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usually reside for any reason other than following an occupation paid for within the country. Two types of Visitor: • Tourist – a temporary visitor staying at least 24 hours in the country whose purpose of journey can be classified under any one of the following: o o o o o o o o o o o • Leisure Recreation Holiday Health Study Religion Sport Business Family Mission Meeting
Excursionist – a temporary visitor staying less than 24 hours in the country visited, inclusive of cruise visitors.
Tourism – In terms of balance of trade accounting tourism is defined as travel and transportation and is determined a ‘business service’ export from the tourism recipient to the tourism generating economy; the entirety of the tourism industry. Tourism is also the practice of traveling and the business of providing associated products, services and facilities. Tourism is difficult to define because it encompasses so many different industries and services. It encompasses both supply and demand and incorporates social, cultural and environmental concerns beyond physical development and marketing. Tourism is also one of the most perishable commodities as hotel rooms, airline seats, and tour sales need to be sold daily and continuously to generate revenue for the businesses. Unsold space and services cannot be stored or resold.
Key to understanding Tourism is the fact that no other industry designation is so tightly linked to so many diverse products and services and other industrial segments of the economy. Tourism Policy – a progressive course of actions, guidelines, directives, principles and procedures set in an ethical framework that is issues-focused ad best represents the intent of the community to effectively meet the its planning, development, product, service, marketing and sustainability goals and objectives for the future growth of tourism. The objective of tourism policy is to improve the progress of the nation and the lives of the citizens and maximize the positive benefits from the tourism activity. Tourism policy planning and development, to be effective has to be created within a framework where the public and private sectors of the economy work together to set goals and priorities for guiding the growth of the tourism industry. Research is key to determining how tourism policy should be shaped and how decisions will affect various tourism development issues. Policy Formulation Steps: Tourism Issue Research the Issue Document impacts on the Issue Economic Environmental Social Identify influences on the Issue: Public Sector Private Sector Non-Profit Sector Laws Regulations Barriers Establish Goals and Objectives for the Issue Formulate a Policy to define the goals and objectives that considers and addresses the all the influences and impacts on the Issue Make the Decision and implement the policy Evaluate the results and review / modify Benefits of Tourism: • Creates new jobs
• • • • •
Spawns new businesses Adds new products Generates additional income and economic activity Promotes economic integration Diversifies the local economy
Public Sector Role: • • • • • Developing governing legislation Financing Planning Policy making Coordination
Private Sector Role: • • • • • Providing jobs Developing infrastructure Marketing Stimulating economic activity Business building
Negative Impacts of Tourism • • • • • • • Drives up real estate values Increases social tensions Increased stress on public infrastructure and services Over crowding Crime Destruction of natural resources due to over use Others
Tourism Policy should be future oriented and comprehensive as it incorporates the interests of a wide diversity of stakeholders. Policy makers need to be aware of all aspects of not only direct tourism services and developments but all the ancillary services and resources that can potentially be affected by tourist development. Some examples are: • Water and sewage management programs • Roads and bridges
to give you a competitive advantage. • Packaging – not only how the product is defined and presented but what activities and components round out the experience. Market Segmentation – Strategy of targeting your product to appeal to a specific. Price. who participate in the delivery of the service and people who are impacted by the tourism activity. Traditional marketing will define a product in terms of the 4 P’s. opportunities exploited. the people. the people who buy the product. when looked at in its entirety presents the destination as a product. • Positioning – placing the product in the marketplace and defining it to appeal to the target market population. For a country the entire country. threats mitigated and actions controlled and coordinated. • People – all the people. narrowly defined portion of a market where you can concentrate your efforts and tailor the message to fit the needs of that segment. • Planning – the forward thinking policies and logistics that consider how the service will be delivered. Tourism adds five more P’s: The Marketing P’s: • Product – the item for sale r to be sold • Price – the cost to the target market for the Product • Place – the location of the product to be promoted • Promotion – the activities that raise awareness of the existence of the product • Partnership – the other businesses and components that together allow the product to exist or be made available for sale. Place and Promotion. . When you visit a place you are purchasing that product. the culture. superior. Like any product it must be promoted and sold in the market place to the end-users. the social structure and the entire tourism infrastructure is part of the overall tourism product.• • • • • • Solid waste disposal Police and fire resources Telecommunications Schools Housing Immigration The tourism industry. before the benefits can realized. The product is the destination and all the components are aspects of the product. • Programming – defining the inter-relationships and coordination between he tourism components. Product. Market Differentiation – Strategy of building a brand identity that is different from that of your competitors. the language. tourists or visitors.
280 representatives from all sectors of tourism from 20 countries attended the Cape Town Conference on Responsible Tourism in South Africa. 2. environmental and social impacts. .Some Types of Tourism. improves working conditions and access to the industry. Generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the well being of host communities. Tourism Segmentation: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mass tourism Agri-tourism Eco-tourism Experiential tourism Gambling Adventure tourism Cultural tourism Health tourism Medical tourism Sex tourism Religious tourism Leisure tourism Geo-tourism What tourists want: • • • • • • • Authenticity Variety Flexibility Value Quality Safety Culture What is Responsible Tourism? In 2002. Involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances. They agreed in a declaration that responsible tourism: 1. Minimizes negative economic. 3.
2. Tourism Policy got its start in 1925 when the UNWTO got its start as the International Congress of official Tourist Traffic Associations. Both the sending area and the receiving destination would have had to prepare for the influx of visitors. c. – It is the leading International organization in most every aspect of Tourism including policy . Provides access for physically challenged people. it can be assumed that religious pilgrimages probably formed the earliest instances of planned trips away form home. 3. inns. 5.4. None of the early reasons for travel and the plans and works built to facilitate travel could be said to approximate tourism policy planning. The reasons were all mostly for other purposes and tourism just the by-product that benefited from the development. b. h. 4. Policy issues Definitions Directives Data Research Education Crisis guidelines Sustainability Development . 6. Trade was a great initiator of travel the need for some travel infrastructure. Is culturally sensitive. or formal tourism are. attractions. It was not until 2003 that it became a UN specialized agency. d. The Military provided another major reason for planned travel. People have always traveled and while it is not known what the true origins of planned. 7. and builds local pride and confidence. In 1934 it became the International Union of Official Tourist Propaganda Organizations and by 1947 it changed again in tthe International Union of Official Travel Organizations. restaurants. People have travelled from the time of the early Sumerians right up to the present day. And its headquarters established in Madrid Spain. etc. i. e. Historical Perspective: 1. It was not until 1979 that UNWTO was created. encourages respect between tourists and hosts. and a greater understanding of local cultural. f. g. Provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people. It also serves as a global forum for tourism: a. Makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage embracing diversity. social and environmental issues.
j. Importance of national Tourism policy: a. A policy framework can increase the economic benefits from tourism by giving direction to travel promotion initiatives. National policies have a coordinating effect bringing public and private efforts together c. Provides a framework for enabling legislation to assist in tourism development. e. economic and trade activities that tourism can provide. It provides the guidelines for what the framers want to achieve from the activity and the extent to which they . Worldwide economic cooperation 5. Promotes a more effective response to negative events that harm national image and tourism d. Tourism has proven the major role it can play in stimulating development and generating foreign currency when. Tourisms role in the economic and technological development of nations: • Stimulates the development of basic infrastructure • Contributes to the growth of domestic industries that supply the tourist industry. Maximizes the development. unrealized tourism asset or local cultural event that needs to be preserved from exploitation? Tourism Ethics: All industries need an ethical framework within which policy can be developed. Promotes international cooperation h. f. Private interests tend to pursue narrow goals driven by self-interest b. Debate Question: Carnival: Important. after WWII it became the prime tool for rebuilding Europe and the European economy. • Attracts foreign investment • Facilitates the transfer of technology and technical knowhow • Expands the local market for all goods and services allowing local businesses to grow and expand • Works to raise the overall educational level of the populace. Reduces isolationism g.
It is a review of the basic policy issues and the underlying concepts and thinking to see if they still are applicable in the present circumstances.will allow the activity to impact social. The growth that tourism can create will often times lead to rapid and frequent changes in policy as the region seeks to cope with the many problems that that growth creates. Stage 3: Summative Phase Tourism Policy Evaluation This is a process where long standing norms and issues are evaluated for continued validity. The impetus for new or revised policy can come from any stakeholder at any time. Tourism Policy requires regular and frequent review and evaluation because of the industry’s ability to generate rapid growth and to impact multiple sectors of the economy at once. Protect the social and cultural heritage of the area society 3. An ethical framework will seek to achieve the following objectives: 1. that need to be addressed. Tourism policy is a dynamic and ever evolving process that reflects the changes in the tourism industry. In Belize the Cruise Tourism Policy had the added objectives to cover regulation of live aboard vessels and their waste control as well as provisions to enhance the protection of sensitive environmental areas. Minimize negative impacts of the environment 2. When evaluating a policy it is helpful to understand which phase instigated the policy and from there determine what the objective are and if they are being met. The phases are: Stage 1: Formative Phase Policy Evaluation This phase means that some issues relating to the tourism industry have arisen that are not being adequately provided for in the existing policy. Complexity in Tourism Policy Issues: . Alleviate poverty 5. This type of evaluation has the advantage of looking back at results over a long period of time and measuring actual results and consequences against goals and objectives. cultural and environmental aspects affected by the activity. Advances in technology that affect the tourism industry either directly or indirectly may also cause policy to be reformed. Stage 2: Development Phase Tourism Policy evaluation This phase seeks to evaluate policy implementation midstream to see if the objectives are being met or if the policy is lacking in some elements or if the policy is not generating the intended results. or may not be covered by a policy at all. Promote understanding Types of Tourism Policy Evaluation stages: When creating or evaluating a policy there are distinct stages to the process that occur. Promote sustainability in economic development 4.
cultural integrity. The tourism planner has some powerful tools to control and direct tourism growth. Demand analysis also has to consider the impact of seasonality of demand. The policy makers have to work with local and regional stakeholders to formulate enforceable zoning laws that protect as well as promote beneficial economic activity. Research and Development: United Nations World Tourism Organization – UNWTO The Organization of American States – OAS Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development – OECD Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC Caribbean Tourism Organization – CTO The world travel and Tourism Council WTTC Tourism as a Commercial & Economic Activity The concept of Tourism Supply and Demand: The Demand Side: Tourism is very sensitive to demand in the generating markets. The destination may have attributes that make it most attractive to the target market at only certain times of the year. The demand for a destination may be heavily influenced by the ancillary amenities that the destination affords the traveler and directly impact the level of development. actual result are not what the policy intended and may give rise to new. Through zoning the government can specify where an activity can occur and limit the size and scope of the activity. in some cases. marketing and promotional activities and pricing. . motivations to travel. Parking requirements can alleviate traffic congestion and improve overall economic activity. Green laws requiring open spaces around buildings can promote a more human and environmentally balanced development. location identification of markets. In assessing tourist demand included are the elements of potential interests of the traveler. Organizations Involved in Tourism Planning. Often. thus limiting or constraining the desired development potential of the destination. Zoning is one of the most powerful tools for control of tourism growth. Tax laws are another important tool that can be used to direct investment to areas that have tourism potential but need development and also to influence social behaviors.Because tourism can spur rapid growth in both the volume of activity and the number of stakeholders and participants in the activity the management and evaluation of tourism policy can be very complex. Commercial businesses can be kept away from residential areas preserving social harmony and. unforeseen problems.
natural resources like: • Scenic land • Mountains • Rivers & Lakes • Climate • Flora & Fauna • Beaches Or. Of primary importance will be the exchange rate differential between the tourist generating country and the host country. etc. who wants to find out what a destination has to offer and the destination who wants to spread their message to the widest possible segment of the market. The factors of geography. attractions. Factors such as location. Depending on the conditions of the location. to a large degree. The Internet has made information transfer easier for both the traveler. Supply elements can be. and other amenities . Additionally. quality of amenities. Private investment will set rates and fees based on competitive forces but it is the responsibility of the tourism planner to guide development along lines that allow for a diversity of products and the broadest possible range of development projects. water availability and other infrastructure needed to accommodate large volumes of people. profile of the target market. the tourism planner must balance the needs of the market to the ability the location has to fulfill those needs. the basic infrastructure of tourist supply includes hotels. like roads and accessibility. etc. will limit the growth potential and benefits derived from the tourism industry. development and sustainability will impose natural limits on the volume that can be reasonably accommodated within any given tourism area. If the rate is not advantageous to the tourist then the propensity to spend will be constrained.The demographic profile of the target visitor is key to understanding what will attract them to the destination and what services would appeal to them. sewer. uniqueness of the locale. Value assessments need to be made to determine the relative price positioning the destination will sustain relative to competing destinations. The Supply Side: Basic to the supply of the tourism product is the elements in the area that make the destination a draw to potential visitors. they can be cultural: • History • Language • Architecture • Heritage • Arts & Science Other considerations are infrastructure. restaurants. expense to reach the location. are all determinates of the pricing strategy. The limits of supply also. Pricing of the destination is critical to attracting and maintaining a viable tourist industry.
• Tourism can cause less pollution • The export is easily accessible from the outside via the Internet. In effect this means that local communities that might otherwise compete against each other need to form partnerships or alliances to better market their tourism products and to increase the number of visitors from further distances. labor. or negative visitor information Leakage – the reduction in the benefit derived from tourist investment by an over reliance on imported goods and materials to support and supply the tourism industry. Tourism has some advantages over other exports: • The productive capacity of tourism is less exhaustible than other industries. Airline seats. accommodation and entertainment of tourists. Care must be taken to balance the need for familiar products and high quality goods with the need to keep foreign exchange and tourism profits in the local economy through the purchase and use of locally sourced materials. Some factors may detract from the potential supply capacity of tourism like: • Pricing o Affordability o Unfavorable exchange rate o Declines in disposable income among the target market. capital.that provide for the housing. is another factor to consider in determining the extent of a destinations tourism supply capacity. • • Coopetition – the need for cooperation among tourism destinations in order to better market the tourism product effectively and meet the competition at the regional and global level. technology or other factors of production. • Quality o Lack of adequate accommodations o Substitution of activities o Poor local environment Knowledge of Location o Lack of good transportation o Security and safety concerns o Little. • Tourism assets may be available even where the land is not contusive to industrial development. Tourism Advantages: . Tourism may offer a country a comparative advantage over other export opportunities because of the tourism assets they have. Comparative Advantage The theory that countries will specialize in producing and exporting those goods and services in which they have an advantage in terms of land.
Employment – tourism is labor intensive and has the benefit of requiring huge pools of workers. 3. Conversely. Government Revenue multiplier – This measure the impact on government revenue as a consequence of an increase in tourist expenditure. 5. able to absorb large amounts of people in a short amount of time. The multiplier effect seeks to quantify the additional effects of a policy beyond those that are immediately measureable. from entry level to highly skilled and can be an engine for growth of add-on and support jobs in related industries. thereby creating employment.1. Output multiplier – This relates the amount of additional output generated in the economy as a consequence of an increase in tourist expenditure. Employment multiplier – This measure the total amount of employment created by an additional unit of tourism expenditure. Income – Tourism is an important generator of national income. Much of the expenditure is in the form of foreign exchange. allowing the host country access to . Tourism activity affects and energizes the broadest range of services and activity within the host country as visitors and suppliers consume goods and services in support of the tourism effort. Tourism jobs also have the characteristics of being fast growing. the multiplier works in reverse and the sudden drop in investment. Technology transfer between developed and under-developed countries is fostered as tourism projects incorporate new. 4. This multiplier measures the ratio between he two changes. Transactions or Sale multipliers – An increase in tourist expenditure will generate additional business revenue. advanced technology into their design and service mix. Visitors make large expenditures on a wide variety of goods and services which yield a substantial increase in income. The ‘Multiplier Effect’ – A number which indicates the magnitude of a particular macroeconomic policy measure. Tourism is intangible and is sold to the consumer without any actual visible product. tourism produces a large quantity of jobs in the ‘hard to employ’ sectors of the economy. 2. Trade in tourism is unique in that the ‘product’ that is exported is consumed in the country in which it was produced. Income multiplier – This measure the additional income created in the economy as a consequence of the increased tourist expenditure. 2. 3. There are 5 main types of multipliers: 1. Tourism also generates a wide range of jobs. export earnings or tourism receipts reduces national income by a multiplied amount. Lastly. Economic Development – Tourism influences development plans and activities as both the tourist demand and supply influence the pace and nature of development. The employment is concentrated in the services sector which does not require as much capital intensive investment to create jobs. Tourism exports also do not show up in the balance of trade figures of the country. The main difference with the transactions or sales multiplier is that the output multiplier is concerned with the changes in the actual levels of production and not with the volume of sales.
Crowding occurs when the too many people or vehicles or both are resident in an area that is not designed to accommodate such large numbers. . Growth of the tourism industry in an area has to be monitored to assess the impact that growth is having on the carrying capacity and infrastructure of the area. credit cards and payment systems are developed to service the tourist industry as are improvements in communications. allows the host country to develop the necessary technology infrastructure to improve not only its tourism services but the general technology base on the country. Signs that an area is being stressed are: • Erosion of the natural environment due to over development • Pollution of the ocean front or forest due to excessive litter or pollution from human development • Visual. etc. In either case overcrowding and congestion detract from the tourist experience. bathrooms. • Inadequate or insufficient attention to safety issues for visitors. drug abuse and prostitution. Impact of Tourism on Community Services: Tourism has the ability to exponentially raise the number and volume of an areas inhabitants. and other support services. The spillover of these services into the wider economy is a benefit to the economy at large.valuable technology and training. Crowding or Carrying Capacity – refers to the ability of a location to hold or manage a given number of people. Marketing activities require access to websites and web services and this becomes available to population at large. Tourism. UNWTO states that the following effects can arise from overcrowding: • Reduction in visitor enjoyment • Damage to the environment and unique characteristics of the destination that give it its tourist appeal • Adverse impacts on conservation and preservation programs • Reduction in the opportunities for tourists to spend money locally • Generate stress on the local community due to increased competition for services • Increase litter and pollution • Strain the capacity of the local infrastructure • Reduce the efficiency f tourism services. rise in crimes against tourists • Increased social problems with crime. noise and air pollution from too much tourist traffic or poor traffic control systems • Lack of availability of utilities or over burdened utility services due to over development • High season traffic congestion at tourist areas during peak times • Lack of adequate public facilities. in others it can be the result of rapid unplanned growth. parking trash disposal cans. inadequate policing • Growing resentment and friction between the host community and the tourists. In certain circumstances this is an expected temporary occurrence. reflective as it is of the norms and support services the tourist is accustomed to. Both locals and visitors are consumers of local services and tourism activity can stress local resources.
Technology needs to be employed to assist in meeting some of the challenges of managing a tourist development and directed toward areas such as: • • • • Monitoring Measuring Awareness Forums Sustainable Tourism along Coastlines: Economic development and tourism. remote parking and shuttle busses. special lanes to reduce the tourist impact on local traffic patterns Close cooperation with public utilities to prepare them to make the necessary investments to supply power.• Damage to national shrines and monuments from over exposure or excessive tourist intrusion. water & sewage in quantities to meet the present and expected growth rates. • • • • Tourism attractions and development must be managed to be effective and sustainable. Planning strategies must account for the growth of the tourist effort and the resultant problems that growth brings. Part of that management relies on the on-going involvement of all stakeholders in the development and the creation of forums and mechanisms that allow for input from stakeholders on current effects and solutions as the tourist project evolves and matures. Careful planning to allow for set aside areas where the local population can be free from the tourist activity. Pollution and Environmental impact studies that address the question of pollution and recommend remediation solutions before any projects are started. consideration of pedestrian ways. Some things to consider and plan for are: • • • Estimated carrying capacity or load a tourist site can accept without incurring adverse effects Preparation of the local area prior to the opening of a site to build in the infrastructure to handle the expected demand Investigation of alternative means of access to reduce traffic congestion. especially in the coastal regions of an area pose a unique problem in that the development of the tourism infrastructure must be balanced against the need to preserve the natural environment. . Education programs to inform the local population of the tourism project and initiatives designed to engage local support. Good planning and management techniques have to be used to make efficient use of the natural resources and also improve the life of the inhabitants.
Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities. long term economic operations. Sustainable tourism should maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourist. Ensure viable. water and healthy ecosystems Maintenance of safe and secure recreational environment Beach restoration and beach renourishment. particularly along coastlines needs to include the following: • • • • • • • Good coastal management polices Clean air. World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) Headquartered in London. tourism. providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed. Sustainable Development of Tourism Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations. raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices among them. 3. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental. Sustainable tourism should: 1. maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity 2.To be sustainable. UK. history. economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long term sustainability. including stable employment and income earning opportunities and social services to host communities and contributing to poverty alleviation To be successfully implemented sustainable tourism requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders as well as strong political leadership to insure wide participation and consensus building. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts. also efforts to prevent erosion of the beach and coast (preservation of mangrove) Sound policy for wildlife and habitat preservation Protection of the built environment. introducing the necessary preventative and or corrective measures whenever necessary. conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. heritage and culture Educational / awareness programs that promote good sustainable tourism practices. . this is global organization comprised of 100 private sector enterprises. Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development.
• Transfer of industry skills and best practices that spread the benefits widely and efficiently. To manage the flow of travel between regions and countries many international organizations and agencies have been established to encourage and promote national policy objectives. • Agreeing and implementing quality standards at all levels and in all areas.haves’ and the ‘have nots’ • Sensitive provision of traditional tourism products and imaginative product diversification that reduce seasonality and increase yields • Improving the quality of tourism products and services. New Tourism provided the following key tasks for the private sector: • Expanding markets while promoting and protecting natural resources and local heritage and lifestyles. raising environmental awareness and helping in its own way to narrow the gap between the .Their July 2003 “Blueprint for New Tourism” contains a section that focuses on the need for tourism related business to balance economics with the environment. • Increasingly sophisticated and more precise measurement of the sectors own activity to feed into strategic business decisions • Communicating more effectively with the world in which it operates including energetic input from Travel & Tourism umbrella organizations to government at strategic and local levels. its local citizens and the culture of place. And easing travel restrictions • Encouraging reciprocal investments among nation’s tourism industries. employee relations. Global tourism involves many international interactions and agreements between nations. • Promoting and sharing research. Tourism as a Global Engine for Growth: Tourism has political as well as economic implications. statistics and information • Recognizing the importance of safety and security of tourists • Suggesting mutual cooperation on policy issues in international tourism . education. • Developing careers. including staff training. Tourism related agreements generally focus on the following criteria: • Increasing two-way tourism • Supporting efforts by National Tourism Organization travel promotion offices to promote visits • Improving tourism facilitation. promoting smaller firms. adding value for money while increasing consumer choice.
human rights and fundamental freedoms. chairmen and CEO’s of 100 of the world’s foremost travel and tourism companies representing almost all sectors of the industry. Its primary mission is to play a central and decisive role in promoting the development f responsible. social and environmental segments. The mission of the OECD is as follows: o To achieve sustainable economic growth and employment and rising standards of living in member countries while maintaining financial stability. and observance of. o To assist sound economic expression in member countries and other countries in the process of economic development. nondiscriminatory basis.• Providing for regular consultations on tourism matters and establishing a mechanism for dialogue. international understanding. information sharing on liability and other matters relating to motor vehicle based tourism. the World Travel & Tourism Council – the only organization representing the private sector in the global context of the travel and tourism industry. • The same agreement also clarifies the entry requirements and eases the paperwork by simplifying the documentation required to bring a vehicle into Mexico • The US and Venezuela agreement provides for coordination between park services in the two countries to cooperate on tourism development policies. • OECD. It produces global research data. sustainable and universally accessible tourism with the aim of contributing to economic development. the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. o To contribute to the growth in world trade on a multilateral. expand financial services and cross border investments and promote best practices on the international forefront. serves as a forum in which governments can work together to focus effectively on the challenges of interdependence and globalization through economic. • Enhancing mutual understanding and goodwill Some of the items that international cooperation between countries in aid of easing tourism are: • The agreement between Mexico and the US that cover ground transportation between the two countries and address concerns such as insurance. prosperity and universal respect for. peace. the Organization of American States is a regional organization consisting of the countries of north and central America as well as Caribbean states and countries in . the United Nations World Tourism Organization – leading international organization in field of travel and tourism. hence contributing to the development of the world economy. It is comprised of presidents. strengthen trading systems. • Acknowledging the benefits from education and training in tourism and helping to establish training plans and opportunities. • The OAS. Their mission is to raise the awareness of the full economic impact of the world’s largest generator of wealth and jobs – travel and tourism. analyses and forecasts to enable economic growth and stability. International and Inter-governmental Tourism Organizations: • The UNWTO. • The WTTC.
promoting investment and development and improving the tourist industry across the region. the Inter-American Travel Congress. They have a Tourism Working Group that has four policy goals to support its function of creating jobs. Tourism & Foreign Policy: Tourism can create dependence by the host country on the tourist generating country. This dependence can influence the foreign policy between the countries and the need for hard currency and investment dollars for development. o Organize and encourage regular meetings of technicians and experts for the study of special problems related to tourist travel. o Foster the harmonization of laws and regulations concerning tourist travel. o Serve as an advisory body of the organization and its organs in all matters related to tourism in the hemisphere. foster greater understanding and the alignment of interests. This dependence promotes treaties which seek to open lines of communication. development of tourism education and awareness programs. The organization promotes the Caribbean as a ‘vacation destination’ and has been very successful in developing web based databases for information on tourist sites and in the support of sustainable tourism practices. o Removal of impediments to tourism business and investment o Increase mobility of visitors and demand for tourist goods and services o Sustainable management of tourism outcomes and impacts o Embrace recognition and understanding of tourism as a vehicle for economic and social development. . It does this by conducting studies that maintain a dialogue between government and the private sector. o Take advantage of the cooperation offered by private enterprise through world and regional organizations concerned with tourist travel which hold consultative status with the United Nations or maintain relations with the OAS o Promote cooperative relations with similar world or regional organizations either governmental or private and to invite them to participate as observers at meetings of the congresses. the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth. trade and investment in the Asia pacific region. Caribbean Tourism Organization.• • Latin America. is an international development agency and the official body for promoting and developing tourism throughout the Caribbean. The purposes and functions of the IATC are: o Aid and promote by all means at their disposal the development and progress of tourist travel in the Americas. It also provides technical and research support for tourism development projects. all designed to keep relations friendly. promotes development in travel and tourism in the Americas. APEC. The CTC provides information and assistance to its member countries and non-governmental members in order to achieve sustainable development. CTC. The OAS has tourism as a major concern and through the IATC..
Scope of Cultural Tourism: . These can be built items like museums and other buildings of ethnic or historical significance. The growth in trade and corresponding growth in incomes. Any decrease in tourism activity results in the decrease in travel and global GDP. it can be defined by the motivation of cultural tourists to seek an authentic experience with a different o unique cultural or ethnic history. Civil strife. International tourism is the world’s largest export earner making it vital to global trade. ethnic rituals and/or cultural events or characteristics that give a place or a people something different. making tourism the main beneficiary of peace. The inter-dependence between tourist trading countries also contributes to peace and understanding. between host and generating country. Tourism growth is also positively correlated to growth n global GDP. Matters both internal and external. international tensions and terrorist attacks all serve to have adverse impacts on the prosperity of the tourist industry. Historical sites. keeping the environment stable for the industry. along with eco-tourism. Cultural assets are those aspects of a place and a people that can be leveraged for tourism purposes. Cultural Tourism: Cultural tourism is a distinct subset within sustainable tourism and. Cultural tourism can be defined by several areas: By destination: • Museums • Theatres • Parks • Art Galleries • Historical sites • Architectural treasures • Ethnic and heritage events Or. have to be such that tourist feel comfortable going to the destination. is the fast growing tourism travel trend.Tourism as a tool for Peace: By its nature the tourism industry relies on there being a safe and civil environment within which the industry can operate. Travel contributes to greater understanding between peoples and that can lead to more peaceful relationships. The Democratic Theory .founded on the premise that democracies seldom if ever enter into armed conflict with one another due their common values.
Additionally cultural tourism can also affect: • Purity of cultural festivals and events due to over commercialization. While the classification of a cultural tourist is brad enough to include many types of traveler the fact remains that this is a significant trend and one worthy of pursuit and development. • Preserving local cultures by assigning a value to them • It builds upon existing assets and can require little outside investment. MID-TERM Managing Sustainable Tourism: Tourism. the experience will likely include elements from a wide spectrum of what the destination has to offer. speculation of land values and stress on natural and man-made infrastructure. as it has developed in the market today. • Destruction of historical sites and buildings from increased traffic.Estimates from studies performed in the US indicate that the US generates in excess of 118 million potential cultural travelers per year. $623 vs $457 for other traveler categories. rural economies to diversify their economic base by opening up aspects of their unique culture to outside visitors. eco-tourism. A a group they tend to spend on average more than other types of tourists. etc. Regardless of the initial motivation for the visit. At the least the visit will expose the visitor to the destinations: • • • • • Language Culture Built tourist assets Climate People Because of the diversity and interconnections between the various aspects of the tourist experience managing the tourist product can be very challenging. Benefits of Cultural Tourism: Cultural tourism has allowed many local. The goal is to maintain the . social unrest. The negatives of cultural tourism are the same for any type of tourism is left unmanaged. congestion. • Friction between local populations and visitors • Stress on local infrastructure as volumes increase. leisure. Some of the benfits are: • Fostering a sense of local pride and identity • Enhancing greater understanding among diverse peoples • Promoting an entrepreneurial spirit. • Loss of quality of life from excessive tourist traffic. adventure. is composed of travelers who want to enjoy and experience a wide range of a destinations’ attractions.
history and heritage of the local community. 5. sustainable growth means: Achieving quality growth in a manner that does not deplete the natural and built environment and preserves the culture.aspects of the destination that make it unique and attractive to visitors. understanding. heritage and culture. Some key questions that have to be asked are: • • • • Are there sufficient key services to assist a local community’s understanding of developing and marketing their product and its subsequent delivery? Is there a plan in place to focus on stated provision of services? Is the community prepared for the influx of tourists? Dose the product add to the ‘quality of life’ for the community’s people? . The manner in which a sustainable tourism policy is achieved is by including the following elements into the development process: 1. As every aspect of a location can be considered a part of the tourism product this means that everyone has involvement in managing and planning for sustainable growth. marketing and development of the local tourism industry. The Social Impact of Tourism: Tourism can have negative impacts on the local community and the policy framework must address the concerns of these impacts if it is to be sustainable (in terms of being an accepted part of the local community and supported). which consists of a montage of influences from. Balancing the number of visitors with the estimated carrying capacity of the destination to allow for the greatest interaction with the least destruction. Sustainable tourism references the natural surroundings plus the built environment. Recognizing the impact of competition at many levels and the importance of crafting a policy that can be both competitive and cooperative (coopetition) to expand the potential visitor market but preserve and build a fair share of that market. history. Honing the tourism message and marketing to efforts to target those market segments that have the highest potential to generate visits and utilizing a wide range of communication channels to get that message out. while maximizing on the potential these elements have to generate tourism revenue now and into the future. To be sustainable. 2. 4. In tourism. Recognizing that no other industry is as dependent on the quality of the environment as tourism. the effort of managing tourism growth and development has to be a collaborative and thoughtful process that includes all of the direct and indirect stakeholders in the destination. 3. Recognizing the interdependency of tourism with other industries both locally and worldwide and the part they play in the transportation.
cultural and environmental sensitivity. preserving the environment. developmental or environment benefit can be sustainably achieved. Goeldner & Ritchie (2006) devised a systematic manner for proper planning: . social and cultural factors that affect both the destination and the tourist visitation. Enjoy our diverse natural and cultural heritage and help us preserve it. Tourism ‘Code of Ethics’ from Canada Parks Vacation Planner: 1. no amount of economic. The destination can plan for responsible and sustainable tourism. Good tourism policy will incorporate elements that encourage and educate the tourist on how to best enjoy the destination in a sustainable manner. 2. Select tourism products and services which demonstrate social. Of Note: Sustainable tourism practices and best practices are a two way street. Assist us in our efforts through the efficient use of resources including energy and water. customs and regulations 4. Experience the friendliness of our people and the welcoming spirit of our communities.Any plan must address these and other questions because if it does not address the issues and quality of life for the local community. supporting sustainable products and enjoying tourist attractions in a responsible way. 3. economic. Planning for Tourism Growth & Sustainability: The general concept of planning implies the relationship to the future based on the understanding of: • Current trends & the environments current condition • Consumer demand • Supply • Industry environment • Health Alerts • Security threats • All other influences The planning process focuses on all of the environmental. 5. Avoid activities which threaten wildlife or plant population or which may be potentially damaging to our natural environment. Help us to preserve these attributes by respecting our traditions. but the tourist also has a part to play in acting responsibly and supporting local sustainable initiatives by respecting local customs.
Can include a definition of land use. economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development and a sustainable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long term sustainability. Build in mechanisms for continuous feedback on the project and levels of tourist satisfaction. Define the system a. Approve the Plan a. or research provides basic data that are essential to develop the plan 3. including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments. size. Frequently scale models are developed and sketches prepared as are financial projections and policy documents 5. Once collected the many fragments of information must be interpreted so that the facts gathered have meaning b. The parties involved can now look at the plans. Fact finding. Make optimal use environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development. drawings and other material and make a judgment on the viability of the project 6. Analyze and interpret a.1. Follow up and evaluate progress and results c. zoning and regulations. Sustainable development principles refer to the environmental. Have alternatives considered and draw up alternative physical solutions and test them b. Carries out the plan and creates an operational tourist development b. Formulate objectives 2. Create the Final Plan a. The UNWTO offers the following comments and guidelines on policy and management strategy as it relates to tourism development: Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations. financial planning and incentives and financial projections as well as international considerations 7. character and purpose? b. Implement the Plan a. What is the scale. This step leads to a set of conclusions and recommendations 4. . infrastructure improvements. Gather data a. architectural improvements and standards. Create the preliminary plan a. maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve national heritage and biodiversity. Sustainable tourism should then consider the following: 1. market.
Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities. what you need from them and why you should be allowed to proceed. in educational and . You are in charge of the Belize District Destination. Sustainable tourism development requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. How would you prepare for the arrival of this new cruise ship and its passengers? Education and Training in Tourism: The growth of a sustainable tourism industry relies to a large extent on the availability of a well trained labor pool from which to draw. Ensure viable long-term economic operations. it is vital that tourism goals and objectives be widely understood. Additionally the greater population will need to be aware of the tourism industry. You want to develop a tourist destination resort there with a 100 room hotel. The gigantic new cruise ship has been scheduled to make Belize its port of call starting in two months. 2. including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities and contributing to poverty alleviation. raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them. jungle park and craft center. and the role it plays in the general economy of the country. Describe to the local representative of the central government how you would proceed with the project. Sustainable tourism should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists. introducing the necessary preventative or corrective measures as needed. Because tourism touches so many aspects of the general economy and because the components of the tourism product encompass almost every aspect of life. conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. Quiz Questions: 1.2. This is a continuous process and requires constant monitoring of impacts. While it is understood that tourism is labor intensive and can be a powerful engine for job growth the lack of an universal definition of the tourism industry hampers a coordinated approach toward tourism training and education. if the overall product is to be successfully marketed and implemented. You are a developer that has a tract of undeveloped land outside a small town in the Toledo district. 3. Typically the industry is defined. providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed.
tour. Further. Training may be more focused and of shorter duration concentrating on skills development. etc. transportation etc. in some circumstances. there exists a controversy as to the difference between Tourism and Hospitality. (Cruise ship revenue is totally derived from tourists but. Differences in definition can lead to misinterpretations of economic activity data. whether industrialized or not and may reflect the level of development of the local economy which. Defining tourism in terms of industrial activity has always been difficult. Defining tourism and being able to classify the component industry sub-groups is important for measuring the industry’s size. Without a clear definition of the industry it becomes hard to properly educate workers with the wide view required to fully understand the industry. Training Education is generally long term whereas tourism training produces benefits that are almost instantaneous. food and beverage. Education implies a long term and wide ranging development of knowledge. The education growth has been fragmented and can differ from country to country and within countries. tourism educations. Factors Contributing to the Dominant Role of Hospitality in Tourism: . In this new economic environment the lines between education and training have become blurred in respect to tourism and hospitality. In either case the advances made in the development of the tourism industry and its component sub-industries have made the necessity of education and training more acute. The pace of change has created a situation where learning of all types is a lifelong pursuit which creates a flexible and adaptable individual who is able to quickly accommodate new methods and procedures. car rentals are only partially derived from tourists) The business activities under education for tourism include adult education.press. hospitality schools. performance and economic impact. may not view international tourism as a significant economic sector. Education vs. is hospitality a component of tourism or are the two terms interchangeable? Despite the controversy the number of tourism and hospitality education courses have increased dramatically over the years. flying schools. hospitality. SICA was adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission as a provisional classification in March 1993 The SICA classifications are based upon differentiating those businesses whose sales are totally derived from tourists and those partially derived from tourists. The UNWTO and the WTTC have worked to create the Standard International Classification of Tourist Activities (SICA) to attempt to delineate the supply side of tourism. in terms of the various component industries that are sub-groups of the wider tourism industry.
many of the small operations that comprise the bulk of the tourism industry have not embraced the importance of investing in training and employee development. Need for Credibility of Post Secondary Education Programs – because of the history of individuals entering the industry with no formal degree there has been a tendency on the part of the industry not to recognize the importance or relevance of advanced degrees in hospitality. The growth in the quality of the hospitality education programs and the rise of managers with an educational background in hospitality have helped to make the degree more accepted. Industry and the educational sectors need . 3. The hospitality industry is a huge generator of a diverse range of occupations in a variety of organizational levels which has increased due to the enormous growth of the industry and its profitability. 3. Generally. Need for Education and Training Performance Standards and Accreditation Processes – generally accepted entry credentials for any job in the hospitality and tourism industry is relatively new. hotel administration degrees are considered more relevant and valuable as they focus on the business aspects of the lodging industry. In 1990 the UNWTO formed the Education and Training Network. In fact the tourism and hospitality industry is a great provider of transition jobs and entry level positions for people to get into the work force with little initial education or training and then to acquire the skills needed to progress. The UNWTO and the European Center for the Development of Vocational Education have tried to develop standards. The hospitality sectors showed an early awareness of the need to organize to issues pertaining to education and training. Human Resource Issues for /Education & Training in Tourism 1. The industry was one of the earliest industries to evolve and forms a foundation for most all other related travel industries. Need for Investment In Human Resources In Tourism – despite the recognition of the need for a workforce capable of providing a consistent high quality of service. The industry also is a great generator of mid-level and management jobs 2. 5. 4. Need for Coordinated Education and Training Infrastructure for Tourism – the lack of consensus among education centers and the industry has allowed an immense number of institutions to develop each with their own definitions and standards as to what tourism is and how it should be taught. There is also a perception that educational programs do not adequately equip students with the skills the employers need. Need for understanding and reducing misconceptions – the tourism industry and its component industries have the stigma in some countries as providing only low-level service jobs and requiring little of no skills. Worldwide. 2. a consortium of schools to work with the UNWTO to develop a strategic plan to build a infrastructure for tourism education and training at every level. 4. The largest portion of jobs in tourism are to be found in the lodging and hospitality sectors.1. there are many different standards and the industry remains fragmented on this issue but programs are more plentiful.
– the rapidly changing technology and competitive environment have contributed to a changing workplace that places new demands on the skills. Need to Understand the Dynamics of a Rapidly Changing World and the Impact on Workforce Development. the bulk of the load has to be borne by people. . still offers rapid growth for the foreseeable future. This growth. Need for Vertical and Horizontal Coordination among Key Stakeholders – vertical linkages. industries that are dethatched from the educational process so they do not get the type of potential employees they require and educators build training and educational infrastructures that lack involvement with either government or industry. coupled with the ever changing needs of the marketplace and demand of the travelling public have put a tremendous strain on the tourism industry to find and train the human capital needed to service the industry. To be successful there also needs to be a national agreement on the benefits of tourism and a view of the industry as a viable career choice that can enable a people to fulfill their aspirations and personal goals. government to industry to education. between agencies within the government and education are weak or non-existent. To be sustainable. there must be a consensus among the stakeholders as to what defines tourism. knowledge and attributes of the workforce. 6. all stakeholders have to be involved in determining the basic skill sets industry requires and programs have to be developed to train and educate the people who will work and manage the business that comprise the industry. Only through coordinated effort can the needs of each sector of the economy be addressed. Because the bulk of the industry is serviced based it can only rely on technology to a certain degree. The disparity between the industrialized and non-industrialized countries and between he tourist generating countries and the host countries contribute to this change. The Importance of Education and Training in Tourism The growth of the tourism industry and the component industries it encompasses has been explosive over the past several decades and despite recent setbacks. Education systems have to account for this change and adapt accordingly to remain effective and relevant. and horizontal linkages. To be relevant the education process must be a part of government policy planning and also incorporate industry participation. Since both the industry and the people who work in it are constantly changing the challenge is for the education and training systems to keep up and provide the kind of training and education that the industry needs. social structures values and norms change. 7. The workforce itself is also changing and becoming more diverse as demographics. Each sector now tends to work in isolation and this has led to policies that ignore the need to develop better human resources.to decide on common elements that define tourism training and education and then develop standards that reflect this definition. Technology has had an enormous impact on the tourism industry and as a consequence the way work is performed and the time scales have also changed.
Organizing the structure of the tourism office and policy administrative body requires careful consideration of the political realities that exist. Key to making this happen is the involvement stakeholders in engaging in the political process to lobby for governmental support. Tourism development. At the political level there are two things that can be provided to elected officials to affect public policy decision making: • • Money Information Tourism policy is important because it a common. Having a written tourism policy that is constantly reviewed and monitored helps to insure that all aspects of tourism and tourism development receive equal attention. . Because of the wide sweep of impacts tourism will always have to address a political component and policy will be heavily influenced by politics.Affecting and Influencing Tourism Policy Tourism as an industry has to compete for political attention and resources with other sectors of the economy. Linking sound tourism policy planning to the economic impact tourism can have is an effective way to influence decision makers on the importance of strategic planning and having a comprehensive tourism policy. In general the most effective tourism offices and the leadership are more effective when it is removed from politics. thus increasing the benefits to the overall population and across the full spectrum of political constituencies. having a high political profile can help in shaping tourism policy and recognizing the complexity of tourism planning. in some instances. Having a vested interest in the benefits of tourism will help to lessen the politicalization of the policy process and foster cooperation and consensus among political parties Additionally greater involvement in tourism brings greater understanding of the industry and more informed decision making. However. The tendency of many tourism offices is to not have a firm understanding of tourism policy and for tourism policy makers to focus on the marketing aspects of tourism and neglect the other. Tourism policy options and decision making have to consider many factors: • • • • Foreign policy implications Socio-cultural impacts Political expediency The needs of other industries Influencing and affecting the decision making process are the activities of stakeholders and the results of research and planning. agreed upon purpose for tourism and establishes the broad parameters for planning and coordinating the efforts of all stakeholders. and the policy that guides development needs to work to spread the tourism infrastructure over as wide an area as possible. more wide ranging and important policy elements that are concerned with development and product management.
Majority decisions are not inherently fair and decisions made by the majority are not universally supported by the majority. decisions are made in the best interest of those making the decision as the interest of all voters cannot be served with a single decision. 4. Define the project and alternatives – answering the following questions will frame the project and allow you to make key assumptions about the project. By relying on the legislature for funding. What is the problem the project addresses? b. Cost – Benefit Analysis: The purpose of Cost Benefit Analysis is to compare the benefits and costs of a project to determine its feasibility. The theory makes several observations: 1. It also applies economic principles to the decision making process of elected officials. Rather. There are too many issues about which the voting public can be informed and when faced with the choice of deciding between the interests of a powerful interest group and an uninformed populace the group with the most influence will win. but initially it provides the foundation for later steps. While politicians may intend to spend public money efficiently they are not necessarily inclined to do so because most of their decisions will not affect their own finances. Electorate masses do not have enough information about all of the issues to have a concerned opinion. Economic principles play an important role in decision making and the use of competition can elevate disadvantaged stakeholder groups to gain wider influence over decision making. The theory seeks to separate the ideals of political decision making process from the reality of how decisions are actually made. 2. While politicians may claim to represent the will of the people. The Public Choice Theory provides a framework for understanding how political decisions are made. Bureaucrats do not have profit as a goal but are motivated by achieving the mission of their agencies. they will ally with special interests that support their agenda to influence policy decisions. The steps involved are: 1. in reality. This is the basis for the theory. There fore the incentives for sound management are weak. What will the project do and how will it be done? . or to be able to make a valid decision. 5. The relationship between bureaucrats and special interests are are important to understand. What are the intended benefits of the project? c. and to compare it to other projects in order to determine priorities. 3. a. the decisions they make are often in their own self interest.The Political Decision Making Process . 6. Cost – Benefit analysis is a tool used in Public Choice Theory to help influence decision making in tourism related development funding decisions. These may change as the project progresses.
Calculating Cost Benefit Values . Contributions to political parties and elected officials are a common and accepted way for an industry. including the cost of not doing something and the opportunity cost of using the money to do another project which also has some benefit. What is the time horizon for the project? 2. Presenting the Results – since the ultimate end product is to arrive at a conclusion for use in informed decision making the cost benefit analysis must provide a concise. Who will receive the benefits? h. 3. When will the costs be incurred? l. What is the appropriate level of effort that should be invested in the analysis considering the expected payoff of the project? g. What will happen of the project does not happen? j. prioritization or selection of projects) f. etc. may each. or solution that indicates that the money or resources invested in the project return a higher net benefit than the total cost when compared against other uses for the invested resources. When will the benefits be realized? m. All assumptions made in the analysis b. 4. or group to influence policy making. All value judgments embodied in the analytical technique c. other.) n. Any technical choice made when performing the analysis d. Cost benefit. in direct proportion to the amount of their financial support. through their industry groups make contributions to influence policy and they may also combine to increase the impact of their voice. Who will bear the direct and indirect costs? i.There are various strategies and methods for calculating the relative value a particular investment in a project will have. measuring and valuing costs and benefits of each alternative – all costs and expected benefits need to be considered. What type of analysis should be used? (Cost-benefit ratio. How else could the expected benefits be achieved? k. Indentifying. What is the purpose of the analysis? (Feasibility. net present value and internal rate of return are but a few. Any biases or subjective influences that may have affected the outcome e. This can be very complex. net present value. Possible errors and degree of variance in analytical procedures and estimates. . Who will do it and when? e. the various industries that make up the tourism sector. airlines. informative report to the decision maker and all related parties. restaurants. In each system the effort seeks to measure the costs associate with a given project against the expected return and arrive at a number. The report should highlight the following areas: a. The analyst has to weigh the competing costs and benefits in relation to other priorities and consider the number of and to what extent the project will impact the area. hotels. internal rate of return. In tourism.d. What geographic areas will be affected by the project and its alternatives? o.
It emphasizes quality. It is accepted throughout the world that effective tourism planning includes integrating stakeholders concerns. 5. Tourism planning is a highly organized effort of national thinking. tourism planning strengthens an areas tourism policy 2. initiating from inventorying an areas tourism product to providing the blueprint for development.Tourism industry members should try to find common cause with other industries to present a more powerful voice to influence policy decisions. As a policy maker. efficiency and effectiveness throughout the process Strategic planning as a process can focus on different needs that the destination may target for attention. These is a close relationship between policy and planning. Strategic tourism planning when aimed at future sustainability of the tourism product will assure consistent quality of the tourism product and yield the most benefits to the community / destination and good planning will override short term goals aimed at profit motivations and emphasize many fo the important future attributes that are more positive for the entire community. When used as a tool for tourism policy development the planning process is useful in helping a destination to accomplish its goals and objectives by organizing the sectors of the economy to participate in the planning. Strategic Tourism Planning This is a process aimed to optimize the benefits of tourism so that the result is a balance of the appropriate quality and quantity of supply with the proper level of demand. concentrated on the goals and objectives of a given locale. The process takes into account that a destination must be able to adjust to new trends. Tourism planning balances economic goals with the need for conserving the environment and improving the quality of life for the residents. it is a highly integrative process. changing markets and competitive market environment. it is the recognition of the reality of the impact special groups can have in shaping policy that is important to remember. efficiency and effectiveness. There are several steps in the process: • • Develop a Vision Statement Create a Mission Statement (used to explain the vision) . 3. without compromising either the locales socioeconomic and environmental development or its sustainability. efficient development and innovative marketing and community interests within the tourism product. 4. Strategic tourism planning emphasizes quality. Tourism planning contains many steps. having effective management. Five Advantages of Good Tourism Planning: 1.
organizations and structures that will influence tourism development. Weaknesses. Relevant and Time-Bound) Strategic plans have to be adaptable and flexible to account for the rapidly changing tourism environment where obstacles and opportunities can arise very quickly. A. The planning process should be created to include a team of interested individuals that represent the sectors of the community that will be most influenced by the tourism policy and plan. to make sound decisions the planning process must be based on solid and valid data considering both tourism supply and demand that incorporates scans of both the internal and external environments. It is important to consider that the form and actions that make up the strategic planning process is dependent on the conditions that exist in the destination and the priorities of the members of the planning team. Achievable. Measurable. Also. Analyze the destinations natural environment: 1. Evaluate previous and predicted climate issues that could affect visitation to the area . Assess the area’s geography to identify opportunities and threats to tourism development 2. Outline of Research Activities Included in a Comprehensive Strategic Tourism Plan Internal Analysis: This analysis reviews the factors that characterize the destination. The planning process may also include some or all of the following sub-plans and analysis: • • • • • • • • Situational Analysis / Needs Assessment Competitive Analysis Research Tourism Asset Inventory Performance Metrics Monitoring Mechanisms SWOT Analysis (Strengths. Opportunities and Threats) SMART Analysis (Specific. It is important to not only understand the tourism product and supply but also the factors.• • • • Develop goals for the tourism plan Create Objectives Create Strategies for each objective Develop Tactics that lay out how the goals and objectives are to be reached.
B. Gauge resident’s attitudes towards tourism and tourism development by enabling community members to voice their views and concerns through either ‘town hall meeting’ or web survey. 2. 3. Plan visitor research study by working with destination management to establish and understand the survey objectives 2. Examine the Assembled Elements: 1. 4. 5. online or paper based visitor survey instruments to collect data from visitors. promotion. communication and revenue management among other areas. 7. Investigate Industry Operating Sectors . Review the history of the area to maintain or revive critical characteristics important to heritage tourism. Design and test telephone. availability and distribution of visitor information about the destination. Identify specific tourism related infrastructure needs or opportunities that may not meet visitor expectations and may detract from the destinations appeal. 4. 6. demographic information. Analyze the signage and transportation routes to and through the destination to endure ease of access for visitors to the Welcome Centers. Review budgets and funding of comparable Destination Management Organizations as a benchmark to identify enhanced and sustainable funding opportunities for destination related organizations 3. D. Identify meaningful elements of the areas culture that could be incorporated into the overall tourism experience. booking and travel planning. 6. Measure the general condition of service provided by the tourism industry workforce addressing relevant training needs. attractions and other tourism supple components. Identify current mission. Prepare a summary report to include descriptive statistics of the data along with tests of the hypotheses stated in the original study design phase 5. 4. packaging. overlap and conflict and common shared human and financial resources related to tourism development. Conduct Extensive Visitor Research 1. Evaluate the community existing crisis contingency plan to ensure it is proactive and can handle a wide aray of incidents that could arise at any time.3. objectives. Review quality. Complete interviews with the general population who possess certain demographic characteristics as well as additional interviews with thise who have visited the destination. C. Assess the use of technology by destination promoters in the areas of customer relationships. Identify existing and new market segments and decision patterns that will increase visitation to the region. strategies and tactics of key community and civic organizations: areas of concordance. 5. goals.
Examine the potential to repackage existing and develop new special events and niche tourism supply that may bolster tourism in the shoulder and off-season months. accommodations. Identify opportunities for improvement for improvement in all operating sectors 3. transportation. The goal is use this data and results to optimize the destination and prepare the area for the future within the present and expected environmental. Review current and anticipated Industry trends in terms of visitations. markets of origin. food services. Gather information on new attractions and expansions that may be planned. This may be transportation companies. activities and entertainment. consumer preferences. Determine the competitive position of the destination against similar areas in terms that may include current and historical visitation. B. infrastructural and cultural constraints in the destination. 2. tourism managers and developers. 3. . safety and security and other indicators at the national and international levels. stakeholders and design an effective and efficient means of outreach to them. revenues. Examine competitive destinations in the region 2. gateway. non-destination. Studies are done to assess the state of tourism at the world. It should also relate conclusions back to the goals and objectives of the tourism plan. meeting spaces. etc. market segmentation. 6. origin of demand. 2. External Analysis This is designed to give the destination an idea of how it fits into the larger tourism industry and how the various factors at all levels affect the local tourism business performance. Competitive analysis is crucial to the planning of successful tourism development. Meet with selected tourism industry members including supply operators. signage and façade improvements. other destination management organizations and others external to the tourism destination. supply development. A. It is necessary to inventory businesses in all tourism operating sectors. in order to determine quality and quantity. 7. Identify the outside. region and lower levels. 4. marketing expenditures and / or other pertinent data. tourism revenue.1. 5. Conduct surveys of local industry members to identify tourism development issues and concerns important to the stakeholders. Research trends in particular activities and industries important to the destination. Evaluate the impacts of existing outdated facilities and inadequate supply including the aesthetic appeal of architectural design standards such as streetscape. Perform Competitive Analysis 1. Explore Details of Larger Tourism Systems 1.
part of the overall strategic planning process. Now the tourist industry is more invasive. amenities. Adding to the challenge is the requirement to balance an authentic cultural experience with the sometimes conflicting needs for safety and security. providing appropriate facilities. has as its goal the objective of stretching the available resources through careful planning. Experiences that combine a variety of entertainment options with a educational component that can make the tourist experience a more personal enriching experience. services and events after identifying what visitors want and need. Critical to achieving the benefits from tourism will be the application of good planning and management on the part of governments and private sectors. SARS. The demands of the new class of traveler require careful planning on the part of the tourism policy makers. and is very sensitive to trends and disruptions it is safe to say that the future of tourism will be one of change and vibrancy and growth. This trend represents a change from the past. The success of the tourist product will depend on how well the destination can organize the various segments of the local community to accept the demands of the industry. Some threats to be concerned about are: o Terrorism and terrorism attacks are but one concern that will have an effect on the desirability and success of the tourism industry. The overall goal is always to match supply with demand. The Future of Tourism: Because tourism and travel encompasses so many aspects of an economy. o Another is the health safety issues. It provides the action steps that can be taken to drive the industry forward and counter competitive forces while seeking to take advantage of opportunities in the short term. Many threats can arise and the tourism policy must have a mechanism for dealing with these issues to address travel concerns and reassure the public that the destination is safe. intensive. where development centered on creating tourist Mecca’s which were largely divorced from the local destinations society and culture.Strategic tourism planning can then be summed up as a practical. Integration of the tourist experience into the local culture in a way that preserves the local culture while allowing outsiders to participate in a limited way is the new tourism industry challenge. A tactical planning system. The main factors that will affect tourism in the coming years are: • Security and safety – How well the destination can deal with the many aspects fo safety and security will be a major determinant of how sustainable the tourist industry will be. . monitoring and evaluation. Mad Cow disease and other public health threats can have a devastating impact on tourism. Travelers are demanding more varied and flexible destination experiences. thoughtful and idea packed approach to improving a destinations’ opportunities for sustainability over a long period. in that it seeks to intrude deeper into the lives of the local population to learn about the socio-cultural aspects of their lives. and luxury and comfort.
Technology – As the first world markets become technologically sophisticated the requirement for the destination areas will be to have the capability to utilize the technical sales and communication channels to reach the market and service the needs of the guests and the travelers. This means it is important for the various tourism industry components in the destination countries to be able to participate. Understanding of the industry will allow people to make informed decisions about the type and kind of tourism product they want to have which aspects of the tourism product will be most successful. When an event strikes it is important to the recovery effort if the tourism sector can get back on tract swiftly to capture much needed foreign exchange and keep the economy stimulated. Training and Capacity Building – An informed population is one that can fully participate in the industry.• • • • • Crime against tourists can give a destination a bad name and discourage travel Natural disasters. as in the case of hurricanes. Tourism Education. The Need for Responsible Management – We have discussed the aspects of tourism that can lead to rapid growth and development. opportunities for receiving training in how the businesses that comprise the industry are operated need to be made available. Planning must also consider how to use tourism activity as an engine to spur other industries that create a diversity of sustainable industries. coordination of events and marketing efforts and intergovernmental cooperation to align marketing efforts and products to broaden appeal and maximize on investment dollars. Another aspect is the economic impact tourism can have on the internal economy. Impact of World Economy – Tourism does not exist in a vacuum and any disruptions. and in sufficient numbers to meet the demand of the private sector. This effort will require careful planning of the tourism product. earthquakes and other disasters. Planners have to incorporate a strategy for building awareness and providing the tools the people will need to take full advantage of. Absent this kind of responsible management the risk is for growth and overcrowding to destroy the tourism experience and lead to a decline in tourist revenues. either pre-event or post event return to normal. Planners have to be aware of the part technology plays in the tourism selling proves and be ready to adapt to this new and growing medium. Partnership and Planning – Increasing competition within the region. E-commerce has become an accepted way of doing business and this is a trend that is expected to grow. or economic downturns in the tourist generating countries can create severe consequences for the host destination countries. and the trend towards increasingly more diverse tourist experiences will force destinations to cooperate to cross market their products and stimulate demand to the region where each destination can then vie for a slice of the market. arrivals and quality of the experience. People need to be educated about the nature of tourism. o o . The future will hold more of this and it is important that policy makers take an active part in managing the tourism industry to maintain a sustainable pace of development and plan for a managed growth. and participate in the tourism industry. Planning should seek to diversify as much as practical to relieve over reliance on any one market or economy. stimulating growth and diversity. This may require investments by the government in the necessary infrastructure to make this possible.
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