Y’
and add –ier. If the adjective ends with a consonant preceded by a vowel the consonant is
doubled before adding –er. In the case of polysyllabic adjectives the modifier more (or
less/fewer) is added before the adjective. If the adjective ends with -e only ‘r’ is added.
There are certain irregular comparative forms.
Adjective Types Positive form Comparative form

Adjectives with one Rich Richer

Adjectives ending in ‘e’ Safe Safer
Adjectives ending with a Big Bigger
consonant preceded by a
Adjectives ending with ‘y’ Happy Happier
Polysyllabic adjectives Important More Important
Irregular Comparative Good Better
forms Bad Worse

Solved Example:
1. Energy Conservation is cheaper (cheap) than extra energy
2. Today making investments in landed properties is wiser (wise)
than investing in articles of gold.
3. Madya Pradesh is bigger (big) than other Indian states.
4. Lead is heavier ( heavy) than aluminum
5. The tiger is more ferocious ( ferocious) than other animals.
6. A wise enemy is better (good) than a foolish friend.

5. Compound Nouns
Compound nouns are nouns made of two or more words or parts of words
written as one or more words.

Solved Examples:
1. Air supply – Supply of air
2. Battery car- a car which works on battery
3. Cable Television – television signals transmitted through cables
4. Power transmission problems – problems in the transmission of
5. Jet engine – engine propelled by jet
6. laser printer – printer that uses laser technology
7. pedal power – power derived from a pedal device.
8. Nickel Alloy- Alloy containing nickel
9. Temperature drop-drop in temperature
10. Stop valve – valve made to stop the passage.
6. Active and Passive Voice

There are two special forms for verbs called voice:

1. Active voice
2. Passive voice

In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb:

subject verb object

active >

Cats eat fish.

In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb:

subject verb object

passive <

Fish are eaten by cats.

The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb:

subject verb object

active Everybody drinks water.

passive Water is drunk by everybody.

*Important Rules:
1. The tense form of the verb should not be changed. (i.e.)If the Active Voice is in
Present tense, the Passive Voice should also be in Present tense.
2. If the subject is in singular the verb should also be singular. If the subject is plural the
verb should also be plural.
The Structure

Active voice = S+ V+ O+ Other words

Passive voice = Object of active voice + verb phrase + by + subject of active voice +
Participle form.

We have to make changes in the verb phrase to form the required tense.

Active voice: I know him

Passive voice: He is known to me

Here the tense followed is present tense but we make certain changes in the verb phrase
to change the sentence into passive voice.

i.e ‘Know’ becomes is Known (be + participle form)

Now the following table gives you the details about the changes to be made in the verb
phrase while converting active into passive voice and vice versa.

Tense Active to passive voice ( Changes in the verb

phrase )
Simple Present Be (am, is, are ) + Past Participle form
Present Continuous Be (am, is, are )+ being + Past Participle form
Present Perfect Have/has+been+ Past participle form
Simple Past Be (as,were ) + Past Participle form
Past Continuous Be (was were )+ being + Past Participle form
Past Perfect Had+been+Past participle form
Simple Future Will/shall + be + Past Participle form
Future Perfect Will/shall+ have + been + Past participle form
Modal + base form of Modal + be + past participle
the verb

If the sentence is in the imperative form then

Active voice = V+ O+ Other words

Passive voice = Let + Object of active voice + be + past participle form + other words
Ex: a. Shut the window
Let the window be shut.

b. Do this work
Let this work be done
If a sentence begins with Let then

Active voice = Let + S+ V+ O+ Other words

Passive voice = Let + Object of active voice + be + past participle form + By+ Subject of
active voice

Let Neha run the show.
Let the show be run by Neha.

Impersonal Passive:

1. When the doer remains insignificant, not known or the action is more important
than the doer, impersonal passive can be used.

Active: He hoisted the National Flag

Passive: The National flag was hoisted by him.
Impersonal Passive: The National flag was hoisted

(When the active form involves an in definite pronoun or noun as

subject. i.e somebody, they, people etc. the agent with by is usually
avoided. In technical writing we use impersonal passive as the action
is more important than the doer of the action.
In simple words the difference between passive and
impersonal passive is that the doer of the action denoted
using ‘by’ is removed)

7. Gerund and Infinitive

1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb
"read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of
a sentence.


• Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence

• Her favorite hobby is reading. complement of sentence
• I enjoy reading. object of sentence

Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not."


• He enjoys not working.

• The best thing for your health is not smoking.

2. Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn."
You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.


• To learn is important. subject of sentence

• The most important thing is to learn. complement of sentence
• He wants to learn. object of sentence

Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not."


• I decided not to go.

• The most important thing is not to give up.

3. Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a
sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal,
spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. In the following sentences,
gerunds sound more natural and would be more common in everyday English. Infinitives
emphasize the possibility or potential for something and sound more philosophical. If this
sounds confusing, just remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as the
subject or complement of a sentence.


• Learning is important. normal subject

• To learn is important. abstract subject - less common
• The most important thing is learning. normal complement
• The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less common

4. As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or an

infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally interchangeable.
Usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you use a gerund or an

• He enjoys swimming. "Enjoy" requires a gerund.

• He wants to swim. "Want" requires an infinitive.

4. Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.


• She suggested going to a movie.

• Mary keeps talking about her problems.

6. Some verbs are followed by infinitives. .


• She wants to go to a movie.

• Mary needs to talk about her problems.

7. Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their,
our, John's, Mary's, the machine's, and so on. This makes it clearer who or what is
performing the action.


• I enjoyed their singing. They were singing.

• She understood his saying no to the offer. He said no.
• Sam resented Debbie's coming late to the dinner. Debbie came late to the
• We discussed the machine's being broken. The machine is broken.

8. Some verbs are followed by a noun plus an infinitive. In some situations, the noun is
required. In other situations, the noun is optional.


• The police ordered the man to stop. noun is required

• She asked to leave. noun is optional
• She asked him to leave. noun is optional

9. Some verbs are usually followed by a gerund, BUT they can also be followed by a
noun plus infinitive. Using a noun plus infinitive will usually change who is performing
the action. Examples:
• I advised taking the train. in general
• I advised him to take the train. He will take the train.

10. There are many "go + gerund" expressions used for adventure sports and individual
recreational activities.

• I go swimming every weekend.

• Would you ever go skydiving?

11. Gerunds are used after prepositions. Most commonly, these are "verb + preposition"


• They admitted to committing the crime.

• Leslie made up for forgetting my birthday.
• He is thinking about studying abroad.

12. Remember that there are many "adjective + preposition" combinations and "noun +
preposition" combinations in English as well. These are also followed by gerunds.

• Sandy is scared of flying. adjective + preposition

• Nick is anxious about taking the examination. adjective + preposition
• His interest in becoming a professional snowboarder was well known. noun +
• Thomas' story about seeing a grizzly bear was really exciting. noun +

13. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in
meaning. Examples:

• Nancy remembered getting married. Nancy has a memory of getting married.

• Fred remembered to bring sunblock to the beach. Fred remembered that he
needed to bring sunblock.

14. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive with little difference in
meaning. Examples:

• She likes swimming.

• She likes to swim.

Although the difference in meaning is small with these particular verbs, and gerunds and
infinitives can often be used interchangeably, there is still a meaning difference. Using a
gerund suggests that you are referring to real activities or experiences. Using an infinitive
suggests that you are talking about potential or possible activities or experiences. Because
of this small difference in meaning, gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used
interchangeably, such as in the examples below.


• The British reporter likes living in New York. He lives in New York and he likes
what he experiences there.
• The British reporter likes to live in New York whenever he works in the United
States. He likes the option or possibility of living in New York when he works in
the United States.
• I like speaking French because it's such a beautiful language. I like the
experience of speaking French, and the way it makes me feel when I speak the
• I like to speak French when I'm in France. I prefer the option of speaking French
when I am in France.

15. There are many "be + adjective" combinations that are commonly followed by


• They were anxious to begin.

• She was delighted to receive such good feedback.
• He is lucky to have such good friends.

16. There are also many nouns that are commonly followed by infinitives. Examples:

• It was a good decision to move to San Francisco.

• His wish to become an actor was well known.
• Laura's desire to improve impressed me.

17. Sometimes infinitives are used to express the idea of "in order to do something."


• He bought the English dictionary to look up difficult words. in order to look up

• Janine sold her car to get the money that she needed. in order to get
• Juan uses to learn English. in order to learn

This idea of "in order to do something" is found in many English patterns.

too + adjective/adverb + infinitive

• The box is too heavy to carry.
• The television is too expensive to buy.
• Fiona ran too slowly to win the race.
• We arrived too late to see the beginning of the movie.

adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive


• She is tall enough to reach the book on the shelf.

• Brian was smart enough to enter college at the age of 12.
• Linda runs quickly enough to win the race.

enough + noun(s) + infinitive


• He has enough money to buy his own car.

• Cheryl owns enough books to start her own library!
• Diane needs enough time to finish writing her book.

18. Certain expressions are followed by "ING" forms.


• He had fun fishing.

• They had difficulty finding a parking place.
• She spent her time practicing the piano.

19. Verbs which indicate location can often be followed by "ING" forms. This pattern is


• Sarah stood at the corner waiting for Tom.

• Melissa lay in bed thinking about her future.
• Don clung to the side of the cliff looking down.

20. In addition to simple gerund and infinitive forms, there are progressive gerund and
infinitive forms, passive gerund and infinitive forms and perfect gerund and infinitive
forms as well as combinations of these forms. Progressive forms are used to emphasize
that an action is taking place now. Passive forms are used to emphasize that the subject of
the sentence is being acted upon. Perfect gerund and infinitive forms are used to
emphasize completion in both the past and the future. Study the examples below to help
understand these concepts.

SIMPLE The teacher enjoys teaching. The teacher wants to teach.

Mr. Smith is really enjoying

teaching his class. Mr. Smith would like to be
Looks the same as simple form teaching his class.

The students enjoy being The students want to be

taught. taught.

The retired teacher recalled The teacher was expecting to

having taught. have taught that already.

The students are enjoying

being taught by such an
PASSIVE + The students would like to be
exciting new teacher.
PROGRESSIVE being taught by Mr Smith.
Looks the same as the passive
form above.

The older students recalled The students were expecting

having been taught that to have been taught that by
already. now.

8. Preposition

A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In itself,

a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words.

Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while
talking about it. You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can
sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet
are under the desk orbeneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next
to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even onthe desk (if he's
really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk
(and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his
elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk
orconcerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of
nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonderabout the desk, what's in the desk, what
he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the
desk, tothe desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he
sits at the desk or leans against the desk.
All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the
class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad
mood [another adverbial construction].

List of common prepositions

about by on according to
above down out because of
across during outside by way of
after except over in addition to
against for since in front of
around from through in place of
at in throughout in regard to
before inside till in spite of
behind into to instead of
below like toward on account of
beneath near under out of
beside of up
besides off upon
between with
beyond without

Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom
English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the
hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the movies but on television.
For native speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to learn another
language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are
troublesome wherever you live. This page contains some interesting (sometimes
troublesome) prepositions with brief usage notes.

Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in

We use at to designate specific times.
The train is due at 12:15 p.m.

We use on to designate days and dates.

My brother is coming on Monday.
We're having a party on the Fourth of July.

We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.

She likes to jog in the morning.
It's too cold in winter to run outside.
He started the job in 1971.
He's going to quit in August.
Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in
We use at for specific addresses.
Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.

We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.

Her house is on Boretz Road.

And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and
She lives in Durham.
Durham is in Windham County.
Windham County is in Connecticut.

Prepositions of Location: in, at, and on

and No Preposition
(the) bed* class* the bed* PREPOSITION
the bedroom home the ceiling downstairs
the car the library* the floor downtown
(the) class* the office the horse inside
the library* school* the plane outside
school* work the train upstairs
* You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations.

Prepositions of Movement: to
and No Preposition
We use to in order to express movement toward a place.
They were driving to work together.
She's going to the dentist's office this morning.

With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use
no preposition.
Grandma went upstairs
Grandpa went home.
They both went outside.

Prepositions of Time: for and since

We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years).
He held his breath for seven minutes.
She's lived there for seven years.
The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
We use since with a specific date or time.
He's worked here since 1970.
She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

Prepositions with nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically
become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have become
one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.


approval of fondness need for

awareness of for participation in
belief in grasp of reason for
concern for hatred of respect for
confusion hope for success in
about interest in understanding
desire for love of of


afraid of fond of proud of

angry at happy about similar to
aware of interested in sorry for
capable of jealous of sure of
careless about made of tired of
familiar with married to worried about


apologize for give up prepare for

ask about grow up study for
ask for look for talk about
belong to look forward to think about
bring up look up trust in
care for make up work for
find out pay for worry about

A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. The word that is joined
to the verb is then called a particle.
Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions

• agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle

• argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition
• compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities)
• correspond to a thing, with a person
• differ from an unlike thing, with a person
• live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people


A verb is a word or phrase indicating an action, an event or a state.

Ex: She wrote a letter.

They have completed the work.

The tense forms of verbs are as follows:

1. present Simple present

Present continuous
Present perfect
Present perfect continuous

2. Past tense Simple past

Past continuous
Past perfect
Past perfect continuous

3. Future tense Simple future

Future continuous
Future perfect
Future perfect continuous

Simple present (sub+verb(‘s’ or ‘es’)+other words)

1.To express a habitual action as,
Ex: He goes to college by college bus everyday.
2. To express general truths as,
Ex: The earth revolves round the sun.
3.To express a situation that is permanent as,
Ex: The Quitab Minar stands near Mehrub in New Delhi.
4.To indicate a future event that is part of a fixed programme,
Ex: The match starts at 10 O’ clock.

Present continuous tense (sub+am/is/are+verb+ing+other words)

1.To indicate an action going on at the time of speaking as,
Ex: They are learning English grammar now.
2.To denote a temporary action which may not be actually
happening at the time of speaking as,
Ex: He is writing a book.
3.To denote an action that is planned or arranged to take place in the
near future
Ex: I am leaving for Bangalore tonight.

Present perfect tense (sub+has/have+past participle of the verb+other words)

1.To indicate completed activities in the immediate past.
Ex: She has just submitted her assignment.
2.To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite.
Ex: She has passed the examination.
3.To denote an action beginning at some time in the past and continuing up to the present
Ex: They have lived here for five years.
She has been ill since last week.
Present perfect continuous (sub+has/have+been+verb+ing+other words)
1. To denote an action, which began at sometime in the past and
is still continuing.

Ex: I have been waiting for you since 10 O’ clock.

It has been raining since 2 O’ clock.
I have been reading this book for four hours.

Simple past tense

( sub+verb(past tense)+other words)
1.To denote an action completed in the past. It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of
Ex: I wrote my assignment yesterday.
I received an e-mail from my friend a week ago.
She passed the examination last year.
Past continuous tense
(sub+was/were(verb+ing)+other words
1.To describe an action going on at some time in the past. The time of action may or may not be
Ex: When I met him, he was watching T.V.
They were playing cricket.
While he was crossing the road, he was run over by a lorry.
Past perfect tense
(sub+ had+past participle(verb)+other words)
It describes an action completed before a certain moment in the past
If two actions happened in the past, the past perfect tense is used for the action which
happened earlier than the other. For the action which happened later, the simple past is used.
The patient had died before the doctor arrived.
When I reached the station, the train had already left.
He had done the work before before his father arrived.
Past perfect continuous tense
(sub+had+been(verb+ing)+other words)
It is used for an action that began before a certain moment in the past and continued upto that
When Mr.Alex came to the college in 2000, Mr.Sam had already been teaching there for ten
Simple future tense
( sub+will/shall+verb+other words)
It is used for an action that has still to take place.
Ex: He will come tomorrow.
I shall meet you next week.

Future continuous Tense

(sub+will+be+verb+ing+other words)
It represents an action going on at some time in the future.
Ex: He will be staying with us till Sunday.
When I get home, my daughter will be waiting for me at the

Future perfect Tense

(sub+will/shall+have+verb(past participle)+other words)
It is used to indicate the completion of an action by a certain future time.
Ex: I shall have completed the work by that time.
By next June he will have finished his course.
Future perfect continuous Tense
(sub+will/shall+have+been+verb+ing+other words)
It indicates an action represented as being in progress over a period of time that will end in the
Ex: By next August we will have been studying in this college
for two years

Probable Part- A Topics for 186101 Technical English –I (Common to all Branches)

1. Matching Synonyms
2. Word formation – Adding suitable Prefixes – Forming Antonyms -
Adding suitable suffixes -Appropriate forms of words
3. Tense
4. Edit the passage ( Spelling, Punctuation, & Grammar)
5. Compound Nouns
6. Active and Passive Voice( Impersonal Passive )
7. Gerunds & Infinitives
8. Comparative Adjectives
9. If Clause or Conditionals
10.Cause & Effect
11.Modal verbs
13.Single Sentence definition
Part –B

To give instructions root form of verbs should be used.
Imperative sentences are used for writing instructions.
Avoid using ‘should’ while writing instructions.

1. Don’t touch …..
2. Shut down ……
3. Handle with …….
4. Avoid touching …..
5. Keep ……
Solved Example:

Write a set of eight instructions to be followed in your college library.

1. Deposit your bags at the personal belonging counter
2. Produce valid library cards to borrow books.
3. Verify the physical condition of the books before borrowing
4. Return the books on or before the due date.
5. Renew the books in time.
6. Observe silence inside the library
7. Switch off the lights and fans when not in use.
8. Do not tear pages.
9. Do not underline the important points
10. Use book marks.

Write a set of eight Recommendations to be followed in your college

*Rewrite the above as recommendations
1. Bags should be deposited at the personal belonging counter
2. Valid library cards must be produced before borrowing books
3. The physical condition of the books ought to be verified before borrowing
4. The books should be returned on or before the due date.
5. The books should be returned in time
6. Absolute silence should be maintained inside the library.
7. The lights and fans should be switched off when not in use
8. The pages should not be torn.
9. The important point should not be underlined
10. Book marks should be used.

The letters or figures arranged in the code form convey certain meaning to us. When the
meaning of such codes is decoded in the written form in a descriptive manner is called

Any set of symbols that communicates meaningful message is a code. A language is a set
of symbols and hence it is a code. Graphs, bar-charts, pie charts and tables are all set of
symbols and are codes too. Graphic aids make communication easy to understand.

A table is a list of facts or figures arranged in an ordered way, especially in columns.

A pie chart is a diagram consisting of a circle divided into sections in which each
represents specific proportion of the whole, e.g., in order to show spending in various
areas in relation to total expenditure.

A Bar chart is a diagram on which narrow bands of equal width but varying height are
used to represent quantities.

A Flow chart is a diagram showing the development of something through different

stages or processes.

Procedure for decoding charts and symbols

1. Take a good look at the given chart or table

2. Understand the meanings of the code symbols
3. Interpret and infer messages from the figures or pictures
4. Prepare a rough draft
5. Put these messages in logical continuity
6. Compare and contrast variables
7. Begin the paragraph with a topic sentence.

1. Write about 15 sentences using the points given in the table. Make use of ‘Comparison
and Contrast words’ wherever necessary.
Sl No Property Pig iron Steel Wrought iron
1 Melting point 1000’ C 1300-1400’C 1539’C
2 Weldability Cannot be welded Can be welded Can be welded
3 Magnetisation Cannot be Can be permanently Can be temporarily
magnetised magnetised magnetized
4 Tempering Can be tempered Can be tempered Cannot be tempered

This table gives information about the various properties of Pig iron, Steel and wrought
iron. Their properties are: melting point, weldability, magnetization and tempering.
Wrought iron has the highest melting point (1539’C) whereas pig iron has the lowest
melting point (1000’C). Steel has a melting point ranging from 1330’C-1400’C. While
steel and wrought iron can be welded, pig iron cannot be welded. Pig iron cannot be
magnetized. Though both steel and wrought iron can be magnetized, wrought iron can be
magnetized only temporarily, whereas steel can be magnetized permanently. Further,
wrought iron cannot be tempered whereas both pig iron and steel can be tempered.

2. Look at the following bar chart which describes the sales figures of products A
and B for the period from January to June in respect of a firm. Write a paragraph
presenting the information contained in it using expressions of comparison. (Sales in


2 Product A
1.5 Product B
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun


This bar chart describes the sales figures of products A and B for the period from January
to June in respect of a firm.

In January, 3000 units of product A were sold whereas only 1000 units of product B were
sold in the same period. Product A sold three times as much as product B.
The situation improved in February when the sale of product A increased by 1000 when
it touched the 4000 mark, which has the highest in the entire six month period, from
January to June. Similarly, the sale of product B shot up to the 3000 mark.

In March, both products A and B were in equal demand. The demand for product A
became less, from 4000 in February to just 3,000 in March. On the other hand, the
demand for product B was the same as it was in February, namely 3000.

The figures for the month of April present a different picture. The demand for product A
further decreased to about 2600 whereas the demand for product B was more than what it
was in March. The demand for product A further diminished while the demand for
product B further increased.

The month of May shows appreciation in demand for both the products. The sale of
product A increased to 3,000, what it was in January, while the sale of product B was
above the 3,000 mark, the highest during the period January to June.

In June, product A experienced a further rise in its sale, well beyond 3,000 next only to
what it was in January but the sale of product B for the first time showed a decreasing
trend, but still firm at 3,000 what it was in February.

The bar chart shows that the maximum sale of product A was in February when it
touched the 4,000 mark, whereas the maximum sale of product was in May, when it was
above 3000. It was a big leap from 1,000 in January.

3. Given below is a process description. Read it and draw a flow chart representing
the process described.

Rayon is a man-made fibre. It is in fact reconstituted natural fibre- cellulose.

Rayon is made by dissolving cellulose in a solution of sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda,
as it is usually called. The cellulose is obtained from shredded wood pulp. The dissolved
cellulose id formed into threads by forcing it through a spinneret in a setting bath of
dilute sulphuric acid. The threads are drawn from the setting bath, wound on reel, washed,
then dried on a heated roller, and finally wound on to a bobbin.
The process of Making Rayon

Cellulous Shredded
wood pulp

Solution of sodium hydroxide


Setting bath of dil. Sulphuric acid


Threads are drawn

Wound on real


Dried on roller

Wound on bobbin
4. Look at the following pie chart, which shows the different ways Mr.Gupta spends his
monthly income. Write a paragraph presenting the information contained in the chart. In
about 100 words, write whether Mr.Gupta is spending his income wisely or not.

Mr.Gupta's expenditures on his monthly income





The given pie chart shows the different ways Mr. Gupta spends his monthly

Mr.Gupta has his own lifestyle. He spends the chunk of his income, 40% on food.
For rent, he pays 25% of his monthly income on transport and an equal amount on wages.
After all this, he is able to save only 5% of his monthly income.

Mr. Gupta is not spending his income wisely. Perhaps he believes in enjoying life
without much thought for the future. That is why he spends 60% of his monthly income
on food and entertainment. To make life comfortable, he lives in a house for which he
pays 25% of his monthly income as rent. It seems he discounts the future heavily. That is
why he saves only a meager percentage (5%) of his monthly income.

A Letter has been defined as a conversation by post. Letters are perhaps the most
commonly used form of written communication. We write when we need to
communicate with whom are away from us.
There are several different kinds of letters such as friendly letters, Business letters,
etc. each of which has its own particular form; but there are certain matters of form
common to all. They are:
1. The Heading
2. Date
3. The Courteous Greeting or Salutation
4. The communication or message- the body of the letter
5. The Subscription or Courteous Leave taking
6. The Signature
7. The Superscription on the envelope.

1. The Heading:
This informs the reader where you wrote a letter. It should be the
writer’s full postal address.

2. Date:
The date comes just below the address as shown below:-
5, Nethaji Road,
Erode – 638001.
5th September , 2001.

3. The Courteous Greeting or Salutation:

1. To member of your family, for example, it will be
My Dear Father, My Dear Mother, Dear Aunt, Dear Ashok
2. To friends, it will be
Dear Shri Raman or Dear Raman,
3. To business people, it will be
Dear Sir or Gentlemen.

4. The communication or message- the body of the letter:

The body of a letter has three sections:
a. The opening which states the purpose of writing the letter and
reference to any previous correspondence on the subject.
b. The message, giving essential details and explanation.
c. The concluding remarks which indicate what action you
expect the receiver to take.

5. The Subscription or Courteous Leave taking:

The following form of subscription can be used in various types of letters.
To relatives and near friends:
Yours affectionately, your loving son, or brother or friend.

From your affectionate friend.

6. The Signature:
Two space below the complimentary close, the writer sign the letter.
Yours truly, Yours faithfully,
R. Gopal S. Ram

Letter to editor:
These should always be addressed to “The Editor” and they usually end with ‘Yours
truly’. The proper form of salutation is Sir .

1. Keep the content brief and precise.

2. Write intelligibly
3. Be lucid and clear in your thoughts and expressions
4. Use short paragraphs and short sentences.


1. Write a letter to the Editor of a newspaper about the loudspeaker nuisance in your

21st August, 2010.

45, Barack Road,
Chennai- 600 001.

The Editor,
The Hindu,
Chennai-600 002.

I shall be grateful if you could kindly publish the following in the “Letters to the
Editor” column of your esteemed daily.
Of late loudspeaker nuisance in our locality has become a menace. Not a day
passes without it. All my appeals, complaints and entreaties to the authorities have fallen
on deaf ears.
When it is election time, one just can’t sleep at night or have a peace during the
day. The sound disturbs us round the clock. Students find it impossible to concentrate on
their studies. Old and sick people, even children are tortured by these most unwanted
When any V.I.P is visiting our town, the autos, cars and taxis are fixed with
loudspeakers to announce the arrival and engagements of the V.I.P ad if people have no
other work to do.
When people take out processions, they no longer believe in silent marching. The
whole world must know that they are agitating. They also use loudspeakers to attract the
attention of everyone.
In the interest of peaceful living, allowing people to carry on with their work
without any disturbance from outside, I appeal to the authorities through these few lines
in your newspaper, to take immediate steps to put an end to this public nuisance.

Thanking you,

Yours truly,

Permission to undergo Practical Training:

For the project work, students have to write letters to

companies/factories/industries/mills concerned and get prior permission to undergo
practical training. The following details have to be mentioned:
1. Branch of engineering and division/section where he/she wants to get training.
2. The probable duration of the training and the proposed date.
3. Whether he/she has been sponsored by the institution where he/she is studying.

26th April, 2010.

S. Mahesh, III B.E. (E.C.E)
S.E.G Engineering College,
Chennai- 600 001.

The Personnel Manager,
Lucas TVS Ltd.,
Chennai-600 050.

Sub: Permission to undergo Practical Training – Reg.
I am a III year B.E Electronics and Engineering student of Chennai S.E.G
Engineering College, with keen interest in Machine Tool Design pertaining to auto
electrical. I have chosen this topic for my project work. I wish to undergo practical
training in your prestigious factory during the summer vacation from 15.05.2010 to

The practical training under your expert guidance will enable me to carry
out my proposed project in the above field successfully. Moreover, I am confident that
this practical training will equip me with the latest trends in this field. As your world-
renowned company has the most sophisticated equipment and foreign qualified
technicians, I would be able to get the best guidance, training and experience.

Kindly grant me permission to undergo training in your esteemed

company. I assure you that I shall abide by all the rules and regulations stipulated by your
company. Our Professor and the Principal have issued a sponsorship certificate which I
am enclosing for your favourable consideration.
Thanking you,
Yours Faithfully,

Inviting Dignitaries:

Generally, people are invited in person. You approach in person the P.A or Secretary of a
dignitary, introduce yourself, express your purpose and seek an appointment.

i. When you meet the VIP, you
Introduce yourself
a) Your name (without Mr. and initials, e.g., I am Raj)
b) Your position
c) Nam of the College, its location.

ii) State the purpose of inviting him

a) Inauguration
b) Sports Day
c) Annual Day
d) Valedictory Function
e) Special Lecture, etc.

iii) Mention date, time, place.

iv)Suggest a theme or topic for addressing you (as a general audience) or request him to
speak on a specific topic for addressing you as a discipline audience.
v)Talk about your arrangement for transport (by car/rail/plane) or if he so wishes, agree
to his own arrangements depending on the distance between his residence and your
institution/ organization.
vi) Find out if he is available for the date.
If he is not free, ask if he is free for another date.


Write a letter inviting the Manager of the local Bank to address the final year
students. Suggest suitable dates and timing. Find out his convenience. Persuade him to
accept your invitation.

20th March, 2010.

L. Krishna, IV B.E (Mech)
Mechanical Engineering Association,
A.C.S Engineering College,
The Senior Manager,
Canara Bank,
Canal Bank Road,
Chennai- 600 054.

As a Secretary of the Mechanical Engineering Association of A.C.S
Engineering College, I have immense pleasure in inviting you to address the final year
students on “How to be self – employed”. As a senior manager of the leading bank I feel
that you are the most component person to speak on this topic. With the help of your
lecture kindly enlighten us on the following points: how to be self-employed, available
avenues, details of loans, security, documents required, interest rate, repayment period,
tax holidays, subsidies, etc.
The meeting is scheduled to be held at 3.00 p.m. on 27th March, 2010 in the
Seminar Hall of our college. Or else you may even choose 28th or 29th of March, 2010.
Your convenience is most important.
We look forward in receiving a favourable response from you. Please let us know
your acceptance so that we can go ahead with the preparations. Please do oblige us.

Thanking you,
Yours Faithfully,
L. Krishna
Paragraph Writing

A paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together and relating to one topic, or a

group of related sentences that develops a single point. A good paragraph makes clear
meaning of one particular idea or topic by elaborating, elucidating or illustrating with

The format of a Paragraph or Principles of paragraph structures:

The basic requirements of a paragraph are:
1. Unity:
The most striking feature of a paragraph is its unity,
i.e. the discussion or description of one theme , subject or topic termed as the core idea
of the paragraph. Every section in the paragraph must be connected with the main topic
of the paragraph.
2. The Topic Sentence:
Usually, in a paragraph one sentence contains the core or central idea. This
sentence is called the topic sentence (because it introduces the topic) The rest of the
sentences in the paragraph relate to the topic sentence in one of the following ways:
(i) Leads into/ upto it
(ii) Explains it by either expanding or limiting its meaning
(iii) Support it
(iv) Support or explain one of the supporting sentences.
(v) The topic sentence is sometimes called the key sentence, summarizing
sentence or theme sentence
It is better to begin a paragraph with a topic sentence. One advantage of beginning
with the topic sentence is that it helps you to give a shape to your paragraph.


(a) Television has become a popular means of entertainment

(b) The fox is described as a very clever character in many of the animal stories
(c) Let me describe the room I am in .

3. Coherence:

A true paragraph is not just a set of sentences put together but sentences
which are interlinked with each other. This interlinking provides coherence to the

4. Variety:
This is another characteristic of a good paragraph, in fact, of all good
writing. To avoid monotony, the paragraph of a composition should be of different
lengths, and not always of the same sentence construction. The sentence patterns used
in the paragraph must be varied. There should be long and short sentences, simple
and complex, direct and involved, straightforward and inverted.


Use of Robots:

Robot is the form of programmed automation to carry out the programmed

task repetitively and uncomplainingly. It is a computer controlled, one armed
machine set up at the fixed place to perform several difficult task like machine
loading, unloading, spot welding and spray painting, etc. outside the factory, robot
finds its application in banks, restaurants and even homes.

Apart from performing some hard tasks, robots are also engaged in
dangerous environments. In constructing building, a robot is employed to undergo
risks. In coal-mining it is employed for the drilling operation where there is a danger
of the eruption of poisonous gases. In fire work factories, chemical factories and
nuclear plants which are the danger prone zones, robots come to the rescue to perform
the hazardous task of assembling, packing, etc. Robots are also used in the military
operations like fire fighting. A robot is also sent for space research and undersea

In the service industry, a robot finds its utmost use. It may be employed in
the task of teaching. In a company, robots can be employed for cleaning,
straightening the merchandise, restocking, noting the check out time of the labourers,
etc. In the 24 hour fast food restaurants, a robot may be help to make up the order of
the different customers. In the bank, it can take care of the customer’s account,
deposits and withdrawals. The routine task of adding, subtracting, counting money,
entering customer’s accounts status can be replaced by a robot. In garbage collection
and waste disposal operation, a human being can be replaced by a robot. In the place
of a security guard, a robot can be employed that can sense and report to the head
who is a human being. Household robots can perform dish washings, rug vacuuming,
making beds, furniture dusting, food preparation, etc. Lawn garden work can be well
maintained by a robot.
Jumbled Sentences

When sentences in jumbled order are given, one has to look for the
sequence/ connecting word or discourse marker. As a paragraph constitutes a topic
sentence and supporting sentences to substantiate it, one has to look for a logical thought

Rearrange the jumbled sentences in the correct order:
i) But for this preheating mechanism, starting the diesel engine will be difficult.
ii) Therefore, diesel engines are heavier than petrol engine.
iii) The diesel engine is an increasingly popular engine in automobiles.
iv) Finally, diesel engines are noted for their noise, vibration, and smoke.
v) However, plugs are available to preheat the engine.
vi) But, it has its own disadvantages.
vii) Another disadvantage is that diesel engines are difficult to start in cold
viii) For one, the higher compression that makes the diesel more efficient
necessitates the use of heavier engine components.

i) The diesel engine is an increasingly popular engine in automobiles.
ii) But, it has its own disadvantages.
iii) For one, the higher compression that makes the diesel more efficient
necessitates the use of heavier engine components.
iv) Therefore, diesel engines are heavier than petrol engine.
v) Another disadvantage is that diesel engines are difficult to start in cold
vi) However, plugs are available to preheat the engine.
vii) But for this preheating mechanism, starting the diesel engine will be difficult.
viii) Finally, diesel engines are noted for their noise, vibration, and smoke.
Probable Part- B Topics
12. LETTER WRITING – A. FORMAL LETTERS - Letter to the Editor, Letter of Invitation, Letter
seeking permission for In plant Training, Industrial visit, Letter declining invitation.
B. Informal Letters.
3. INSTRUCTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS (* Read the Question Carefully before Answering the
4.TABLES AND CHARTS ( Trans coding and Interpretation- Flow chart , Bar charts, Pie charts and
Tables )