Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Foucault, Biopower, and Social Services............................................................................................................................6 Foucault 1NC Shell...........................

.................................................................................................................................20 Foucault 1NC Shell............................................................................................................................................................22 *** Links ***....................................................................................................................................................................23 Links: Social Services........................................................................................................................................................24 Links: Jobs Programs.........................................................................................................................................................25 Links: Social Service Aid..................................................................................................................................................26 Links: National Service......................................................................................................................................................27 Links: National Service......................................................................................................................................................29 Links: National Service......................................................................................................................................................31 Links: Legal Protections....................................................................................................................................................32 Links: Court Action to Protect Rights...............................................................................................................................33 Links: Court Action to Protect Rights (Cont)....................................................................................................................34 Links: Court Action to Protect Rights (Cont)...................................................................................................................35 Links: Court Action to Protect Rights (Cont)...................................................................................................................36 Links: Court Action to Protect Rights (Cont)...................................................................................................................37 Links: Courts......................................................................................................................................................................38 Links: Legal Action...........................................................................................................................................................39 Links: Legal Action...........................................................................................................................................................40 Links: Legal Action...........................................................................................................................................................41 Links: Legal Action...........................................................................................................................................................42 Foucault was correct in seeing the displacement of law as code. In an ethico-political society, government is a government of souls. Social conduct increasingly privileges moral voice over law. U.S. ally Tony Blair enunciates that "the scope of the law must itself be limited largely to that which is supported by the moral voice". (Perhaps it is not so anomalous to see Blair both as a Clinton ally in "Third-Way" policies and as a Bush ally in advocating preemptive violations of international law. This would be less of a cynical conversion narrative than an implicit logic of postdisciplinary, advanced neoliberal ethico-politics.) Rose depicts an increasingly moralized governance through ethics: Ethical foreign policy, ethical banking, ethical investment, ethical agriculture, ethical business, ethical politicians, the ethic of public service . . . as well as the increasing salience of more traditional ethical disputes in the areas of genetic technologies and the rights to life and death. The danger of this ethico-politics is in its moralizing, which turns "openings into closures". Political debate is replaced by "technical management of individual conduct" in order to "produce politically desired ends". I can find no better depiction of Bush/Ashcroft's America than Rose's description: "Ethico-politics operates at the pole of morality to the extent that it seeks to inculcate a fixed and incontestable code of conduct, merely shifting loci of authority, decision and control in order to govern better". Post-9/11 America is replete with the detritus of ethico-political moralism as detailed by Rose: therapeutic subjectivities bent on claiming their "natural right to be recognized individually", preemptive logics induced on a perpetual monitoring of risk, new preemptive forms of individualizing security . All of these instrumentalize a distinct new form of freedom with its "exemplary sanctions" founded on the interrelation of victim and offender, on the teaching of life skills (which we will export in the name of "regime building"). Post-disciplinary, ethico-political regimes increasingly instrumentalize governmentality in the name of "good citizenship.” .........................................................................................................42 Links -- Welfare System Increases Disciplinary Power....................................................................................................43 Agamben Impact................................................................................................................................................................44 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................44 Links: Answers to: “Our Program is Decentralized”........................................................................................................45 Links: Public Health..........................................................................................................................................................46 Links: Public Health..........................................................................................................................................................48 Links: Public Health..........................................................................................................................................................49 Links: Public Health..........................................................................................................................................................50 Links: Public Health..........................................................................................................................................................52 Links: Public Health..........................................................................................................................................................53 Links: Kritik of Public Health: Public Health Programs Increase Surveillance................................................................54 Links: Kritik of Public Health: Public Health Programs Increase Surveillance................................................................55 Links: Public Health Programs Increase Surveillance.......................................................................................................56 Links: Public Health Programs Entrench Disciplinary Power...........................................................................................58 Links: Public Health Programs Entrench Disciplinary Power...........................................................................................59

Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Links: Public Health Programs Entrench Disciplinary Power...........................................................................................61 Links: Prenatal Care...........................................................................................................................................................62 Links: Prenatal Care...........................................................................................................................................................63 Links: Prenatal Care...........................................................................................................................................................64 Links: Prenatal Care...........................................................................................................................................................65 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................65 Links: Prenatal Care...........................................................................................................................................................66 Links: Medicaid.................................................................................................................................................................67 Links: “New” Public Health..............................................................................................................................................69 Links: “New” Public Health..............................................................................................................................................70 The new public health takes as its foci the categories of 'population' and 'the environment', conceived of in their widest sense to include Psychological, social and physical elements. With the development of this perspective, few areas of personal and social life remain immune to scrutiny and regulation of some kind. Given the scope of the new public health, and its impact on virtually all aspects of everyday life, there has been surprisingly little critical analysis of its underlying philosophies and its practices. The new public health has been warmly embraced by people of diverse backgrounds and political persuasions. It has been represented as the antidote to all kinds of problems linked to modern life, particularly problems of the urban milieu. The uncritical acceptance of the basic tenets of the new public health is disturbing in light of the increased potential for experts to intervene in private lives and for established rights to be undermined. We suggest that this reticence is in itself indicative of the power of the discourse of the new public health to shape public opinion. In this book, we highlight what we believe are some important dimensions of the new public health and critically appraise their implications for concepts of self, embodiment and citizenship.................................70 Links: “New” Public Health..............................................................................................................................................71 Links: Hygeine Campaigns................................................................................................................................................72 Links: Hygeine Campaigns................................................................................................................................................73 Links: Miscellaneous Health Programs.............................................................................................................................74 Links: Miscellaneous Health Programs.............................................................................................................................75 Links: Public Health Discourses .......................................................................................................................................76 Links: Environmental Health Discourses..........................................................................................................................77 Links: Public Health Discourses........................................................................................................................................79 Links: Public Health Discourses........................................................................................................................................80 Links: Epidemiology .........................................................................................................................................................81 Links: Epidemiology..........................................................................................................................................................82 Links: Science/Health........................................................................................................................................................83 Links: Science....................................................................................................................................................................84 Links: Disease ...................................................................................................................................................................85 Links: Disease....................................................................................................................................................................86 Links: Biomedicine ...........................................................................................................................................................87 Links: Biomedicine............................................................................................................................................................88 Links: Biomedicine............................................................................................................................................................89 Links: “Reproductive Health” ...........................................................................................................................................90 Links: Medicine/Protecting Life.......................................................................................................................................91 Links: Global Liberal Governance.....................................................................................................................................92 Links: Global Liberal Governance (Cont).........................................................................................................................93 Links: Global Liberal Governance (Cont).........................................................................................................................94 Links: International Power/Politics....................................................................................................................................95 Links: International Power/Politics (Cont)........................................................................................................................96 Links: Depictions of Third World Chaos...........................................................................................................................97 Links: Depictions of Third World Chaos...........................................................................................................................98 Links: Multilateralism........................................................................................................................................................99 Links: Securitization........................................................................................................................................................100 Links: Population Management.......................................................................................................................................101 Links: Sovereignty...........................................................................................................................................................102 Links: Sovereignty...........................................................................................................................................................103 Links: Sovereignty (Cont)................................................................................................................................................104 Links: International Law..................................................................................................................................................105 Links: Categorizing People..............................................................................................................................................106 2

Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Links: Categorizing People..............................................................................................................................................107 Links: End of History Discourses....................................................................................................................................108 Links: Technology...........................................................................................................................................................109 Links: Biotechnology.......................................................................................................................................................110 Links: Globalization/Trade..............................................................................................................................................111 Links: Globalization.........................................................................................................................................................112 Links: Information Technology.......................................................................................................................................113 Links: Enlightenment.......................................................................................................................................................114 Links: Geopolitics............................................................................................................................................................115 Links: WTO.....................................................................................................................................................................116 Links: Human Rights.......................................................................................................................................................117 Links: Human Rights Protections....................................................................................................................................118 Links: Truth.....................................................................................................................................................................119 Links: Science.................................................................................................................................................................120 Links: Politics..................................................................................................................................................................121 Links: NGOs....................................................................................................................................................................122 Links: State Action..........................................................................................................................................................123 Links: Critiques of Capitalism.........................................................................................................................................124 *** Answers to Affirmative Arguments ***...................................................................................................................125 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................126 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................127 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................128 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................129 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................130 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................131 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................132 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................133 Answers to Affirmative Link Turns.................................................................................................................................134 Discourse Key..................................................................................................................................................................135 Impacts: Disciplinary Power is Very Bad........................................................................................................................136 Impacts: Biopower Causes Extinction.............................................................................................................................137 Impacts: Biopower Causes Totalitarianism.....................................................................................................................138 Impacts: Holocaust...........................................................................................................................................................139 Impacts: Holocaust (Cont)...............................................................................................................................................140 Impacts: Biopower Causes War.......................................................................................................................................141 Impacts: Biopower Supports Capitalism.........................................................................................................................142 Impacts: Biopower Supports the State.............................................................................................................................143 *** Alternatives ***........................................................................................................................................................144 Alternative: Chaos...........................................................................................................................................................145 Alternative: Criticism.......................................................................................................................................................146 Alternative: Criticism.......................................................................................................................................................147 Alternative: Criticism.......................................................................................................................................................148 Alternative: Counter-Movements....................................................................................................................................149 Alternative: Interruptive Politics......................................................................................................................................150 *** Answers to Affirmative Arguments ***...................................................................................................................151 Answers to: “Habermas’ Attack on Foucault”.................................................................................................................153 Answers to: “Habermas’ Attack on Foucault” (Cont).....................................................................................................154 Answers to: “Habermas’ Attack on Foucault” (Cont).....................................................................................................155 Answers to: “Foucault Threatens Feminism”..................................................................................................................156 Answers to: “Foucault Threatens Feminism”..................................................................................................................157 Answers to: “Foucault Threatens Feminism”..................................................................................................................158 Answers to: “Porter”........................................................................................................................................................159 Answers to: “Eurocentrism”............................................................................................................................................160 Answers to: “Nihilism”...................................................................................................................................................161 3

.........................................................................................................................................................................165 Permutation Answers.................................................................................................................................172 Genealogy Good....................................................162 Answers To: “Foucault Useless”.........................................................................................174 4 ............................................................164 Answers To: “Postmodernism is Bad”...........................170 Each Individual Key.................................................................................................................................................................................................................171 Genealogy Good..........................167 Permutation Answers.................................163 Answers To: "Foucault Doesn't Agree With Your K"............................................................Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Answers to: “Foucault Useless”.....................................................................................................................................................................................................166 Permutation Answers......................................................................................................................................168 *** General Extensions ***................................................................................................................................169 The K Challenges Affirmative Assumptions............................................................................................................173 Discourse Key..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik 5 .

much of the evidence read in debates on Foucault is drawn from secondary sources whose authors have interpreted the work of Foucault and applied it to the contemporary era. Wading into this debate has been somewhat difficult for me because I am not a Foucault scholar. it is not clear that Foucault was drawing any particular conclusions from his arguments. 6 . and Social Services Introduction There is probably no more relevant kritik on a topic about social services than biopower. Third. Second. First. It is not clear that Foucault would support using much of his work in the way that it is used in modern debates. I think it is useful starting point for many of the ideas that Foucault introduced and also for many of the ideas that other scholars have chosen to run with and make arguments out of. This essay introduces most of these arguments. I think it is problematic to write an argument that is simply titled "Foucault" or “Biopower” (or the combination of the two) for a number of reasons. Arguments presented in debates usually make. The arguments I have included here revolve around some of the basic ideas that are traditionally associated with an argument called "Foucault. and one can see this as Foucault shifts his focus from archaeology to genealogy. or at least imply. the latter claim. To simply call an argument "Foucault" assumes that there is a coherent body of work. Many individuals who have studied Foucault for their whole lives argue vehemently with one another." Second. Some scholars claim that he was simply exploring how things are rather than making arguments for how things ought to be. and then. Biopower is the state management of the health of the population and the resolution requires the state to do almost exactly that – to improve the well being the nation’s “poor. This is not the work of Foucault himself. Biopower. I have chosen to do so for a couple of reasons. to ethics. Foucault indicates that many of the ideas he had early in his career he no longer held at the end of his career. Despite these reasons not to write an essay on Foucault.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Foucault. In interviews in the early 1980s. Fourth. Michel Foucault did not necessarily have one set of coherent views. and remainder of the book provides a lot of the evidence that you will need to debate them. It is important to understand the basic concepts behind Foucault’s work before attempting to understand how that work is relevant to national service. First. at the end of his life. but of other scholars whom he may or may not agree with. it is simply become the accepted title of an argument. there is really no intellectual consensus as to what Foucault was often saying or what the implications of his work are. That is simply not the case.” Despite this direct linkage. biopwer=bad). particularly the convention presentation of biopower as a kritik style-disadvantage (affirmative=biopower.

he argues. Efforts to regulate the population in order to protect them from security threats fit this definition. either directly or indirectly. 1978. 7 . one of the areas that power manifests itself is in the human sciences (sociology. Directing individuals to act in particular ways is a way of disciplining them so that they behave in particular ways. As explained. this includes measures to protect the public from threats. and to collect information on the population. psychology.” consisting of “comprehensive measures. and interventions aimed at the entire social body or at groups taken as a whole” (Foucault. Disciplinary Power Another “technique of power” (that supports biopower) is “disciplinary power. The human sciences (the disciplines) enable the expansion of social control through power by producing a scientific reasoning/justification for how individuals ought to behave and how they ought to act. There is excellent evidence that social scientists (the case workers. etc). is the same power to annihilate them. psychologists. and political scientists who will design and participate in any national service program) rely on the use of this disciplinary power. normalization would probably still exist and it would still be arguably bad to normalize people. Specifically. Foucault argues that biopower is bad because once the state starts to intervene in the management of the population the state becomes intertwined with it and is able to press the population into its own service. The power to protect the populations. The only reason that I have separated it is that I to not think that it is necessarily dependent on the human sciences. Foucault refers to it as “regulation of population….Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Biopower The argument introduced in the book is based on Foucault's notion of "biopower. statistical assessments. Even in a world where the human sciences do not exist as a justification for normalization.” Foucault argued that power produces knowledge. such as environmental threats and security threats. Normalization Normalization is arguably a means of exerting disciplinary power. Foucault argues that this contemporary acceptance of biopower is what is responsible for making wars more deadly in this century than ever because now wars are waged not only in the names of populations but with and through those populations." Biopower refers to the ability of the government to regulate and observe the day to day life of the population. 145-6). It also includes efforts to manage the population in order to facilitate the proper functioning of the state and the economy.

In DISCIPLINE AND PUNISH. “The Subject and Power” in BEYOND STRUCTURALISM AND HERMENEUTICS. much of the secondary scholarship that has been written about Foucault has been written about what Foucault thought about power. to struggle against disciplines and disciplinary power. one which must indeed be anti-disciplinarian. Foucault examines how power changed from what he described as the “classical era” -. hospitals. but towards the possibility of a new form of right. and courts) to have effects on people. In this panopticon. particularly when they are administered by the state. the prisoner begins to accept unconditionally the restrictions that he or she is placed under. These institutions. 1979. but at the same time liberated from the principle of sovereignty (Foucault. But. Bentham argues that since the prisoner never knows when he or she is being watched. p. and hence facilitated. Whitaker (1999) explains: 8 . economics. schools. also serve to legitimate the state. 1980. To challenge power. from the government). The idea of the panopticon was popularized by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham. Although we could debate about how central the notion of "power" is to Foucault's work. in the early 17th and 19th centuries that power became concentrated in the disciplines – asylums. schools. from a tyrant. or rather. p. 222). it is the central idea that I have organized this essay around. coupling power grip (Foucault. potentially form a tight. how do this micro-level power get transmitted? Foucault argued that all of the human sciences (psychology. Foucault argues that power in these settings is potentially even more devastating because these disciplines are “nonegalitarian and asymmetrical” (Foucault. sociology. but to challenging disciplinary practices. He writes: If one wants to look for a non-disciplinary form of power.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Power Although Foucault denied it in the introduction to THE USE OF PLEASURE and in his essay. Bentham imagines a system in which discipline is maintained not because someone is always watching a prisoner but because the prisoner never knows when he is or is not under surveillance. and prisons. even when such power is resisted. 108). it is not towards the ancient right of sovereignty that one should turn. prisons. factors. This is the manifestation of the argument in debate. but it is something that arguably inevitably manifests itself in every relationship at the micro level. 1980. Foucault's major observation in regards to power is that power is not something that solely comes from the top-down (from a King. linguistics).the 16th and early 17th centuries – to the late 17th to early 19th centuries. Much of the general link evidence is based on this notion because it simply argues that attempting to control power at or through different levels of government is unlikely to accomplish anything and is only likely to mask any power that may be present. one should not look toward limiting the state apparatus. Foucault gives the example of the panopticon a place power is present but accepted. power was concentrated in the state and the governing apparatuses. 25). define people at the same time as they describe them and work together with certain institutions (psychiatric institutions. claiming that the focus of his work was on the human subject. what is quite clear is that Foucault thought that power was an important phenomenon to be studied. These conditions are something that are unconditionally accepted. In the classical era.

nor are the prescriptive -. As the evidence in the answer section indicates. Gordon (1999) contends that. Is the negative's argument a critique of biopower. Some argue that Foucault argued that the "subject" (normally an individual). p 208) There is considerable scholarly debate about how Foucault thought our subjectivities are constituted. of normalization. first of all. nor to elaborate the foundations for such analysis. Foucault argues that the self is more active and autonomous. To the extent that those manifestations are totally determined by power (as many scholars read the early Foucault to say).Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik The Panopticon is a kind of theater. He wrote in 1982 that: I would like to say. It is difficult to define precisely what a genealogy is. Foucault’s theory of subjectivity (how subjects are produced) is intertwined with his theory of power because subjects are produced through the various manifestations of power that have already been discussed. has been to create a history of the different modes by which. is the central focus of Foucault’s work. of disciplinary power. Mostly these genealogies have simply articulated the history of something and their success. Debating Foucault on the Affirmative The most important thing to debating Foucault on the affirmative is to try to get the negative to isolate what specific argument Foucault (or another source) is making so that you can debate that particular argument. Foucault's thought was incredibly complex and should not be simply essentialized as only one argument. 1989) argue that. v 3. It has not been to analyze the phenomena of power. drawing on Heidegger. they are not history and should not be used to justify particular policies. they internalize the rules. Genealogies are not simply histories of something. Foucault does agree that the subject has an “ontological freedom” that creates the potential for individual definition. in my opinion. was largely due to their opponent's ignorance. what has been the goal of my working during the last twenty years.something that results in a plan. is constructed through the identities that other individuals ascribe to it through language and acceptable social practice. My objective. the construction of subjectivity. they just think or imagine that they are. Others (Dews. human beings are made subjects (1982." The point is discipline or training. As the prisoners fear that they may be constantly watched. at least in Foucault’s later works. what is staged is "the illusion of constant surveillance: the prisoners are not really always under surveillance. Genealogies One important means of work for Foucault was genealogy. the more difficult it is to escape it. in our culture. actual punishment will thus be rendered superfluous (p. and fear punishment for transgression. 33) The Construction of the Subject Arguably. but generally I think it is safe to say that it is an investigation of some practice or institution that critically evaluates the practices origins and founding ideas. Some debaters have used genealogies in debates with some success. not power. or of something else? As explained in the introductory essay. particularly the HISTORY OF SEXUALITY. If you can pin the negative down to what specific Foucault 9 . instead.

intertwined levels. but as the evidence in the answer section indicates. 10 . This is one area that Foucault differed from other social reformers. Negatives will usually rely only in part on Foucault's argument and contend that.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik argument that is being made in the 1NC. The affirmative can steal the show. when they ask the affirmative for an alternative. is what makes the resistance to the label possible. he does NOT argue that the power of the government should not be limited or that those powers will simply re-appear at the micro level. Foucault describes power relations as “changeable. Taylor (1984) and Wolin (1988) also make this argument. argued that power is manifest in many different ways and at many different. Foucault argues that power relations are not unchangeable (proving that the permutation can solve). when the affirmative labels someone as an "American” they are constituting that person's identity/subjectivity. 12). 27-31). however. you should make the negative defend a specific alternative to the kritik. for Foucault. was simply to show what is self-evident. you cannot simply attack it or criticize it.the permutation. for example think that all power is concentrated in the moneyed classes and feminists think men have all the power. Marxists. A demonstration of what is self-evident. Foucault's own theory of the constitution of the subject also denies many of the implications that negatives argue. a re-constitution of it is always possible. And. Foucault. Foucault may not have been haunted by this if his work was descriptive rather than prescriptive. What will the negative do to escape these power relations? This is a problem that has haunted Foucault scholars for generations. 1989. scholars argue that he says that we should make efforts to control power at both levels of government . however. you should use Foucault's own theories against the Foucault argument. p. you should defend the notion that the government still exercises power in a number of problematic ways that should be restrained.” He says that “they can modify themselves. This is the equivalent of the affirmative standing up and reading their harms without a plan or any solvency evidence. He explains that “there (are) no relations of power without resistance” (Foucault. that expression of power will simply be resisted as a matter of course. Although Foucault argues that most power has shifted to the micro-level. reversible and unstable. Foucault argues that power inevitably invites resistance. In fact. The permutation to do both enables re-labelling because it. leaving Foucault with no practical alternative (Fraser. Fourth. This is certainly as much resistance as the negative would be able to offer on their own. will not accomplish much in a world of policy-making. 142). One common alternative that has been suggested is resistance. you will have a better chance of answering the argument properly and of preventing the negative from mutating their argument too much in the 1AR. since identity is not permanent and/or objective. according to Foucault. pp. 1980. if there is more of X power after the 1AC is read or voted for. Another theory of Foucault that you can use to fight-off the negative's critique is that because power is fluid at the micro-level. Third. So. however. As the quote that introduces this book explains. for example. Traditional critiques that criticize particular individuals or groups (such as capitalists) for holding all the power are vulnerable to this argument. Foucault simply said that resistance increases power. Similarly.” Foucault (1988. Second. they are not give once and for all. a critique.

One good alternative to articulate when running a Foucault critique is “social movements” or consciousness raising. you should debate uniqueness. Although the negative will argue that critiques don't have to be unique. Well. and Foucault in particular. you should use the following to mock them: If this were true. maybe. but there is lots of biopower now. you could criticize Foucault from another theoretical perspective. Sixth. it also takes-out the alternative to the critique. and is the case in this volume.the affirmative uses/relies on/supports/condones biopower and biopower will kill everyone on the planet. This lack of a rounded theory of subjectivity or agency conflicts with a fundamental aim of the feminist project and to rediscover and re-evaluate the experiences of women (1991. Many feminists have been critical of Foucault on a number of grounds. 340). Not all of the reaction to Foucault’s work by feminist scholars is negative.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Fifth. 11 . Debating Foucault on the Negative When running any kritik. 242-7. Palmer (2001) notes that “Foucault rejected (in principle.” Seventh. Ninth. for failing to outline an alternative political agenda that will protect their interests. we could run a Malthus Disadvantage when you save one life and simply argue that the idea of saving lives will cause the earth to eventually have 13 billion inhabitants and cause global extinction. As described in the section on subjectivity above. the permutation can overcome the status quo plus the 1AC. and other postmodernists. Throughout his work he explored a wide range of power relationships operating in different human contexts and spaces at different times” (p. Bartky (1990) argues that “disciplinary” practices include cosmetics and fashion and that these practices oppress women in the same way that other disciplinary practices identified by Foucault do. and the overall effect that the affirmative will have on biopower is likely to be very small at best. Certainly if the negative's alternative is able to overcome the status quo. you should exploit some of the evidence that the negative will likely read to answer the permutation. 342-6) also makes the argument. Eighth. you should argue that the kritik is a sweeping generalization that attempts to criticize an entire system of thought. If this argument is true. The 1AC isn't even a drop in the bucket compared to the status quo. you should argue that much of the “impact” evidence to the critique is intentionally exaggerated by Foucault in order to drive home his point. 125). at least) generalization and universalization in favor of considering specific and particular contexts and environments. Hartstock (1990) and Brodribb (1992) criticize Foucault. if the subject is constituted/determined by outside forces. “It’s not what you do it’s what you justify. Usually. Usually. critique shells are presented as non-unique disadvantages . Braidotti (1994) argues that women in consciousness raising groups have been able to overcome the disciplinary practice of femininity. agency is not possible. McNay (1991) explains: The emphasis that Foucault places on the effects of power upon the body results in a reduction of social agents to passive bodies and cannot explain how individuals may act in an autonomous fashion. and was reluctant (most of the time) to make universal normative judgments. There is evidence in the answer section of the book that makes this argument and Megill (1985. the negative should be able to articulate a relatively specific alternative. After all. Braidotti (1994) criticizes Foucault for failing to develop an adequate theory of the subject that will permit political agency. p. there will be biopower without the plan. this evidence will make arguments that center around the idea that once you use X you will never be able to overcome it.

Foucault describes it as a “movement of affirmation” (Foucault. Until I took a couple of weeks to sit down and sift through the work of Foucault.” Foucault. Foucault argues that these new schemes of politization are necessary to challenge power. 1980. 1978. argued that reversals in power relationships are possible through collective resistance if it is executed properly. 96). and normalization. 219-20) that has the potential to create new schemes of politicization” (29). p.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik The ability to articulate a relatively specific alternative will also help the negative overcome the problem with the “power inevitable argument. and I have judged a good number of Foucault debates!!!! You shouldn’t assume that your judges have this knowledge and if you want the decision to go the “right” way. Second. Explains that “it is doubtless the strategic codification of these points of resistance that makes a revolution possible” (Foucault. disciplinary power. Specifically. you should explain these concepts to them. 12 . I did not understand what these notions were. you should be sure to explain your link in great detail and to explain the notions of biopower. for example. Foucault did speak in favor of feminism.

Parker. Foucault and the Critical Tradition. pp.K. 384-401. DECONSTRUCTION AND THE REMAINDERS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: SARTRE. (4:3). pp. (2002). THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION. DISCOURSE ANALYTIC RESEARCH: REPERTOIRES AND READINGS OF TEXTS IN ACTION. (2002). Han. Beer. pp. SUBJECTIVITY. 51. (1987). (2001). Foss. Schaff. (2002).Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Bibliography General Allen. 98-113. E. HUMAN STUDIES. K. Hook. V. (2002). FORM AND POWER. B. (2002). Fairclough. 351-64. 325-52. I. (1992). PHILOSOPHY & RHETORIC. AND AGENCY BETWEEN ARENDT AND FOUCAULT. AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM. (1995). Michael Foucault’s Theory of Rhetoric as Epistemic. Derek. POWER. pp. pp. THEORIA. Against Discursive Imperialism. (1995) CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: THE CRITICAL STUDY OF LANGUAGE. MICHAEL FOUCAULT. A. Parker. v. I. FOUCAULT’S CRITICAL PROJECT: BETWEEN THE TRANSCENDENTAL AND THE HISTORICAL. (1991). What Discourse is Not. S. Spring. v. Governmentality Links 13 . Smash the Sovereign Paradigm! INTERTEXTS.P. Burman. Empiricism and Construction: Thirty-two problems with Discourse Analysis. Rajan. The Disorders of Discourse. June. (2002). AND BAUDRILLARD. Burr. 41-70. Tilottama. PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY. Gill. Dan. 25. Hasana. pp. (1993). 323-32. 25(3). DECONSTRUCTING PSYCHOTHERAPY. Amy. Sovereignty Links Sharp. V. Beatrice. Michael Foucault and the Question of Rhetoric. DERRIDA. (1999). N. Discourse and Foucault Beisecker. FOUCAULT.

Michael. January-March. Dillon. and Otherness. Global Liberal Governance. THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY. Global Governance Links Clapp. Dillon. What is Global Goverannce. Fall. (2000). and Pathologies of International Organizations. 365-72. (1985). International Organization Links Barnett. 23(3). ALTERNATIVES.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Burchell. Finklestein. August. Tomas. Post-Development. v. (2000). Taylor. pp. Defenders of Foucault Connology. 295-316. pp. Foucault on Governmentality and Population: the Impossible Discovery. POLITICAL THEORY. and the Colonisation Metaphor. and Global Governance: Conceptual and Actual Challenges. pp. Michael. and War. 505. 4(1). (2002). Global Governance: Problems and Prospects. CITIZENSHIP STUDIES. 421-36. ALTERNATIVES: SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION AND LIBERAL GOVERNANCE. MILLENNIUM JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. (1991). 330-ff. (1995). Morgan. The Global Society of Control. Good Governance. pp. V. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE. 698-ff. William. Hardt. Jennifer. Fall. Dillon. THE FOUCAULT EFFECT: STUDIES IN GOVERNMENTALITY. pp. Biopolitics. V. pp. (2000). (1995). Power. 30(1). Michael. 1. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY. Autumn. L. Curtis. Fred. pp. (1998). Liberal Peace. (2001). Graham. p. (1999). Global Governance. 36576. October. pp. v. Michael. THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY. Foucault. 14 . (1998). Weiss. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE. Michael. pp. The Politics. 4. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. Governance. and Complex Emergency. DISCOURSE. Development Links Brigg. pp. (2002). Security. Halliday. 41-ff. 126-ff. 139-52. Foucault. 21-ff. pp. The Privatization of Global Environmental Governance: ISO 1400 and the Developing World. 796-ff. v.

(1985). Jurgen. (1984).D. (1989). Susan. POLITICAL THEORY. (1989) Foucault and the Imagination of Power. 12. UNRULY PRACTICES. Foucault and the Politics of Resistance. Foucault on Truth and Freedom. 445-66. Charles. (1988). This is a difficult work for the unfamiliar. (1991). Patton. Tayor. POLITICAL STUDIES. Nancy. Habermas. (1996). Brent. this book is not specific to Foucault. Richard. (1987). FOUCAULT: A CRITICAL READER. V. Specifically. PROPHETS OF EXTREMITY. Diamond. (1989). Alan. (1989). Rorty. Taylor. (1988). pp. Taylor and Foucault on Power and Freedom. 138-60. threatening all communication.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Durham. pp. but he is discussed throughout the book. This book is not just about Foucault. Thomas. Said. THE PHILOSOPHICAL DISCOURSE OF MODERNITY. pp. Foucault and Feminism General Balbus. Megill. POSTMODERN CHALLENGES. Disciplining Women: Michael Foucault and the Power of Feminist Discourse. pp. Paul. 15 . Habermas argues that Fouault’s genealogical approach undermines meaning and validity. Summer. 37. FEMINISM & FOUCAULT: REFLECTIONS ON RESISTANCE. AFTER FOUCAULT: HUMANISTIC KNOWLEDGE. pp. v. Charles. You can use the table of the contents and the index to find specific references. Answers Fraser. 149-56. ESSAYS ON HEIDEGGER AND OTHERS. Edward. Bordo. Ed Couzens Hoy. POLITY. FOUCAULT: A CRITICAL READER. (1991). but you can find specific criticisms of Foucault in it. I. Picket. High Silverman. Rebellious Bodies: Foucauldian Perspectives on Female Psychopathology. I. pp. Ed Couzens Hoy. In this book Habermas defends modernity against attacks by critics like Foucault. Docile Bodies. Ed. MICHAEL FOUCAULT AND THE POLITICS OF FREEDOM. 152-83. but Megill does address Foucault’s work in great detail. Foucault on Truth and Freedom. (1996). 26076. 69-102. WRITING THE POLITICS OF DIFFERENCE. Again.

FEMININITY AND DOMINATION: STUDIES IN THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF OPPRESSION. POWER. (2003). McLaren. 41-60. Bartky. On Power and Domination: Feminism and the Final Foucault. (1994). Disciplining Women. The Foucauldian Body and the Exclusion of Experience. Feminists Who Support Foucault Harstock. 6. Margaret. (1991). HYPATIA. (2002). Ed. pp. Brodribb. 79-99. JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR. (1992). Feminists Who Criticize Foucault Balbus. Foucault. Isaac. January. Eds Seyla Banhabib and Drucilla Cornell. POSTMODERN CHALLENGES. Foucault on Power: A Theory for Women? In FEMINISM/POSTMODERNISM.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik MacLeod. Isaac. Lois. (1990). Foucault on Power: A Theory for Women. GENDER AND KNOWLEDGE: ELEMENTS OF POSTMODERN FEMINISM. Femininity. Harstock. (1992). Heckman. FEMINISM AS CRITIQUE: ON THE POLITICS OF GENDER. Bartky. Sandra. (2000). and Modernization of Patriarchal Power. pp. Nancy. McNay. Rosi. FEMINISM. V. In AFTER FOUCAULT: HUMANISTIC KNOWLEDGE. Munroe. Sandra. FOUCAULT AND FEMINISM. Foucauldian Feminism: The Implications of Governmentality. NOMADIC SUBJECTS: EMBODIMENT AND SEXUAL DIFFERENCE IN CONTEMPORARY FEMINIST THEORY. v. (2002). Catriona. (1988). NOTHING MATTERS: A FEMINIST CRITIQUE OF POSTMODERNISM. Sawicki. Disciplining Women: Michel Foucault and the Power of Feminist Discourse. Somer. pp. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL THEORY. L. (1988). Linda Nicholson. March. McNay. AND THE EMBODIED SUBJECT. Braidotti. FEMINISM/POSTMODERNISM. In Irene Diamond and Lee Quinby FEMINISM AND FOUCAULT: REFLECTIONS ON RESISTANCE. AND BODY. FOUCAULT. Susan. DISCIPLINING FOUCAULT: FEMINISM. (1987). J. (1990). 16 . 125-37. Balbus. Nancy. (1990).E.

This book is one of the best books on Foucault in terms of academic quality. MICHEL FOUCAULT : BEYOND STRUCTURALISM AND HERMENEUTICS. Dreyfus. The Subject Devos. 31. C. RADICAL PHILOSOPHY. (1992) BEING AND POWER: HEIDEGGER AND FOUCAULT. and Peter Miller eds. Hasana. The Retreat of the Subject in the Late Foucault. (1989). Spring. (1984). v. March-April. pp. Neve. POLITY. Postmodernism. Fall. Hubert L.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Foucault and the Subject Colwell. NEW LEFT REVIEW. Rob. Colin Gordon. Stratford. General Books About Foucault Barry. Foucault’s Subject: An Ontological Reading. pp. Resistance Fitzburgh. 255-81. (2002). Sharp. p. Michael. Richard. PHILOSOPHY TODAY. 51. 98-111. THE FOUCAULT EFFECT : STUDIES IN GOVERNMENTALITY : WITH TWO LECTURES BY AND AN INTERVIEW WITH MICHEL FOUCAULT. pp. Smash the Sovereign Paradigm! INTERTEXTS. 17 . Dreyfus. (2002). (1991). Spring. December. Agency. Burchell. Dews. Graham. 223-234. Helen. RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH. Micro-Strategies of Resistance. Power and Subjectivity in Foucault. NEO-LIBERALISM AND RATIONALITIES OF GOVERNMENT. Dews. pp. Peter. FOUCAULT AND POLITICAL REASON: LIBERALISM. pp. but it is a very difficulty read. The Return of the Subject in Michel Foucault. Andrew. Spring. (2001). AMERICAN CATHOLIC PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY. 59-82. HISTORY AND THEORY. (1996). V. (2002). 72-95. and Paul Rabinow. pp. (1994). 56-69. (1999). 37-41. Gordon. The Return of the Subject in the Late Foucault. pp. Spring. 395-ff. and the Causes of Change. Peter.

1972-1977. (1983). ETHICS: SUBJECTIVITY AND TRUTH / MICHEL FOUCAULT. The Subject and Power. THE BIRTH OF THE CLINIC: AN ARCHAEOLOGY OF MEDICAL PERCEPTION. 18 . (1995). ARCHAEOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE. (1984). Books and Articles by Foucault Many of these primary materials are a difficult read. POLITICS. Rabinow. but after you have tackled some of these other books. (1981). ed. (1994). (2000). H. Popekwitz. Eds. AND POWER IN EDUCATION. Paul. This is also somewhat of a difficult read. 1954-1984. FOUCAULT'S CHALLENGE: DISCOURSE.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Faubion. James D. 208-226. (1998). but it is also very comprehensive and discusses some of the main ideas that we usually end up debating about. Sylvère. Michael ed. CULTURE: INTERVIEWS AND OTHER WRITINGS. This book is useful reading for understanding some of Foucault's basic ideas. Lotringer. FOUCAULT FOR BEGINNERS. DISCIPLINE AND PUNISH: THE BIRTH OF THE PRISON. (1997). THE FOUCAULT READER. POWER: ESSENTIAL WORKS OF FOUCAULT. Volume III. (1990). Rabinow. This is probably the second most important primary sources for this topic after DISCIPLINE AND PUNISH. This is a very tough read. CRITIQUE AND POWER: RECASTING THE FOUCAULT/HABERMAS DEBATE. I've organized them in the order that I think you should try to read them. (1996). PHILOSOPHY. (1990). Kelly. Dreyfus and P. KNOWLEDGE. (1982). Lydia Alix. pp. 1977-1984. MICHAEL FOUCAULT: BEYOND STRUCTURALISM AND HERMENEUTICS. NY: Teachers College Press. FOUCAULT LIVE (INTERVIEWS. Thomas. (1993). (2000). THE HISTORY OF SEXUALITY: AN INTRODUCTION. POWER/KNOWLEDGE: SELECTED INTERVIEWS AND OTHER WRITINGS. Flillingham. you may wish to give it a try. 1961-1984) / MICHEL FOUCAULT. POWER / MICHEL FOUCAULT. (1994).

19 . 21. (1979). David. August. v. 48 (1). v. pp. 437-469. 30. 277-91. 117-141. ETHICS : SUBJECTIVITY AND TRUTH (ESSENTIAL WORKS OF MICHEL FOUCAULT. (1997). Johnson. James. Foucault on Power: A Problem in Radical Translation? POLITICAL THEORY. v. HEYTHROP JOURNAL. Allan. pp. The Philosopher's Prism: Foucault. The Critique of Impure Reason: Foucault and the Frankfurt School. V. AN ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES. HISTORY AND THEORY. August. The "Paradox" of Knowledge and Power: Reading Foucault on a Bias. Shiner. vols 1-3. 5-37. pp. THE PHILOSOPHICAL FORUM. POLITICAL THEORY. 96-121. Structuralism. (1987). Nietzsche. Larry. Interpreting Foucault. and the Postmodern Consensus: An Unfashionable Interpretation of Michel Foucault. and the Ends of History. 29-52. Racevskis. (1997). H. 470-91. THE POLITICS OF TRUTH. JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY. 189-217. Reading Foucault: Anti-Method and the Genealogy of Power-Knowledge. Tom. Meynell. (1990). Journal Articles About Foucault Aladjem. POLITICAL THEORY. January-March. Foucault’s Reconception of Power. 559-583. Terry. Criticism. Communication. On Knowledge. POLITICAL THEORY. pp. (1989). Power. 26. 451-503. (1983). Philip. Feminism. Cruelty. pp. Megill. (19900. pp. 382-98. The Reception of Foucault by Historians. September. POLITICAL THEORY. pp. and Critique. Karlis. (1991). McCarthy. Carnivals of Atrocity: Foucault. Foucault. Thomas. Megill.Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik (1994). pp. pp. (1993). THE ORDER OF THINGS. Alan. February. August. Mark. (1987). Miller. (1995). Weberman. and Michael Foucault. POLITICAL THEORY. pp. (1982). 419-432. February. PAPERS ON LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF IDEAS. (1997). pp. Keenan. Winter. James. pp.

Yet wars were never as bloody as they have been since the nineteenth century. working to incite. that endeavors to administer. Historical evidence suggests that relief arrangements are initiated or expanded during the occasional outbreaks of civil disorder produced by mass unemployment. and they marshal a good deal of evidence in support of their claim. the decision that initiates them and the one that terminates them are in fact increasingly informed by the naked question of survival. and all things being equal. and restrictive ones to reinforce work norms. 113 Social service as a technique of social control has been well documented in America by Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward. Since the classical age. control. maintain. optimize. making them submit. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. B. Wars are no longer waged in the name of a sovereign who must be defended. or at least a tendency to align itself with the exigencies of a life-administering power and to define itself accordingly. never before did regimes visit such holocaust on their own populations.. that so many regimes have been able to wage so many wars. 1984. State University of New York. There has been a parallel shift in the right of death. making them grow. and multiply it. sociologist. But this formidable power of death-and this is perhaps what accounts for part of its force and the cynicism with which it has so greatly expanded its limits-now presents itself as the counterpart of a power that exerts a positive influence on life. And through a turn that closes the circle. 20 . THE FOUCAULT READER. and organize the forces under it: a power bent on generating forces. the West has undergone a very profound transformation of these mechanisms of power. entire populations are mobilized for the purpose of wholesale slaughter in the name of life necessity: massacres have become vital. p. of bodies and the race. and are then abolished or contracted when political instability is restored. as the technology of wars has caused them to tend increasingly toward all-out destruction. optimize. j Piven and Cloward argue that this has been the primary function of relief policy since the New Deal.. 1992. they are waged on behalf of the existence of everyone. monitor. The atomic situation is now at the end point of this process: the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual's continued existence. "Deduction" has tended to be no longer the major form of power but merely one element among others. relief policies are cyclicalliberal or restrictive depending on the problems of regulation in the larger society with which government must contend?..Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Foucault 1NC Shell Social service is a means of biopolitical social control Eric Gorhman. [E]xpansive relief policies are designed to mute civil disorder. This death that was based on the right of the sovereign is now manifested as simply the reverse of the right of the social body to ensure. rather than one dedicated to impeding them. causing so many men to be killed. subjecting it to precise controls and comprehensive regulations. Disciplinary liberalism’s biopower necessitates extermination and annihilation Michel Foucault. They contend that the primary function of relief-giving has been to maintain civil order in a capitalist economic system. Director of Institute Francais at Hamburg. reinforce. In other words. and ordering them. 259-260. or destroying them. p. It is as managers of life and survival. or develop its life.

Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik 21 .

22 .Planet Debate 2009 – Biopower/Foucault Kritik Foucault 1NC Shell .

*** Links *** 23 .

Servicers became experts on "family adjustment" with developed "casework techniques." "Friendly visiting" became "social diagnosis. social service agencies became bureaucratized. p.Links: Social Services Social services expand psychiatric therapy Eric Gorhman.~ 24 .""' Psychiatry was introduced into social work. as the principles of organization shifted from "cause" to "function. as was the study of criminology. though. A professional subculture emerged. 1992. 112-3 As the twentieth century unfolded. agencies coordinated their activities more closely. and professional organizations developed." and the charity organizations became bureaucratic social work agencies. Service had become less a charitable practice and more a technical means of therapy. sociologist."" Efficiency became the key virtue of the service organization (arid has become more so in our time). this feeling of moral superiority was supplanted by an ethic of scientific expertise. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. Finally. Finally a "federation" movement further reinforced these bureaucratic and professional tendencies. State University of New York. a theory of supervision emerged and a supervisory function became delineated.

State University of New York. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. p. 122 The Job Corps also was designed to discipline and normalize its corps members as much as it was meant to give them marketable skills. sociologist. 25 . Consequently. such discipline was not particularly harsh.Links: Jobs Programs The job corps disciplines and normalizes Eric Gorhman. social control was most effective as a means by which the individual could regulate his or her own behavior. not just the director. This is evident from the Residential Living Manual produced by the Department of Labor for the program." In this sense discipline was democratic: the community. and the authors of the manual implore the residence directors to involve the enrollees in the discipline and to be "flexible" in meting punishment. 1992. disciplined the offending party. However.

the disabled. State University of New York. to privacy] in exchange for aid. Some who are of no use as workers-the aged.' 26 ." And relief agency practices degrade the relief recipient."" Low-wage work is enforced through statutory regulation and administrative methods. pp.. 113-4 Social control involves different characteristics. the insane-are treated so poorly that they "instill in the laboring masses a fear of the fate that awaits them should they relax into beggary and pauperism.g. The client is forced to "surrender commonly accepted rights [e.Links: Social Service Aid Social control expands through aid Eric Gorhman."' The welfare explosion of the 1960s expanded these surveillance and regulative practices in the name of "relief. sociologist. for example in the practice of surveillance." One effect of these programs has been to shift the function of relief and service agencies from the regulation of civil disorder to the regulation of labor. 1992. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION.

' According to the account given by Michel Foucault. school. and civil service background investigation. unrealized version of VISTA. for it brings the participants under the gaze of the agency. by trained psychologists. As a number of supporters testified.' Nonetheless. "Selection will continue throughout the training period: a Corpsmen's [sic] performance will be assessed by the instructors." Finally."" The study also recommended background checks and fingerprinting of all enrollees." It was not supposed to be a "political" organization. and by the NSC and local project personnel. and."" The President's Study Group on a National Service Program recommended to the committees that comprehensive selection and testing procedures be implemented (for "aptitudes" and "attitudes") by trained professionals. the results of their aptitude-placement test. who were required to undergo "security checks" in order to ensure that their enrollment was "consistent with the national interest. sociologist. In both the Senate and House bills. State University of New York. the study advised that a dossier be kept on each individual. domestic service programs in the early 1960s placed political and social limitations on participants. the dossier is one important criterion of the disciplinary society. National Service. responses to reference-inquiries by those who have known them best in work.'. 27 . community activities. enrollees were deemed employees of the federal government. medical examination.Links: National Service National service supports a disciplinary order Eric Gorhman. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. p. Applicants will be invited to begin training on the basis of their detailed questionnaireapplication. 122 Similar tendencies can be found in the federal youth work and service programs of the 1960s. 1992. and Political Education was designed to spontaneously generate voluntarism. an early. the National Service Corps. Citizenship.

28 .

Such individuals contribute in whatever way to "the intensification of the body-with its exploitation as an object of knowledge and an element in. coercive service. is quantitively different from services in the other sectors. if the program is constructed around a principle of socialization. sociologist. p.Links: National Service National service is a massive socializaiton strategy Eric Gorhman. National service demonstrates that "the obligations of citizenship will act as a solvent for most of the differences among the various kinds of national servers Programs that are designed to socialize instill norms Eric Gorhman. but they work for institutions which "work upon" individuals. State University of New York. relations of power. would be parents. All service will be juridically defined Eric Gorhman. To coerce individuals into an institution that may ultimately foster individualism is contrary to the spirit and ethic of citizen service. 28 In claiming that national service can solve these problems . NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. service in this sector. I argue. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. especially mothers. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. service will be juridically defined. Service programs lead to an intensification of body serveillance Eric Gorhman. without official designation will not be considered to be providing service.the deinstitutionalized mentally ill and unemployed welfare recipients national service emerges as part of an extensive system of socializing strategies involving not only the servers. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. Not only do participants serve the community at large. 36 Finally. p. sociologist. the service they render involves the violation by the state of the sovereignty of some individual's body. State University of New York. The most significant group excluded. Those individuals who serve. who contribute to the welfare of the society. State University of New York. thus. In sum. 1992. is justified only if it meets certain very specific conditions--conditions allowing for participation and requiring political education. state sanctioned.g.. 58 All service tasks will be. p. in some sense. sociologist. it could reinscribe central American norms that service is supposed to reform: individualism and the calculation of self-interest. who provide care. and in institutions such as mental hospitals. 75 Most importantly."" They become part of a system that extracts information from individuals. 1992. but the recipients as well. and uses that knowledge 29 . 1992. sociologist. State University of New York. day care) will be sanctioned precisely to free parents from their familial responsibilities-and will serve to correct the failures of the family in serving the moral and psychological needs of the young. p." That is. then. Certain tasks (e. 1992.

they serve institutions that both represent and impose particular strategies of power upon their subjects. 30 . over them.to exercise power. In this sense.

sociologist. p. sociologist. the first conference on national service considered the possibility of extensive data collection and testing on participants in a future program."' And the Selective Service System can maintain and process the data." Seattle's Program for Local Service exemplifies the procedure in identifying potential volunteers through the State of Washington's computerized list of licensed drivers. Part of the registration and selection process will be employment counseling. and evaluation procedures Eric Gorhman. 77 National service could be the largest system of registration developed by federal planners in the past two decades. it could be the means by which many aspects of the private service sector are brought under further federal regulatory control. Finally." The report also suggests that the military help organize the plan. and state and local boards of education. Information collection will be magnified by sharing Eric Gorhman. and in the process of categorizing and "skilling" the individual." All participants in the workshop agreed to this. For instance. I consider programs designed to improve the employability of enrollees. In this chapter. 1992. State University of New York. in order to achieve this. to and about. It would provide social scientists and government bureaucrats with a large pool for the testing of social and psychological theories. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. state motor vehicle departments. the Social Security Administration. the mechanics of a potential national service reveal a means by which the state can not only improve the condition of its citizens. sociologist. 1992. pp." 31 . then. 1992. testing. and could be organized to maximize the production of services. 81 A national service program could obtain its information from other governmental organizations that are already conducting registration-like activities. I examine the registration and selection processes by which individuals are categorized. p. 80-1 Twenty years ago. In the next chapter. functions. the service agency might test individuals via the Armed Service Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) as an "aid in career guidance counselling. All national service programs have extensive registration. regardless of the actual placement process imposed. the enrollee. certain lessons are taught.Links: National Service National service leads to massive social and psychological testing Eric Gorhman. but also intervene more fully into the activities of those citizens. State University of New York. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. operating procedures. In short. State University of New York. and training at all camp sites had to be standardized. and knowledge is imparted. with help from the Employment Services Administration. the Internal Revenue Service. Moreover. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION. for example.

The life of this sacred man is 'bare'. homo sacer occupies a meditative domain in-between the profane and the transcendent beyond. The separation between humanitarianism and politics that we are experiencing today is the extreme phase of the separation of the rights of man from the rights of the citizen. Law. Without some such resolving and pervasively effective reference beyond." which Foucault defined "as running through the totality constituted by instructions. then. 2001. Anthropology Professor.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v005/5. maintain a secret solidarity with the very powers they ought to fight. even if that determination is only and ever 'for the time being'. following Agamben. INDIANA JOURNAL OF GLOBAL LEGAL STUDIES. He has already been sacrificed. because of a sacrifice which has brought the beyond into the measure and contingency of a profane world. there is no position surpassing that life from which it can be observed or rendered as bare. These two dimensions can only be combined in homo sacer because of the confident reference beyond. In the final analysis. leaving nothing for it in the profane world but to be killed. tactics that allow the exercise of this very specific though extremely complex form of power. procedures. accessed 5/13/05. is of the sacred. Following Foucault. He fugitively occupies an all-too solid world in which he can be killed without sacrifice. which has as its locus the population and as its essential technical instrument. University of Montreal. and therefore. I would thus locate the catalogue of human suffering inscribed by the deployment of "humanitarian" biopower at the juncture between two conceptual domains: that of "governmentality. It determinately combines what is here with responsiveness to what is ever beyond. Yet homo sacer is also of the transcendent beyond. I view biopower as an articulation of the political with the biological. And without that resolving reference. humanitarian organizations -. only because it has been consigned to an empyrean. http://muse. Winter 2003. 374-5.Links: Legal Protections Moves to protect humans from oppression via the law is tied into governmentality and liberalism Mariella Pandolfi. this also means recognition of the paradox and the risk implied in the rule of law in modern democracies. analyses. The law projects power over bare life DRG/E376 Peter Fitzpatrick. Professor of Law at University of London. in this light.2.2fitzpatrick. Homo sacer is still of the profane. THEORY AND EVENT 5." and that of the intersection of rights with biopower as developed by Agamben. As sacred. with law. p.jhu. 32 . despite themselves. p. security apparatuses. beyond life in the world.html. however.which today are more and more supported by international commissions -.can only grasp human life in the figure of bare or sacred life. we are left with what created homo sacer 'in the first place'. This law which creates homo sacer can be delineated in a preliminary way by emphasizing the obvious: that homo sacer is sacred.

Thus the courts and laws. "the whole indefinite domain of the non-conforming" became its focus. the police. and prisons. a norm. Foucault is on the horns of a dilemma: the reading that emphasizes revolt as the sole guarantor of rights has deep problems in practice. The courts and the laws are a form of social control John V. at Chadron State College. yet the state reading. he began to emphasize the role of the state (1983. it resembled in microcosm the principles of normalization. the previous modalities of social control. 43) This reading of Foucault does have deep problems. 1988a.994) In effect. July. individuation and perpetual judgment that began to permeate society as a whole.Links: Court Action to Protect Rights Empowering the courts to protect rights won't check modern power Brent L. 1999 (SEIZING POWER: DECADENCE AND TRANSGRESSION IN FOUCAULT AND PAGLIA. it would most likely increase the regimentation of society. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Social Sciences Department.edu/pmc/textonly/issue. an average. the classroom had become something much more than a depositary for academic learning: it was the site for moral instruction. 33 . hierarchization. Walker. perhaps in response to some critics. 1988b).virginia. in the way required for Foucaultian rights would be an effective way to counter modern power. from a transgression of the law to a slight departure from a rule. division. it is also unlikely that empowering the state and its agents. 2000 (THE SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL. And at its various points of intervention . http://jefferson. now became one part of a more general disciplinary apparatus where. schools and so on (representing and joining together such apparently diverse sides of the penal. a demand. p. asylums. courts. Pickett. social welfare and medical systems) . while having some textual support.this apparatus became the breeding ground for a range of "technicians of behavior" to employ a continuous and universal network of scrutiny and intervention: "this vast mechanism. hospitals. especially in his writings from the late 1970s and early 1980s when. Instead. imperceptible gradation that made it possible to pass naturally from disorder to offence and back.village. classification. As mentioned above. however. There are many passages Where Foucault described the state as profoundly dangerous. seems at odds with the thrust of Foucault's reasoning and faces practical difficulties as well.994/walker.prisons. in a panoramic turn of phrase characteristic of Foucault. workhouses. continuous. established a slow. University of Toronto.

2000 (THE SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL. There are two or more signatories. liberal rights failed to impede the most important power relations. are fundamentally reciprocal and egalitarian. at Chadron State College. they only limited state power. military barracks. which was roughly the 16th and early 17th centuries. is given the power to make laws and to punish transgression of that law. With power now primarily located at levels below the state. The sovereign. which Foucault called the principle of sovereignty. monasteries. p. while leaving untouched the new disciplines. particularly in regards to fundamental rights. There he described a decisive transformation in the forms and locations of power that occurred in the West from the 17th to the early 19th century. during the Middle Ages and what Foucault called the "classical" era. Yet. 1980. also fails to recognize the actual practice of disciplinary power. fundamentally altered the nature of power. and prisons. however. p. the disciplines "are essentially nonegalitarian and asymmetrical. 96). and the subsequent diffusion of those techniques throughout society. In contrast to this formal. Liberal rights thus became outmoded. the slow development of various techniques of normalization and discipline within asylums. rights lost the effectiveness they had during the classical era. the social contract theory. Beyond an inaccurate view of where power is located in society at large. each of which is equally bound by the terms of the contract. Because rights were (and still are) connected to an archaic notion of power as vested in the state. contractual equality. July. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Social Sciences Department. power had largely been a matter of the state. Pickett. it is first necessary to see why Foucault thought that traditional. hospitals. Contracts in general. and others. while having limits placed on its power. which has historically provided the justification for rights. for Locke. 43) To adequately discuss the idea of a Foucaultian right. It led to the modem era where "power surmounts the rules of right which organize and delimit it and extends itself beyond them" (Foucault. disciplinary power Brent L." 34 . Before this change. Madison. His critique of rights was largely derived from the account of power he gave in such works as Discipline and Punish.Links: Court Action to Protect Rights (Cont) Rights won't protect against local. schools. and social contracts providing for the protection of natural rights in particular.

a human being that could not be ritually offered. individuals are each and every time simultaneously laying the foundation for a silent but ever deeper insertion of their life within the political order of the state.Links: Court Action to Protect Rights (Cont) Retention of political rights simply lays the foundation for deeper insertion into the political life and supports ruling authority Alain RENON: review of Giorgio AGAMBEN. despite the formal protection of rights.php Homo Sacer. If one does not. establish norms and categories that one must live up to or fall within. 2000 (THE SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL.org/monday/archives/000374. is being used in this book as underpinning for a fresh decoding of the major political difficulty in our century: the rise of the worst sort of totalitarisms. The areas of protected action and privacy that rights were meant to establish thereby become infiltrated by disciplinary power and its system of punishments and rewards. but whom one. "in gaining (." Areas that are protect by rights just become infiltrated by disciplinary power Brent L. and hereby giving new and even more formidable power to the ruling authority from which they sought emancipation. subject to penalties. p. July. could kill without incuring the penalty of murder according to ancient Roman law.) rights and liberties in their conflicts against the central(ising) powers. with nazism at its apex. and describes the trap in which the Western democracies have fallen.. 43) The disciplines. but inherent link between the Rule of Law (Etat de Droit) and the State of Emergency (Etat d'Exception). at Chadron State College. even when one is obeying the law. Pickett. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Social Sciences Department. This author invites us to reflect about "the strange continuum connecting democracy to totalitarism". Giorgio Agamben sheds light on the paradoxical.16beavergroup. The result is that a range of behaviors that were left untouched under the premodern system of punishment have now become. 2000 http://www. 35 .. one is subject to the micropenalties that the disciplines rely on. both on their own and through the human sciences that they serve as the basis for. Homo Sacer.

Furthermore.. Given that there are leaders who do not want to respect citizens' rights. at Chadron State College. 2000 (THE SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL. as defenders of more traditional understandings of rights would be quick to note. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Social Sciences Department. vigilant populace (e. Although citizens ultimately have to want their rights. 87). superimposed upon the mechanisms of discipline in such a way as to conceal its actual procedures. For instance. p. 43) Many liberal theorists would at least partially agree with this. It helps to clarify who holds which rights against whom. Rights rely on the power of the state to enforce them Brent L. given their occasional emphasis on how rights have to be fought for and then invoked by an assertive. they were in fact becoming irrelevant: in the principal institutions of society. Rights do not provide equal protection against disciplinary punishment Brent L. at Chadron State College. Furthermore. 36 . and it is within the legal system that conflicts between rights bearers are settled.. persons were not equal but instead always subject to hierarchies and disciplinary punishment. 43) Thus. July. as Foucault in many passages appears to want. this idea is clearly implied in the Declaration of Independence. equal rights were gradually extended to larger sections of the population. our right of revolution should not be too quickly asserted. 43) Rights are. therefore.g. again referring to the Declaration of Independence. p. the state cannot be entirely avoided. Rights have. the final guarantee of our rights must be the threat that we will rebel if they are not respected. incapable of restricting the most important sites of normalization and production of docile bodies. July. therefore.. a system of rights in its daily maintenance must rely on the authoritative structures of the state. 2000 (THE SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL. according to Foucault. at Chadron State College. and the rights they held did nothing to combat the spread of modem power. p. The legal system is the vehicle for the promulgation of laws concerning rights. and thus is necessary in all but the exceptional circumstances described by Jefferson. because they were focused on a premodern form of power and viewed society in terms of contractual relations. Although formal. Yet. p. they directed attention away from the actual functioning of modem power. become a system. It is only "when a long train of abuses and usurpations. Pickett. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Social Sciences Department... 2000 (THE SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL. July. evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism" that it is permissible for a people to revolt. the state provides the force ensuring the protection of rights. the element of domination inherent in its techniques. Pickett. Mill.Links: Court Action to Protect Rights (Cont) Rights maintenance relies on the authoritative structures of the state Brent L. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Social Sciences Department. precisely because traditional rights were obsolete. 1962. Pickett.

however. the laws. because that would be contrary to the rest of Foucault's thought. too. industrious. need to be flexible rather than fixed. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Social Sciences Department. The modem. at Chadron State College. 37 . p. and perhaps more important. was rather pragmatic in that Foucault was offering a means to resistance against power. The second way in which traditional rights contribute to this system of domination is that they aid in the "normalization" of persons. Pickett. 95). p. What sort of means. Foucault argued that they in turn reinforce those basic tactics of power. p. at Chadron State College. p. Absolute rights are inflexible and therefore cannot be used to fight state power Brent L. and under universal duties to be sociable and have a friendly disposition. works through the systematic application of violence through the police and prisons. Keenan (1987) quoted a statement by Foucault on behalf of Vietnamese boat people where Foucault asserted that the misfortune created or unremedied by governments "founds an absolute right to rise up and address those who hold power" (. and in what ways. some of his rhetoric does give pause: "Against power it is always necessary to oppose unbreakable law and unabridgeable rights" (1981. if at all. 43) Although one would not think that Foucault's new form of right would be a foundationalist or "natural" account of rights. by nature. Pickett. rights-bearing individual is him or herself a product of power. Although these governmental bodies can only exist on a more fundamental level of disciplines. The first is that the set of institutions that rights help to legitimate. July. function as a system of domination. is an important issue that will be discussed below. and prisons charged with protecting citizens' rights. it involves a recourse to state power. A rights-based legal order. then. police. 2000 (THE SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL.Links: Court Action to Protect Rights (Cont) Rights support power through a legitimation of the system Brent L. Yet this goal of countering power has significant consequences for the practice of Foucaultian rights. the Lockean rights-bearing self is. it helps to reinforce the larger web of modem power that has colonized rights and the law over the past two and half centuries. Rights have typically been justified by an account of what people are supposed to be by nature. 2000 (THE SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL. Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Social Sciences Department. 43) The critique of liberal rights goes beyond the charge of ineffectiveness and misdirection. courts. For example. Because modem power also has multiple opportunities for extension and advancement. 1980. rational. 21). Foucault also argued that liberal rights help to support modem power. p. that they are integral to a system of "brutality" (Foucault. There are two reasons for this. 8). rights. July. The overall goal.

not because it is old. p. At first sight these are at least some of the ways in which the penal system operates as an anti-seditious system. It will only be so on the day when I pronounce it so. This is why the revolution can only take place via the radical elimination of the judicial apparatus. 'Before the proceedings your case is neither just nor unjust. 1980. because I will have consulted the law or the canons of eternal equity'. POWER/KNOWLEDGE. an exemplary form of this judicial system. and thereby introducing a contradiction which is now firmly rooted.29-30. philosopher. College de France. The judicial and penal apparatus must be totally rejected Michel Foucault. On the other hand. it seems to me that the bourgeois judicial system has always operated to increase oppositions between the proletariat and the non-proletarianised people. and it is in complete contradiction with the point of view of popular justice. as a variety of ways of creating antagonism between the proletarianised and the non-proletarianised people. philosopher. This is why I think that one should not make use of such a model. This is why the court. POWER/KNOWLELDGE. must be banished. anything which could reintroduce its ideology and enable this ideology to surreptitiously creep back into popular practices.Links: Courts The court system oppresses the working class Michel Foucault. and anything which could reintroduce the penal apparatus. seems to me to be a possible location for the reintroduction of the ideology of the penal system into popular practice.16. College de France. 1980. p. 38 . This is the very essence of the court. This is the reason that it is a bad instrument. The very form of the court contains the statement to the two parties.

Head of Philosophy. Macquarie University. Dean 2001). even in private law contexts. its operation through freedom (1988. the notion of government comes to be viewed as exemplifying a key feature of power in general which Foucault sought to stress after 1976. 119-ff. to show that the actual exercise of power is dispersed throughout the social order. not concentrated in the state apparatus. powers of freedom. the Realist-inspired strategy for making "private" power visible is to describe it as a constructive delegation of state power. University of Boston. Foucault designed his analytics of power to deemphasize the state. Further. Professor of Law. One possible consequence may be that his work cannot always be simply "applied" directly in legal argument. Liberal rule maximizes government power DRG/E374 Mitchell Dean. requires those challenging a particular exercise of power to attribute that power to the state. one discourse cannot necessarily be folded into another. For Foucault. 476. p. Constitutional law. These forms of rule activate what Nikolas Rose (1999) has succinctly called.or at least some forms of legal discourse may be linked inescapably to notions of sovereignty. Foucault's work operates more readily as a challenge to standard legal constructions of the world than it does as a direct intervention into conventional forms of legal argument.Links: Legal Action Legal action boosts state law and the sovereign DRG/E373 Hugh Baxter. Foucault’s characterizations of power (1982) as a structure of actions upon the actions of others is nowhere better exemplified than in contemporary forms of liberal rule. It would not have surprised Foucault to find that legal discourse . by contrast. STANFORD LAW REVIEW. p. January 1996. In this respect. 39 . CULTURAL VALUES January 2002. in the title of his recent book. For these analytics of contemporary government.

they are a part of the programatic rationality of liberal constitutionalism. In other words. this can be presented as constraints on majority rule. p. All three postulates are clearly a part of a liberal conception of government. There are three aspects of the liberal understanding of the state that are germane to the argument here. part of liberal ways of thinking about the means and objectives of the use of sovereign powers. The third employs this system of limitations and rights to distinguish liberalism from authoritarian forms of government. If regimes of power are constituted through multiform. 40 . or the will of the people. in other words. The second means that the principle of this limitation of government is found in the individual freedoms which exist in private life and in a sphere of civil society separate from the state. in their different and sometimes indistinct ways. These postulates are that of limited government. The first means that liberal government is one in which there are constitutional constraints on the sovereign powers exercised by the state. fundamental matters of life and death. then it is necessary to remain skeptical of the way in which contemporary liberal forms of rule are understood. They are.Links: Legal Action Liberal politics are biopolitics DRG/E375 Mitchell Dean. 1995). heterogenous trajectories and zones of power relations. popular sovereignty. 119-ff. Macquarie University. and concerns the nature of liberal democracies. They do not consider the effects of such rationality in the practical domain to which it is linked. such as Stephen Holmes (1993. They are all. Head of Philosophy. CULTURAL VALUES January 2002. of individual liberty. It is my contention here that a liberal understanding of the government of the state systematically underestimates the manner in which liberal polities are engaged in sovereign decisions and a biopolitics of the population that concern. My second counter-premise follows from the first. however. easily shown to be a product of that specific standpoint. In liberal-democracies. and the antiauthoritarian character of liberalism. All three can also be viewed in the work of the most vigorous and able defenders of liberalism.

and yet it remains a juristic problem as long as the exception is distinguishable from a juristic chaos' (Schmitt 1985: 14). p. And yet.2fitzpatrick. argues that justice "must always concern singularity.html. public safety and order.jhu. Yet for Schmitt the exception is also imbued with law. In all. Using Levinas and Walter Benjamin as his main resources. http://muse. 16). something that cannot be achieved. insofar as we can never fully know and understand the irreducible specificity of the other. for the norm to remain the norm. toward whom we nevertheless have what Levinas would call an infinite responsibility. justice is very real in the pragmatist sense: it has real effects. or is not just. always subsists along with its own exception. The exceptional. Summer 1999 p. a matter of the undermining and the explicit change of the norm. 658. law is the opposite of justice. Justice. University of Toronto. 41 . The legal system creates its own state of exception DRG/E378 Peter Fitzpatrick. The exception manifests a similar combining of law's being determinant with its responsiveness to an exteriority beyond determination. The norm. despite its peculiar ontological status. it is obvious that this norm cannot be invariant. it can neither dissolve in what was 'other' to it nor endure in a stasis where it would become increasingly unrelated to a world ever changing around it. is unexceptional. he nevertheless belongs to it'.'the public interest or interest of the state. or a different 'jurisdictional competence' as Schmitt would have it (Schmitt 1985: 7). This self-exception is not. For its sustained integrity. following Emmanuel Levinas. since Derrida. THEORY AND EVENT 5. the ethical logic of infinity-an infinity no longer located in human relation to God but rather in here-and-now practices of intersubjectivity. LAW AND SOCIAL INQUIRY. accessed 5/13/05. 'how the systematic unity and order can suspend itself in a concrete case is difficult to construe. Instantiations of the norm always entail a transgression of what the norm had been. Professor of Law at University of London. it is 'the legal system itself [which] can anticipate the exception and can "suspend itself"' (Schmitt 1985: 14). Justice impels us to constantly critique our own tendency to think that we know what is due to others. broad as they may be -. even if the exception is a specific variation of that combining nexus. Admittedly. Derrida counterposes the calculative logic of law to.2. that we know the other.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v005/5. and so on' (Schmitt 1985: 6). The justice that is glimpsed in genuine intersubjectivity is a movement that by definition can never be fully accomplished. which always involves "an unlimited responsiveness to and responsibility for the other" cannot be fixed precisely because it is not a state of affairs but rather a movement toward the particularity of the Other. le salut public. The desire for justice is thus destined to be never fulfilled. although the sovereign 'stands outside the normally valid legal system. Law constitutes the decision-maker and the matters decided upon. The exception thence becomes unexceptional.Links: Legal Action Justice can never be fulfilled DRG/E377 Mariana Valverde. and sovereignty remains 'a juristic concept' (Schmitt 1985: 7. It comes to resemble the involving lineaments of the law itself as these were extracted from my earlier dissection of homo sacer and the sacred. again. in short. 2001. Professor of Crimonology. the norm as both the normal order and as a particular rule. entail its becoming 'other' to what it was. Looked at from the perspective of the norm. In this sense. Indeed. and so justice is inherently nonexistent.

ethico-political regimes increasingly instrumentalize governmentality in the name of "good citizenship. ally Tony Blair enunciates that "the scope of the law must itself be limited largely to that which is supported by the moral voice". In an ethico-political society. I can find no better depiction of Bush/Ashcroft's America than Rose's description: "Ethico-politics operates at the pole of morality to the extent that it seeks to inculcate a fixed and incontestable code of conduct. The danger of this ethico-politics is in its moralizing. on the teaching of life skills (which we will export in the name of "regime building"). CR: THE NEW CENTENNIAL REVIEW.Links: Legal Action Legal regimes define the value of life DRG/E382 Diane Rubenstein. Social conduct increasingly privileges moral voice over law. ethical business. Foucault was correct in seeing the displacement of law as code.) Rose depicts an increasingly moralized governance through ethics: Ethical foreign policy. This would be less of a cynical conversion narrative than an implicit logic of post-disciplinary. Professor of Government and American studies. new preemptive forms of individualizing security . U. Cornell University. p. Summer 2003. All of these instrumentalize a distinct new form of freedom with its "exemplary sanctions" founded on the interrelation of victim and offender.S. Post-disciplinary. ethical investment. as well as the increasing salience of more traditional ethical disputes in the areas of genetic technologies and the rights to life and death. . (Perhaps it is not so anomalous to see Blair both as a Clinton ally in "Third-Way" policies and as a Bush ally in advocating preemptive violations of international law. preemptive logics induced on a perpetual monitoring of risk. ethical banking. decision and control in order to govern better". . advanced neoliberal ethicopolitics. which turns "openings into closures". Political debate is replaced by "technical management of individual conduct" in order to "produce politically desired ends". merely shifting loci of authority. government is a government of souls. Post-9/11 America is replete with the detritus of ethico-political moralism as detailed by Rose: therapeutic subjectivities bent on claiming their "natural right to be recognized individually". ethical agriculture. ethical politicians. the ethic of public service .” 42 . 325-6.

Government. By coming into contact with the State in these contexts. Cornell U.Links -. 2007. first and foremost. however. they are also the women who are targeted. the State.. uplift. 8-9. 43 . where conservative family values projects and disciplinary interventions are concerned. Roberts's narrative foregrounds exclusion. WELFARE REFORM AND SEXUAL REGULATION. 5-6. the State is aggressively intervening in the poor mother's intimate life. WELFARE REFORM AND SEXUAL REGULATION. Policing of poor women’s sexuality is a part of the larger state agenda advancing disciplinary power Anna Marie Smith. but its actual material investment in what Foucault would call "discipline" remains relatively minimal. (Prof. Poor women are the target of state disciplinary power Anna Marie Smith. Cornell U.at this point. arbitrary detainment.). the invasion of her privacy and bodily integrity. is becoming an increasingly effective vehicle of sexual policing. Operating -. and correction. (Prof. Poor women are extraordinarily exposed to the coercive powers of the State today. and racial profile. 9. even though they are already extremely vulnerable where food insecurity and housing crises are concerned. 2007. gendered. and that intervention is becoming increasingly defined in a narrow manner with reference to her kinship relations and reproductive behavior. Government. deprivation. they are the ones who bear the brunt of the neoliberal cuts in social programs. calibrated according to a class-oriented. degradation. (Prof.. the targeted citizen experiences a severe restriction of her reproductive rights. In addition. The post-welfare State is withdrawing from the poor only in the sense that it is massively scaling back redistributive social rights.).). Cornell U.in harmony with the larger project of disciplining American labor.. Obviously. WELFARE REFORM AND SEXUAL REGULATION. in the guise of welfare reform. and the withholding of relief from herself and her destitute family.Welfare System Increases Disciplinary Power Welfare and other social services are key mechanisms of state disciplinary power Anna Marie Smith. and the infliction of corporeal punishment. at least -. At the same time. Official discourse pays lip service to moral instruction. Government. 2007.

Government. polices the poor. Ironically enough. which is a life that could be lived even if one found oneself outside the polis. 10. tracks reproductive rates.." Agamben begins with Aristotle's distinction between life as mere subsistence. that the liberal democratic form of governance inevitably betrays itself. That appearance achieves its ideological perfection in modern liberal democratic legitimation discourse. however. the male citizen could perfect himself only within the polis. For Agamben. housing. liberty. Agamben interprets this distinction as a tension between two institutional postures that are adopted by the State toward "the people". and happiness of "the people" by prohibiting arbitrary State intervention. or "bare life. and energy. transportation. Agamben would argue. controls immigration. that one enters the condition of "bare life" only in the absence of government and that the existence of the State prevents us from descending into an animalistic and subhuman form of life.). In Aristotle's account. manages the markets in food. Cornell U. then. and the pursuit of the "good life. for the latter promises to safeguard the life. this tension establishes the fundamental structure for any possible government. and takes steps to ensure the ready supply of able-bodied military recruits. (Prof. biopolitics is established yet again as the essence of governmental interest by the modern nation-State. sexual regulation in welfare policy would constitute only one moment within the State's timeless campaign to produce "bare life.or if his government descended into anarchistic chaos and effectively dissolved itself -. If he left the city -. for all the ideological disavowal." which is a life that is possible only for the citizen who is a member of a formally constituted polis.he would revert back to a life in which his highest good would be nothing more than subsistence." 44 . WELFARE REFORM AND SEXUAL REGULATION." it busily measures its population. caregiving is thereby politicized.Agamben Impact State regulation of sexuality through welfare policy part of the campaign to produce “bare life” Anna Marie Smith. and. Even as it promises to embrace "laissez-faire. The latter "assume[s] directly the care of the nation's biological life as one of its proper tasks. 2007." It appears.

One can argue that learning organizational behavior is endemic to participating in any organization. service programs discipline and normalize Eric Gorhman. however decentralized. service programs have a systematic. because they do not even recognize themselves as political organizations. But service programs will not even teach individuals to recognize organizational behavior when they see it because they believe they are apolitical. but one of them ought to be selfcriticism. This deception bespeaks the uncivic practices of community service. Along with everything else service participants are taught. I premise the following discussion on the fact that. they will also be taught to conform to organizational behavior-its instrumentality. 45 . quite simply. NATIONAL SERVICE: CITIZENSHIP AND POLITICAL EDUCTION.. and it is the part obstructing civic education. and normalization. sociologist. Here is where service moves away from socialization and toward education. discipline. A democratic.Links: Answers to: “Our Program is Decentralized” No matter how decentalized. This is a part of service learning that proponents choose to ignore. State University of New York. and that the agencies involved do not teach the participants to challenge that systematization and regulation. and where national service can reflect "American" skepticism toward the government. p. and this may be true. For. technocracy. regulated quality to them. 1992. 120 `Thus. it violates the sort of independence of mind that all those who privilege the civic (from Thomas Jefferson to present-day communitarians) demand of the citizen. citizen-run national service might develop its own organizational norms and standards.

undesirable behavioral traits such as impulsivity (Lock 2005). THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE. sex counselors. health promotion experts. POWER. Professor of Sociology. medics took up their role as experts of lifestyle (cf. occupational therapists. AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. POWER. and with the best of intentions on all sides have become bound to the ministrations and adjudications of medical expertise. And there are the counselors—addiction counselors. and reproduction counselors. There are the multiple kinds of therapists." This is not the kind of pastoralism where a shepherd knows and directs the souls of confused or indecisive sheep. health visitors. not just psychological therapists but speech therapists. and multiple advisers on shaping a form of life in the name of health. and choice and nondirectiveness.Links: Public Health The quest for health expands the power of the government Nikolas Rose. educational counselors and. and/or those paramedical alternative and complementary forms of expertise that have partaken of much the same logic Public health experts expand pastoral power Nikolas Rose. These new pastors of the soma espouse the ethical principles of informed consent. emerges in relation to more and more "threats to health. There are nutritioniseticians. Biotechnology. 28-9 But the somatic experts involved are no longer simply medical. genetic. p. but also the arts of governing oneself. The sites of such pastoral power are likely to proliferate in the new age of susceptibility and presymptomatic diagnoses. as premonitory knowledge with variable levels of certainly. 2007. the kind of knowledge deployed by genetic counselors. remedial gymnasts. Biotechnology. THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE. and their advice and interventions on life itself extend rather widely. Biomedicine. has been central to the development of the arts of government. are obliged to take responsibility for their own medical 46 . autonomy. As the quest for health has become central to the telos of living for so many human beings in advanced liberal democracies. but which might well he extended to encompass predictive and future-oriented information based upon neuronal evidence such as brain scans that may indicate risk of future disease or. Professor of Sociology. AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. Biomedicine. and a host of others. where individuals. family and relationship counselors. and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience. p. mental health counselors. that is to say. especially women. There are nurses. people have come to experience themselves and their lives in fundamentally biomedical terms. and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience. 28 Medicine. experts on exercise and fitness. 2007. physiotherapists. as some are suggesting. midwives. fertility. not only the arts of governing others. It entail a dynamic set of relations between the effects of those who council and those of the counseled. In an age of biological prudence. Rose 1994: 69-70). voluntary action. art therapists. For at the very moment when health and illness became amenable to a positive knowledge and to explanations and interventions in terms of the biology of the organic living body. family planning. Of most interest to me here are the new kinds of "pastoral powers" that are emerging in the context of what Margaret Lock has termed "premonitory" knowledge—that is to say. of course.

these ethical principles are inevitably translated into rnicrotechnologies for the management of communication and information that are inescapably normative and directional.futures and those of their families and children. and entangling the ethics of the different parties involved. offering them new languages to describe their predicament. They transform the subjectivities of those who are counseled. These blur the boundaries of coercion and consent. new criteria to calculate its possi bilities and perils. that I have suggested. 47 . It is in this sense of managing the present in terms of an uncertain medical future. that all of us will soon follow those "ethical pioneers"—AIDS activists and women experiencing new reproductive technologies—in developing a new pragmatic ethics of vitality and its management. following Rayna Rapp. and in the face of technological medicine and pastoral expertise.

hospital managers. THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE. Professor of Sociology. 2007. we can observe a bioethical reshaping of the selfrepresentations of commercial actors in the biotech sectors. where required. 30-1 Surrounding these somatic experts is another branch of expertise bioethics. and where there are spirals of unrealistic hope and manipulated distrust. Similarly. for the fifty years following World War II and the debate on ethics in the wake of the Nazi doctors and the revelation of other medical experiments. AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. It is also clear that the routinization of can serve to insulate researchers rather than to constrain them. serve to assuage critical voices. notably assurances as to the "informed consent" of donors. Further. perhaps accidentally. For medical researchers. Bioethics has mutated from a sub-branch of philosophy to a burgeoning body of professional expertise. as one answer to a kind of "legitimation crisis" experienced by genetic and other biotechnologies in advanced liberal democracies (Salter and Jones 2002. clinicians. local Institutional Review Boards. p. to a whole apparatus of bioethical approved patient information and consent forms for any medical procedure or piece of biomedical research—we have witnessed a bioethical encirclement of biomedical science and clinical practice. Ethics was once inscribed within medical personages. it is clear that they can function to shield medical authorities. where confidence in products is crucial. Products that do not come with appropriate ethical guarantees. But now—from national bioethical committees. Similarly. In a market driven by the search for shareholder value. and its imbrication within regulatory strategies. the ethics of research was ensured by a set of principles and overseen by research ethics committees. and supported by a code of conduct arid enforced." What generates the insatiable demand for bioethics in the political and regulatory apparatus of advanced liberal societies? One can certainly regard the expansion of bioethics. POWER. imbued by long training and experience at the bedside. organs—it is clear that ethics has a crucial function in market creation. and that the now almost inescapable inclusion of ELSI32 considerations in calls for grants and in successful proposals may. 48 . Biomedicine. in those jurisdictions where bioethicists work in clinical settings. as biotech companies seek to commodify products—DNA sequences. and others from the consequences of contested and controversial decisions. stem cells. especially those involved in pharmaceuticals or genetic services for patients. Biotechnology. and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience. . such as those relating to the termination of life support to a putatively brain-dead individual. 2005). by professional bodies themselves. corporations engage bioethicists on their advisor boards and use a whole variety of techniques to represent themselves as ethical and responsible actors. where consumption of medical and pharmaceutical products is itself shaped by brand images and brand loyalty.Links: Public Health Bioethics professionals simply normalize biopower Nikolas Rose. tissues. will not find it easy to travel around the circuits of biocapital.

Links: Public Health
Contemporary medicine is based on control of the body and the mind
Nikolas Rose, Professor of Sociology, and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience, Biomedicine, Biotechnology, THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE, POWER, AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, 2007, p. 16 Indifferent, perhaps, to this epistemological and ontological radicalism, contemporary biomedicine is enthusiastically engaged with the biological re-engineering of vitality. Sarah Franklin draws upon the phrase used by Ian Wilmut, one of the creators of Dolly the sheep, to characterize this engagement: we have entered the age of "biological control." "This means that we can no longer assume that the biological 'itself' will impose limits on human ambitions. As a result, humans must accept much greater responsibility toward the realm of the biological, which has, in a sense, become a wholly contingent condition" (Franklin 2003: 100). Contemporary medical technologies do not seek merely to cure diseases once they have manifested themselves, but to control the vital processes of the body and mind. They are, I suggest, technologies of optimization.

Biopolitics is organized around the idea of public health
Nikolas Rose, Professor of Sociology, and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience, Biomedicine, Biotechnology, THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE, POWER, AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, 2007, pp. 24 Biopolitics, here, was not exhausted by sterilization, euthanasia, and the death camps. Many "citizenship projects" were organized in the name of health. In the education of German citizens in the Third Reich, in eugenic education campaigns in the United States, Britain, and many European countries, making social citizens involved instructing those citizens in the care of their bodies—from school meals to toothbrush use, inculcation of the habits of cleanliness and domesticity, especially in women and mothers, state regulation of the purity of food, interventions into the workplace in the name of health and safety, instructing those contemplating marriage and procreation on the choice of marriage partners, family allowances, and much else. The citizen here was not merely a passive recipient of social rights, but was also obliged to tend to his or her own body and, for a woman, those of her spouse and offspring While the state would engage in measures for preserving and managing the collective health of the population, whether this be in seeking to shape reproduction or trying to eliminate toxins, individuals themselves must exercise biological prudence, for their own sake, that of their families, that of their own lineage, and that of their nation as a whole.

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Links: Public Health
Biomedicine shapes our view of ourselves and our bodies
Nikolas Rose, Professor of Sociology, and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience, Biomedicine, Biotechnology, THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE, POWER, AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, 2007, pp. 25-6 Biomedicine, throughout the twentieth century and into our own, has thus not simply changed our relation to health and illness but hits modified the things we think we might hope for and the objectives we aspire to. That is to say, it has helped make us the kinds of people we have become. Social theorists have recently focused on historical transformations in the self, often analyzing these in terms of increasing individualization and reflexivity. My focus is related by different. I make no claims about changes in human personality or psychology – this would require a very different type of investigation. My analysis concerns not what human beings are, but what they think they are: the kinds of human beings they take themselves to be. And, I suggest, we are increasingly coming to relate to ourselves as "somatic" individuals, that is to say, as beings whose individuality is, in part at least, grounded within our fleshly, corporeal exister[ce, and who experience, articulate, judge, and act upon ourselves in part in the language of biomedicine. From official discourses of health promotion through narratives of the experience of disease and suffering; in the mass media, to popular discourses on dieting and exercise, we see n increasing stress on personal reconstruction through acting on the body in the name of a fitness that is simultaneously corporeal and psychological. Exercise, diet, vitamins, tattoos, body piercing, drugs, cosmetic surgery, gender reassignment, organ transplantation: the corporeal existence and vitality of the self has become the privileged site of experiments with the self.

Biological ethnopolitics is based on normalizing how we relate to others
Nikolas Rose, Professor of Sociology, and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience, Biomedicine, Biotechnology, THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE, POWER, AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, 2007, pp. 27 I think this economy of hope is one dimension of a wider shift in what I have termed "ethopolitics" (Rose 1999). By ethopolitics I refer to attempts to shape the conduct of human beings by acting upon their sentiments, beliefs, and values—in short, by acting on ethics. In the politics of our present, notably in the revival of
communitarian themes,' the ethos of human existence—the sentiments, moral nature, or guiding beliefs of persons, groups, or institutions—has come to provide the 'medium" within which the self-government of the autonomous individual can be connected up with the imperatives of good government.

If "discipline" individualizes and normalizes, and "biopolitics" collectivizes and socializes, "ethopolitics" concerns itself with the self-techniques by which human beings should judge and act upon themselves to make themselves better than they are. While ethopolitical concerns range from those of lifestyle to community, they coalesce around a kind of vitaliser, disputes over the value accorded to life itself: "quality of life," "the right to life" or "the right to choose," euthanasia, gene therapy, human cloning, and the like. This biological ethopolitics—the politics of how we should conduct ourselves appropriately in relation to ourselves, and in our responsibilities for the future—forms the milieu within which novel forms of authority are taking shape.
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therapists. the search for the profits and shareholder value that such truths promise. Biopolitics today depends upon meticulous work in the laboratory in the creation of new phenomena. and. Biotechnology. 33-4 Coercive health promotion is social control at its most insidious." The prospect of short-term profits is not worth the price. and that is guided by the larger vision. that novel forms of authority are to be found? Health promotion is insidious social control Beverly Ovrebo. taking the stance that "inflicting harm on drug users is not a legitimate way to express our disapproval of their behavior. in the practices of contemporary biopower. 2007. Daniel Callahan. and structure of public health. It is here. not market individualism. working with at-risk populations and directly confronting the need to scapegoat.Links: Public Health Biopolitics is based on extending the power of medicine Nikolas Rose. p. THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE. Health Education Professor San Francisco State University. that a specific percentage of total health expenditures be set aside for public health. AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. 27-8 These developments in the biomedical government of somatic selves are not primarily mobilized by politicians. it comes at the price of freedoms and the price of health. the regulatory strategies of research ethics. and the pervasive view that people who behave unhealthfully are legitimate targets of disapproval and punishment. 52 . p. or by the kinds of professionals that were invented over the twentieth century to make liberal freedom possible—social workers." Managed care must be guided by the precepts of public health. Market individualism has made public health unthinkable." In this new era of disease. personnel managers. values. POWER. and all those others who claimed to understand how we should live better lives. the massive computing power of the apparatus that seeks to link medical histories and family genealogies with genomic sequences. to endeavor to "do no harm" and leave no harm in its wake. the need to blame someone. of course. that has the tools and means to prevent and control infectious disease. and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience. ed. the marketing powers of the pharmaceutical companies. A good start is for managed care to adopt L. Naake's recommendation to the President's Health Care Task Force. As AIDS instructs. 2000. drug licensing bodies committees and bioethics commissions. Promoting Health Behavior. Biomedicine. The harm reduction movement offers a socially just alternative. Professor of Sociology. a health care system is required that addresses and is responsive to social inequity. reflecting the new healthism.

in its concern with self-surveillance. As I will outline in Chapter. The discourses and practices of public health and health promotion attempt to serve all these functions. for restraint. the restraint of the interior body through disciplines. the regulation of bodies in space. and for representation. discipline and control. Turner goes on to outline the instiutional subsystems which are responsible for these categories: for reproduction. Systems of regulation are constantly used to survey populations’ health status (the questionnaire is the most obvious example). p. and is exercised in interpersonal relations in the medical encounter. asceticism. panopticism. for example the discourses valorizing dietary and body weight control in the name of good health first.” or the ways in which power relations work in and through the human body. Turner has built upon Foucault’s concept of biopower to construct a conceptual framework which categorizes the ways in which the state must deal with bodies in space. intent on the documenting and regulating of the health status of populations. and the representation of the exterior body in social space. and good looks. to desist from or engage in abortion. sterilization or contraception. commodification. while the second exercises disciplinary power over the body politic. centering as it does on the institution of public health. The Imperative of Health: public health and the regulated body. For example. The first discursively constitutes the individual body. The latter two ways outlined by Turner in which the state deals with bodies are also highly relevant to the activities of health promotion. the restraint of the populations in time.Links: Public Health Public health campaigns are a way for the state to exercise biopower Deborah Lupton. second. 6 Foucault identified two dimensions of what he termed “biopower. patriarchy. The focus on this book. the concern with the reproduction of the labor force at the turn of the twentieth century was a major impetus for the public health movement’s focus upon infant mortality and fertility rates.University Western Sydney. is on the latter dimension of biopower. Social Sciences Lecturer. arguments of health are used to encourage people to have more or less children. to seek health care deemed appropriate by the state when undergoing pregnancy and labor. for regulation. 1995. 53 .

both facilitated and limited by historical. The regulation. Medicine as Culture. Social Sciences Lecturer.Links: Kritik of Public Health: Public Health Programs Increase Surveillance The body is a locale for government surveillance and control Deborah Lupton. of the spaces between bodies.” It is conceived of as a collection of practices. though complex. attribute. p. or “body techniques” which represent and regulate bodies in time and space. and how in turn individuals come to selfregulate and discipline their bodily deportment. Turner (1992:12) has developed the notion of the somatic society. the body is viewed as “an admixture of discourse and matter. in which the body is a metaphor for social organization and social anxieties.University Western Sydney. therefore. cultural and political factors. 2003. The ways in which the state undertakes surveillance and control of bodies. are central to the somatic society. are of central interest for the poststructuralist project in medical sociology. surveillance and monitoring of bodies. the principal field of cultural and political activities. 54 . one whose inseparability is a critical. 24 For contemporary poststructualist and postmodernist theory. Bodies are regarded as not simply shaped by social relationships. but as entering into the construction of these relationships.

Health became viewed as an element of national policy and a site for the intervention of government in the interests of maintaining a robust population to support the state’s endeavors. In the nineteenth century the theories of Malthus and Darwin contributed to both a concern about recording statistically the movement and reproduction of populations and a focus on constructing and monitoring norms of human behavior. those with greater or lesser prospects of survival. rich and poor. education and science. and illness. the ‘body’ – the body of individuals and the body of populations – appears as the bearer of new variables. 1991. which it was the duty of the state to promote and preserve. but also between the more or less utilizable. By this process of normalization. strong and weak. healthy and sick. The human body. The concept was politically so effective and so double-edged because of the interest of the authorities and the national economy in a self-administered objectification of the self appeared in it as a subjective need of the individual or an act of philanthropy. through these discourses. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. 55 . categories of ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ or ‘pathological’ bodies and social groups were constructed (see Chapter 2). p. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. (Duden. The public health movement developed as a response to these new concerns privileging order and human rationality: “The Enlightenment wrote health onto its banner as a physical-moral category. the submissive and the restive. p. 19) It was during this period that governmental means of regulating the population began to shift from overtly coercive methods to those of self-regulation. not merely between the scarce and the numerous. knowledges and practices. 2002. As a result. assisted through the knowledges and technologies engendered in medicine. p. and with more or less capacity for being usefully trained” (Foucault 1984a. 66-7 A heightened concern about the health of populations emerged in the modern European states in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in concert with the emergence of industrialism and the breakdown of the feudal system. was constructed as a target of surveillance and regulation.Links: Kritik of Public Health: Public Health Programs Increase Surveillance Public health movement legitimated the regulatory and surveillance powers of the government to fulfill its duty to promote health Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. more or less amenable to profitable investment. subject to regular measurement and comparison against statistical norms: “Within this set of problems. a new set of connections was generated between subject and discourse and subject and polity. Good health came to be regarded as the natural right of all citizens. death. 279).

but upon others. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. If individuals negative for HIV antibodies. It is also assumed that it is the responsibility of 'healthy' citizens to be aware of their HIV status. As one pamphlet on AIDS published by the New South Wales Department of Health in 1989 noted: 'It is . This awareness is only the first step of a self-maintenanceprogram. it is argued in the new public health. require high levels of knowledge and self-efficacy to achieve. they are exhorted to engage in activities to reduce the effects 56 . Engaging in health-preserving and body-controlling activities such as exercise and dieting is viewed as protecting citizens from the degeneracies of contemporary society. 25). It is suggested that citizens are thus acting in their own best interests in conforming to the imperatives issuing forth from the state in relation to 'healthy living': 'In effect the most recent space of surveillance has been a sort of "political awareness" which might be rendered as subjectivity. the process of hardening and toughening individual bodies acts as a metonym for the toughening of the nation's moral fibre (Scheper-Hughes & Lock 1987. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. 'self-esteem' and 'problem solving'. some public health documents have begun to refer to the concepts of 'health literacy' and 'health skills'. to exert control over one's life. Nutbeam et al. p. p.Links: Public Health Programs Increase Surveillance “Public” focus of public health deputizes citizens to conduct surveillance and regulation of other people’s health. 1993. This dimension of the obligations of the 'healthy' citizen is highly apparent in discourses about cigarette smoking. Responsibility for others' health status is also a central argument for preventive strategies relating to contagious diseases such as HIV infection and hepatitis. especially children. 'resilience'. As in the discourse of war. 15). for example by insisting that others do not smoke inside one's house (Lupton 1995. It has been the thinking. which are seen to comprise 'personal health knowledge'. p. in the interests of protecting the masses from 'other people's smoke'. which currently emphasise the effects that cigarette smoke has on other people. participate in screening procedures such as cervical cancer smear tests and blood cholesterol tests (but only when they are deemed to be in the appropriate target group). it is asserted that they should take steps td reduce their chance of contracting HIV by engaging in safer sex practices and avoiding the sharing of needles to inject drugs. To this end. 'positive attitudes towards changing behaviour'. to engage in self-development. 'self-help' and 'coping' skills (see. if they are positive. 68-70 This concept of 'good health' recognises the experiential as well as the functional dimension of health: 'health' is the ability to realize personal goals. control their diet according to dietary guidelines and take regular exercise to protect themselves against such conditions as coronary heart disease and osteoporosis. but they are also concerned about the health of others. p. 2002. p. providing a means of dispelling uncertainties and demonstrating allegiance to accepted moral norms in the interests of self-presentation. 118). Recent health campaigns have urged citizens to carry out surveillance in relation to cigarette smoking not only upon themselves. . acting subject which has been both the object and effect of the new public health in its various manifestations' (Armstrong 1993. 407). Not only do they take steps to protect their own health. and characterizes the health of the community over that of the individual Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. important that anyone who has been exposed to HIV should adopt lifestyle and behavioural practices which help to strengthen the immune system and do not spread the virus to other people'. The regulation and control of the body. Ideal 'healthy' citizens have their children immunised according to state directives. . for example.

The central aim is to involve the entire community in an effort to promote the health of all groups within a geographical area.of positivity on their bodies and to avoid passing on the virus to others. As this suggests. city or nation. . Goals and targets for public health expressed in such terminology as 'reducing mortality from lung cancer by 12 per cent by the year 2010' (see. in the new public health discourses devoting attention to one's health status is not only represented simply as an individual action but is also commonly sited within the context of a community. for example. . Nutbeam et al. As one writer has put it: 'Promoting the health of a community means developing and supporting the will and capacity of people to understand and work towards their own specific health needs . 1993) are couched in terms that express the community's health status over that of the individual's health status. an extra month of life) but result in statistics that appear beneficial at the population level.' 57 . such a target may be reached by infinitesimal improvements in the individual (for example. As observed in Chapter 2.

are intensely governed. But governmentality is not just directed at bodily practices. 1995. parents. such that even aspects of the self deemed intimate and individual such as thoughts and feelings are socially organized. While the institutions of public health and health promotion often display very overt signs of the state’s attempts to shape the behavior of its citizens. where this attempt at control becomes invisible is in the justification used. While they have different and often competing objectives and tactics. anxiety and repulsion towards the self. the educational system. the monitoring of the surfaces of bodies and the relationships between bodies. Sexuality. but the ways in which they invite individuals voluntarily to conform to their objectivities. the commercial mass media.Links: Public Health Programs Entrench Disciplinary Power Public health messages become a form of disciplinary power – covert control through self-policing Deborah Lupton. The major concerns of institutions. 10-1 It is clear that public health and health promotion may be conceptualized as government apparatuses. Some of these agencies and individuals deliberately and consciously set out to uphold state activities. social workers. including commodity culture. In the first volume of History of Sexuality (1979). to discipline themselves. Rather than issues of sexual behavior being repressed. p. Foucault uses the example of sexuality. have therefore been produced by the discourses of medicine. self-regulated. which he argues has been subject to a web of surveillance emerging from the state and elsewhere. groups and individuals in contemporary western societies revolve around the regulation of bodies in space. The institution of public health has served as a network of expert advice. All depend upon a limited collection of valorized knowledges and experts to support their claims. as well as the admonitions of their nearest and dearest for “letting themselves go” or inviting illness. 58 . all these agencies and institutions often articulate common discourses and encourage certain practices concerning the primacy of health and the importance of rational action. are often not recognized as coercive because they appeal to widely accepted norms and practices. who have dispensed wisdom directed at improving individuals’ health through self-regulation. a subject who is autonomous. psychiatric and public health. one is largely self-policed and no force is necessary. subject to incessant public discussion and discourses of regulation. however they are punished through the mechanisms of self-surveillance. our relationships with others. others are vigorously opposed. the family. economic advisers and epidemiologists. among others. to turn the gaze upon themselves in the interests of their health. Individuals are rarely incarcerated or fined for their failure to conform. Therefore it is not the ways in which such discourses and practices seek overtly to constrain individuals’ freedom of action that are the most interesting and important to examine. constituted as problems. However these institutions. embodied in professionals such as doctors and health promoters. while considered ‘private’ by most people. Indeed in contemporary western societies they have replaced religion as the central institutions governing the conduct of human bodies. medicine and public health have strongly coercive elements in that they set out to shape and normalize human behaviors in certain ways. In the interests of health. our subjectivities. evoking feeling of guilt. The imperatives explicit in health promotional activities initiated and carried out by state bodies are supported by a proliferation of agencies and institutions. As Turner points out. advocacy groups and community organizations. Those individuals who are part of the framework of public health making judgments about relative states of health and normality include – in addition to medical practitioners—teachers.University Western Sydney. our personalities. All are directed at constructing and normalizing a certain kind of subject. desirous of self-knowledge. community action groups. In late modernity. Social Sciences Lecturer. and the sexual body. directed at self-improvement. a subject who is seeking happiness and healthiness. public and private bureaucrats. like the educational system and religion. but at the very constitution of the self. The Imperative of Health: public health and the regulated body.

and are dispersed. and therefore measures taken to protect one’s health must necessarily be the concern and goal of each individual. and at which prescribed times.University Western Sydney. For public health. however. individuals continue to brush their teeth as an everyday habit. and acted upon b the subject and the social collectivity. As adults. 70-1 The contemporary virtuous 'healthy' citizen. often with little reflection on the reasons why they do so. maximising the body's capacity for both productive labour and self-fulfilment and development (Singer 1993).or herself exerts disciplinary power. Thus. external imperatives are internalised as private interests. Through the new public health discourses (among others). the health education campaign invoking guilt and anxiety if the advocated behavior is not taken up. experienced. the fitness test. therefore. 35-6 The dialectic of public health is that of the freedom of individuals to behave as they wish pitted against the rights of society to control individuals’ bodies in the name of health. While the overt rhetoric of the new public health is directed towards appeals to the notion of the 'civil 59 . In this process. 2003. p. to know their risks and therefore seen as benevolent. both over others and over the self through selfregulation. The ethic of restraint that is phrased in this discourse is not based on the asceticism of self-denial or obedience to an authoritative imperative. The rhetoric of public health discourse is disciplinary. Discourses on dental hygiene and care. Medicine as Culture. the body is internally lived. aligns personal satisfaction with the public good. Social Sciences Lecturer. Initiatives to encourage individuals to change their behavior. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. health is deemed a universal right. The practice has become a habit. the individual unconsciously him. power relations are rendered invisible. its needs are never abandoned for those of the polity. p. The self is never lost in this discourse. being voluntarily perpetuated by subjects upon themselves as well as upon others: “Subjects thus produced are not simply the imposed results of alien. for example. have continually emphasised the responsibility of the individual (or in the case of children. These norms about dental care have become naturalised in the family: children are taught how to brush their teeth. coercive forces. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. Disciplinary power is maintained through the mass screening procedure. a practice of the self perpetuated not by the dictates of external imperatives but by the individual's habits of everyday life. 2002. the utilitarian imperative rules. but rather is supported through a narcissistic approach of 'caring for and about oneself'. in being aware of the public gaze.Links: Public Health Programs Entrench Disciplinary Power Disciplinary power nature of public health masks its coercive and regulatory aspect by making it appear voluntary Deborah Lupton. of their mothers) to conform to expert advice consonant with the imperatives of govetomentality (Nettleton 1991). from infancy. a fundamental good. Thus. the health risk appraisal. the avoidance of drunk-driving and of smoking and the adoption of the practice of seatbelt wearing are about both the health of the citizen and the citizen's needs to protect others--either their health or the public purse.” Public health discourse convinces people that actions to promote the public good also promote individual health – external imperatives internalized as private interests Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton.

from the outset. whether explicitly or implicitly' (1992. Most of the new public health activities are sponsored by the state on behalf of its citizens. Indeed. 64). albeit cloaked in the discourse of individual and community 'voluntary participation'. there remains a notion that the state should sometimes step in to guide or even control its citizens that has resonances with early public health philosophies. 'modern Public Health has. generally administered through bureaucratic health departments and often enshrined in legislation that includes penalties for noncompliance. As Sears notes. p. the very conception of "Public Health" centres around the state. The state still takes a largely paternalistic approach to the task of monitoring and regulating its citizens' health.citizen' in its emphasis on self-regulation and self-control. Public health represents the state as the agency responsible for guarding and ensuring the health of the populace. 60 . been identified with the state.

p. As such. strategies and practices in the new public health: epidemiology. 26 As should now be apparent. The moralism that is extended to people who become ill because they have allowed themselves to be “invaded” is also extended to those who allow the entry of disease by failing to regulate their “lifestyle” with sufficient discipline. Social Sciences Lecturer. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. In the following chapters we focus more specifically on a number of integral discourses. chaotic. a failure of human control.” 61 . 2002. it is about the exercise of a particular form of power: one that presupposes and employs the regulated freedom of individuals to act in one way or another. the health of which must be protected by its individual members acting responsibly to keep out disease: “It is as if disturbing social events can be controlled y individuals imposing upon themselves regimes of discipline and healthful living. the invasion of weakness. 75 The nineteenth century emergence of biomedicine as a highly rationalized. as it is narrowly understood.Links: Public Health Programs Entrench Disciplinary Power Public health is about the exercise of disiplinary power Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. 'risk'. to rid the body (both individual and social) of disease. it has implications for subjectivity that go way beyond what might generally be implied by the 'improvement of health'. or about achieving some 'essential' state of individual or collective well-being and happiness. health promotional discourse often represents the enemy as the failure of self-control. “scientific” body of knowledge supported the view of the body as subject to the will of humans. protecting itself against invasion by microscopic enemies (viruses and bacteria). the 'healthy' city. or even from self-destruction via auto-immune disease. Just as the germ theory of disease represents the body as an armed fortress. and community participation. p. the notions of the 'healthy' citizen and 'the environment'. Above all. 1995. the notion of the individual body as besieged by selfdestruction is expanded in public health discourse to the concept of the social body.University Western Sydney. the new public health can be seen to involve much more than simply concern about 'health'. Given the shared project of biomedicine and public health to improve health status. Similarly. Public health promotion relies on disciplinary power to coerce people into adopting the socalled “healthy” behaviors. it is not surprising that the logic and discourse of public health continues to reproduce the ideal of the highly rationalized body dominated by the conscious will. and to vilify and blame them if they do not Deborah Lupton. lack of self-discipline against which the individual should be ever-vigilant. The Imperative of Health: public health and the regulated body. and to promote the perception of disease and illness as irrational.

Indeed. Winter 2008. (Ph. But. the fact of pregnancy alone does not put the pregnant woman within the jurisdiction of the biopolitical state. at present. prior to a baby's birth. Winter 2008.). and multiply" life." and to ultimately gain a modicum of control over "the level of health" of the population. State-based prenatal care is a vehicle for bringing pregnant women and their fetuses under states biopolitical control Khiara Bridges. the fact of pregnancy alone does not enable the state to reach the woman and her pregnant body with its biopolitical power. (Ph. Northwestern U. 66-67." the pregnant woman is not compelled to surrender herself to such a state project. However. 62 .D. Northwestern U. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. And. to subject the body to "precise controls and comprehensive regulations. While the state may desire to exercise its "power over life" by submitting the expectant mother and her fetus to "an entire series of interventions and regulatory controls. pregnancy is not a legal event. should a woman undergo the forty weeks of pregnancy without ever having sought and/or received medical care from a physician. Again. optimize. there is no law that penalizes a woman for "failing to protect" her not-yet-born child by neglecting or otherwise refusing to have a medically-managed pregnancy. there is no law in the United States that makes criminal or otherwise penalizes a woman's failure to submit herself to any kind of prenatal care during her pregnancy. Candidate. or other professional whose services are intended to ensure the birth of a healthy baby and the continued health of the new mother. The biopolitical state could achieve the regulation of every pregnant woman by creating a law that mandates that women receive prenatal care either from state actors or from persons that must otherwise answer to the state.). Yet. That is.Links: Prenatal Care Pre-natal care allows state to extend its control and regulation Khiara Bridges. at present. prenatal care presents itself as an occasion par excellence for the state to "administer. 66. there are a wealth of laws that punish a woman for directly harming or failing to protect her child. nurse practitioner. Following Foucault. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. of course. midwife. Candidate. or lack thereof. this is because. That is. I am not aware of any law that punishes such a woman's behavior. consequently. lose custody of the infant. In Colorado. a woman who exposes her fetus to controlled substances may be found to have neglected her child and.D. once a baby is born. such a law does not exist.

becomes the agent of his own discipline and oppression. whose body is always capable of being seen.Links: Prenatal Care State regulation of pregnant women simultaneous with prenatal care Khiara Bridges. which could demonstrate the immense power of the sovereign only by destroying the body of the prisoner. state regulation is simultaneous with prenatal care.D. and inclinations of the prisoner. the fact of pregnancy combined with the woman's attempted receipt of state aid not only brings a woman within the state's jurisdiction. the fact of pregnancy alone does not bring a woman within the jurisdiction of the state. Winter 2008. Prenatal care services are a mechanism for bringing pregnant women under state control Khiara Bridges. Northwestern U.). In this way. Candidate.D. and ultimately baring them to the potentiality of state-sanctioned violence. (Ph. To distill the central theme of the above exposition: for the uninsured poor. In sum. thoughts. Candidate. in turn. making them and previously invisible (some would say "private") elements of their lives visible. 85. Foucault's theorization of the carceral is helpful in understanding the significance of this fact. exposing them to state oversight. bears this knowledge and. was replaced by the instrument of the modern-era prison--the consummate vehicle for acting on the heart. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. (Ph. the prison par excellence. but also becomes an opportunity for the state to create a legal subject whose private life is exposed to state supervision and surveillance. 86. Medicaid and PCAP programs function to create legal subjects of pregnant women--bringing them within the jurisdiction of the biopolitical state. In Discipline and Punish. The Panoptican. 63 . NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. Northwestern U. Yet. dramatized and epitomized the operation of power in the modern age: the prisoner.). Foucault argued that the classical-era scaffold. will. Winter 2008. It produced docile bodies through a technique that combines constant surveillance with the precise management of the prisoner's body in space--both physical and temporal.

Candidate. The prenatal healthcare provided by Medicaid. I have hoped to demonstrate that attempting prenatal care with the assistance of state aid initiates women into an expansive state regulatory apparatus that far exceeds the purview of that care. chlamydia. cleaning solutions. and it is enrolled in WIC to enable its acquisition of "iron-fortified adult cereal. hence. eggs. This is significant because it demonstrates how class operates to differentially produce populations--generating the poor (not infrequently composed of people of color) as a group whose private lives are not respected as spheres into which the state ought not to tread. unpredictable. 90. dried beans/peas. Additionally. (Ph. I argue that the regime of prenatal care described above is a function of a "technocratic model of pregnancy"." I would like to expand Davis-Floyd's argument to encompass the nine months that precede labor and childbirth.). and inherently defective machine. cheese. the simultaneity of prenatal care and state management. it must be screened for their presence. nurse practitioners. white-tiled corridors by gloved and uniform-wearing medical assistants. Candidate. The body should be exposed. to the smell of disinfectants. It is a body whose ability to process sugar may suddenly disappoint. by statutory mandate. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY.D. unavoidably. Indeed. hence.D. is premised on constant surveillance of the pregnant body--a body whose health appears to be capable of failing at any given moment. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY.Links: Prenatal Care State-based prenatal care services brings women into expansive state regulatory apparatus Khiara Bridges. peanut butter. It is a body that is deficient in nutrients. pregnant women as possessors of unruly bodies. sanitizers. women are rewarded with fuzzy black-and-white images of their insides. syphilis. Winter 2008. Northwestern U. This body should be led down white-walled.e. The body produced by Medicaid is one whose interior should be made visible to the naked eye via technological interventions. tuna fish and carrots. vitamin C-rich fruit or vegetable juice." It is one that is always already susceptible to pathogens in the form of bacteria and viruses. the look of the place should not be disregarded: that is. and oversight is also significant because Medicaid coverage arguably produces the bodies of poor women--as a class--as problematic entities. the pregnant body produced by Medicaid is so greatly susceptible to sexually-transmitted pathogens (i. for both itself and the body of the fetus that it carries within. (Ph. accordingly. This is in line with what medical anthropologist Robbie Davis-Floyd termed the "technocratic model of childbirth"--within which "the female body is viewed as an abnormal. 86. and once again six weeks after the woman gives birth.. milk. and whose weight gain (or lack thereof) may indicate some unspecified complication. and HIV) that it must be doubly screened for their presence during pregnancy. and midwives who wear white lab coats. subsequent thereto. Prenatal care services for the poor brings pregnant women under state surveillance Khiara Bridges. Medicaid coverage produces poor.). 64 . intervention. Lastly. Northwestern U. That is. the Medicaid-produced pregnant body is one that is appropriately treated in antiseptic examination rooms by physicians. whose blood pressure may dangerously climb. Davis-Floyd's "technocratic model of childbirth" would represent the final stage of a larger ideology of the pregnant body. gonorrhea. hence. prenatal vitamins are prescribed to it. Winter 2008. and sterilizers.

" Duden compares this experience of pregnancy with those of women who have been protected from the "fetus" by historical happenstance and/or their subordinated socioeconomic positioning within global capitalism. however.Links: Prenatal Care Biomedical discourse on pregnant women profoundly disempowering Khiara Bridges. A poor woman may experience the disempowering and dependency-producing effects of a medicallymanaged pregnancy as yet another demonstration of her powerlessness within society. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. (Ph. Candidate. Candidate. further. Being poor is about putting oneself within the charge of someone who can meet the needs that one lacks the ability to satisfy for oneself. touchable. Knowledge of it resided with the woman who sensed it. Winter 2008. about submitting oneself to surveillance. prenatal care so delivered may be understood as a disciplinary mechanism that educates poor women about their status within society and the behavior expected of those that so occupy that station. The understanding of the pregnant body within biomedical discourse has been convincingly described as disempowering to the woman upon whom it is enacted. haptic state of woman known essentially through her testimony. the fetus "disembodies" a woman's perceptions and "forces her into a nine-month clientage in which her 'scientifically' defined needs for help and counsel are addressed by professionals. for a woman. 92. She describes the pregnancy of the mother of a poor. personal event. Pregnancy was once an intensely intimate. Historian Barbara Duden's work in this area is instructive. Northwestern U. Winter 2008. warm. Duden argues that "the fetus" has altered this. then manage.D. A woman's fetus. Thus. Indeed. bodily event about which the pregnant woman knows best--a publicly recognized. (Ph.D. 93. Northwestern U. being poor is about being dependent on others. Prenatal care brings women under state surveillance ." Pregnancy--before the advent of photogenically-produced fetuses and tests that can detect the presence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropic [HCG] hormone--was a more embodied. a woman's pregnancy was only made known to others through her announcement of it. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. 65 . She argues that women's experiences of pregnancy in the modern era are held hostage by the "fetus"--a biological fact that is taken to be best administered within the biomedical paradigm.disempowering Khiara Bridges. about being problematized. Specifically. It is now a condition that professionals first confirm. familiar. recent immigrant living in Harlem as much more "sensual.).). is only accessible to her via technological processes that are held in monopoly by medical professionals.

I believe. and vaccinations are administered. through the application of medical science. to their fetuses. (Ph. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. The consequence. pregnant body (which are invariably "there" and must be detected via constant screens and tests) can only be remedied by medical science. The poor body. 100. hence. WIC. Prenatal care within the Medicaid regime can be understood to proceed from the assumption that the errors and risks within the poor. the parade of contraceptives placed in front of the postpartum body n84--ranging from the lower-intervention condoms to the intensely high-intervention DepoProvera injection. The poor body is one that is malnourished. 66 . Northwestern U. yes. antibiotics. and the concomitant prescription of prenatal vitamins and recommended consumption of meat and dairy. are provided. Winter 2008. or at least managed. hence.Links: Prenatal Care State-based prenatal care brings pregnant women under state biomedical control Khiara Bridges.). antiviral medications. and to the society within which they exist. the poor are treated as biological dangers--to themselves. is one that is exposed to bacteria and viruses. In this way. unruly.D. then. hence. Candidate. The poor body is one whose reproduction is dangerously unrestrained and. Poverty is treated as a condition that produces ailments and disorders all rectifiable. is a medicalization of poverty.

it is not entirely unreasonable to assume that an aggressive medical gaze is appropriate for the uninsured. might be understood as an admission by the state of the unjust nature of capitalism and the class structure that is its sine qua non. Candidate. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. 67 . even irregular) medical check-ups--an assumption that is especially true for the "undocumented" pregnant bodies that present themselves at Alpha. Essentially. NORTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIAL POLICY. (Ph. Winter 2008. however. Northwestern U. and the simultaneous production of poor. 100-101. Candidate. Northwestern U. Indeed. Medicaid’s prenatal care services acknowledge the unjust nature of capitalist exploitation Khiara Bridges. Winter 2008. The battery of tests to which patients must submit themselves might be understood as a corrective to the years of medical inattention that poverty and the absence of health insurance compel. Medicaid's profoundly medicalized management of pregnancy. These are women who do not have the luxury of having a urinary tract infection diagnosed before it becomes asymptomatic and manifests itself as kidney malfunction. These are women who do not have the benefit of annual Pap smears to detect abnormal cervical cell growth. 101. The insistent medical manipulation of the pregnant body mandated by Medicaid can be understood as an attempt to rectify that situation. All of this is to say that Medicaid's tenacious management of pregnancy performs a confession: it confesses that capitalism and the poverty that is its effect create a state of affairs inside of which common and curable ailments within the poor body go undetected.).D. pregnant body that presents itself to the obstetrics clinic is one that has not had the benefit of regular (or. (Ph. the state assumes that the poor.Links: Medicaid Medicaid medicalizes management of pregnant women through prenatal care services Khiara Bridges. Indeed. within that attempt is an implicit acknowledgement of the unjust nature of the class structure of this capitalist society. pregnant women as biological dangers.).D. These are the women who do not have the advantage of being told if that lump in the breast really is nothing to worry about. The function of every organ and every system is assessed because class inequality dictates that their health would not have been established previously via periodic evaluations--a comfort that the insured enjoy.

68 .

17-8 The histories written by social constructionists and Foucault and his followers have demonstrated that a close analysis of the emergence and development of the public health movement reveals not a steady progression from primitive. The discussion begins with medieval attempts to respond to epidemics. 1995. then to the implications of the discovery of the microbe for public health practice. Their histories have shown that while it is standard to describe the “old” public health and the “new” public health as related but very different traditions. surveillance. sexuality. The history and philosophy of the public health and social hygiene movements as they emerged in the eighteenth century in western societies are reviewed. reproduction. p. miasma. The chapter focuses in particular on the ways in which the bodies of individuals have been constructed and regulated via the discourses and practices of public health in its various forms. They have also revealed that for centuries the institutions of medicine and public health have been central in constituting the “normalizing gaze” as part of the mass observation and social regulation. childhood and the family as matters requiring the attention and expertise of public health reformers. Social Sciences Lecturer. with a particular focus on Britain and continental Europe as the “birthplaces” of the public health/sanitary movement. 69 . centering on the constitution of such problems as dirt. This chapter primarily draws upon the insights of such histories to discuss the key problems identified and constructed by public health and the strategies of surveillance and regulation developed to govern these problems. normalizing gaze focus of the “old” public health Deborah Lupton. but a series of eras characterized by regressions and political struggles.Links: “New” Public Health “New” public health still grounded in the same biopower. odor. moving onto the Enlightenment and the emergence of the social hygiene movement. much of the discourses and practices of the “old” public health movement can be currently seen in the “new” public health.University Western Sydney. The Imperative of Health: public health and the regulated body. “unenlightened” thought to “modern” ideas and practices.

We suggest that this reticence is in itself indicative of the power of the discourse of the new public health to shape public opinion. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. we highlight what we believe are some important dimensions of the new public health and critically appraise their implications for concepts of self. With the development of this perspective. there has been surprisingly little critical analysis of its underlying philosophies and its practices.Links: “New” Public Health Broad discourse of the new public health justifies ever expanding government intrusions into people’s lives Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. The uncritical acceptance of the basic tenets of the new public health is disturbing in light of the increased potential for experts to intervene in private lives and for established rights to be undermined. ix-x The new public health takes as its foci the categories of 'population' and 'the environment'. In this book. embodiment and citizenship. and its impact on virtually all aspects of everyday life. conceived of in their widest sense to include Psychological. few areas of personal and social life remain immune to scrutiny and regulation of some kind. 2002. Given the scope of the new public health. 70 . p. It has been represented as the antidote to all kinds of problems linked to modern life. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. The new public health has been warmly embraced by people of diverse backgrounds and political persuasions. particularly problems of the urban milieu. social and physical elements.

especially for the elderly and disabled. and especially after the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) held in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. the category of 'population' has become the object and target for increasingly detailed knowledges and strategies. 2002. for example. It should be noted. 4-5 It is evident. “the new public health is an approach which brings together environmental change and personal preventative measures with appropriate therapeutic interventions. (1988. that some definitions of the new public health are restricted to environmental concerns and exclude publicly provided personal health services such as maternal and child care. Since the late 1980s. especially in urban areas. There has been a proliferation of expert knowledges and activities (that is. physical and social elements. in the aetiology of problems. However it goes beyond an understanding of human biology and recognises the importance of those social aspects of health problems which are caused by life-styles. In this way it seeks to avoid the trap of blaming the victim. 122). unnderlying them are concrete issues of local and national public policy. 472). forms of property. p. and in other chapters. but rather to a level of analysis: the population (Frenk 1993. p. attention has increasingly focused on the health impacts of human intrusions into the 'natural' environment. or 'risks'. National Commission on the Environment 1993. the health effects of energy use and land degradation (WHO 1992a. conferences. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. and even preventive services such as immunisation or birth control (see. Many contemporary health problems are therefore seen as being social rather than solely individual problems. and what are needed to address these problems are 'Healthy Public policies—policies in many fields which support the promotion of health. the 21) This definition emphasises a number of themes to be found in conceptions of the so-called new public health: a shifting away from the biomedical emphasis on the individual towards a focus on 'social' factors. The point to be stressed at this juncture is that the dual emphases on 'population' and on a broad concept of 'environment' that goes beyond national boundaries have redefined many areas of personal life as 'health related' 71 .Links: “New” Public Health New public health’s attempt to avoid victim blaming and shift from the biomedical model redefines many areas of personal life as health-realted Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. for example. however. Nutbeam 1986. In the New Public Health the environment is social and psychological as well as physical. 1991. National Health and Medical Research Council 1992). Clearly. a recognition of the multidimensional nature of problems and of required solutions. according to Ashton and Seymour. that a comprehensive conception of public health has emerged that is directed not to specific services. More will be said on this later in this chapter. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. publications. Ewan et al. or types of problem. particularly 'lifestyle'. Thus. however. p. and particularly the adoption of a broad concept of the determining 'environment' that includes psychological. posed in particular by industrial activities and rapid population growth. and governmental inquiries and commissions) focusing on the new environmental threats. p.

Links: Hygeine Campaigns
Hygienic public health messages key aspect of biopower
Deborah Lupton, Social Sciences Lecturer- University Western Sydney, 2003, Medicine as Culture, p. 36 Concepts of body imagery are central to an understanding of the ways in which individuals experience the lived body and its relationship to the environment. Policing the boundaries of the body by maintaining strict control over what enters and what leaves the body’s orifices is an integral aspect of biopolitics. These Actions often center around symbolic conceptions of hygiene, cleanliness and dirt, and are inextricably intertwined with notions concerning societal order and control. As Douglas notes, the individual’s ideas about what constitutes “dirt” and the body’s relationship to dirt are symbolic of the need to maintain control of the body politic. “…dirt is essentially disorder. There is no such thing as absolute as dirt; it exists in the eye of the beholder. If we shun dirt, it is not because of craven fear, still less dread or holy terror. Nor do our ideas about disease account for the range of our behavior in cleaning or avoiding dirt. Dirt offends against order. Eliminating it is not a negative movement, but a positive effort to organize the environment.”

Public health discourse justifies regulation of those seen as dangerous and unclean -otherizes
Deborah Lupton, Social Sciences Lecturer- University Western Sydney, 1995, The Imperative of Health: public health and the regulated body, p. 47 Definitions of dirt and those things or people who are considered “unclean,” are highly suggestive of symbolic anxieties, fears and repulsions. As Douglas notes, “if we can abstract pathogenicity and hygiene from our notion of dirt, we are left with the old definition of dirt as matter out of place.” At the deeper level of meaning, then, public health has been directed at attempts to police body boundaries, to guard the integrity of the public body against the disorder threatened by dirt. In public health discourses, dirt, whether visible or in the invisible form of microbes, equals disease, and the hygienist ideology thus supports the most overt attempt at social regulation. The dirty body is a horror, a source of loathing and disgust, a thing whose boundaries are leaky and uncontrolled and threaten to contaminate others; its apotheosis is the corpse. The rituals of hygiene, directed both at the private body and the body politic, have remained vital in maintaining the distinction between spaces and bodies. On the inside of the boundary lies social order, “Us,” while the outside is “a twilight place of outcasts, danger and pollution.”

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Links: Hygeine Campaigns
Public health campaigns promote body mccarthyism with an irrational fear of and obsession with dirt and germs
Deborah Lupton, Social Sciences Lecturer- University Western Sydney, 2003, Medicine as Culture, p. 38 Current television advertisements in Anglophone countries for household cleaners and disinfectants continue to make such claims for “protecting” the health of the household, especially that of young babies, who are, considered particularly susceptible to the ravages of evil “dirt” and “germs.” There is a particular obsession with the cleanliness of lavatories, as demonstrated by the bewildering range of commercial cleaners which are marketed as having the sole purpose of disinfecting lavatory bowls, seats and S-bends, with cleanliness usually displayed by a bright blue chemical – being released every time the lavatory is flushed. Such fear and anxiety about germs and dirt is ironic, for in contemporary western societies members of the public are exposed to far less risk from deadly bacteria and viruses than in previous generations: “Yet the fear of germs – codified during the Lysol and plastic-packaged 1950s – verges on mass psychosis. Germs are bad guys; foreign, unnegotiable, dangerous” The contemporary obsession with clean bodily fluids has been termed “Body McCarthyism” and viewed by critics as an hysterical new temperance movement that targets the body’s secretions and which expresses anxiety over the invasion of the body by viral agents. It has been argued that such anxiety concentrated upon eliminating “Germs” and “Dirt” reveals deeper concerns about the integrity of the body in an age in which potential contaminants are invisible, and where epidemics such as HIV/AIDS have served to heighten fears about the maintenance of body boundaries. For the Krokers and colleagues, panic was the dominant adjective and theme of the late twentieth century, as in the terms panic sex, panic art, panic ideology, panic noise, panic theories, panic eating, panic fashion, and panic bodies. They see burnout, discharge and waste as the characteristic qualities of the post-modern condition and the body as portrayed in popular culture as both a torture chamber and a pleasure-palace. They describe the diseases receiving attention at the end of the twentieth century – anorexia, HIV/AIDS and herpes – as “poststructuralist diseases, tracing the inscription of power on the text of the flesh and privileging the ruin of the surface of the body.”

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Links: Miscellaneous Health Programs
Aids prevention paradigm grounded in coercive public health
Beverly Ovrebo, Health Education Professor San Francisco State University, 2000, Promoting Health Behavior, ed. Daniel Callahan, p. 24 Also new are the diseases of our age. We have entered the era of emergent and reemergent infectious diseases, for which AIDS is just the forerunner. The AIDS prevention paradigm, which emphasizes health promotion in lieu of traditional public health protections, evolved in part in reaction to perceived threats posed by coercive public health measures for the control of communicable disease.

Women’s value couched in terms of their reproductive contribution to society
Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton, Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney, 2002, The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk, p. 73 Women in Western societies have been principally represented as citizens in terms of their contribution to the bearing and raising of children and the care of husbands and other family members. The woman as 'healthy' citizen, therefore, is understood as a resource for the reproduction and maintenance of other 'healthy' citizens. Such participation in citizenship does not fall into the notions of civil or political citizenship. Rather, it is an understanding of citizenship that revolves around contributing to the welfare of society through private actions (childbearing and domestic labour).

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with which they are born—it does not leave room for their development. what the calls “the anthropological minimum”—that humans are equal. This anthropological minimum therefore allows for strategies of exclusion based on implicit diversions and exclusion in the social world. by responding only to emergencies. p. Medicine at the Border: disease. in this case. Does the life saved come with cultural attributes. it also allows for the differential and unequal treatment of people who are not recognized within this minimum. And. As such. if one behaves in a way that is differently rational. defined by the capacity to suffer. They are not part of the humanitarian mission. there is room for exclusions and hierarchies. lacking in appropriate rationality. it ignores the specific cultural and psychological conditions woven in as preconditions for the actualization of these capacities. Mehta explains how. humanitarianism can only defend a minimal existence. and too devoid of context to be substantiated. University of Michigan. 1850 to the present. For example. and therefore governed without freedom because their purported “inscrutability” led to the belief that they were like children. 130-1 Is humanitarianism inherently flawed in its ethical goals? Uday Mehta helps to explain how these limitations might derive from the exclusions built into the notion of universalism. 75 .” Indeed.Links: Miscellaneous Health Programs Humanitarian assistance grounded in liberalism only focuses on acute instances of suffering – leaves social-context of ill health to the jurisdiction of the nation state to address Miram Ticktin. In other words. again in order to fix a universal set of characteristics about human nature. because Locke neglected to qualify the context of his concept of universal human nature. It assumes certain characteristics are common to all human beings. outside the category of human. Thus. as is the case of Mehta’s liberal universalism. As Redfield suggests. one could not be counted as fully equal. It takes human beings out of all sociological or historical context. they are not responded to: that suffering is placed outside the minimal conditions requiring response. Professor of Women’s Studies. “humanitarian action can preserve existence while deferring the very dignity or redemption is seeks. which responds to suffering in its most rudimentary and often biological forms. In other words. Without rationality. when different forms of suffering are not recognized by the conceptual framework employed by humanitarian workers. historically contingent standard. and hence. for that matter – have their lives saved by humanitarian action. If one does not exhibit the expected characteristics of human nature – for instance. Humanitarianism protects a similar universal. the rest is qualified and protected or stopped from crossing borders by the political context in which each person is found—which in our contemporary world. according to the British interpretation of the anthropological minimum. remains the nation-state. exclusions based on the different qualifications of “human nature” were justified. but minimal and acontextual vision of life. He suggests that the base standard of universal human nature described by Locke. or. 2006. limiting action to a temporal frame of the present and therefore deferring political solutions. such as hunger and disease. and security. and in particular. If undocumented immigrants – or refugees or victims of war. Alison Bashford. for that matter. in the British Empire. liberal imperialism. as embodied by liberalism. In this form of minimalism. political attributes. Indians were treated as inferior. and hence unrecognizable in liberalism’s terms – liberal universalism locates this outside of the anthropological minimum. the universalism of humanitarianism only works for a very basic notion of humanity. it is not clear what notion of life this entails. too. Such people are thus similarly located outside the definition of human. free and rational from birth – is in fact too minimal. these qualifications belong to the political realm. fully human. ed. globalization.

lack of access to health care services. p. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. the limits of biomedicine.Links: Public Health Discourses Public health discourse emphasizing equality. New public health knowledges and related practices have implications that may not be in accordance with what its supporters envisage> Public health “empowerment” discourse fails to critically evaluate how public health reproduces power relations Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. the constraints of bureaucracy. there has been no questioning of the fact that the Healthy Cities project was initiated by a group of experts and bureaucrats who have remained 'wedded to a conventional (and modernist) view that science can both liberate the human condition and provide legitimation for the political processes of so doing' (Davies & Kelly 1993. For instance. men and women. 76 . justice and empowerment obscures its grounding in modernism and hierarchy of experts Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. We have argued. Given the centrality of the concept of 'empowerment' in the discourse of the new public health. Part of the broad appeal of the new public health is undoubtedly due to its adoption of a language of 'empowerment' and a rhetoric advocating social and environmental change. professional dominance. 'more sustainable' society and ecosystem. that the moral and political implications of the new public health apparatus tend to be obscured by a post-Enlightenment modernist discourse that emphasises the role of science and rationality in social progress and the liberation of the human condition. health promoters have offered surprisingly little analysis of power relations as they pertain between. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. p. for instance. In their failure to appraise critically the narratives of progress that underlie and support many of the projects of the new public health. 9-10 Like much of the contemporary writing on the new public health. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk.” see particularly Chapter 6). populations of the wealthy 'developed' countries and populations of the poor “developing” countries. public health advocates can be accused of leaving unexamined and intact the power relations that these narratives both reproduce and help to sustain. however. 2002. and environmental degradation. 175 Many people have thrown their support behind the new public health because they are genuinely concerned about such issues as inequalities in health. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. The arguments and evidence presented in this book indicate the need for a more critical appraisal of the new public health. the form of narrative adopted here would seem to have more to do with confirming what has already become largely orthodoxy in thought and practice rather than with developing a critical understanding of fundamental assumptions. 7). 2002. whose agenda has been largely set by professional experts and is closely aligned with official objectives. and heterosexuals and gay men and lesbians (for a critique of “empowerment. experts and non-experts. We discuss in Chapter 5 how these modernist assumptions inform thinking about the city. and are seeking an alternative vision of a 'healthier'. p.

social structures. even this very tentative survey of the professional-technical practices fostered at schools of environmental studies discloses a great deal about how technoscience discourses frame regimes of discipline in the everyday workings of governmentality. So well-trained professionals. like "the environment. because its guidance contradicts what their organizational powers can.edu/tim/tims/Tim514a. There are limitations to this analytical approach.vt. but at other times not thoroughly networked. even when armed with sound science. by dreams of preservationist restoration ecology. contemporary American universities are giving Nature a new look as "the environment" by 77 . do against all informed advice to act otherwise. knowing. which clearly are always afoot in any academic institution." Nonetheless. can be flouted to serve the expedient goals of far more naked power agendas. on a third level. it cannot delve beneath the manifest intentions of such schools and colleges as they portray themselves in their own literature. can be studied most effectively by following the actors back to their sites of professional-technical training at schools of environmental studies or colleges of natural resources. Many courses carry bland descriptions of totally conformist approaches. The cultural politics of environmental discourse. even though they might believe themselves to be ameliorating it. A few may be engaged. owing. Nonetheless. this analysis has only begun the examination of discursive frames and conceptual definitions for common theoretical notions. it does not consider how state or corporate power centers.htm This investigation's approach to some specific environmental discourses circulating through modern research universities may offend some in the academy because it asks how involved. however. implement or reproduce knowledges and their truth systems quickly get adopted through university programs of study and research. and waters technocratically are to be reengineered as vast terrestrial infrastructures for resource/risk/recreationist managers to administer. and. And. here is where one can discover how and why environmental studies are shaped by its disciplines of heterogeneous engineering as every environmental professional gets his or her education to protect and manage the Earth. but most others are devoted. Therefore. in the last analysis. On a second level. On one level. to vast projects of conservationist eco-rationalization in which Nature's forests." or "environmental sciences.Links: Environmental Health Discourses ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DISCOURSE POSITS THE ENVIRONMENT AS A DOCILE SUBJECT OF TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT– THIS WAY OF KNOWING THE WORLD IS AN EXERCISE OF INSTITUTIONAL POWER. at the same time. lands. and actually do what their documents promise. One must assume that they are what they profess to be. often will ignore or belittle academic knowledge.cddc. in causing the current ecological crisis. This is where the heterogeneous engineering cultures of mainstream environmentalists--or conventional understandings manifest in the acts and artifacts of these social groups--are both produced and reproduced. Universities provide an unusual opportunity to view them working more in unison and out in the open as the formal knowledges needed by power centers are imparted to new generations in the ruling. and in what ways have academicians become implicated. but their instructors and students may very well follow none of them when their classes actually convene. http://www. on the other hand. in fact." "environmental studies. or controlling elites. on the one hand. or will. Power and knowledge are pervasive forces whose agents often move in quite different channels sometimes tied to interlocked. those specific power agendas required to define. As this discussion illustrates. it cannot catch any resistances or all deviations from the official institutional line. LUKE Professor of Political Science – Virginia Polytechnic 1996.

transforming their formal knowledges about its workings into the professional-technical practices of a managerialistic "environmentality" in their schools of the environment or colleges of natural resources. however. Nature loses any transcendent aura. the disciplinary articulations of environmentality now center upon establishing and enforcing "the right disposition of things" by policing humanity's "conduct of conduct" in Nature and Society. risks. but also protectable. and recreationists in their reconstruction of contemporary governmentality as environmentality. "natural resources" that university faculty and post-graduate students study continuously in order to rationalize how particular researchoriented and management-oriented applied sciences can get down to the business of administering their geopower processes as terrestrial fast capitalism's "natural resource systems. Like governmentality. as its stuff appears preprocessed in the academy as mere "environments" full of exploitable." 78 . The heterogeneous engineers behind fast capitalism's environmentalizing regime must advance eco-knowledges to activate their command over geo-power as well as operationalize a measure of operational discipline over environmental resources.

9). such policy is “multisectoral” in scope. or “consumers” as they are often referred to. The Imperative of Health: public health and the regulated body. 1995. According to the rhetoric. engineering. Health status becomes something that consumers must continually monitor and evaluate. encompassing “political” action (for example. those individuals who do not achieve a permanent state of “good health” are constructed as abnormal.University Western Sydney. This discourse draws upon the rhetoric of marketing: “clients” or “consumers” are provided with health promotional services. banking. economic and community groups (Milio 1986. involving many levels and areas of government. 2002. it is not confined to the conventional sphere of public health policy. p. 17) (see Chapter 5). Public health discourses reproduce divisions between “healthy” and “unhealthy” states – constructs ill health as abnormal Deborah Lupton. Social Sciences Lecturer. In health promotion discourses. reflecting a more general concern with developing a non state-based sphere of “the political” and with nurturing local autonomy (see Chapter 6). members of the population. p. requiring the attention of the health care or health promotion system. like medical discourses. 17-8 The shorthand term used to designate those policies designed to support the entrepreneurial actions of individual and collective subjects—'healthy public policy'—is seen by its advocates as a key part of the new public health (Draper 1991. It is also collaborative in strategy. Notions of the “healthy self” are constructed not only through comparison of one’s internal state. Community action and “community” participation have emerged as key concepts in the new public health. this has brought together and legitimated the involvement in health of a vast array of experts from such diverse areas as transport planning. p. media studies. architecture. are represented as experiencing a lack. but comparison of oneself with “unhealthy” others who embody the characteristics falling outside the “healthy” self. voluntary. p. At least in principle. agriculture. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. 74-5 As these documents suggest. so as to be aware of their needs and wants and to take the appropriate steps to satisfy them. It has also led to the emergence of a new conception of the domain of expert practice.” 79 . just as the ill are provided with biomedical services. involvement in local action groups) as well as the production and application of “impartial” scientific knowledge. that is. town planning and other areas of local government.Links: Public Health Discourses Multi-sectoral nature of public health legitimates government and expert involvement in diverse areas of life Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. lobbying politicians. public health and health promotional discourses continually seek to emphasize and reproduce the divisions between healthy and unhealthy states and social groups. There is no coercion involved: consumers are “free” to make their own choices on the information provided them. and change because they “want to. social work. As such. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney.

2003. tombstones. Such campaigns proliferated in the mid-to-late 1980s in Britain and Australia. large-scale disaster. Health education is a form of pedagogy. which. icebergs and volcanoes to signify looming. 80 . Contemporary public health directed at “health promotion” narrows its focus on the individual by associating the so-called lifestyle diseases with individual behaviors. The campaigns attempted to create awareness of the risks of HIV/AIDS by shock tactics and fear appeals. Social Sciences Lecturer. Health promotion rhetoric maintains that the incidence of illness is diminished by persuading members of the public to exercise control over their bodily deportment. “AIDS: How Big Does it Have to be Before You Take Notice?” in television and print advertisements featuring apocalyptic and forbidding images of coffins. Medicine as Culture. serves to legitimize ideologies and social practices by making statements about how individuals should conduct their bodies. The notorious “Grim Reaper” mass media campaign was run in Australia. have become the new work ethic. 35 At the turn of the twenty-first century. including what type of food goes into bodies. Britons were warned. the nature and frequency of physical activities engaged in by bodies. but have moved from containing infectious disease to exhorting people to take responsibility for maintaining personal bodily health. Selfcontrol and self-discipline over the body. warning of the dangers posed by HIV infection. “Don’t Die of Ignorance” and were asked.Links: Public Health Discourses Fear-based public health education campaigns strengthen disciplinary power Deborah Lupton. both within and without the workplace.University Western Sydney. and the sexual expression of the body. using a horror-movie genre employing the image of the symbol of death laying waste to ordinary Australians. the concerns of public health have remained firmly fixed on controlling bodies. like other forms. p. based on the assumption that knowledge and awareness of the danger of certain activities will result in avoidance of these activities. linking sexuality with guilt and death and positioning the public as ignorant and apathetic and the state as the guardian of morals in the name of preserving the public’s health. State-sponsored health education campaigns in the mass media are conducted to warn the public about health risks.

tuberculosis. As a result.’” 81 . 2003. venereal disease and problems of childhood. p. had been reconstructed to focus medical attention on ‘normal’ people were nevertheless ‘at risk. Social Sciences Lecturer. 34 The public health movement in the late nineteenth century developed a new rationale for the surveillance of bodies in the interests of gathering information to target better the health problems of populations. the allocation of resources and the development of relevant legislation.” Disease became constituted in the social body rather than the individual body. 2002. measuring and reporting back to a system of government agencies. “an instrument of order and control. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. 30 Epidemiology thus performs a number of regulatory and surveillance functions: not only is it active in the ‘discovery’ of disease-causing factors using ‘scientific’ methods. prescribing solutions and interventions and monitoring preventive health care delivery.University Western Sydney. Epidemioilogical research is used as the basis for the development of health care programs. The medico-social survey became an important instrument in the disciplining of populations. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk.Links: Epidemiology Epidemiology performs regulatory and surveillance functions Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. p. intensified such practices. and deviant types were identified as needful of control for the sake of the health of the whole population. Medicine as Culture. focused upon the documenting of patterns of disease across groups. The emergence of the field of epidemiology. a technique for managing the distribution of bodies and preventing their potentially dangerous mixings. but it also performs evaluative and policy roles in establishing and ordering conditions and social groups in terms of importance and greatest risk. by the early twentieth century everyone became a potential victim requiring careful monitoring: “The new social diseases of the twentieth century. Epidemiology justifies expanded control over individuals and surveillance Deborah Lupton. involving constant record-taking.

were part of an expanding apparatus of control. In order that subjects be governable. 14-5 Expertise plays a crucial role in political rule in modernrn societies. translating political concerns about economic productivity. focusing upon their problems and problematizing new issues. then. they would ally themselves with political authorities. as a particular example of a more general deployment of expert knowledge for shaping the thoughts and actions of subjects in order to make them more useful and 'governable'. graphs and statistics. and in this respect expert 'theories' play a decisive role. These knowledges turned power from an external economic and political force into a form of rule based on 'the administration of bodies and the calculated management of life' (Foucault 1980. Foucault has demonstrated how the human sciences emerged in the nineteenth century as part and parcel of the development of an extensive system of moral regulation of populations. bring up healthier or happier children and much more besides. Public health has developed many techniques for defining and circumscribing a governable terrain. social life needs to be rendered into a calculable form. normality and pathology and so forth into the vocabulary of management. classification. schools and hospitals. p. On the other hand. p. Rose and Miller note that: “The vital links between socio-political objectives and the minutiae of daily existence in home and factory were to be established by expertise. earn more. accounting. Experts would enter into a kind of double alliance. Those material conditions that enable thought to analyse an object. numbers. evaluation and calculation (Johnson 1993). social stability. On the one hand. 140). pictures. medicine. sociology and psychology. social science and psychology. in the form of reports. factory organization or diet into a language claiming the power of truth.Links: Epidemiology Public health reliance on experts to identify problems and solutions serves the goal of making people “governable” Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. innovation. Commenting on the techniques of rule in neo-liberal societies. translating their daily worries and decisions over investment. however. which has involved making human beings the objects of the exercise of power. industrial unrest.” Public health expertise can be seen. child rearing. which Bruno Latour calls inscription devices. translate reality into a form in which it can be debated and diagnosed. for example. law and order. charts. by rendering a multiplicity of social fields governable through detailed documentation. discipline and regulation that involved micropolitical processes whereby individuals were encouraged to conform to the morals of society. New specialist knowledges such as medicine. 82 . 2002. they would seek to form alliances with individuals themselves. and offering to teach them the techniques by which they might manage better. and new institutions such as prisons. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk.

they selectively order knowledge in such a way that some categories and some utterances and actions are privileged above others. and vectors. It is clear. and therefore seem more natural and logical. M. Expertise plays a crucial role in modern systems of power through the creation of knowledge about the 'normal' human subject. These include the quantitative sciences of epidemiology and biostatistics. A similar growth in those trained in the managerial sciences in public health stems from the current debates on the organization and financing of health services in countries rich and poor. Black & A. and the social and behavioral sciences. and Policies. xii-xiii Our analysis begins in Chapter 1 with the recognition of the fact that the new public health is at its core a moral enterprise. As we explain in this chapter. direct coercion or blatant control as through the creation of expert knowledges about human beings and societies. and can be seen to reflect changing relations of power in modem societies. which serve to channel or constrain thinking and action. 83 . eds. anthropology. and sociology. Dean of Public Health. belief in the powers of science. Following Michel Foucault. however. in progress through science. that in modern societies power operates largely through a diffuse and diverse array of sites. Mills. 2001. Much of our critical analysis is. experts have assisted in this process of selfgovernance through the advice they offer and through seeking to promote social institutions that facilitate 'healthy' choices. R. as greater importance has been placed on defining and directing prevention efforts toward the economic. with the human genome now fully cloned. social and behavioral determinants of illness and not only at individuals deemed at high risk for a particular public health problem. Public health utilizes science and rationality to perpetuate disciplinary power Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. The latter have received more attention in recent years. The notion of repression implies the use of naked force to coerce subjects into adopting some officially defined line of action. public health efforts will need to apply the recent advances in genetics toward prevention of illness and disease. therefore.Links: Science/Health Public health is grounded in science Michael Merson et al. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. utilising the agency of subjects so that they largely govern themselves voluntarily as particular kinds of persons. The area of citizen rights and responsibilities is an important terrain in the playing-out of these relations of power and knowledge. It is evident that the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of public health requires partnerships among those with diverse experiences and perspectives. p. International Public Health: Diseases. No doubt that in the future. xviii One of the most unique characteristics of public health is its grounding in a multitude of sciences. while being sure to protect the confidentiality rights of individuals. including economics. the biological sciences concerned with humans. 2002. Merson. 'disinterested' science. In the public health arena. Programs. oriented to the new public health as a modernist project. Although professional experts justify their interventions in the name of objective. and in rational administrative solutions to problems is central to the post-Enlightenment modernist tradition and finds expression in the philosophies and practices of the new public health. violence. microorganisms. psychology. p. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. we contend that in modern societies power operates not so much through repression. Systems. Yale. in that it involves prescriptions about how we should live our lives individually and collectively.

as a modernist enterprise. Public health. 2001. p. disease and death. Turnock. 2002. Scientific findings also have contributed to a new understanding of the evolving relation between humans and microbes. drawing on the available expert knowledges. Scientific approach to disease control is the basis for surveillance Bernard J. It relies upon the setting of goals and objectives and the measurement of “outcomes” and “efficacy” (as the current jargon has it). School of Public Health.Links: Science Public health relies on the same scientific basis as the biomedical model and employs the same dependence on surveillance as a means of exerting power Alan Petersen & Deborah Lupton. the post-Enlightenment period. and scientific medicine demonstrate a modernist approach is not suprising. Disease control resulted from improvement in sanitation and hygiene. depends upon enumeration and surveillance as a means of countering the fear engendered by illness. which was characterized by a turning away from the “superstitition” of religion to the power of human thought as a means of control over the vagaries of nature. Scientific and technologic advances played a major role in each of these areas and are the foundation for today’s disease surveillance and control systems. of the public by improving their health status. seeking to establish and maintain order in the face of the disorder of ill bodies. A classical modernist approach views public health as a progressive activity. 23 Public health action to control infectious diseases is based on the nineteenth-century discovery of microorganisms as the cause of many serious diseases (eg. 5-6 Public health and scientific medicine are traditionally archetypal modernist institutions. The New Public Health: health and self in the age of risk. Clinical Professor Community Health Sciences. 84 . p. both projects depend on “science” as the bulwark of their credibility and social standing. the discovery of antibiotics. That is. Sociology University of Plymouth & Social Sciences University of Western Sydney. Public Health: what it is and how it works. given that they emerged at a similar time in history. cholera and TB). That both public heatlh. University of Illinois. and share a similar belief in the powers of rationality and organization to achieve progress in the fight against illness and disease. and the implementation of universal childhood vaccination programs.

intrinsic components of disease concepts. Disease is not just "out there". lay public) may endorse different varieties of the concepts. professional vs. Concepts of disease serve as explanatory models for a significant and existentially salient segment of "the human condition". 232 Any discussion of the concept of disease must proceed from the recognition that the phenomena of health and disease cannot he adequately described and accounted for in terms of naturalistic concepts.g. it is a generic abstraction of multiple classes of observations ranging from a variety of subjective experiences to objective measurements. World Health Organization. insofar as anthropological research can enlighten us. 2005. Understanding the Global Dimensions of Health.Links: Disease Modern conception of “disease” represents scientific and other ontological concepts Assen Jablensky. Gunn. is likely to be universal— Duhos. can be described and studied as one (a particularly influential one at that) among many such variants. Recognition of the cultural roots and societal functions of the disease concept should lead to an awareness of the co-existence of different variants of the generic concept (which. Davies. The "scientific" concept of disease. The quotation marks point to the relativity of the term "scientific" when applied to the paradigm of disease underlying the medical enterprise. eds. or as an intersection of quite diverse ontological schemata. the objects of physics or cell biology. A. therefore. A. Piel & B. 85 . P. Its philosophical underpinnings can be traced to several different traditions. Values and beliefs are. therefore. as can. Sayers. particular groups (e. as such they are shared by cultures and. S. Mansourian. 1968). for example.. p. so that the "modern" concept of disease can be seen as a hybrid of ideas. within cultures.

At this time. he asserts. 2003. The central problem was perceived as being one of communication. the medical gaze was in a state of transition. and the responsibility for discovering and labeling illness had become the preserve of the medical practitioner. and it was accepted that obedience to medical advice could no longer be assumed. there was a second strand to medical perception that viewed illness as existing in the social spaces between bodies. and by the 1960s and 1970s “effective communication” between health care professional and patient was championed in the medical and social science literature to “improve” patient compliance. p. a discovery or the product of some humanistic enlightenment. Social Sciences Lecturer. Patients were ascribed personalities and were not simply viewed as objects. While disease was still seen to exist within the human body. Armstrong contends that the exhortations upon doctors to devote more attention to the social context of illness merely extended medical surveillance into all areas of patients’ lives: “The patient’s view was no longer a vicarious gaze to the silent pathology within the body but the precise technique by which the new space of disease could be established: illness was being transformed from what was visible to what was heard.University Western Sydney. Clinical method now required techniques to map and monitor this space. the passivity of the patient under the medical gaze was beginning to be challenged. the views of the patient had lost their relevance and power in the medical encounter. Medicine as Culture.Links: Disease Medical practitioners have seized the power to discover and define the “medical” condition of patients Deborah Lupton. demanding that the patient’s view be heard. discovered through interrogation of the patient. 91-2 By the turn of the twentieth century. in this sense. 86 .” The patient’s compliance to medical orders came under question. However. 1984). Armstrong (1984) notes that by the 1950s. The patient’s view was not. The disease had become more important than the person who harbored it. and a concern with patient satisfaction manifested itself in the literature (Armstrong. It was a technique demanded by medicine to illuminate the dark spaces of the mind and social relationships.

psychiatry and the law define the limits of behavior and record activities. psychiatry. the medical encounter is a supreme example of surveillance. historical. tested and examined. Medicine as Culture.University Western Sydney. In the doctor’s surgery the body is rendered an object to be prodded. The owner is expected to give up his or her jurisdiction of the body over to the doctor. to confess. as hygienic or unhygienic. the microscope. the introduction and routine adoption of the physical examination. He argues that in the late twentieth century. 87 . all served to increasingly exert power upon the body. In severe cases of illness or physical disability the body is owned by the medical system. questions. the educational system. At the same time. Through the body and its behaviors. philosophical and anthropological scholarship. the stethoscope. the post-mortem. while in mental illness the body is the apparatus by which the brain is kept restrained. whereby the doctor investigates. illness was transformed from what is visible to what was heard. surveillance and regulation. as controlled or needful of control.” For Foucault. most notably the prison. 2003. Social Sciences Lecturer. discipline and surveillance in others spheres.Links: Biomedicine Medical interventions foster the surveillance and regulation of the body necessary for biopower Deborah Lupton. the writings of Foucault. and thus rendering bodies productive and politically and economically useful. the school. constant monitoring. Foucault was interested in establishing an historical “genealogy” of the discourses surrounding and constituting contemporary medical practices. The medical encounter began to demand that patients reveal the secrets of their bodies. the military and the workshop. as well as feminist critiques. Foucault identifies the establishment of the medical clinic and teaching hospital in the late eighteenth century as a pivotal point for ways of conceptualizing the body. touches the exposed flesh of the patient. According to Foucault. radiology and surgery. He views medicine as a major institution of power in labeling bodies as deviant or normal. In his historico-philosophical accounts of the development of medical knowledge in France. this notion of the body was accepted with little recognition that there are other ways of conceiving of the body and its illnesses. both by allowing physical examination and by giving their medical history under questioning by the doctor: “The patient had to speak. as medical practices changed in the late eighteenth century. with little knowledge of why the procedures are carried out. For Foucault and his followers. and confesses. the body is the ultimate site of political and ideological control. He argues that since the eighteenth century it has been the focal point for the exercise of disciplinary power. p. to reveal. the development of the disciplines of anatomy. often against the owner’s will. 25 As previously noted. the institutionalization of the hospital and the doctor’s surgery. while the patient acquiesces. the asylum. punishing those bodies which violate the established boundaries. state apparatuses such as medicine. In The Birth of the Clinic (1975) Foucault refers to the “anatomical atlas” that is the human body constituted by the medico-scientific gaze. have been extremely influential in establishing the current interest in the body in sociological. bodies were subjected to increased regulation.

while others emphasize the social control function of discourses. 13 There are a range of political positions taken by scholars adopting the social constructionist approach (Burk. highly visible. Medicine as Culture. Those adopting the social constructionist perspective argue that medical power not only resides in institutions or elite individuals. Some view medical knowledge as neutral. p. Social Sciences Lecturer.University Western Sydney. 1986). arguing that such knowledge and its attendant practices reinforce the position of powerful interests to the exclusion of others. However. sovereign-based power. but the emphasis has moved from examining medical power as an oppressive. 88 . 2003. but is deployed by every individual by way of socialization to accept certain values and norms of behavior. social constructionist scholars generally avoid viewing power as being wielded from above and shaped entirely by the forces of capitalism.Links: Biomedicine Medical power is more in line with disciplinary power – deployed by every individual in their interactions with others Deborah Lupton. recognizing instead a multiplicity of interests and sites of power. to a conceptualization of medicine as producing knowledges which change in time and space. The notion that medicine acts as an important institution of social control has remained.

police stations and psychiatric institutions. producing knowledge and subjectivity.Links: Biomedicine Medical discourse facilitates invisible disciplinary power Deborah Lupton. but also productive. such as in prisons. Social Sciences Lecturer. Explicit coercion is generally not involved. 2003. The Foucauldian notion of medical power thus extends the medical dominance thesis of the political economists by viewing power relations in the medical encounter as even more pervasive.” enforced as much by individuals’ unconscious self-surveillance as by authority figures. Medicine as Culture. and even more subtle. Of course. there are instances where surveillance of bodies may occur violently. Power is not necessarily a subjugating force aimed at domination which itself is vulnerable to resistance. but a strategic relation which is diffuse and invisible.University Western Sydney. Power is therefore not only repressive. with rewards and privileges for good conduct. Both the doctor and the patient. subscribe to the belief of the importance of medical testing. simply because power is ‘everywhere. for example. 89 . 120-1 Foucauldian approaches stress that power in the context of the medical encounter is not a unitary entity. p. but rather is closer to the idea of a form of social organization by which social order and conformity are maintained by voluntary means. patients voluntarily gives up their bodies to the doctor’s or nurse’s gaze because that is what people are socialized to expect. constant monitoring and invasive or embarrassing investigative procedures in the interests of the patient. through cultural and personal values and norms . Discipline acts not only through punishment. but through gratification. but control also takes place through less openly aggressive means.

Links: “Reproductive Health”
A focus on reproductive health expands biopolitics
Nikolas Rose, Professor of Sociology, and Director of the LSE's BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience, Biomedicine, Biotechnology, THE POLITICS OF LIFE ITSELF: BIOMEDICINE, POWER, AND SUBJECTIVITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, 2007, p. 64-5 Considerations of the absence, termination, or prevention of life are not absent in contemporary biopolitics: we need only to think of contraception, abortion, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, debates about the right to die, and much more. And the different values attached to different forms of life are even more evident if we consider the vast geographical discrepancies in morbidity and mortality that existed as we entered the twenty-first century. At the end of the twentieth century some 12.2 million children under five years of age in less developed countries died every year—equal to the combined total population of Norway and Sweden -- per child. A person in Malawi had a life expectancy of thirty-nine years; in the most developed countries life expectancy was twice this at seventy-eight years. This is "letting die" on a massive and global scale.

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Links: Medicine/Protecting Life
Modern medicine is used to strengthen governmentality
Francois Debrix, Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations Florida International University, RE-ENVISIONING PEACEKEEPING: THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE MOBILIZATION OF IDEOLOGY, 1999, p. 197-8) Michel Foucault has eloquently shown how the medical gaze is embedded in issues of sovereignty and governmentality. Medical observation facilitates the delineation of geographic and epistemic spaces that are used by sovereign entitles (often, state apparatuses) to govern their subjects. Lines of physiological demarcation (ascribing the lepers to specific towns, quarantining the victims of epidemics), creating a social hierarchy of classes that are the most likely to suffer from such and such disease, etc.) are easily mutated into the contours of socially ascribed places that then form an accepted separation between the normal and the pathological, the safe and the hazardous, the tame and the wild. By displaying sociopshysiological categorizations, medical knowledge is a support for the formation of the sociopolitical order.

The power to destroy life is the founded on the power to protect it
D. Milchman, Philosophy Professor, Queens, PHILOSOPHY & SOCIAL CRITICISM, v. 22, 1, 2000, p. 110-111 Where the philosophical discourse of modernity insists on separating the power to care for and protect life incarned in the governmentalized state, and the propensity to inflict mass death, Foucault’s lifelong mediation on power has made it possible to see the inextricable connection between the two: “the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual’s continued existence.” It is his ability to expose this dark underside of modernity that makes Michel Foucault a central figure both in comprehending the event of the new Holocaust and in foreseeing the very real danger of possible new holocausts to come.

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Links: Global Liberal Governance
Global liberal governance extends modern forms of power
Rasa Ostrauskaite, 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL, May, http://venus.ci.uw.edu.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao.htm) If doubts as to the particular structure of this paper may still linger, I hope to dispel them by showing that power, be it at the national or on a global level, circulates according to the same logic. Having described its circulation in abstract, then with a reference to national level, I shall move now to the description of its dynamics at global level. To start off my discussion on ‘global liberal governance,’ I shall quote a passage by Michael Dillon and Julian Reid that exemplifies their novel approach: This term of art [global liberal governance] refers to a varied and complex regime of power, whose founding principle lies in the administration and production of life, rather than in threatening death. Global liberal governance is substantially comprised of techniques that examine the detailed properties and dynamics of populations so that they can be better managed with respect to their many needs and life chances. In this great plural and complex enterprise, global liberal governance marks a considerable intensification and extension, via liberal forms of power, of what Michael Foucault called the ‘great economy of power.”

Global governance embraces the same ordering principles that sovereignty does
Rasa Ostrauskaite, 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL, May, http://venus.ci.uw.edu.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao.htm) The question that is present, although not yet explicitly articulated in order to avoid reification of the traditional oppositions such as between sovereignty and interdependence, is what is the role of the state in this self-reproducing operation of power which we softly entitled ‘global liberal governance.’ En passant, I suggest that an answer to this question requires a brief explanation of how sovereign power which manifests itself through the state works. Sovereign power institutes emergency in the form of exception: by clearly drawing boundaries between the inside and the outside it secures and orders social relations of the inside in a particular way whereby replacing uncertainty and ambivalence with truth and predictability. While conflating sovereign power with biopolitical power, global liberal governance likewise embraces the same ordering principle and, as a result, could be seen as instituting a state of emergency, although now at the global, rather than at state level. Yet since the bifurcation into order and chaos, ‘us’ and ‘them,’ or justice and anarchy is far more problematic at the global level, “global liberal governance is [instituted as] a continuous state of emergence rather than a continuous state of exception.”

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global liberal governance marks a considerable intensification and extension. 93 . 30(1). once ‘the problem of the accumulation and useful administration of men emerged. p. University of Lancaster. Foucault called this kind of power . of what Michael Foucault called the ‘great economy of power’ whose principles of formation were sought from the eighteenth century onwards. and its politics biopolitics. The resultant mixture is a complex one precisely because it represents the convergence of different forms of power and increasingly also different conceptions of knowledge. v. This term of art refers to a varied and complex regime of power. 30(1). today global liberal governance pursues the administration of life and the management of populations through the deployment of biopolitical techniques of power. 41) Global liberal governance is substantially comprised of techniques that examine the detailed properties and dynamics of populations so that they can be better managed with respect to their many needs and life chances. On the contrary. University of Lancaster. but not entirely to be conflated with it. 2001 (MILLENNIUM: JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. 30(1). In this great plural and complex enterprise. p. p. has emerged a new and diverse ensemble of power knows as global liberal governance. 2001 (MILLENNIUM: JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. whose founding principle lies in the administration and production of life. University of Lancaster. v. 46) However. 41) Intimately tied with the globalization of capital. v. where liberal internationalism once aspired to some ideal of world government.biopower. Global liberal governance is a complex system of power that administers life Michael Dillon.Links: Global Liberal Governance (Cont).the kind of knowledge/power that seeks to foster and promote life rather than the juridical sovereign kind of power that threatens death . 2001 (MILLENNIUM: JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. Global liberal governance uses biopower to administer life Michael Dillon. rather than in threatening death. there is a confluence rather than a supercession of powers here. via forms of liberal power. Global liberal governance pursues the administration of life Michael Dillon. This is not to argue that one face of liberal power has overcome the other.

48) Although the liberal account of government is premised upon the assumption that populations have dynamics. More generally. p. Thus they are not merely defined by ‘national’ features. 2001 (MILLENNIUM: JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. Indeed on of the distinguishing characteristics of global liberal governance is the variety of ways in which populations are defined as the subjects/object of all kinds of global biopolitical power/knowledge concerns. production or rights. consumption. specific populations do not come pre-formed.Links: Global Liberal Governance (Cont) Global governance extends biopolitical power by defining subjects Michael Dillon. 30(1). University of Lancaster. v. needs. They arise as the populations that they are in accordance with a principle of concern or enquiry. propensities and features independent of the mode of inquiry that has assembled them as subjects and objects of its knowledge. but also by markets. biopolitical global development and aid policies constitute a complex population that one might call ‘the global poor.’ 94 .

These operate at every level of political life (so-called national. and global). a complex regime that wields power over death. but subject. V. it is a complex exercise in “taking charge” of life. especially political subject positions. to those productive (inter)national protocols and regimes of knowledge that themselves empower them as subjects. University of Lancaster. And they operate primarily by constituting calculable agents and calculable spaces through the development and application of technologies of calculation. [inter]national. 1995 (ALTERNATIVES. 95 . as all subjects are. In short. are not merely the bearers of power. 1995 (ALTERNATIVES. 20p. And I would go further to argue that (inter)national politics is a prime site of intersection between juridicoterritorial and disciplinary power. producing multiple overlapping and superimposed matrices of power/knowledge. economic.” as it is one of allowing expression to. international. 340-1) I would maintain. 20. International politics is the intersection between juridical and disciplinary power Michael Dillon. what are though to be antecedently existent political and economic subjects. 341) I would argue. V. political power is exercised globally today through a profusion of shifting alliances between many derived projects and enterprises designed to effect self-government in manifold aspects of the political. that (inter)national power in the modern age is at least as much a matter of inventing all manner of subject positions.Links: International Power/Politics International power is used to create and manipulate calculable subjects Michael Dillon. also. as well as of individual conduct. States.including other states. and social behavior of populations. Hence. then. that are capable of bearing and exercising “a kind of regulated freedom. p. or of imposing constraints upon. as much as it remains. University of Lancaster. that (inter)national politics is as much about constituting calculable subjects operating in calculable spaces as it is about the traditional features that preoccupy its dominant realist and neorealist modes of interpretation. for example (the same may be said for any “actor” in the domain of [inter]national politics). with Foucault. and consequently a rich source of the tension between them. States themselves are both the product of mobile and plural mechanisms of calculations of devices for the production of political subjectivity as well as collections of devices by which such subjectivity can be produced and graduated for other subjects .

alliances. Indeed. appear often only to be an expression of the effort that goes into the very process of subjectification and objectification that characterizes the operation of governmentality. so also is the (inter)national system of states. Such calculable/calculating subjects inhabiting the calculable spaces of (inter)national relations are the contingent accomplishments. V. governmental. 343) This governmentalization of the state has been a long-standing if somewhat neglected feature of (inter)national politics. Just as the state is a site of governmentality. 20p. 341) Because the (inter)national system . non-governmental quasi-governmental. diplomatic practices. of the conjunction between sovereignty and power/knowledge. indeed. and other “actors” . The international system of states is a site of governmentality Michael Dillon.Links: International Power/Politics (Cont) International politics is about the production of calculable subjects Michael Dillon. V. states. The power politics of the traditional vocabularies of international relations. 1995 (ALTERNATIVES. University of Lancaster. appears often only to be an integral part of the production. 1995 (ALTERNATIVES. without the governmentalization of the state. And international relations. economic regulatory regimes. therefore.is not only a theater of conflict between sovereign subjects ultimately governed by the sanction of violent conflict that they wield against one another. treaties. University of Lancaster. and also of the system of relations between states upon which individual states crucially depend for their own constitution and survival. microscopic ordering of life. p. and over their own subjects. to be brought into presence. itself. and means of ensuring the consumption of them. and refined. however. and productive. it is also an expression of governmentality. sustained. a dense production of calculable subjects operating in calculable spaces according to calculable dynamics in the positive. 96 .its (inter)national law. there would be no (inter)national system of states. 20. Calcuable subject and calculable spaces have. dissemination.

more and more so today. includes the former communist bloc countries of Europe and Central Asia) versus a supposedly well-ordered and stable north (which mostly refers to the old “Western bloc”) to justify its will to “enlighten” global politics. I suggest that the specific “order versus anarchy” debate that continues to delineate the space of (disciplinary liberal) international affairs in a post-cold war era can best be explored by turning to another liberal tradition. the figure of Hobbes. 97 . Department of International Relations Florida International University. the dominant ideology/discourse of contemporary international relations – builds upon such a commonly accepted vision of what may be called an “anarchic south” (which. is complicity in the disciplinary liberal strategies. Although I offered the philosophical example of Rousseau as a foundation for disciplinary liberalism in the introduction. Assistant Professor. 1999. RE-ENVISIONING PEACEKEEPING: THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE MOBILIZATION OF IDEOLOGY. p. mobilized in international relations theory to underscore the importance of a dialectic of order versus anarchy. In such an ideological perspective. that of Thomas Hobbes and Leviathan. 29) Disciplinary liberalism – arguably.Links: Depictions of Third World Chaos Depictions of the south as “anarchic” are used to justify disciplinary liberalism Francois Debrix.

1999. In AGENDA FOR PEACE. Such a discursive project is exactly what Boutros-Ghali is hoping to inaugurate with the two above-quoted statements. and peacekeeping. RE-ENVISIONING PEACEKEEPING: THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE MOBILIZATION OF IDEOLOGY.n. Assistant Professor. The second of the two quotations already makes the passage of the “new anarchy” to potential order under the form of a promise to come. Boutros-Ghali revels the secrets of the new recipe of international order: globalization. his AGENDA FOR PEACE. justify the necessity for a new formulation of international order (which he believes he has discovered). p. peacekeeping Francois Debrix. 53) It may be the case that the new World Order requires a new word order.” is the subject of Boutros-Ghali’s seminal work. 98 . by way of contract.” BoutrosGhali needs to brandish the banner of insecurity.Links: Depictions of Third World Chaos Pictures of anarchy and instability are used to justify u. the UN. Interestingly. this new way of taming “anarchy. and absolute danger in order to. This new promise of order. just as Hobbes was arguably establishing the “state of nature” as a “dire prospect’ that everyone would want to stay away from and “from which his radical presumptions (could) be judged a worthy pursuit. Department of International Relations Florida International University. later. A new “right ordering of names” is required to rediscover order out of the post-cold war’s global instabilities.

of a cooperative approach to dealing with global problems.html) Return to a "assertive multilateralism" would not only improve the chances of global governance. United States refusal to cooperate provokes other countries to refuse their cooperation in dealing with problems that affect the hegemon itself. It would therefore be in the enlightened self-interest of the US to put more of its trust in partnerly cooperation. http://sefbonn. Unilateralism undermines global governance Development & Peace Foundation. i. MULTILATERALISM. It is not only detrimental to a culture of cooperation.html) Unilateralism is blocking the development of a multilateral architecture of global governance.org/sef/publications/pol-pap/no16/text. 99 .e. http://sefbonn. in this way reducing the resistance that any hegemonic claim to leadership inevitably entails. it is also costly. 2001 (UNILATERALISM V. MULTILATERALISM. Yet the willingness to cooperate is given only when all negotiating partners can expect a fair reconciliation of interests. And global problems can no longer be solved by a powerful hegemon. it would also tend more to strengthen than weaken America's global leadership.org/sef/publications/pol-pap/no16/text.Links: Multilateralism Assertive multilateralism will boost global governance Development & Peace Foundation. 2001 (UNILATERALISM V. Cooperation and burden-sharing save political and financial expenses.

School of Political Science and International Studies.Links: Securitization “Security” is the foundation of disciplinary power Anthony Burke. "Economy has . Jan-March 2002 v27 i1 p1(27) Aporias of security) This generated a political problem: to discover a form of government that--recognizing that no sovereignty can fully comprehend the totality of the economy or regulate every act that may have an economic effect-must still seek to do so." In short. hence.. 2002 (Alternatives: Global. Local. Jan-March 2002 v27 i1 p1(27) Aporias of security) Colin Gordon argues that Foucault treats security here not merely as a self-evident object of political power but "as a specific principle of political method and practice. security. School of Political Science and International Studies. security "requires in the legislator. sovereignty and discipline. "liberty is registered not only as a right of individuals legitimately to oppose ." This engendered a drive for flexibility. Thus. University of Queensland.. and population--a mix of rationalities that might more fully grasp this uncertain political space. and power always in action. for Foucault. from the eighteenth century on. Lucia. many enemies. Political. discipline. It was at the appearance of this problem that Foucault sited the junction of security. to defend it against his constantly reviving crowd of adversaries." Discipline and security are interdependent .. open space of liberalism had engendered a prophetic paranoia: the theme of a new productivity of political power that simultaneously reaches into the heart of the citizen and multiplies its own spatial reach. mobility." He goes on to argue that. Political. 100 . and vigilance: as Bentham declared. St. 2002 (Alternatives: Global. but also now as an indispensable element of governmental rationality itself. the sovereign. he argued. vigilance continually sustained. "tends increasingly to become the dominant component of modern governmental rationality: we live today not so much in a Rechtsstaat or disciplinary society as in a society of security.liberalism supports both Anthony Burke. the new. distinct alike from those of law. Lucia. Local. University of Queensland. St. and capable of various modes of combination with these other principles and practices within diverse governmental configurations." and..

ancient Greece. like ourselves. pp. governmentality is the dramatic expansion in the scope of government. This simple definition is useful up to a point. v.. but we take it to be the most rewarding Foucault for those. 917-8) Foucault's reformulation of the concept of discourse derives from his attempts to provide histories of knowledge which are not histories of what men and women have thought. We offer a sketch of governmentality here .. the move towards liberal securitization. Rather they are reconstructions of the material conditions of thought or "knowledges... While government and its mechanisms have indeed boomed from the eighteenth century onwards.. the birth of modern political economy. 101 . sophisticated governmental techniques. opinions or influences nor are they histories of the way in which economic.. .. interested in new directions for the sociology of law. ancient Rome and many examples from both the Western and Eastern worlds in the period from the fall of Rome to the middle of the eighteenth century all mark boom times for just such government.. we suggest a series of interconnected definitions around the following themes: the emergence of the reason of state.. Senior Lecturer. the Foucault who uses the neologism "governmentality" to capture the dramatic changes in techniques of government developed in the western world from the eighteenth century onwards.. 76. To enhance this simple definition such that the nuances of Foucault's governmentality are more easily recognized.." They represent an attempt to produce what Foucault calls an archaeology of the material conditions of thought/knowledges. and the emergence of the human sciences as new mechanisms of calculation. which began about the middle of the eighteenth century and is still continuing. this period is hardly unique in the history of widespread. Murdoch University. Ancient Egypt.. but it does not capture enough of the subtlety of Foucault's concept. It does not. but also and more importantly by the work of others heavily influenced by Foucault's work on this notion which is contributing to a distinctive approach .Links: Population Management Governmentality includes population management through science and secular humanism Gary Wickham. 2000 (CHICAGO-KENT LAW REVIEW. political and social contexts have shaped ideas or opinions. allow us to follow closely Foucault's periodisation.. conditions which are not reducible to the idea of "consciousness" or the idea of "mind. In simple terms.. featuring an increase in the number and size of the governmental calculation mechanisms. governmentality is about the growth of modern government and the growth of modern bureaucracies . all these examples could be regarded as instances of governmentality were we to use only this simple definition . We are inspired not just by Foucault's direct discussion of governmentality . for example. such that we allow the reader some insight into the richness of the Foucaultian work in the area . This may not be the most popular Foucault. In this way. the moment where Foucault meets Weber . the emergence of the problem of population." The Foucault who inspires this part of our book is the Foucault who is interested in government alongside power. Foucault's histories are not histories of ideas. . Sociology Program. .

1999 (V." Within the context of the sovereign relation. incompatible with sovereign as opposed to disciplinary power. in order to be able to manifest its absolute authority at any given moment. 6. extra-juridical power within the state of exception is the very thing that was excluded at the moment of juridical institution: bare life. bare life is the part of the political subject's existence excluded from the juridical order instituted by the sovereign power. as Foucault sometimes suggests. reserve the right to suspend the juridical order it instituted. He pursues his argument not through historiographical inquiry but.Links: Sovereignty Sovereignty is based on biopower MODERNISM/MODERNITY. Paradoxically. finds itself in the most intimate relation with sovereignty. the book defines sovereignty as a relation of exclusionary inclusion between the sovereign power and what Agamben terms "bare life. rather." as opposed to the "way of life proper to men.Philosophical and political decisions in Giorgio Agamben's Homo Sacer”. pp.php Similarly. http://www." Bare life ("la nuda vita") is something like "life in general" or "pure being." The fundamental activity of the sovereign is the production of bare life Review in Radical Philosophy by Andrew Norris: “The exemplary exception . 2003.org/monday/archives/000374. Thus the thing upon which sovereign power exercises its absolute. this exclusion of bare life from the juridical order in fact constitutes a hidden inclusion with relation to sovereign power because the sovereign power must. through what he calls an "historico-philosophical" analysis of nothing less than the fundamental structure of sovereign power as exercised in the West from Aristotle to the present Through primary reference to Carl Schmitt and Walter Benjamin. including contemporary liberal democracies. 162-3)) The central claim in Giorgio Agamben's latest book to be translated into English (the Italian original was published in 1995) is extremely provocative: the concentration camp is the hidden paradigm for the exercise of power in western politics. Instead it is the original form of politics: 'the fundamental activity of sovereign power is the production of bare life as originary political element and as threshold of articulation between nature and culture.16beavergroup. then. bare life is "the element that. nor is it a distinctively modern phenomenon.' 102 . Nevertheless. in the exception. biopolitics is not. zoe and bios.

p.org/monday/archives/000374. More specifically.Philosophical and political decisions in Giorgio Agamben's Homo Sacer”. Life is not of course “natural” life. Agamben’s analysisdiscloses a certain comparability in the operation of sovereign power and the power/knowledge that Foucault termed governmentality. Not only are they both a strategic form of power. they each operate by effecting a kind of “phenomenological” reduction. It is in every sense the life of power.' State sovereignty upholds state control of bare life Dillon. But since we are talking different operations of power. but in so doing actually reduce it to a format that will bear the programming of power to which it must be subject if the power of sovereignty (or. 25. instituted. Lancaster Politics Lecturer. Each form of life is the “stuff” of life but in dissimilar ways. 103 . 20002.16beavergroup. modalities formed by the different exercises of reduction through which each operation of power institutes and maintains itself.Links: Sovereignty The concentration camp is a manifestation of the sovereign’s exercise of biopower Review in Radical Philosophy by Andrew Norris: “The exemplary exception . Both claim to reduce life to its bare essentials in order to disclose the truth about it.php As this cutting defines the political. 132 Four our purposes. http://www.which is correlative with the production of the human . as we shall see. least of all a unique event. That is what we mean when we say that sovereignty and governmentality reproduce life amenable to their sway. whatever that may be. It is not uncommon for a form of life thus reproduced to desire the processes that originate it. but instead the place where politics as the sovereign decision on life most clearly reveals itself: 'today it is not the city but rather the camp that is the fundamental biopolitical paradigm of the West. that of governance as well) is to be inscribed. we are also talking different forms of life.is not an activity that politics might dispense with. and operated. ALTERNATIVES. Sovereign and governmental powers alike each also therefore work their own particular powers of seduction on the subjects of power that they summon into being. 2003. the production of the inhuman . say in favour of the assertion of human rights. v. the Nazi death camps are not a political aberration.

sovereign power has not disappeared. but at the same time liberated from the principle of sovereignty. or rather. but has simply changed forms: no longer vested solely in the person of the King. Dartmouth. June. . invade the area of right so that the procedures of normalization come to be ever more constantly engaged in the colonization of those of law. it is not towards the ancient right of sovereignty that one should turn. Instead. But this is precisely what hasn’t happened. one which must indeed be anti-disciplinarian. In the modern era. to which the disciplines give rise. the notion of sovereignty has been superimposed upon disciplinary techniques in such a way that the dark and nefarious nature of these techniques has been concealed. As Foucault puts it: in our own times power is exercised simultaneously through this right [grounded in the notion of popular sovereignty] and these [disciplinary] techniques and . August. 131) According to Foucault. Resistance trades upon a number of affirmative possibilities. a power that is codified in the principle of popular sovereignty. teaches social and political theory al the University of Rochester. Sovereignty must be challenged to control disciplinary power James Johnson. to struggle against disciplines and disciplinary power. 104 . it has been democratized. 2002 (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES. . these techniques and these discourses. 559). 1997 (POLITICAL THEORY. but towards the possibility of a new form of right. Foucault locates these possibilities within a quite specific understanding of the relations that obtain between intellectuals and political movements. juridical power. p.Links: Sovereignty (Cont) Sovereign power is used to extend disciplinary power Amy Allen. this democratization has functioned to conceal the disciplinary power that is actually the seamy underside of such democratized sovereign. disciplinary power ‘ought by rights to have led to the disappearance of the grand juridical edifice created by that theory’. transformed into the foundational and legitimating power of the people. p. However. As he explains: If one wants to look for a non-disciplinary form of power.

v. In short. as much as it remains.” as it is one of allowing expression to.Links: International Law International law & relations reproduce disciplinary power on a global scale Michael Dillon. pp. with Foucault. 105 . that (inter)national power in the modern age is at least as much a matter of inventing all subject positions. 1995. a complex regime that yields power over death. 340-1) I would maintain. 1995 (ALTERNATIVES. it is a complex exercise in “taking charge” of life. U Lancaster. that are capable of bearing and exercising “a kind of regulated freedom. or of imposing constraints upon. especially political subject positions. what are thought to be antecedently existent political and economic subjects. also.

. and get back into bed again. eat three meals." Thus the body is "disciplined" and the knowable subject is made productive and efficient.Links: Categorizing People Categorization of individuals produces biopower Sara Hayden. beliefs.." He writes: This form of power applies itself to immediate everyday life which categorizes the individual. 1998.'. is not just repressive. p. p. imposes a law of truth on him [or her] which he [or she] must recognize and which others have to recognize in him [or her].. Associate Professor of Communication Studies at The University of Montana. Bio-power is a constitutive form of power that takes as its object human life." The forcible eviction of desocialized patients from mental hospitals is a moral scandal on par with the forcible involuntary mental hospitalization of persons who are not desocialized. CRUEL COMPASSION.Forster had enjoyed his protected life there-with regular excursions to a betting shop and a summer holiday with fellow patients. WOMEN'S STUDIES IN COMMUNITY. attaches him [or her] to his [or her] own identity.. blockage.. he claims he "studied the objectivizing of the subject in what [he calls] . and desires. exclusion. 184. for example. 106 . Power. Consider the situation into which Forster was placed: "One psychiatric nurse who had cared for him said last week: 'For 30-odd years Rodney had been totally protected..' The subject is either divided inside himself [or herself] or divided from others. Foucault discusses the subjectification of individuals in terms of two separate modes. He only had to get out of bed in the morning. `dividing practices. It functions not only through "censorship. it is absurd to speak of psychiatric reforms. State University of New York Psychiatry Professor. it is also constitutive. Bio-power is put into place through the process whereby individuals become subjects--subjects capable of self-knowledge and subjects knowable to others. Categorization & labeling mean power is retained Thomas Szasz. In his middle work. Spring 1999.and he was anxious not to lose contact with the friends he regarded as family. Fundamental to biopower's operation are the processes Foucault refers to as "individualization" or "subjection. and oppression" but also through its ability to shape our understandings. So long as psychiatrists control the definition of what constitutes a home for the mental patient. marks him [or her] by his [or her] own individuality. The responsibility for both rests squarely on the shoulders of psychiatrists. according to Foucault. This process objectivizes him [or her]" Dreyfus and Rabinow describe this process: "the body is divided up into unities. 30. These are then taken up separately and subjected to a precise and calculated training. the legs and arms. The aim is control and efficiency of operation both for the part and the whole.

The UNHCR's legal and operational definition of the category strongly influences decisions about who is a refugee and shapes UNHCR staff decisions in the field . p. shaping a view among UNHCR officials that refugees must. exiles. be powerless. 107 . Spring. 1999 (INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. and those see king political asylum. To classify is to engage in an act of power. These categories are not only political and legal but also discursive. diaspora communities. The debate over the meaning of "refugee" has been waged in and around the UNHCR. Guy Gran similarly describes how the World Bank sets up criteria to define someone as a peasant in order to distinguish them from a farmer. candidate in the Department of Political Science at Yale University. guest workers. Categorization and classification are a ubiquitous feature of bureaucratization that has potentially important implications for those being classified. by definition." The category "refugee" is not at all straightforward and must be distinguished from other categories of individuals who are "temporarily" and "involuntarily" living outside their country of origin . 379) Consider the evolving definition of "refugee. The classification matters because only certain classes of people are recognized by the World Bank's development machinery as having knowledge that is relevant in solving development problems. and that as powerless actors they do not have to be consulted in decisions such as asylum and repatriation that will directly and dramatically affect them. day laborer.displaced persons. economic migrants.Links: Categorizing People Classification is an extension of power Ian Hurd is a Ph. and other categories.decisions that have a tremendous effect on the life circumstance of thousands of people.D.

and "Defendre? Foucault advocates that we maintain the discourse of war and understand social relations as decentered. sovereignty disappears as a form of government and persists stubbornly as our image of power (see Stoler 64. Spring. yet social relations will always be and have always been relations best understood as a subterranean war. Hence as a counterstrategy against the hegemony of biopolitics--hegemony here understood as the pervasiveness of its practices and control over the (global) social body-we must think. Michael Hardt remarks that the discourse of Fukayama wants to claim that "[the end of History has ushered in a reign of peace" so that any alternative to current social relations remains unthinkable. or more precisely. "I would like to show how an analysis of this kind articulates forcefully. In his words. . 108 .Links: End of History Discourses Discourses of end of history and peace cement hegemonic biopower by denying the need for additional change Hasana Sharp is a graduate student in the philosophy department at Pennsylvania State University. Of course. and supplant it with the harmony and peace of absolute sovereignty ("Defendre" 83-4). conflictual and agonistic. but as a strategy to eliminate war. Hence he makes two somewhat paradoxical claims: war exists less and less as an historical reality." if we are to be prepared to fight it. with its dangers and events. both hope and an imperative and politics of revolt or of revolution. and is interested in the war of the races. Foucault favors a discourse of permanent war." For Foucault. . a discourse of sovereignty cannot exist alongside a discourse of war. 98) Foucault explains. we know that in the case of Hobbes war and sovereignty are juxtaposed forcefully. that war emerges as a discursive strategy at a time when it is waning significantly as an historical reality. Foucault warns that only "the adversaries want to make you believe that we are in an ordered and peaceful world. render revolt impossible. precisely because it is a discourse of revolution. what it names in terms of a discursive strategy and grid of intelligibility. speak and act on the terrain of war and permanent agonism. in the lectures. ought to be abandoned. At the same time. He claims that we "must recover perpetual war . Yet sovereignty. Similarly.” even though it seems to have a similar structure as a waning "historical reality. submitted to "the theoretical guillotine. p. 2002 (INTERTEXTS.

Spring. the exercise of bio-politics. This encroachment of technology into everyday life is. 2002 (INTERTEXTS. technocratic hegemony. This medicalization is. 109 .Links: Technology Applying technology to treat modern problems expands biopolitics Hasana Sharp is a graduate student in the philosophy department at Pennsylvania State University. according to Foucault. 98) Bio-politics is about how medicine comes to be in the business of policing societal expectations and of imposing certain standards of performance upon the individual. in Foucault's view. p. Modem medicine finds itself capable of acting as such because we have tacitly agreed that to be a normal member of society is to be surveyed and measured by a calculating medical eye. a mechanism that erodes the status of the individual while it simultaneously consolidates the power of a professional.

April. skin. control. including blood. where they are exchanged as commodities. will be "the currency of the future" (see Nelkin and Andrews 1998). enzymes. 2002 (CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY. tissues. marketed. medical records. Starr 1998). and they have taken place in a social environment where partnership of science and the market is considered the most efficient means of advancing knowledge and human well-being (Fox and Swazey 1992. Genes. Department of Anthropology. and DNA sequences. the critical issue in postgenomic research. and exploited to build up knowledge of physiology (Foucault 1973). These developments are transnational and occurring at an exponential rate. Komesaroff 1995. gametes. some people have argued. hair. and ownership of human bodily information and material. enzymes. and organs. Not only has the "bare life" of the human body become the center of totalitarian politics (Agamben 1995) but ongoing developments in biotechnology and bioinformatics are opening up an entirely new world of "biosociality" (Rabinow 1996a). University of North Carolina. and genetic data on individuals and entire populations--are quickly absorbed into the marketplace. 271) The intersection of biomedicine and the market inevitably gives rise to disputes on the storing.Links: Biotechnology Biotechnology expands biopower Kaja Finlker. As a result. Modern biopolitics shifts the focus to bodily information. Body components and information--genealogies. "the boundaries of what used to be perceived as basic research on the one hand and its medical applications on the other have been blurred in an unprecedented fashion" (Rheinberger 1995: 255). exchange. genes. and nails) have long been isolated. While parts of the body (organs. Titmuss 1997 [1970]. is the use and control of the information that can be derived from body components rather than the components themselves. p. after the sequencing of the human genome. 110 . the politicization and commodification of the body have recently increased as a result of a complex series of political and technological developments.

htm) Having conceptualized power not only in terms of domination and oppression but also in terms of regulation and formation of subjects. it is important also to quote his observations of the long-standing historical connection between forms of economy. 2001 (MILLENNIUM: JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. manpower. inter alia.and particular practices of the self or making up governable individuals? Scholars whom we conveniently label as representing the Foucauldian governmentality school maintain that recent governmental trends are strongly conditioned by neo-liberal political rationalities which. May. but still effective.Links: Globalization/Trade Global commerce increases population management Michael Dillon. Marketization is a more subtle. 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL. what is the relationship between political rationalities . the Janus-faced character of modern governmentality may prove far less ‘neutral’ or ‘innocent’ when considered through examining concrete situations which might even lead to rhetorical. production. and especially in anticipation of the arguments advanced by the biopolitical strategic discourses that we examine later. Nevertheless. p. form of social control Rasa Ostrauskaite. Put differently. and export. University of Lancaster.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao.ci. 46) In addition. how do we establish the link between techniques of domination and techniques of the self? In other words. and of endowing oneself with large. neo-liberalism managed to transform a series of governmental techniques which now present themselves as a new mode of governmentality that effectively links two strategies: marketization and direct control. powerful armies. 30(1).edu. one must place commerce and monetary circulation between the states: enrichment through commerce offers the possibility of increasing the population. albeit still worth considering. http://venus. The contemporary governmentality may symbolize a welcomed shift away from ‘top down’ domination towards a ‘distantiated’ relationship between the center of decision-making and a number of non-political (public sector) institutions/managers. At the junction of these two great technologies.uw.as ways of thinking and acting upon one another and ourselves . questions: ‘makeover or takeover? 111 . biopolitics and war. influenced the shift away from welfarist policies and are balancing on the threshold which could be titled as ‘the death of the social. and as a shared instrument. v.

Links: Globalization Globalization does not prevent the use of force APORIA JOURNAL 2002.tripod. http://aporiajournal.htm (PlanetDebate1518) It is what must be fought for in an age when globalization breaks down economic barriers to national sovereignty.com/detention. but does nothing to undermine nations' monopoly on the legitimate use of force. 112 .

p. 49) In contemporary liberal societies the net-like circulation of power locally as well as globally has generalized this concern for knowledge. That move has been both cybernetic and molecular. This does not simply mean that it operates through digitized and integrated computer-mediated communication and surveillance technologies. v.Links: Information Technology Information technologies extend biopower Michael Dillon. a function of the way the information and the life sciences now install information at the center of the organization and the functioning of life. 113 . University of Lancaster. 30(1). Information is now regarded as the principle of formation of life itself. 2001 (MILLENNIUM: JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES. Biopower has become informational.

made possible by the organization of a parliamentary. "Carceral practices. 2001 (RUTGERS UNIVERSITY LAW JOURNAL. accomplished ends that might otherwise have been beyond the reach of the juridical process. Suffolk University Law School. would assist in veiling its allocation of dominant political power in the bourgeoisie." This establishment of juridical process. Professor of Law. coded and formally egalitarian juridical framework. also invented the disciplines. in order to make the effective mechanisms of power function in opposition to the formal framework that it had acquired. representative regime." 114 . 466-7) There arose." Foucault insists.Links: Enlightenment Enlightenment ethics support disciplinary power Marie Ashe. p.' which discovered the liberties. The Panopticon model "continued to work in depth on the juridical structures of society. alongside the development of the prison as an institution. The "Enlightenment. with its seeming objectivity. Winter. "an explicit.

The geopolitical gaze of modernity is also the gaze of the detached rational actor. University of British Columbia.Links: Geopolitics Geopolitics is based on surveillance Simon Dalby. 2000 (A CRITICAL GEOPOLITICS OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE. This securitized subject parallels the geopolitical assumptions of the modern state as the knowledgeable surveillance system policing the untroubled territory within its boundaries to keep external threats at bay. 115 . the individual human with impermeable boundaries. Institute of International Relations. It is a mode of knowledge that often acts to fix the contingencies of history and society in a discourse of aspiration to permanence. impermeable spaces and external threats is part of a larger modern subjectivity of detached knowledgeable omniscience . protected by a knowledge that assumes an intact stable interior space as the ontologically sovereign subject given of existence which is endangered by numerous external threats.ciaonet. http://www. But this securitized vision of boxes and boundaries. whether of the nation or the state.org/isa/das01/) Geopolitics is partly about matters of surveillance over fixed spaces and supposedly permanent boundaries. It follows by logical extension that such orderliness should be extended in the international arena too under the guise of global governance and various surveillance systems linked to the United Nations and other international liberal agencies.

and the suspension of civil rights caused by the invocation of the state of emergency in the city. the territorial strategies of control require other legal and administrative procedures to be completely effective. University of British Columbia.Links: WTO The wto uses surveillance strategies to sustain control Simon Dalby. This suggests once again the limits of the preferred territorial strategies of police power.org/isa/das01/) But at least some of the activists were able to make the connection between the lack of democracy that they objected to at the WTO. While surveillance is effective in monitoring street behavior. 2000 (A CRITICAL GEOPOLITICS OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE. Institute of International Relations. http://www. and the importance of such forms of resistance in contemporary struggles. Media images of "robocops" using violence against demonstrators suggested a militarized new world order as the violent face of the WTO and reminded those who may have forgotten that the contemporary liberal economic order was built on the basis of military power. Enforcement of its mandate apparently required the violent removal of human obstacles to its agenda.ciaonet. 116 . Television pictures of bus loads of arrested people who were refusing to cooperate with the police in allowing themselves to be processed through the arrest procedure suggested both the limits of carceral strategies. Once again people in the way of globalization have to be forcefully removed.

The language of human rights does not stand outside the crises such rights are invoked to counter. If.html. THEORY AND EVENT 7:2. It is the open expression of the sovereign ban or exception. humanitarian crises belong to a "structure of permanent emergency" which has become "objectified in institutional arrangements" Arendt's account of the fate of those caught in such institutional arrangement remains decisive. it does not stand outside the sovereign powers that produce life as endangered. man's politics placed his existence in question.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v007/7. Moreover. 117 . Assistant Professor of Political Science.2caldwell. Today's "moral interventions. The post-sovereign world of bio-politics described by Foucault now takes on a new meaning. in which humanitarianism and sovereignty work together. It is rather a sign of the failures of a tradition which requires humanitarianism while reducing its effectiveness. Every potential case for intervention -. University of Louisville.jhu. is not post-sovereign. Foucault argued that in modernity. 2004 p http://muse. Nothing has become more "normal" than the creation of internment camps for refugees and displaced persons. and calls for a sovereign decision on life. The relation is similar to the way that early modern discourses of rights proved complicit with novel forms of surveillance and regulation.jhu. Neither natural nor exceptional. The apparently emancipatory. speaking for the very life sovereignty grounds itself in. Assistant Professor of Political Science.” Such permanent "ad hoc" arrangements indicate the extent to which states of exception are increasingly interwoven with law. As she observes.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v007/7. from this perspective. accessed 5/12/05. The complexity of the relationship between bio-sovereignty and humanity is most evident in the issue of humanitarian interventions. 2004 p http://muse. 36).raises as a question the status of life. human rights and sovereignty share the same referent: an indeterminate and precarious bare life. THEORY AND EVENT 7:2. as Agamben argues.2caldwell. they serve as a ground for bio-sovereignty. maintain a secret solidarity with the very powers they ought to fight" Humanitarianism. law bound discourse of human rights thereby finds itself implicated in very old paradigms of domination. "despite themselves. prefigure "the state of exception from below" (Negri and Hardt 2000. Those arrangements have the desired effect of placing camp inhabitants outside the framework of international law and domestic law so as to avoid obligations of asylum and legal rights to refugees. Agamben therefore asserts humanitarian organizations. Human rights." exemplified in the work of NGO's who categorize and call attention to human rights violations. provides the justification for the "exceptional" measures of sovereign powers.Links: Human Rights The language of human rights is rooted in the structures of domination DRG/E379 Anne Caldwell. University of Louisville.the kind that are put in concentration camps by foes and in internment camps by their friends. should not be taken as a condemnation of humanitarianism. then a world in which politics places life in question by retaining the power to decide its fate. sovereignty maintains its power by deciding on the status of life. This complex situation. "contemporary history has created a new kind of human beings -.html. If such interventions limit nation-state sovereignty. accessed 5/12/05. is the discourse of life in a state of permanent crisis. Claims to act on human rights extend power over life DRG/E380 Anne Caldwell.whether or not it is acted upon -.

edu/journals/theory_and_event/v007/7. like the life of the nation-state citizen. It is grounded not in a life or set of rights outside of itself. structured by the exception rather than law.jhu. is of a different order than liberal power.Links: Human Rights Protections Human rights are only protected as far as the sovereign wants to protect them DRG/E381 Anne Caldwell. nor simple opposition. Agamben's account of the emergence and development of our tradition's definition of politics is useful precisely because it can help us account for the paradoxical effects of apparently inclusive and beneficial categories. accessed 5/12/05. University of Louisville. The basis of biosovereignty in the incorporation of life means its relation to humanity is neither one of simple support.2caldwell. Assistant Professor of Political Science. The concepts of bio-sovereignty and homo sacer provide us with the tools to understand a power and a life of ambiguous character. which it is compelled to respect and protect. Bio-sovereignty." 118 . Human life. "is kept safe and protected only to the degree to which it submits itself to the sovereign's (or the law's) right of life and death. The rights of humanity are as contingent as the rights the people of the nation-state were once ascribed. THEORY AND EVENT 7:2. but in the incorporation of life within its field of power. 2004 p http://muse.html.

Thus at bottom Foucault follows Nietzsche in his view of reality (there is not truth. rather than as an instrument of personal freedom -.or a mask -. the more he found technologies of the self waiting for analysis. FOUCAULT. as far as history Is concerned. The self as a tool of power. Professor of Political Science. In genealogy. By searching for a genealogy of the modern subject. Professor of Political Science. with truth debased to the role of an aid -. is just a formal perspective: genealogy. on the human capacity to pour new wine into old cultural bottles.108.this became Foucault's main theme after Discipline and Punish. And it sees it all. namely. University of Brasilia. a Nietzchean perspective where all will to truth is already a will-to-power. Merquior. Foucault developed a concept of power as able to take the form of a subjectification as well as of an objectification'. At the end of the day.of domination. what he borrows from Nietzsche. like the lazar houses transformed into asylums or the monastic cells converted into prison cages. from the viewpoint of power. Genealogy casts light on the pragmatism of history. Merquior.G. Foucault sees truth as expressing the will to power J. p. as Colin Gordon notes. of course. FOUCAULT.Links: Truth "Truth" is merely a tool of domination J. University of Brasilia. the problem of the emergence and descent of cultural phenomena. there are only interpretations) but not in his view of history.G. 1985. old cultural forms receive new functions. p. And the more he delved into spheres of practical knowledge on the subject. 1985. 119 . Thus his pursuit of the modern subject through forms of knowledge as well as practices and discourses had to concentrate on what he calls power-knowledge (pouvoir-savoir). a product of domination. Foucault was automatically defining an angle where knowledge is enmeshed with power.101. Or rather.

Professor of Political Science. Of the three masters of suspicion. Now Foucault is also deeply suspicious of truth-claims. It deals not with their different historical temper (pessimist against optimist. Reason is a technology of power. nevertheless. to him.G. lover or hater of the Enlightenment) but with their common epistemological stance. which makes I'oucault truly akin to Nietzsche. an instrament of domination. it was precisely Nietzsche who taught us to distrust reason and truth. another aspect.Links: Science Foucault sees science as a tool of domination J. in fact 'invent' their objects so that man and earth can be better controlled. is a tool of the will to power. even science. There is. FOUCAULT. particular branches of knowledge obey strategies of domination. University of Brasilia. 1985. p.146. every knowledge. science. no less decisive. Epistemes are merely species of the genus power apparatus. Merquior. 120 .

THE HISTORY OF SEXUALITY. and say that politics is war pursued by other means? If we still wish to maintain a separation between war and politics. if it is true that political power puts an end to war. unstable.in part but never totally-. this would imply two different strategies (but the one always liable to switch into the other for integrating these unbalanced. historically specifiable moment. POWER/KNOWLEDGE.90. it implies that the relations of power that function in a society such as ours essentially rest upon a definite relation of forces that is established at a determinate. Furthermore. 1978. VOLUME ONE. that it installs. The role of political power. Should we turn the expression around. This reversal of Clausewitz's assertion that war is politics continued by other means has a triple significance: in the first place.Links: Politics Political power is inevitably a form of violence Michel Foucault. in the bodies themselves of each and everyone of us. College de France. in economic inequalities. in language. 121 . is perpetually to reinscribe this relation through a form of unspoken warfare. then. College de France. to re-inscribe it in social instituticns. the reign of peace in civil society. this by no means implies that it suspends the effects of war or neutralises the disequilibrium revealed in the final battle. p. philosopher. perhaps we should postulate rather that this multiplicity of force relations can be coded -. Politics is the continuation of war Michel Foucault. on this hypothesis.93. 1980. heterogeneous." or in the forn of "politics".either in the form of "war. and tense force relations. or tries to install. p. in war and by war. philosopher.

Introducing such seemingly innocuous organizations can radically alter the bureaucratic and at times.O. the biopolitical regulation of "births and mortality.Links: NGOs Ngos exercise biopolitical control and are colonial organs of the west APORIA JOURNAL.G.'s and humanitarian institutions step in to occupied countries. and must be seen as the first step in neo-colonialist projects by the West. the level of health and life expectancy" swings into full effect. the cultural constitution of a country.htm When N.tripod.com/detention. 122 . 2002 http://aporiajournal.

Alan Petersen and Robin Bunton. social democracy and liberation politics bound to social identity). p. Maoism.” Foucault provocatively links policies with policing (and policy studies with the aims of a police state) through a study of the emergence of Polizeiwissenschaflt. Charles Sturt University. involved in the reproduction of medical dominance. Foucauldian scholars tend to argue that the clinical gaze is not intentional in terms of originating from a particular type of group seeking domination over others. taking place at sites such as workplaces.Links: State Action Policy action is based on the goal of the state to administer every day life Brown. 123 . and deploys it to question certain conventional Left positions (for example. a term connotating both the policy science and the police science. but there are also other agencies and institutions involved beyond the state. those of Marxism. THE LATER FOUCAULT. schools. In his genealogy of “pastoral power. 100 In contrast. Through this genealogy. hospital or surgery. each with different rationalities (Osborne 1994: 42). extending (at least in aspiration) to touch the existences of its individual members. The state reproduces medical dominance Deborah Lupton. ed. of course. 1997. including regulating the conditions for the licensing of medical practitioners. FOUCAULT. The idea of prosperity is the principle which identifies the state with its subjects. 41 While Foucault invests genealogy with the possibility of emancipating intellectual inquiry from certain kinds of position taking. Associate Professor in Cultural Studies and Cultural Policy. Moss. Ed. There is not a single medicine but a series of loosely linked assemblages. The state is. influencing it. studying it. Foucault cats the very preoccupation with policy – formulating it. Foucault’s genealogy of the political rationality which fuses Polizeiwissenschafl with raison d’et shows how reason of a state’s problem of calculating detailed actions appropriate to an infinity of…contingent circumstances is met by the creation of an exhaustively detailed knowledge of the governed reality of the state itself. and indeed the interests of the medical profession and those of the state often clash. supermarkets and homes as well as the clinic. The polices state is also termed the state of prosperity. 1998. p. as the less limitations of reformist policies (the conventional left critique) than a symptom of a contemporary political rationality that renders quite normal the state administration of everyday life. HEALTH AND MEDICINE. Foucault and his followers have emphasized that the fields and concerns of medicine are diverse and heterogeneous. he is equally concerned to separate such inquiry from policy concerns.

domination is not the essence of power. GENUINE RECIPROCITY AND GROUP AUTHENTICITY. Therefore. 12 The effect of the Foucauldian analysis of discourses is to call into question the usual picture of oppression as an opposition between a hegemonic. 30 Foucault also argues against Marxist theories which hold that power is held in the hands of the dominant class. 124 . Rather. because power relations so thoroughly permeate society and are reciprocally conditioned by both the dominant and the dominated. and procedures of power were adopted or deployed from the moment that they revealed a political and economic utility for the bourgeoisie. and procedures of power were not formed or invented by the bourgeoisie. 2000. that it is merely repressive. systemic theory such as Marxism or liberalism. of unequal relations of force in a given society at any point in time. According to Foucault. Rather. Philosophy Professor. oligarchies or ruling classes. it is inaccurate to say that power can be possessed. that we can understand how these mechanisms come to be effectively incorporated into the social whole. p. it plays a “directly productive role. they were not the creation of the intentions of a class seeking to exercise effective forms of domination. p. AND CRITIQUE. techniques and procedures of power may achieve a degree of economic and political utility for dominant state apparatuses. If power flows not simply top down. including those who dominate and those who are dominated. According to Foucault. looking for the repressor is a failed and misdirected solution Phelan. p. Critiquing power from the top-down is useless – that isn’t where it comes from Boleau. but from the bottom up.” Everyone participates in the overall strategy. 841 In Foucault’s view the mechanisms. Philosophy Professor. rather mechanisms. Seattle U. techniques. power is best viewed as a set of patterns. techniques. However. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE. thus. Class relationships do not drive power relationships Smart. thus producing certain patterns of action. 1983.” This orientation to analysis allows for an unprejudiced exploration of the grounds on which specific mechanisms. in capillary fashion. repressive force and an underclass possessing an unspoken truth.Links: Critiques of Capitalism Power does not come from the top-down. 1998. MARXISM. “(i)t is only if we grasp these techniques of power and demonstrate the economic advantage or political utility that derives from them in a given context for specific reasons. analysis proceeds under the assumption that there can be no general theory of the connection between power and economic relations. then we cannot expect to capture it by means of a centralized. or that it is applied from only the top-down. then. or a matrix. the analysis of power is not reduced to the general terms of reference of a global theory of the capitalist mode of production and its laws of motion or operation. FOUCAULT. if it is not centralized but local and diffuse. that connections have to be determined through analysis. Lecturer. whiles it is evidence that there is an acceptance of a possible interconnection between politics and economy. (34(2).

*** Answers to Affirmative Arguments *** 125 .

2004. p. One should not judge a state or society by its principles alone but also by its practice. There is a great symbolic investment in the institution of Guantanamo Bay.S. It is true that there is nothing new about torture. agents have engaged in torture in numerous locations and at numerous times throughout 20th century history. Where it is clear that the purity of principles is not put into practice.html.libertysecurity.S. could be detaining and torturing untold numbers in secret locations across the globe. they are in material and historical terms very violent. the lack of concerted criticism of Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay in John Kerry’s campaign seems to reveal a national legitimacy to such practices. First and foremost is the global sovereignty that is asserted by such acts. I want to begin to understand how and why these claims to newness. invoking Marx in turn. Indeed. The discourse of strength and ‘taking the gloves off’ has clearly been successful. law has been made public knowledge. of the ‘civilized world’. that The purity of principles not only tolerates but even requires violence. U. The way such practices are being carried out is different to before. but that is not of great importance here. the existence of Guantanamo Bay has been officially publicised. There has been much reporting and speculation about the practices that go on in Guantanamo Bay. they are done with a globally projected air of impunity.It is not just a question of knowing what the liberals have in mind but what in reality is done by the liberal state within and beyond its frontiers. Philosopher. Although liberal states preach peace and rights.org/article199. Of course. Current practices can certainly be seen as the continuation of a violence that is endemic to liberal societies..S. and there have been many suggestions that this is indeed happening. accessed 5/13/05. it merits condemnation rather than absolution. that it need pay no heed to international law or norms. exceptionality and necessity have proved powerful enough to bring about and legitimate some very exceptional practices.the critical language by which we can articulate our outrage and opposition to those practices. Maurice Merleau-Ponty argued in 1947. I specifically want to focus on the employment of torture by U. What is important is that Guantanamo Bay is no deadly secret. It is commonly accepted that U. there is today something new that invites fresh condemnation and criticism. http://www. Nevertheless. Such practices do not appear to have hurt George W. Keele University. agents. Bush has now won electoral endorsement of his policies and the way he is waging the so-called ‘war on terror’. We might begin by sketching some of the reasons why current practices appear to be to different to previous forms of liberal violence.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns Violence is endemic to liberal societies DRG/E383 Andrew Neal. George W. The apparent popular legitimacy of American torture also characterises the present predicament. such claims are difficult to verify. This asserted impunity is an asserted sovereignty.S. It is an assertion that the United States is an exception to the rule. What appears acceptable and legitimate to many today would not have been before September 11th 2001. it is an all-too familiar practice in many countries. and perhaps third parties on their behalf. but why should they be raised so markedly in the American instance and not in untold others? We must avoid the argument that such acts are not expected of Americans. the camp’s very existence is for domestic and global public consumption. It is an assertion that it fears or expects no serious sanction. Although the happenings inside Guantanamo are carefully guarded. FOUCAULT IN GUANTANAMO. This suggests that current American practices have popular legitimacy. The colonial subtext of that narrative is patent. 126 . In this inquiry I hope to provide what Zizek calls ‘red ink’ . such principles often ultimately rest on such practices. We should instead begin on the basis that there is nothing new about the violence of purportedly liberal regimes and their conflicting claims to be guided by high principles.. Bush’s re-election battle. What I would like to do here is make some initial moves towards understanding the new glass we find ourselves looking through. The camp’s intended status as a place of exception beyond U. So why pick on American torture? There is moral outrage and horror of course. and indeed. Whatever practices are taking place there. agents and the increased legitimacy these practices have been accorded in that country. However.

enter into a rhetorical battle that we will lose. Gray argues. universal) values.libertysecurity. 2004. Gray is right that Montesquieu and Voltaire used the language of rights against sovereign power. There is a danger that if we simply try to reassert liberal values we will. Professor Alan Dershowitz. he attributes the dubious credit of initiating this debate to America’s most celebrated defender of civil liberties. More disturbingly there has been what is referred to as a ‘public debate’ on torture in some intellectual circles and in the American media. Clearly. the language of rights is sovereign. Today. Gray is at least right in his claim that part of the Enlightenment criticism of torture was that it was tied up with arbitrary power. there can be no more hopeful sign. In what is revealing language. however. Today. This is preferable for liberal societies and for the universal values they embody because the rule of law is a core liberal value.S. One startling example of a contribution to this debate can be found in a recent collection of essays by the popular philosopher John Gray. but also on the principles that are now at the service of. It seems that we might need to go beyond Merleau-Ponty’s wisdom and question liberal societies not just on their actual practices. He represents the unshakable sense of moral superiority that lies behind the legitimacy accorded to current American practices. 127 . and served by.html. what Gray’s argument reveals is that recourse to the language of rights is now highly problematic as a strategy of opposition. at worst. Torture was vilified by Enlightenment thinkers for its association with arbitrary power. which now exists in the United States. strengthen the discursive weapons of the new liberal crusaders. Torture is now the defence of rights against the enemies of rights. according to him. or. Gray does not represent a braying mob led astray by jingoistic leaders. at best. accessed 5/13/05. he does not believe that the present use of torture is tied up with arbitrary power today. he argues. FOUCAULT IN GUANTANAMO. because torture will be used to defend the liberal civilization that those thinkers dreamt of. apparently).. Constitution explicitly forbids the use of torture. the defence of freedom against ‘the enemies of freedom’. Keele University. This is of course highly debatable. p. http://www.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns Liberal societies will not prevent torture – it is not inconsistent with their values DRG/E384 Andrew Neal. Gray represents the argument that torture is a defence of rights and liberal (and therefore. those practices. Philosopher. in which he argues for the incorporation of torture into legal systems. At a time when civilization is under daily threat. it should be incorporated into law. Gray enthusiastically proclaims that The world’s finest liberal thinkers are applying themselves to the design of a modern regime of judicial torture. Dershowitz argued in media interviews that nothing in the U. Gray argues that rather than pushing torture into darkened cellars to hide its moral stain (an outmoded historical relic. torture is used to defend free societies from attack by their enemies. More profoundly.org/article199. Today is different..

) What we are interested in finally is a new biopolitics that reveals the struggles over forms of life. Interview. since the regulation of personal conduct becomes intrinsically linked to the regulation of political and civic conduct. Removing public regulation does not solve private control Rasa Ostrauskaite. although cast on a very different register. 2003. their discourses. Power thus “reaches into the very grain of individuals.php There is no figure that can challenge and contest sovereignty. learning processes.” Given the extent to which we believe that the distinction between the unregulated private and liberally regulated public is important. and inserts itself into their actions and attitudes.htm) Melanie White and Allan Hunt warn us.16beavergroup. that is. although cast on a very different register. http://www. (In this sense. http://www.org/monday/archives/000374. http://venus. is closer to our notion of a biopower from below. (In this sense.uw. Our critique of Agamben's (and also Foucault's) notion of biopower is that it is conceived only from above and we attempt to formulate instead a notion of biopower from below.” This is precisely because the boundary between the private and the public disappears.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns Regulating the top is not an effective way to control biopower Michael Hart (Negri’s buddy). a power by which the multitude itself rules over life. that “the choices forced on subjects can be highly coercive.ci.edu.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao. that is.16beavergroup. is closer to our notion of a biopower from below. Interview.) What we are interested in finally is a new biopolitics that reveals the struggles over forms of life. touches their bodies. the notion of biopower one finds in some veins of ecofeminism such as the work of Vandana Shiva. the notion of biopower one finds in some veins of ecofeminism such as the work of Vandana Shiva. a power by which the multitude itself rules over life.org/monday/archives/000374. we have to conclude that we have become trapped in the ‘paradox of freedom. 2003. 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL. and everyday lives. Our critique of Agamben's (and also Foucault's) notion of biopower is that it is conceived only from above and we attempt to formulate instead a notion of biopower from below. The state is an apparatus of domination Michael Hart (Negri’s buddy).php There is no figure that can challenge and contest sovereignty. however.’ 128 . May.

‘indirect’ mechanisms seek “to act upon and instrumentalize the self-regulating propensities of individuals in order to ally them with socio-political objectives.ci.uw.edu. as some would claim. 129 . with ‘progress’ and ‘rationalization. the neo-liberal discourse disempowers reason through naturalizing it.’ As a result. to use a more general term. the political space which in principle provides room for questioning or reflexivity.is precisely the absence of questioning. 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL. including its own raison d’être.” Neo-liberalism limits reflection outside itself Rasa Ostrauskaite.” Neo-liberalism thus becomes a ‘regime of truth’ which justifies everything. so as to theoretically establish how the rationalities of neo-liberalism are reproduced and institutionalized. 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL.htm) I shall begin my discussion on rationalities of neo-liberalism with two quotations from Zygmunt Bauman’s book In Search of Politics for they nicely delineate the space in which I would like to situate myself and which I shall try to explore in more depth.” just as the concepts of private and public.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao. In other words and especially in the case of governing economic life.indeed. May.htm) Yet. http://venus. http://venus. problematization of top-down managerial control is usually achieved at the expense of locating ‘indirect’ mechanisms which play a very important role in fabricating and maintaining (self)-government. What makes ‘the neo-liberal world-view sharply different from other ideologies . May. Although it would be too pretentious and unrealistic to purport to provide a comprehensive answer within the confines of such a paper. as we shall see later.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns Indirect mechanisms still result in control Rasa Ostrauskaite.” Bauman concludes this idea by postulating that “[i]deology used to set reason against nature. “the concepts of the political and the non-political become blurred.ci. has been sharply reduced or.edu. I shall try to briefly look through the lenses designed by the Foucauldian governmentality school.uw. its surrender to what is seen as the implacable and irreversible logic of social reality. as Peter Miller and Nikolas Rose forcefully argue. a phenomenon of a separate class .pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao.

” or “consciousness” the instruments of modern power. found itself concealed. that. It is not about the state losing its powers in terms of domination and control. May. 279 Of course.” where the individual “becomes a behaviouristically manipulable being and the correlative of a governmentality which systematically changes the variables of the ‘environment’ and can count on the ‘rational choice’ of the individuals.” There is a warning here that the totalizing vision which accepts such a “human foundation” is always in danger of leading back to totalizing practice – and even the critical dichotomy of leading back to a totalizing practice. or economic processes. p. alienated. 130 .uw. A reduction in direct state presence just results in a transformation of its power Rasa Ostrauskaite.edu.” “rationality.ci.” To sum up. Philosophy. could also be deciphered accordingly. if one does not treat it with a certain number of safeguards and within certain limits. although more often than not remaining unaware and thus trapped in their own lack of knowledge. it is about the state transforming its powers in terms of remolding its governmental techniques in the form of acquiring new entrepreneurial tasks and consequently ‘delegating’ some of its responsibility onto ‘empowered’ individuals. or imprisoned in and by some repressive mechanism. Says Foucault. v. If the classicalliberal understanding rendered the individual freedom as a precondition for rational government. The blurring between the public and the private or encroachment on the private. POLITICAL THEORY.” “essence. 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL. 2000. to be more precise. there is a danger that it will refer back to the idea that there does exist a nature or human result of a certain number of historical. the ‘withdrawal of the state’ as strongly advocated by neo-liberal logic could be seen in a somewhat (if not even very) different light. to the extent. http://venus.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao. social. where individuals become the vehicles. for the neoliberalism the point of reference is no longer natural freedom that we are to respect. Harvard University. Not only were such “foundationalist” categories as “truth. they have also been the tools of criticism that hold the promise of “liberation.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns Grounding liberation from modernity in modernity fails Aladjem. In that hypothesis it would suffice to unloosen these repressive locks so that man can be reconciled with himself.htm) Once interpreted in this way and especially against the understanding of liberalism which views individual liberty as and end in itself. 19(2). notwithstanding the ethical implications thereof.” “human nature. rather. which consequently makes it even more difficult to rehearse the possibility of resistance. “I’ve always been a little distrustful of the general theme of liberation.” Hence there is reason to suspect that the liberation from modernity that is grounded in the assumptions of modernity may repeat the same mistakes. the message is simple: neo-liberal power as embodied/articulated in the government technologies could be perspectivized as functioning in the form of a chain reaction. but rather “an artificially created form of behavior. that resistance to the categories of Enlightenment reason poses an extraordinary dilemma for all postmodern criticism.

one may question whether the new forms of ‘responsibilization’ and even ‘empowerment’ of individuals pursued by governments are not precisely the outcomes of neoliberal rationalities. And by rationality I here mean ‘collective mentality’ or a ‘typical way of perceiving and interpreting the world. they are the products of this subjectivity (Latin sub. by analogy. may lead to what may appear as a self-contradictory statement: the retraction of state does not lead to less government (at least not in Foucault’s understanding of it.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns Reduction in state activities does not reduce governance Rasa Ostrauskaite. To understand modern forms of rule.’ but also general slogans such as ‘state control’ and free market and. therefore. http://venus.) States. May.’ as defined by Robert Cox. (although this is not to suggest that there are no tensions between macroscopic discourses of sovereignty (Latin super. they are not comprised of essential subjective properties.ci. http://venus. are not only producers of political subjectivity.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao. beneath) themselves. in other words. to investigate not only ‘grand political schema. From this perspective and especially since states are sources of juridical power. as argued by Miller and Rose. 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL. not only are they necessary but they are indispensable for an efficient functioning of the whole mechanism.ci. Hence. 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL. one needs.) “Empowerment” fits within neo-liberal forms of rationality Rasa Ostrauskaite. in terms of how they help to bring activities of individuals and groups ‘into alignment with governmental aspirations.uw. of global liberal governance as of a diffuse network with sovereign states acting as nodal or key points. “apparently humble and mundane mechanisms which appear to make it possible to govern.’ to use the Weberian term. which seem to be on the verge of becoming the (only) rationality.” 131 . in turn. we can then conceive.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao. as an ensemble of governmental practices that are to a certain degree constrained by juridical and territorial boundaries.edu.htm) Following Foucault’s suggestion to consider government as a ‘contact point’ which bridges the techniques of domination and techniques of the self. ‘cultivation’ of a personality and even social practices thus should be assessed also in terms of their capacity to become ‘instruments of power’ or. We can thus conceive of them. as Foucault would argue.” that is. May. According to the governmental perspective. or dominant discourse. This. “states are not subjects with essences. most important. pace Dillon. as a result. or ‘unauthentic legitimization.uw. having stripped a unified (welfare) state of its alleged ‘unity’ and ‘replaced’ it with multiple fragmented agencies. above) and microscopic processes of governmentality.” The meaningfulness of ‘scientific’ knowledge.edu.

while the network society is closer to the paradigm of the society of control. How right he was. There is also the fact that the conditions in which political authority and legitimacy are shaped and asserted are changing too. If power in the 20th century turned on the issue of the ownership of the means of production.pl/~rubikon/forum/ostrao.htm) The dissociation of the interests of political and economic society is one of the problems facing governance.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns Traditional representative democracy cannot challenge biopower Rasa Ostrauskaite. May. This new paradigm was described by Foucault as "biopower". This paradigm shift is not unlike the transition from disciplinary societies to societies of control described by Foucault. 132 . By biopower he meant the fact that life was now an object of power. the Fordist trade-off between authority and security seems redundant. making choices calls both for the pursuit of a consensus and the development of a culture of evaluation. modulable and fluctuating networks. culturally and socially heterogeneous societies. 2002 (RUBIKON E-JOURNAL.uw.edu. for example. Given the ethically and technically tangled nature of these issues. such as biotechnological patents. But it is not the only one. http://venus.ci. which depends less on a fixed and static hierarchy than on flexible. None of these changes can be spontaneously handled by traditional representative democracy. In increasingly individualistic. it is not unreasonable to argue that the issues of the 21st century are rooted in the ownership of the "life". Governance expresses a new power paradigm. The Fordist society fits the profile of a disciplinary society quite closely.

Painless conversions are regarded with suspicion. This consequence is heavy with significance. in order to operate these State apparatuses which have been taken over but both destroyed. there is the question. University of Vermont.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns State centered policies fail because power is fluid Michel Foucault." Resistance is expected before any "real" transformation can occur. He's got the words down. an inmate demonstrated uncanny mastery of the program's terminology. Secondly. one of the first things that has to be understood is that power isn't localized in the State apparatus and that nothing in society will be changed if the mechanisms of power that function outside. and is thus dynamic. p. but it seems to me that among all the conditions for avoiding a repetition of the Soviet experience and preventing the revolutionary process from running into the ground. 133 . accompanied by appropriate modifications. Finally then. or should it be the opportunity for the destruction of that apparatus? You know how the issue was finally settled. So we reach a second consequence: during the period of the dictatorship of the proletariat. part of disciplinary practice is the management of resistance.htm) Your study is concentrated on all those micro-powers that are exercised at the level of daily life. Sociologist. the revolutionary movement must posses equivalent politico-military forces and hence must constitute itself as a party. but it came a little too easily. SOCIAL PROBLEMS. The State apparatus must be undermined. 1977 (POWER/KNOWLEDGE: SELECTED INTERVIEWS AND OTHER WRITINGS. organized internally in the same way as a State apparatus with the same mechanisms of hierarchies and organization of powers. on a much more minute and everyday level.uk/bodypower. the State apparatus must to some extent at least be maintained.co. February 1999. much discussed within Marxism itself. it will be necessary to have recourse to technicians and specialists. Discipline implies agency and suggests struggle. disciplining discourses to manage individuals arouses resistance. are not also changed. However. Aren't you neglecting the State apparatus here? It's true that since the late nineteenth century Marxist and 'Marxised' revolutionary movements have been given special importance to the State apparatus as the stake of their struggle. 1972-1977. And in order to do this one has to call upon the old class which is acquainted with the apparatus. but not completely undermined. The use of professional. below and alongside the State apparatuses. Fox. http://www. This clearly is what happened in the USSR. Hence the State apparatus must be kept sufficiently intact for it to be employed against the class enemy. resistance is regarded as evidence of the "truth" of the discourse. A facilitator told me privately: "I am not sure how real it is. thereby exposing the tension between overt control and cognitive control. I don't claim at all that the State apparatus is unimportant. early on in a Stage I group. 95. since the class struggle will not be brought to an immediate end without the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat. an indication of extraordinary criminal thinking. namely the bourgeoisie. Director Institute Francais at Hamburg.thefoucauldian. Disciplinary practices manage resistance Kathryn R. In CSC. For example. of the capture of the State apparatus: should this be considered as a straight forward take-over. as a third consequence. What were the ultimate consequences of this? In order to be able to fight a State which is more than just a government. p.

and (3) psychiatrists are always honest and are experts in their field. http://www. and ourselves realize that physicians are not perfect examples of honesty and integrity.org/kendra-c.Answers to Affirmative Link Turns Reform is co-opted Michael McCubbin. and that psychiatric "treatment" usually harms rather than helps people. mental health professionals. 2000. that psychiatrists routinely violate human rights.antipsychiatry. WHY OUTPATIENT COMMITMENT LAWS CHANGE (ALMOST) NOTHING. p. So let's see Kendra's Law in New York and similar laws in other states for what they are: symbolic victories of those who favor using psychiatry to violate human rights. 1999.leading many to assume that this includes user participation .. But usually this discourse has remained symbolic.when the "community" persons are actually government paid health and social service professionals. Spring/Summer. and it deprives people of free will and of the ability to make rational decisions.html. these outpatient commitment laws may get psychiatrists and other mental health "professionals" in the habit of incarcerating people only because they refuse to take psychiatric drugs when in the past they might have left us alone. or worse: coopting users' voices drawing them into "cooperation" with the system and muting their opposition to its disempowering features. Too often we have seen health authorities say that they have "community participation" on their governing bodies . If we can't stop the lawful use of coercive psychiatry. judges. SWEET WORDS THAT HURT. their enactment shows that our lawmakers still believe myths such as (1) mental illness is a real illness. that psychiatry is a pseudo-science. making safeguards against unnecessary or unjust or oppressive use of involuntary commitment unnecessary. arrogance.D. 19.htm. Or. Second. We need to be more effective in our efforts to make lawmakers. Reforms just legitimize the system Douglas Smith. that "mental illness" is not a valid concept.org/mccub1. (2) mental illnesses are caused by biochemical imbalances that are corrected by psychiatric drugs. Ph. we may need to start an "underground railroad" similar to that used to help blacks escape slavery during the period shortly before the civil war when slavery was legal. Nobody should be taking these drugs. Does anybody know where victims of psychiatric oppression can go to hide from those who would harm them with involuntary commitment or forced use of psychiatric drugs? Does anybody want to volunteer to provide transportation to such a safe haven? 134 . agendas and technocratic language.academyanalyticarts. http://www. The trend among mental health planners over the last decade has been to adopt the discourse of democracy and inclusiveness. so their "diagnoses" determining who is "mentally ill" and who will become violent are reliable. that unjust psychiatric commitment is commonplace. December. MD. p. There are at least two dangers of these new laws: First. All psychiatric drugs are harmful. if there is user representation it is token and the user representative is snowed under by professional power.

afterward to Michel Foucault. p. religious.244-5. 1980. in his 1970 lecture The Order of Discourse. and give rise to oppressive relations. sexual. Genealogy promotes resistance at the diffuse points at which practices occur. because across the surface of those levels are the sites at which power arises.) levels as well. informational (etc. but because power is not centralized. has a significance for historical analysis which prior to Foucault seems never to have been fully exploited. It struggles on these levels not because multiple struggles will create a society without the centralization of power. First. THE POLITICAL THEORY OF POSTSTRUCTURALIST ANARCHISM. Professor of Philosophy. but on the epistemological. Foucault shows how the rules of formation of discourses are linked to the operation of a particular kind of social power. It struggles not only on the economic or state levels. ethical. intersect. The existence of these discourses. 135 . The kind of politics that genealogy yields is a politics that is more local and diffuse than the large-scale politics that is better suited to grand narratives. control and 'policing'. POWER/ KNOWLEDGE. they are also bound by regulations enforced through social practices of appropriation. 1980. p. psychological. p. Clemson. Discourses not only exhibit immanent principles of regularity. Discourse is a political commodity. transparent and programmable of the real. POWER/ KNOWLEDGE. Power arises at multiple levels including the linguistic and epistemological Todd May. psychoanalytic. This phenomenon consists in the singular emergence in Western thought during the past four centuries of discourses which construct programmes for the formation of a social reality.94-5. that is to say in a world traversed by the effects of discourses whose object (in both senses of the word) is the rendering rational isable. linguistic. Discourse is a form of social power Colin Gordon. but we live in a world of programmes. Our world does not follow a programme. 1994.245. afterward to Michel Foucault.Discourse Key Discourses form social reality Colin Gordon. whose object-domains are defined simultaneously as a target area for intervention and a functioning totality to be brought into existence.

But let us not forget about Foucault’s allusion to thanatpolitics. at the same time. in these conditions. the latter implied both the systematic genocide of theirs and the risk of exposing oneself to total sacrifice. to becomes an imperative for a regime based on biopower: War? How can one not only make the war on one’s adversaries. in Hobbes and Machiavelli. then. making them kill by the millions…if not. necessarily.” The fantasies of blood incarnated in Nazism. in these conditions. For Foucault. and mass murder. within which they were firmly ensconced. and persisting in many Marxist notions of power circulating during Foucault's time. mad. U Pittsburgh. War. and warns that one must not accept these racialized divisions. 2001 (POLITY.Impacts: Disciplinary Power is Very Bad The expansion of biopower via disciplinary power is what triggers genocide Michael Goodhart. that have shaped our late modernity? For Foucault. 1. 136 . On the other hand. here we must refer to the example of Nazism. but expose one’s own citizen’s to war. Nazism is the culmination point (paroxysne) of the development of the new mechanisms of power set in place since the 18th century…disciplinary power. instituted through the so-called "sciences of man. 22. and the bio-power. PHILOSOPHY & SOCIAL CRITICISM. Disciplinary biopower is the foundation of the holocaust.” an overlapping that characterizes the instantiation of regimes of power: “Nazism was doubtless the most cunning and the most naïve (and former because of the latter) combination of the fantasies of blood and the paroxysms of a disciplinary power. the role of the Nazi regime is clear in Foucault’s discourse: “You must understand. the most racist. Surely. in the guise of an unrestricted state control (etatisation) was accomplished by the generic explanation of a superior blood. Philosophy Professor. Winter 2001 v34 i2 p241(17)) Foucault's own discourse maintains an ambivalent relationship to this "war of the races. necessarily the most racist. all that traverses and sustains every aspect of Nazi society. the role of the Nazi regime is clear in Foucault’s discourse: “You must understand. and “racism in its modern. precisely. and bio-power. biologizing.) Hence Foucault simultaneously promotes and evidently practices an animation of war and antagonism in discourse and in practice to counter the pacifying and subjugating effects of disciplinary normalization and the rhetoric of sovereignty where power purports to function monolithically and seamlessly outside of rather than within subjects. This is a discourse of opposition and represents an alternative to the still dominant discourse of sovereignty visible. p. then. statist form”) and a more ancient “symbolics of blood. D. with all that implied in the way of extension and intensification of micro-powers. at the same time. Queens. by activating the themes of racism? Here. we must refer to the example of Nazism. how and why the most murderous states are. v. (He suggests also that class struggle" is certainly not free of such fascist dangers. could only assume so massively lethal a form because of the technologies of domination. or other problematic elements of the social body. 106 Where does Nazism fit in the development trajectory of technologies of domination. it serves as an example of a subjugated knowledge to be resurrected. biopower. the war of the races" takes on new forms centering upon the purification of the species with the institution of the regime of biopower in the next two centuries to reach its horrifying apex with the Holocaust." which aim to classify the abnormal." On the one hand. neurotic. the lethality of Nazism was heightened by its infusion of a hyper-modern analytics of sexuality (concomitant with biopower. homosexual. however. Surely. Here. according to Foucault. how and why the most murderous states are. A eugenic ordering of society. Milchman.

The expression of humanist biopower will destroy the planet James Bernauer. it is because power is situated and exercised at the level of life. Boston College. acting in the interests of a better administration of life. a political technology. If genocide is indeed the dream of modem powers. the species the race. that engaged in an endless clamor for reform. the species. 1990 (MICHAEL FOUCAULT'S FORCE OF FLIGHT: TOWARD AN ETHICS OF THOUGHT." The very period that proclaimed pride in having overthrown the tyranny of monarchy. the race. as the technology of wars has caused them to tend increasingly toward all-out destruction. 260 It is as managers of life and survival. But the existence in question is no longer the juridical existence of sovereignty. What comparison is possible between a sovereign's authority to take a life and a power that. of bodies and the race. this is not because of a recent return of the ancient right to kill. The principle underlying the tactics of battle-that one has to be capable of killing in order to go on living-has become the principle that defines the strategy of states. and the large-scale phenomena of population. as well as develop the means for its implementation. 137 . at stake is the biological existence of a population. has produced a politics that places man's "existence as a living being in question.this period's politics created a landscape dominated by history's bloodiest wars. pp.Impacts: Biopower Causes Extinction Power and bio-power make genocide and extinction possible Paul Rabinow. "The atomic situation is now at the end point of this process: the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of a power to guarantee and individuals continued existence. " The solace that might have been expected from being able to gaze at scaffolds empty of the victims of a tyrant's vengeance has been stolen form us by the noose that has tightened around each of our own necks. And through a turn that closes the circle. THE FOUCAULT READER. p. 1984. can plan. it is but the other side of a power that is "situated and exercised at the level of life. that is confident in the virtues of its humanistic faith -. causing so many men to be killed. The bio-political project of administering and optimizing life closes its circle with the production of the Bomb. the decision that initiates them and the one that terminates them are in fact increasingly informed by the naked question of survival. The atomic situation is now at the end point of this process: the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual's continued existence. While liberals have fought to extend rights and Marxists have denounced the injustices of capitalism. a policy of mutually assured destruction? Such a policy is neither an aberration of the fundamental principles of modern politics nor an abandonment of our age's humanism in favor of a more primitive right to kill. philosophy professor. Berkeley. in the interest of protecting a society's quality of life. Professor of Anthropology. that so many regimes have been able to wage so many wars. 141-2) This capacity of power to conceal itself cannot cloak the tragedy of the implications contained in Foucault's examination of its functioning. and the large-scale phenomena of population.

normalizes.Impacts: Biopower Causes Totalitarianism Biopower is totalitarian because there is no escape Hasana Sharp is a graduate student in the philosophy department at Pennsylvania State University. because we are no longer on the terrain of sovereignty where the relationship between core and periphery is given and stable. or exile. 98) I would like to argue that a consideration of Foucault's predilection for military terminology and the deployment of war as a "grid of intelligibility" for understanding social relations must be thought of as a civil war. Whereas punishment under sovereignty can be torture. their maintenance and expansion. Biopolitics functions differently from sovereignty in that there is no outside to biopower (Hardt 140). exile is impossible since divisions are necessarily internal to the social body. Spring. 138 . p. the punitive measures of biopolitics consist in discipline which transforms. execution. Sovereign territory always exists in relation to its frontiers. 2002 (INTERTEXTS. and subsumes difference--there is nowhere else to go.

Seattle U. 22. and the Holocaust. 1998. In other words. constitute the historical matrix from within which Nazism and the Holocaust emerged. GENUINE RECIPROCITY AND GROUP AUTHENTICITY. exercised by a multitude of governmental institutions. The human lives the plan saves are meaningless. who was (for some) selfgrounded. This carceral archipelage is the outcome of a major shift in the way in which power. there is a strong voice in our culture that views the body as a resource or a machine. What is so original in the Foucauldian vision is an historical contextualization which firmly situates Nazism and the “Final Solution. PHILOSOPHY & SOCIAL CRITICISM. Knowledge of the body causes the body’s dispersion into a complex myriad of political strategies and techniques. Milchman.” within the carceral archipalge. Foucault sees modern man as “animal whose politics places his existence as a living being in question. and to take life. was an historical aberration. 1. 139 . v. and domination. p.. The result is what Foucault terms biopower. Philosophy Professor. In contrast to Aristotelian man. exercised by the sovereign. Foucault sees individuals as social creations: no individual is his or her own ground. Vote on presumption Boleau. an atavistic revolt against modernity. is exercised: from a negative power to episodically punished. in the current era of bio-power. The prevailing view within contemporary social theory is that Nazism. manage. Philosophy Professor. Queens. to a positive power to administer. p. 2000. and regulate the intimate details of life – and death – of whole populations. Biopolitical relations culminate in genocidal practices D.Impacts: Holocaust Biopower eliminates any value to human life. in the form of technologies of domination. 27 According to Foucault. that has been generated by modernity itself. 111 We believe that the regimes of practices that shape what Foucault sees as the carceral side of modernity.

make it possible to “produce docile bodies. 140 .” The nazi eugenics movement was a triumph of power over life Richard Bernauer. a revitalization of life itself.Impacts: Holocaust (Cont) State power to “care” for populations is the same power that enables the to commit genocide D. 104 In several lectures. and in his HISTORY OF SEXUALITY. CRITICAL ESSAYS ON MICHAEL FOUCAULT. Philosophy Professor. 21 The ethic of Nazi Socialism is regarded as a form of applied biology. So the revere of biopolitics is thanatopoltiics. Queens. and multiply it. Milchman. And the goal of all of this – to which Nazi anti-Semitism was itself subordinated – was a definitive biological purification for history. v. p. “Since the population is nothing mare than what the state takes care of for its own sake. The asceticism of Himmler’s ethic was not just the rigorous discipline of the SS man’s formation. of course. p. its triumph over death. and the governmentalization of the state. optimize. A formidable power of death in w2hich political regimes inflict “holocaust on their own populations” is. A eugenics for one racial body which entailed a “euthanasia’ for others. PHILOSOPHY & SOCIAL CRITICISM. that endeavors to administer. the state is entitle to slaughter it if necessary. subjecting it to precise controls and comprehensive regulations. 1999. Philosophy Professor. the counterpart of a power that exerts a positive influence on life. but the practice of killing as a moral imperative to enhance biological life. 1. Boston College. with its stress on duty and obedience. 22. Foucault began to develop the idea that the state which had progressively taken as its task the ‘care” of the population in all its dimensions may also be massacre it. for Foucault. Such is the outcome when the stathification of power.

at least evolutionarily speaking.. and all things being equal. 1958: 74-75). causing so many men to be killed. maintain. that is. in a large and metaphorical sense including dependence of one being on another.has become the principle that defines the strategy of states. http://www. University of California San Diego Philosophy Professor.htm) The modern administration of death is situated and exercised at the very level of life itself. that so many regimes have been able to wage so many wars. 1978: 136). or at least more destructive in their wagering the life of a population at large: wars were never as bloody as they have been since the nineteenth century. 1978: 138). 7. Wars in the name of the population produce devastating consequences Peter Atterton.acusd. but success in leaving progeny (Darwin.. 1994 (HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL. unlike la peine de mort. .edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault. 141 . http://www. v.' which he use . It is as managers of life and survival. As a plan for 'life and survival. 7. at stake is the biological existence of a population. which.' it belongs more properly to evolution and to what Darwin called 'the struggle for existence.. . have become more numerous in recent history. Such are instances of war. and including (which is more important) not only the life of the individual. The principle underlying the tactics of battle .Impacts: Biopower Causes War Biopower produces war in the name of the people Peter Atterton.acusd. never before did regimes visit such holocausts on their own populations. is not military and does not derive from military theory. 'it is manifested as simply the reverse of the right of the social body to ensure. University of California San Diego Philosophy Professor. And yet it is just as logical for power to exercise that prerogative. v. It might indeed seem paradoxical that power should exercise the prerogative of taking life in the name of preserving it . or rather deploy that strategy. of bodies. its own potential and growth.that one has to be capable of killing in order to go on living .a contradiction abated by its restricted use of the death penalty (Foucault. in cases where its own survival.. or develop its life' (Foucault.edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault.htm) The 'principle underlying the tactics of battle' defining 'the strategy of states' as bio-politics. The atomic situation is now at the end point of this process: the power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of the power to guarantee an individual's continued existence. is in question. 1994 (HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL.

outlaws and so on. From now on. 142 . power was not to be used to take life or to destroy bodies but instead to manage them .ac.massey.htm) Against this.Impacts: Biopower Supports Capitalism Biopower supports capitalism through rendering bodies docile John Pratt.came to stake their claim to power by reference not to ancient lineage but to how much wealth they possessed. But not only would power be used to ensure that bodies would be made useful: it would also be used to ensure that there would be no wastage. banishment and destruction for law breaking that had been prevalent in pre-capitalist society to penalties of inclusion and incorporation that began to develop and permeate the penal system of modern societies (initially in the form of the prison. but eventually in a range of communitybased alternatives to it . It represented a politics of heredity and life in that the new ruling class the bourgeoisie . Massey University. Pratt 1981)). how much they had been left and how much they could pass on to their successive generations: equally. the new order of capitalist society demanded a political economy of the body organized around principles of heredity and life.to render them "docile". http://www.nz/~nzsrda//nzssreps/journals/sites/pratt14. (Foucault 1979. In this new society. rebels. to make them useful. Department of Social Policy and Social Work. This was one of the reasons for the shift away from penalties of exclusion. no-one would be allowed to stand outside of society as outcasts. to make them productive. 1998 (FEATURES: POWER AND RESISTANCE.see later). life had to be managed in such a way that it could be used to reproduce this wealth. And this was why sexuality became so important from this time: it provided a means of regulating the conduct of individual bodies and of ensuring the health and efficiency of the population as a whole (hence the significance and influence of eugenics in the development of sexual discourses from the early years of the 19th century.

htm) In the first volume of The History of Sexuality. to its nature and to its own rationality. a crucially important role. but by bio-power directed in a totalizing manner at whole populations and. also. it is the attempt to shape. played. This is not the power of life (natural or divine law). Biopower is the power of the state over life Peter Atterton. 1978: 140). 1995 (FOUCAULT AND NEO-LIBERALISM: BIOPOWER AND BUSNOPOWER.ed.html) Foucault also develops the notion of governmentality as the art of government or.edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault. Foucault works out an immensely powerful genealogical critique of political rationality emerging with the rise of capitalism and the growth of state institutions in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. relations between institutions and social communities. pre-Machiavellian. mostly cast uncynically as instrumental in attaining justice for the good of the citizen and state." This notion "refers to the state. but rather the power over life. In order to contrast this form of political domination with earlier. greater productivity and extended police control. In Foucault's work this activity of governance could cover the relations of self to self.acusd. as it is sometimes referred to. Foucault deploys the term 'bio-power' (Foucault.Impacts: Biopower Supports the State Biopower supports a strong state James D. v. juridico-legal forms. University of California San Diego Philosophy Professor. organization. Governmentality is obtained not by a totalizing deterministic or oppressive form of power. and reaching its culmination in modern technological programs of demographic administration and control. or to affect not only the conduct of people but. Here one locates the human sciences and their "truths. to guide. entitled La Volonté de savoir (1976). The University of Auckland.uiuc. and the exercise of political sovereignty. 7." By "government" Foucault should be understood as meaning something close to "the conduct of conduct." and the institutions or disciplinary blocks (including education) in which these truths have been developed." He sees the technologies of domination and the self as being the techniques used "to make of the individual a significant element for the state. at individuals so that they are both individualized and normalized. 1994 (HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL. http://www. 143 .edu/EPS/PES-Yearbook/95_docs/marshall. self to others. the power to administrate the life of individuals composite of the social body by way of an increasing tendency towards order." This is a form of activity which attempts or aims at the conduct of persons. and continue to play. the "reason of state. the attempt to constitute people in such ways that they can be governed. http://www. Marshall. at one and the same time.

*** Alternatives *** 144 .

183) As Young asserts. which uses them as logic for social control. Homeostatic or equilibrium conditions achieved by way of social control negate choices and." The "death" of society that Young refers to results from a lack of growth or the reproduction of only equilibrium conditions. the possibility of growth through adaptation. As Foucault (1965. become catalysts for the chaotic dynamics inherent in all systems. Indeed. depends on choices.. orderly disorder). inevitable pattern of social life toward which all individuals or systems converge. through the disciplinary power of medicine and law) neutralizes the prospects for society to assume its potentially chaotic nature. Professor of Criminology. Spring. These diverse social parameters consume the society around us. Professor of Criminology. Chaologists believe that "healthy" systems need chaos. PHD Candidate in Psychiatry.Alternative: Chaos The alternative is a natural state of chaos Bruce Arrigo. and nonlinear dynamics that define it. 1990) reminds us. power relations. this clinicolegal endeavor has historical significance. p. negative feedback loops "defeat flexibility and change.g. Adaptation to changing social conditions requires a flexibility that. 1999 (SOCIAL JUSTICE. Chaos is necessary to prevent the death of society Bruce Arrigo. natural. Spring. 182) Chaos theory informs us that no one state can be regarded as a normal. 145 . Controlling these parameters has traditionally been regarded as integral to the containment of unpredictability . under severe conditions. Repressing the presence of disorder (e.. PHD Candidate in Psychiatry. p. Consuming variables such as economic inequalities.e. society and its constituent segments must be examined in light of the disorderly. and other social forces are all critical factors that. Christopher Williams.a condition viewed mostly in modern science as unacceptable. linearly progressing system into a state of chaos (i. in turn. divergent. our critical examination of contemporary civil confinement practices reveals just how profound the repression of chaos can be. thus. 1977. 1999 (SOCIAL JUSTICE. Contrarily. thus end[ing] in death for society. Christopher Williams. Chaos theory claims that these dynamics are propelled by changes in key parameters that can incite a stable. political privileges.

This plebeian resistance combats the modern powerknowledge-subjectivity formation by creating the are of existence where we act ethically according to an aesthetic ideal. As explained in Chapter Three. 60 Based on Taylors reading of Foucault. local resistance suffers from the dame deficiency as global transformation – they both cannot overcome the fact that truth is regime-relative. in determined conditions and following a precise strategy." Toward the end of his career. p. With regard to exposing any kind of ultimate truth. Seattle. resistance lies in bringing to light the ways in which power operates "in an effort to create a critical distance on it. We're never trapped by power: it's always possible to modify its hold. GENUINE RECIPROCITY AND GROUP AUTHENTICITY. Philosophy Professor. Foucault focused on the ways in which bio-power subjugated the individual. WOMEN'S STUDIES IN COMMUNITY. this search for truth of the self is futile and does not net any knowledge that is independent of the power regime. if we dispense with the search for truth and focus on a new kind of resistance. But plebian resistance does not expose any kind of independent or ultimate truth. by the insurrection of subjugated knowledges and by plebian resistance. we can "modify its hold. however. 30. it is a fallacy to assume that any practice or discourse can take place exterior to relations of power. Yet he also asserted that "as soon as there's a relation of power there's a possibility of resistance. resistance does not imply the transcendence of power. then. For Foucault. resistance can be accomplished locally. plebeian resistance acts as the limit and as an inherent counter-effect to the effects of power. p. Foucault began to emphasize the potential for resistance.Alternative: Criticism Criticism enables resistance to biopower Sara Hayden. hence leading some scholars to criticize his work for implying that "the hold of disciplinary power is total. Foucault maintained that power relations are everywhere-they are exercised in myriad ways throughout the social field. 146 . Indeed." Once we have achieved an understanding of how power functions. Associate Professor of Communication Studies at The University of Montana." Plebian resistance is necessary to challenge power Boileau. In his early writings. Spring1999. But Foucault believes that we can recognize increases in liberation (which is synonymous with freedom)." From a Foucauldian perspective. 2000. It only exposes and rearranges power relations. Rather.

' are to be understood merely as another element in the functioning of power.edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault.Alternative: Criticism Resistance disrupts power Peter Atterton. Must we pessimistically assume.edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault. But more often one is dealing with mobile and transitory points of resistance.. As we have seen. with appropriate reservations and qualifications: "Are there no great radical ruptures.' such as the 'madman' of anti-psychiatry. doomed to perpetual defeat.. this does not mean that. On the contrary. HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL. Local resistance is needed to solve Peter Atterton. somewhat similar to the way in which the state relies on the institutional integration of power relationships. Foucault insists (though it is doubtless in this connection that more research needs to be done) that it is only insofar as opposing tactics 'play the role of adversary. philosophy professor. massive binary divisions. by which I take him to mean that they serve as a local center around which multifarious disciplinary technologies may coalesce so as eventually to integrate them into an overall strategy of administrative control.e. a rebound. http://www. And it is doubtless the strategic codification of these points of resistance that makes a revolution possible.acusd. p. that such hegemonic alignments are possible. This does not rule out the possibility of different tactics whose aims would be opposed to dominant alignments as they feature on the side of bio-power. HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL. that bio-history. p. support or handle in power relations'. University of California San Diego. forming with respect to the basic domination an underside that is in the end passive. not least because it presents power as a sovereign unitary force given at the outset.these opposing forces." 147 . then? Occasionally.htm. without being exactly localized in them. it is only through the resolution of a complex strategical situation within a societal body as a multiplicity of power relations each with their own local aims and objectives.operating within what Deleuze and Guattari have called an 'inclusive disjunction. http://www.htm. producing cleavages in a society. 1994. if bio-power can be understood vectorially as having force and direction. proceeds with more or less unfettered sway without anything being able to interrupt or escape it? The question is not Foucaldian. University of California San Diego. becoming more and more elaborate and powerful. and so on . philosophy professor. 'only a reaction. prior to their being integrated or resolved in this manner . i.acusd. the bi-sexual. All the same. therefore. so too the swarm of points of resistance traverses social stratifications and individual unities. They are disruptive and serve as the source of power's ultimate instability. 1994. nonOedipalized child. Just as a network of power relations ends by forming a dense web that passes through apparatuses and institutions. target. Foucault considers all these are possible. or what Foucault calls 'resistances. dominance and strategy. yes.

Indeed. nonOedipalized child. it is only through the resolution of a complex strategical situation within a societal body as a multiplicity of power relations each with their own local aims and objectives. that such hegemonic alignments are possible. it is a fallacy to assume that any practice or discourse can take place exterior to relations of power." 148 . Foucault maintained that power relations are everywhere-they are exercised in myriad ways throughout the social field (Haber.e.operating within what Deleuze and Guattari have called an 'inclusive disjunction. 1991. Rather. forming with respect to the basic domination an underside that is in the end passive. however. University of California San Diego Philosophy Professor. not least because it presents power as a sovereign unitary force given at the outset. a rebound. Associate Professor of Communication Studies at The University of Montana. Foucault focused on the ways in which bio-power subjugated the individual. becoming more and more elaborate and powerful. we can "modify its hold. support or handle in power relations'. in determined conditions and following a precise strategy" (as cited in Sawicki. pp. proceeds with more or less unfettered sway without anything being able to interrupt or escape it? The question is not Foucaldian. All the same. resistance does not imply the transcendence of power. 71). the bi-sexual. 1996. this does not mean that. hence leading some scholars to criticize his work for implying that "the hold of disciplinary power is total" (Sawicki. As we have seen. 'only a reaction. resistance lies in bringing to light the ways in which power operates "in an effort to create a critical distance on it" (Sawicki. From a Foucauldian perspective. Foucault insists (though it is doubtless in this connection that more research needs to be done) that it is only insofar as opposing tactics 'play the role of adversary.edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault. target. i. 1991. p. They are disruptive and serve as the source of power's ultimate instability. p.htm) Must we pessimistically assume. This does not rule out the possibility of different tactics whose aims would be opposed to dominant alignments as they feature on the side of bio-power. doomed to perpetual defeat. 140). 99). dominance and strategy. On the contrary. 30) In his early writings. by which I take him to mean that they serve as a local center around which multifarious disciplinary technologies may coalesce so as eventually to integrate them into an overall strategy of administrative control. 1999 (WOMEN'S STUDIES IN COMMUNITY. therefore. http://www.' are to be understood merely as another element in the functioning of power. if bio-power can be understood vectorially as having force and direction. It is possible to resist power Sara Hayden. Once we have achieved an understanding of how power functions. or what Foucault calls 'resistances. p. We're never trapped by power: it's always possible to modify its hold. then. Toward the end of his career. 1991. Yet he also asserted that "as soon as there's a relation of power there's a possibility of resistance. p. Spring.Alternative: Criticism Resistance can de-center power's stranglehold Peter Atterton. Foucault began to emphasize the potential for resistance. 1994 (HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL.acusd. 24-25).' such as the 'madman' of anti-psychiatry. prior to their being integrated or resolved in this manner . that bio-history. and so on .these opposing forces.

HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL. usually all too predictably in line with established power as holder of the keys to the carceral lodgings (psychiatric ward. prison. hospital.'a relationship which is at the same time reciprocal incitation and struggle' .htm.). Thus Foucault rightly urges us to give up seeing one discourse on the side of power and another discourse. counter-strategies.' Modern power relations are thus characterized not by total domination. 'Hence there is no single locus of great Refusal. certainly within the institutions. philosophy professor. then new relations of what Foucault calls 'agonism' .edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault. And if. p. opposite it and always in a position of subordination. 149 .are constantly flaring up to take their place. University of California San Diego. realignments and regroupings of the social field as so many different locales of resistance. etc.Alternative: Counter-Movements Counter-movements are possible Peter Atterton. Discourses may be honed and adapted according to the field of relations in which they find themselves. analogous to what biologists call 'Batesian mimicry. but mutual provocation and struggle in an institutional environment that is unfavorable to forms of life whose recalcitrance and intransigence towards disciplinary control gives rise to countermovements. or pure law of the revolutionary'. Wherever actual cases of the latter are resolved. http://www. There is a plurality of resistances serving to maintain society in a perpetual state of tension and struggle. no soul of revolt.acusd. this does not rule out the possibility of a discursive strategy enjoying a protective similarity in appearance to another. source of all rebellions. 1994. resistance. they are nearly always deployed for disciplinary ends and selected on the basis of bio-power itself.

There are the displacements and transformations of concepts: the analyses of G. in which events and their consequences are not arranged in the same way: thus a discovery. cleanse it of its imaginary complicities. Director. and force it to enter a new time. Institute Francais at Hamburg. Beneath the great continuities of thought. Interruptions whose status and nature vary considerably. but that of its various fields of constitution and validity. cut it off from its empirical origin and its original motivations. There is the distinction. There are the epistemological acts and thresholds described by Bachelard: they suspend the continuous accumulation of knowledge. a different history is being written. or theoretical activity. beneath the persistence of a particular genre. interrupt its slow development.Alternative: Interruptive Politics Interruptive politics solve Michel Foucault. 1969. discipline. and the never-ending tracing-back to the original precursors. that of its successive rules of use. homogeneous manifestations of a single mind or of a collective mentality. the achievements. its continuously increasing rationality. THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE. Canguilhem may serve as models.uk/bodypower. between the microscopic and macroscopic scales of the history of the sciences. p. one is now trying to detect the incidence of interruptions. do not have the same incidence. towards the search for a new type of rationality and its various effects. beneath the solid. the development of a method.thefoucauldian.co. they show that the history of a concept is not wholly and entirely that of its progressive refinement. and cannot be described in the same way at both levels. http://www.htm. its abstraction gradient. 150 . and the failures. of a particular scientist. form. which we also owe to Canguilhem. that of the many theoretical contexts in which it developed and matured. on each of the two levels. they direct historical analysis away from the search for silent beginnings. beneath the stubborn development of a science striving to exist and to reach completion at the very outset.

*** Answers to Affirmative Arguments *** 151 .

152 .

Habermas has not. Haberemas’ own work is also relativistic. Development and Planning Professor. 49(2). 49(2). “With explicit reference to Kant and Habermas. Despite more than two thousand years of attempts by rationalistic philosophers. Foucault rejects both relativism and founationalism and replaces them by situational ethics. And Habermas is not alone with this problem.e. Foucault rejects relativism – he believes strong in situational ethics Flyvberg. As we have seen. been able to demonstrate that rational and universal grounding of his discourse ethics is possible. Foucualt (1984b) says that unlike these two thinkers he is “not seeking to make possible a metaphysics that has finally become a science. pp. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY. by context. he has only postulated such grounding.Answers to: “Habermas’ Attack on Foucault” Habermas has not been able to avoid grounding his theories in universal rationality either Flyvberg. no one has been able to live up to Plato’s injunction that to avoid relativism our thinking must be rationally and universally grounded. By this standard. 220-1 Such critique for relativism is correct. Development and Planning Professor. That reason may be that Plato was wrong.. 220-1) Employing this line of reasoning. so far. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY. however. pp.” 153 . if by relativistic we mean unfounded in norms that can be rationally and universally grounded: and this is what Habermas (1987: 294) means when he criticizes Foucault for not giving an “account of the normative foundations” for his thinking. i.

For this reason. THE LATER FOUCAULT. Hoy argues that on this interpretation. Habermas claims that the preference for pluralism and others expressed by Foucault is just that – a preference. For instance. a genealogical analysis might serve to highlight the hidden assumptions operating in a social practice. 78 Thus. The values of community and solidarity have a moral grip on us for contingent and not universal reasons. but one most be against nonconsensuality. according to Hoy: whether there is a need for Foucault’s genealogical studies to be backed by an abstract theory of reason. there will have to be some standards which transcend the plurality of different communities. the genealogist does not have to deny that some sort of consensuality in the face of Habermasian objections (that would be blackmail). both the critical theorists and Foucault refuse to succumb to the “blackmail” of the Enlightenment by either being simply “for” or “against” reason. Hoy is critical of Habermas’ objection that the genealogists needs some sort of external standard to conduct criticism. What this approach to genealogy fails to appreciate is the sense of genealogy as a version of “internal critique. which itself cannot escape the idea that there is still a choice involve in the liking for pluralism. Thus. unlike Habermas. Hoy argues that it is not a matter of being…”for consensuality. Instead. This brings out the central question of the debate between Habermas and Foucault. he argues. University of Melbourne.Answers to: “Habermas’ Attack on Foucault” (Cont) Genealogy does not need a universal standard Moss.” not unlike modern forms of cultural anthropology. Quoting Foucault. 154 . p.” The genealogist is thus not committed to the values of consensuality and community on the basis of there being universal values which underlie the communicative competence of community members. if this pluralism is not to involve a vicious relativism that allows all forms of social practices no matter how destructive. Foucault insists on the historical nature of reason and the contradictions and counter-traditions that are to be found within the history of reason. Philosophy Professor.

155 . Winter. But he has little to say about the relations of power that create these barriers and how power may be changed in order to begin the kinds of institutional and educational change.enables one user to understand what another is saying. just as it compels each speaker to constrain himself within the limits of an existing political vocabulary. abuse. For example. Habermas lacks the kind of concrete understanding of relations of power that is needed for political change. pp. improvements in welfare. Habermas’ discursive formulation is inadequate primarily because it does not explicitly and rigorously attend to the disciplinary effects of contemporary societies explained so creatively by Foucault. Winthrop U. and gendered. and the enforcement of basic human rights that could help lower the barriers. POLITY.” Women utilize language in this discursive world “whose ‘common’ and symbolic language…. and posits an ideal speech situation freed from the distortions of power. 49(2). Habermas provides no route to achieve communicative rationality Flyvberg. Habermase (1990: 209) himself mentions the lack of “crucial institutions. Habermas’s theorization of discursive participation is exceedingly abstract and does not adequately attend to the ways in which power informs discourse. Women can hardly be seen as equal participants when the do not have the same opportunity to express intent. Linda Zerilli argues that discursive space is a “fraternal community of unique and symbolic dimensions.Answers to: “Habermas’ Attack on Foucault” (Cont) Habermas ignores the productive nature of power and advocates an impossible utopia that denies voice to feminists Jessica Kulynych. steering media).” In this case the content of speech is systematically limited in direct violation of the required conditions for the ideal speech situation. In short. The foundations of communication are not the ideal equal relationships that Habermas imagines. but are instead an exclusive. The symbolic heritage that defines the meaning of key communicative concepts such a consent systematically excludes women from the category of individuals capable of consenting. As Carole Pateman points out. His juxtaposition of system and life-world in THE THEORY OF COMMUNICATION ACTION relies on a separation of good power from bad (communicative power v. 215 This is the fundamental political dilemma in Habermas’ thinking: he describes to us the utopia of communicative rationality but not how to get there. The mere existence of a debate over whether “no means no” with regard to consensual sexual relations and rape is a manifestation of this heritage. learned. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY. Habermas has been routinely criticized for ignoring the productive nature of contemporary power. and degradation” as barriers to discursive decision making. 323-4 However. Development and Planning Professor. More importantly.” lack of crucial socialization” and “poverty. 2002. 1997. women enter into public discussion on a very tenuous plane. p. symbolic heritage. A number of theorists have effectively argued that women and men do not stand equal in relation to language.

Some have done so because he himself failed to understand or support some feminist perspectives and struggles. for he reconceived the terrain of the battle over sexuality that is so central to modern Western society. pp. (34(2). Fall. 156 . many feminists have rejected Foucault’s work. especially that in the first volume of the HISTORY OF SEXUALITY. although Foucault says there is no social existence without power relations. Philosophy Professor. p. Though he died much too early. School of the Built Environment.Answers to: “Foucault Threatens Feminism” Foucault’s ethics are relevant for feminists Helen Stratford is a researcher in architecture and critical theory at the University of Nottingham. as Irene Diamond and Lee Quinby have argued. His work on sexuality. 1998. 2002 (RESOURCES FOR FEMINIST RESEARCH. if Foucault himself glosses over gender configurations of power. Nonetheless. the two regimes of dominating and generative power coexist and often intertwine. grounded in a resistance to whatever configuration totalitarian power might take. has been of interest to feminist theorists. can prove relevant for feminists in contemporary society where. his rejection of the notion of universal progress. he left us an approach to social thought that pulled together many of the threads left dangling between Marx and Nietsche." Furthermore. the impulse behind such reactions is one that he himself enables us to see and critique. oppressive power relations are necessary." Here then. 2003) Ultimately. 421-2 Michael Foucault was one of the most controversial and provocative thinkers of this century. if by that one means the resistance at particular points to local exercises of power. it aims to search for pertinent and progressive ways of considering the fluidity of boundaries among people which make it possible for difference to be embraced. his ethics. This study will argue that Foucault’s work is indeed vital for the development of feminist theory. if not for every feminist issue. Others have suggested that the very foundation of his work is defective for feminists. This does not mean that we must accept his authority on everything. nor dismiss him completely when he fails us. as it is for all political struggle. resistance is not restrained to immutable boundaries. this "does not entail that particular. it asserts that Foucault’s ideas are equally inadequate for any real struggle. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE. does not necessarily "abandon the hope for emancipation. We must see him as an ally because be ultimately provides the seeds of a democratic theory and a reconceptualization of the values of freedom and individuality that have such a fundamental role in feminist theory and activity. Foucauldian criticism is critical to any feminist kritik Phelan. This view does not separate feminist objectives from other ones. Indeed. as Couzens-Hoy concludes.

women’s capacity for “caring”).Answers to: “Foucault Threatens Feminism” Turn – the counter critique is gendered. not because it has always focused on gender but because it is a metaphysics of that Western variety that mirrors its own origins of domination. Foucault sharpens the warning that the analysis which privileges “gender.g. 323-4 Butler rejects binarized “gender” propensities that some feminists essentialize as foundational grounds for women’s agency to transform male institutions (e. but a normative injunction that operates insidisously by installing itself into political discourse as its necessary ground. 1998. If criticism. FOUCAULT’S CHALLENGE. Says Butler (1990). sets out to right the scales of power merely by taking sides in a world of those who “have” power and those who do not. Education Professor. but vigorously deconstruct the normative latent in such metafictions. as Judith Butler’s work suggests. Butler thus calls for feminist research and politics that are cannot found themselves on ontologies. She continues…. For feminism. “There is no ontology of gender on which we might construct a politics. that of feminism included. Turn – focusing on notions of gender just reifies power relations Zipin. FOUCAULT’S CHALLENGE. This allows gender oppression to continue Zipin. not a foundation. “Foundations simultaneously conceal normative biases within assertions of universal truth about nature or history. for gender ontologies always operation…as a normative injunctions.” may still speak form within the paradigm that made the both what they are. Education Professor. of dominators and dominated. UW Madison. pp. it may preserve old dichotomies of power in spite of itself. it may confirm that “dyadic gender system” by making a metaphysical standard out of it..setting the prescriptive requirements whereby sexed or gendered bodies come into cultural intelligibility. Ontology is thus. pp. Even a metaphysics of gender runs that risk. 1998.” or woman as “other. then. 157 .. 279-80) So it is in making the suggestion that there is no outside of power that Foucault poses his most poignant warning to critical analysis. UW Madison.

But some he remains a critic – subversive and proud of anything in that attitude. 830-1 The missing persons are women who can only appear politically in Foucault’s story through their relationships with men. p. pp. by the extraordinary omission of a “female perspective. 158 . 174). This impatience needs to reflect a desire for women’s liberty as well as for men’s. Harvard University. he surveys everything evenly so that it is all oddly diminished. From the perspective that moves within the games of male power displaying its different guises. WESTERN POLITICAL QUARTERLY. 1987.” Foucault has very nearly assumed the “androcentric” attitude with which Eloise Buker associates him.” He has stepped within the context of power without adopting the point of view of the prevailing power. Philosophy. Philosophy Professor. it doesn’t hurt it Buker. POLITICAL THEORY. Foucault’s critique solves the problems associated with his andocentric language Aladjem. he has decentered and disrupted the very same “androcentrism. but which are built upon an “impatience for liberty” (Foucault. May. p.Answers to: “Foucault Threatens Feminism” Turn: a feminist analysis can be added to foucault critique. A feminist analysis can both extend his argument and politically enrich it by presenting accounts which offer models of masculine and feminine sexuality which are not built upon domination and asymmetrical power relations. and with the relativistic eye of the visitor. 2000. 280 After all. 1990.

beliefs. as Foucault admits and even emphasizes. the progress of confinement was slow and piecemeal. Foucault is concerned with the categorical conditions of possibility for this fact. Notre Dame. 159 . In some cases this may have meant that. and actions is itself they key to a response to Porter. Foucault is not making empirical generalizations about what people in various countries thought or did. 21 But perhaps Foucault’s concern with fundamental experiential categories rather than with specific perceptions. Philosophy Professor. CAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO FOUCAULT. He wants to know what in the way of the Classical Age experienced madness the sort of confinement it practiced possible. after all. p. is a fact. also present in England and the rest of Europe. For. then. he is trying to construct the categorical system that lay behind what was no doubt a very diverse ranger of beliefs and practices. that involved integration rather than isolation of the mad from the community. as Proter finds for England.Answers to: “Porter” Foucault is not after what porter criticizes him for Gutting. But such empirical divergences do not refute Foucault’s categorical analysis of the Classical experience of madness. most notably medical therapy. Confinement. as Porter admits. but. Of course there were. perhaps most stroking in France. 1994. Porter’s critique is based on just the sort of specific beliefs and actions that are not Foucault’s primary concern. other dimensions of Classical practice.

As a teacher. Indeed. he asserts. 29 In all these characterizations of Foucault. rather than support. the Oriental context remains the general frame of reference. 1999. and his own comparison of Eastern and Western educational modes supports these characterizations. It is invoked by admirers and detractors alike. Said ignores Western discourses about the Orient that opposes Western expansionism and subvert. Foucault makes quite clear that he considers the alleged universal communication of knowledge one of the great myths of European culture. 22 Said’s argument is persuasive for many of the discourses he examines. the man and the teacher.Answers to: “Eurocentrism” Foucault allows for counter-hegemonic discourses that kritik eurocentric discourses Schaub. Foucault adopted a discursive style free of any pretense to unlimited communication. 160 . Western domination. In his DISCOURSE ON LANGUAGE. p. Foucault opposes the exclusivity of western european discourses Schaub. p. there are rituals of exclusion and selectivity in Western education that operation not entirely unlike the Oriental transmission of a monopolized and secret knowledge. But whereas Foucault allows for the emergence of counter discourses beneath the official discourse of power. CRITICAL ESSAYS ON MICHAEL FOUCAULT. CRITICAL ESSAYS ON MICHAEL FOUCAULT. thus fostering a measure of exclusivity. 1999.

Foucault explicitly resists an understanding of power as solely negative or repressive. and thus the assertion that "power is everywhere" (HS1 93) signals that domination. January. repression. While Foucault endeavors to locate power in terms of its exercise--undoubtedly exercised by agents--power remains an abstract term for too many readers. not what might be good and what we might endeavor to preserve.' circulates in and through the production of discourse in societies" The notion of power as "social constraint. Fraser writes. It remains inconceivable that power might be proper to subjects and part of a vibrant will to live. Foucault's has no "positive normative pole.Answers to: “Nihilism” Foucault’s work is not nihilistic Hasana Sharp is a graduate student in the philosophy department at Pennsylvania State University. constrains in others. "Their obvious heterogeneity notwithstanding. Some of these criticisms stem from the refusal to understand Foucault's reformulation of power itself. enables in some instances. For example. all of these are instances of the ways in which social constraint. 161 . Power is quite creative and productive: it incites. And. it only destroys. p. Fraser complains that unlike Habermas's mode of critique. thrive. 91) Kathi Weeks invokes Discipline and Punish to claim that Foucault's work is nihilist. Yet many astute readers stubbornly maintain the sovereign paradigm in thinking power. if less interestingly. intensifies. 2001 (GLOBAL GOVERNANCE. is precisely the understanding Foucault is contesting. or in Foucault's terms 'power. cultivate." however. no production of new values. as constraint and blockage.” Foucault is said to assert only what is bad or wrong with social relations. similarly. Yet such criticisms almost seem more avowable in relation to Foucault's theoretical adversaries in the first volume of The History of Sexuality. or strive toward. it is worse than Nietzsche in that it contains no creative moment. and subjugation are everywhere. and persevere.

a nursing academic from Deakin University described a research project she is conducting in conjunction with nurses. a number of nursing educators and sociologist discussed a variety of topics relating to old age and nursing homes. A number of Foucualt's ideas were called upon to shed new light on these matters. Another speaker. He also referred to the 'governmentality of the aged population'.au/edu/cpol/foucault/report. Sue Crane. control and constitute the aged body as a docile entity capable of only spasmodic resistance'.qut. the status of nurses as professionals. 162 . Kim Walker. 2002 (http://www. Stephen Katz. AIDS. the conflict between medicine and midwifery. She posed in particular the question "women as a self-surveillance mechanism?' Sarah Winch noted also in relation to aged care that "a number of salient disciplinary techniques and technologies emerge which surveillant. Her approach combined a feminist perspective with a foucauldian examination of some of 'the technologies of power' at work within the home.Answers to: “Foucault Useless” Foucault's ideas have had a wide impact FOUCAULT: THE LEGACY. the history of hygiene education as well as issues of public health and lifestyle. Alagiah and Gaffikin questioned "the forms within which individuals are able and are obliged to recognize themselves as subjects of income' and other speakers noted that "accounting is a "mechanism' through which "power' is exercised'.html) In the health field. managers and domestic staff at a nursing home in Melbourne.edu. intellectual disability and sexuality. namely how that population is administered and governed in contemporary society. Also of interest were two papers on accounting given by four lecturers in Accounting. and subjected to those "regimes of truth' which insert themselves in the discourses and institutions of nursing'. also used Foucault's later work on subjectivity to discuss "Nursing and the problem of the modern subject' a paper which described "the ways in which nurses have become the subject of. In a paper titled "A foucauldian genealogy of income' the two authors. a sociologist from Trent University in Canada in a paper titled 'Foucault and Gerontology: Aging Bodies and elderly populations' discussed the medicalization of the aged body which he argued 'can be seen as a key genealogical episode in the construction of the modern ages subject'.

pp. Foucault's work read outside its original French context often becomes a mysterious object indeed. The intellectual's role is not to provide vision and leadership. On the contrary. becoming articles of faith among intellectuals'. In addition to this.qut. laboratory researchers or social workers.his work runs the risk of becoming just another tedious orthodoxy. Moreover. the intellectuals Foucault has in mind are found in a variety of occupations -nurses or engineers. Their discourse is a form of action.. But what of the "professional" intellectual.. their statements and interpretations become interventions. psychiatrists or sociologists. As J.html) But the immense popularity of Foucault's work is not without its problems. full of strange. 163 . those of us who spend our time in research. Foucault's ideas are mainstream FOUCAULT: THE LEGACY. and writing? There are two tasks the intellectual in the narrower sense can perform. By virtue of their location and status in society. Proust remarked perceptively in 1968 in La Pensée 'the danger will come from Foucauldiens if there ever are any' (1968:24) and a little later in 1974. v. History Professor.edu. reflection. First of all she or he can develop certain tools for use in common with others involved in the political struggles of a particular sector.au/edu/cpol/foucault/report. issue 3. 21. the knowledge and theory they develop.in spite of continuing fierce resistance from many quarters. His famous description of theory as a 'tool-box' originally developed in conjunction with Deleuze in their 1972 discussion. nor is it to offer a global social and economic theory. This lends to his work a delphic aura and often phrases and ideas from his work are used to give a cachet of theoretical respectability or an imaginative glitter to an otherwise mundane analysis. the American historian George Huppert noted the risk of some of Foucault's theses 'more or less vaguely understood.Answers To: “Foucault Useless” The job of the intellectual is simply to identify the mechanisms of power in a society Larry Shiner. 382-98) Foucault's idea of the "specific" intellectual would add little to the traditional view if it assumed the intellectual is a famous or highly placed individual developing a theory which the ordinary citizen may apply. Now that Foucault's work has become firmly established in the curricula of a number of universities in the Anglo-Saxon world . 2002 (http://www.are not something they "apply" to the problems and political conflicts which touch the areas of their expertise. 1982 (HISTORY AND THEORY. this is already the case and particular versions of his thought are exerting all the terrorist effects that such orthodoxies usually generate. Paradoxically Foucault's very efforts to subtract his work from this fate have become some of the most entrenched items of dogma. 'Intellectuals and power' has been much invoked to support a certain view of intellectual work and the world in general. Indeed. their theory is practice. in many ways. exciting but only half understood allusions.

simulated. to fall apart and then finally to disappear without the one who happened to produce it ever being able to claim the right of being its master of imposing what he meant.qut. Yet they have often noted. The accusations range from Foucault not being conclusive enough in his histories. these perceived inaccuracies do not weaken his arguments.Is_Foucault_Historian.Answers To: "Foucault Doesn't Agree With Your K" Foucault does not insist on single uses of his work FOUCAULT: THE LEGACY. This approach has frustrated historians and created waves among the discourse to the extent that historians were wary of claiming Foucault as one of their own.he is studying. fragmented.edu. 2002 (http://www. repeated. to criticizing him for not properly backing up his arguments or getting his facts wrong entirely.shtml) Furthermore. sexuality. Foucault did not always take his own advice and on a number of occasions sought to correct wild (and not so wild!) interpretations of his work. 164 . In the preface to the second edition of Madness and Civilization. to be recopied. or institutions . the data he represents is often scattered throughout the past. albeit somewhat uneasily.au/edu/cpol/foucault/report. Foucault declares: 'I would like this object-event [the book].en. which varies according to what concept . nor prescribing what it should be'.reason. 3rd year honors history student. an author cannot dictate how his work is going to be used and interpreted. but in the final analysis. Criticisms of foucault's historical accounts do not weaken his arguments Joni Low.2002. that although Foucault's techniques and methods are all 'wrong' in a historical sense. http://foucault. this spatialization of time. Certainly. University of British Columbia. 2002 (IS FOUCAULT A HISTORIAN?.html) But as Foucault himself often insisted. these 'corrections' did no more than provoke fresh departures and critical 'errors'. which is almost imperceptible amongst so many others.info/articles/history.

559) I show that Foucault does not confirm the expectations of theorists who subscribe to the postmodern consensus. First. This strategy entails some pretty obvious perils.Answers To: “Postmodernism is Bad” General indicts of postmodernism do not apply to our foucault argument James Johnson. August. 165 . Foucault's relation to "postmodernism" is not a simple one. p. teaches social and political theory al the University of Rochester. 1997 (POLITICAL THEORY. He surely does not articulate all postmodern themes. Nor do other postmodern theorists share all of his preoccupations.

part of disciplinary practice is the management of resistance. and their attempts to compete with. and distinguish themselves from. February. and is thus dynamic. resistance is regarded as evidence of the "truth" of the discourse. Indeed. 1999. the tendency towards specialization may itself be seen in the service of a wider strategy. an indication of extraordinary criminal thinking. This is indeed crucial for Foucault. disciplining discourses to manage individuals arouses resistance." Resistance is expected before any "real" transformation can occur. each other. not only to preserve the constitutive knowledges from external criticism. v. thereby protecting the professional status of the elites who practice them. Sociologist. A facilitator told me privately: "I am not sure how real it is. an inmate demonstrated uncanny mastery of the program's terminology. 1994 (HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL. Painless conversions are regarded with suspicion. the local tactics of power immanent to each sector. the reciprocal influence between different sectors. to hide the deleterious programs of power they run. thereby exposing the tension between overt control and cognitive control. Fox. The use of professional. but. In CSC.’ 166 . University of California San Diego Philosophy Professor. Power is only possible when it is masked Peter Atterton. 7. For example.edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault. p.acusd. However. University of Vermont. 1999 (SOCIAL PROBLEMS. http://www.htm) The increasing number of strategies for the administration of bodies since the seventeenth century is concomitant with their becoming more elaborate and specialized according to how the population is sectioned as a general field of inquiry. moreover. early on in a Stage I group. but it came a little too easily. 95) Discipline implies agency and suggests struggle. He's got the words down.Permutation Answers Disciplinary practices manage resistance Kathryn R. who claims as self-evident that 'power is tolerable only on the condition that it mask a substantial part of itself.

’ The imposition of power by the affirmative makes resistance impossible Bruce Arrigo. 167 . the general form of its acceptability. congress and judiciary can at least give rise to the hope. as it did to those who favored litigation in the 1960s and 1970s. 2000 (SEATTLE UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW. continues to be a circumscribed education in morality and justice. Represented in terms of the law of interdiction. if only the freedom not to break the law. Ph. of course.acusd. J. p. The obvious problem with this is that the people who can change the rules of the game are usually the same who benefit from the current rules. necessarily have made a choice to escape from the freedom of responsibility. and Christopher Williams.edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault. One can only assume that our predecessors were unable to find the possibility of such unbridled freedom liberating. as constituent practitioners and/or scholars in the world of humanism and of human rights. Power assumes the provision of a level of freedom Peter Atterton. more insidious side. if only slight. v. http://www. Nevertheless. This legacy does not imply that we. is its juridico-legal aspect. suggest is that we no longer enjoy the power to make such a choice. as individuals. the American Constitution and the separation of powers among executive. As Foucault says: 'Power as a pure limit set on freedom is.Permutation Answers Entrenched powers prevent reform Michael McCubbin. Perhaps a select few made choices that were not in the best interests of their clients and/or communities. by means of bringing a constitutional case against an asylum for failing to provide adequate care and treatment. the representative powers that be concluded that it was in our best interest to be subjected to constraints on moral discretion.htm) The side of itself that power exhibits and which enables its other. consequently. that a sort of radical surgical intervention. could sufficiently alter the system at a sensitive place as to change the nature of the system. the solution to poor policy in the mental health system might seem to involve changing the rules of the policy game . and David Weisstub. At some historical point. in fact. at least in our society. intact and inviolable.academyanalyticarts. 248) What all this suggests is that we.org/mccweiss. July.D. Fall. Minot State University Professor of Criminal Justice.D.a sort of macro-system engineering. http://www. University of California San Diego Philosophy Professor... What it does. 1998 (MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE MENTALLY ILL. 1994 (HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL. to operate unnoticed and thereby unchallenged. p.html) If this is true. have acquiesced to an unreflective existence within the preconfigured borders of (ethical) codes laid before us by our ancestors. 7. power is held to leave a measure of freedom. University of North Carolina at Charlotte Professor of Public Policy and Psychology. The result. such decision-making power was withdrawn from their/our possession.

It does. or to seek a better deal elsewhere. by the prices for goods and labor resulting from numerous individual decisions to buy or to sell. One of the most influential formulations of this view appears in Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations. On this view.Permutation Answers Liberalism does not challenge the regulation of the individual Barry Hindess. June. at least within commercial societies: first. discretion. and therefore that it could not be governed entirely in accordance with police prescriptions. 93) Liberalism in no way disputes this police view of the importance of discipline in the production and maintenance of good order. LOCAL. habits of thought and the like which they bring to their interactions but also by the signals of other actors--that is. not only by the values. This account of the complex relationship between prices on the one hand and numerous individual decisions on the other enables him to make two fundamental points about market interaction. however. which analyzes the economic activities of individuals within commercial societies as contributing to a larger system of interaction. that it fosters the development of punctuality. p. AND POLITICAL. insist that the workings of society could not be known in the manner supposed by the theory of police. Australian National University. thereby subverting their prudential virtues. The conduct of each participant in this system is said to be regulated. 2001 (ALTERNATIVES: GLOBAL. state interference with any of these prices will provide individuals with misleading signals. industry and other prudential virtues in the individual. that it should be seen as a self-regulating domain of interaction. Research School of Social Sciences. and secondly. distorting the regulatory mechanisms of the larger economic system and undermining its efficiency overall. 168 .

*** General Extensions ***

169

The K Challenges Affirmative Assumptions
The kritik challenges the epistemological & ethical foundation of the aff
Nikolas Rose, Professor of Sociology, Goldsmiths College, RE-ASSESSING FOUCAULT, Ed. Colin Jones & Roy Porter, 1994, p. 68 The Birth of the Clinic has at its heart a consideration of the reorganization of our relationship to individuality, to suffering and to death that has made this new regime of the self possible. The mutation in medical thought and practice that is traced in the book marks, claims Foucault, an ineradicable chronological threshold. The underside of disease - illness - comes to light, offers itself to the gaze, to language and to the practice of the cure in the same moment as it distributes itself in the enclosed but accessible volume of the body. This mutation has epistemological and ethical dimensions which are not confined to the territory of illness. Clinical experience and the anatomo-clinical method have a decisive epistemo-ethical significance, in constituting 'man' as an object of knowledge, in making possible a science of the human individual as a complex of specifiable processes and attributes that can be diagnosed, calibrated, compared and generalized. Foucault suggests that in the same way that a positive knowledge of individual human mental life became possible only on the basis of the experience of unreason - of madness - so a positive knowledge of human corporeal life becomes possible only on the basis of integration of death into medical thought.

170

Each Individual Key
Each individual act is critical
Michel Foucault, Director, Institute Francais at Hamburg, THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE, 1969, p. http://www.thefoucauldian.co.uk/bodypower.htm. We must ask ourselves what purpose is ultimately served by this suspension of all the accepted unities, if, in the end, we return to the unities that we pretended to question at the outset. In fact, the systematic erasure of all given unities enables us first of all to restore to the statement the specificity of its occurrence, and to show that discontinuity is one of those great accidents that create cracks not only in the geology of history, but also in the simple fact of the statement; it emerges in its historical irruption; what we try to examine is the incision that it makes, that irreducible - and very often tiny - emergence. However banal it may be, however unimportant its consequences may appear to be, however quickly it may be forgotten after its appearance, however little heard or however badly deciphered we may suppose it to be, a statement is always an event that neither the language (langue) nor the meaning can quite exhaust. It is certainly a strange event: first, because on the one hand it is linked to the gesture of writing or to the articulation of speech, and also on the other hand it opens up to itself a residual existence in the field of a memory, or in the materiality of manuscripts, books, or any other form of recording; secondly, because, like every event, it is unique, yet subject to repetition, transformation, and reactivation; thirdly, because it is linked not only to the situations that provoke it, and to the consequences that it gives rise to, but at the same time, and in accordance with a quite different modality, to the statements that precede and follow it.

171

Foucault argues that the systematic use of imprisonment as punishment is a relatively modern development. Foucault argues. These are selected on the basis of certain norms (with their corresponding compensations for the professional body of scientists who follow them). the genealogy of punishment Foucault develops in Discipline and Punish. minute deviation. http://www. interrupted by chance discovery. 460-1) Foucault's genealogies have a critical function. going back no further than the nineteenth century. University of California San Diego Philosophy Professor. Boston University. not evident social necessities. discursive medical practice.edu/~atterton/Publications/foucault. public torture and execution.. January. arguments that still resonate today. . He reviews two technologies of punishment prevalent in the century before the "birth of the prison" ." because it fails to reduce the crime rate. for instance.htm) The uniqueness of Canguilhem's adoption or adaptation of evolutionary theory for the study of the history of medicine and biology. faulty calculation and fallacious inference. and ever since. Canguilhem proposed to describe how.. opposed to the simple patterning of the history of the life sciences after the history of life by way of a crude reductionism. Rather than plotting the 'progress' of science as an ordered series of modifications generated through rational calculation. but to render both identity and institutions vulnerable to criticism. . V.' a term borrowed from genetics and used by evolutionists to account for variation underlying speciation.Genealogy Good Genealogies make criticism possible Hugh Baxter. The decisive importance of this line of approach for Foucault's own histories has been recognized by Paul Bové. despite all its superficies to the contrary. for Foucault. then the reformers' "picturesque" "theaters of punishment" emphasizing the different functions punishment was thought to serve in those eras. They serve not to "discover the roots of our identity" or our institutions. 1996 (STANFORD LAW REVIEW. Thus. as the great failure of penal justice. 7. for example. but defined in conditions that are historical and thereby open to transformation. Foucault presents the arguments against imprisonment that seemed decisive even a few years before the triumph of the prison. is an irregular series of epistemological figures. lay in the especial emphasis placed on so-called 'error. significantly subtitled "The Birth of the Prison. Foucault's own insistent claims for historical discontinuity and the role of power in the relationship between thought and history'. it "was denounced . Power speaks truth: only a genealogical inquiry can uncover truth Peter Atterton. creative imagination. which are not ideally or originally given. Professor of Law. The book. Immediately after the triumph of the prison system. who claims in his essay 'The Rationality of Disciplines': 'Canguilhem's positioning of biological error as an unavoidable feature of genetic information systems grounds. 1994 (HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES JOURNAL. pp.acusd. 172 . and creates career criminals. discoveries and opinions by a community of benign and 'disinterested' researchers. causes recidivism.first. the prison's rise and continued existence are problems in need of justification." seeks to undermine our belief that prisons are the inevitable form of punishment. Consider.

" Foucault thus suggests that the confession is genealogically linked to the project of controlling the body... further. Boston University. in their tendency to trace institutions or practices back to ignoble ancestry. 1996 (STANFORD LAW REVIEW.. A genealogical approach to history. capable of undoing every infatuation. "teaches how to laugh at the solemnities of the origin . January." Genealogy deflates claims to disinterestedness and scientificity." In discussing the development of a "science of sex. Historical beginnings are lowly . p. derisive and ironic. Foucault writes. torture has accompanied [the confession] like a shadow. Associate Professor of Law. and supported it when it could go no further: the dark twins.Genealogy Good Genealogies de-scientize Hugh Baxter. 173 . 462) The critical edge of Foucault's genealogies appears.. Foucault speculates that the human sciences' "birth" lies in the " "ignoble' archives" of disciplinary power. much as Nietzsche traced morality back to "shameful origins. Foucault notes the centrality of confessional practices and remarks that "since the Middle Ages.." for example. Similarly.

Discursive rules are hence strongly linked to the exercise of power: discourse itself is both constituted by. the social system. after all. insists that he is concerned in his genealogies with "relations of power. p.. teaches social and political theory al the University of Rochester. to be beyond comprehension and therefore reason. As Young specifies. he does not analyze them in terms of communication. p. June. August. lecturer in Psychology at the University of the Witwatersrand. Discourses instead are the medium within which "power and knowledge are joined together.. through forms of selection. what is analyzed here is not simply that which was thought or said per se. in the Anglo-American tradition." and they thereby are implicated essentially in the ways that power relations are established and consolidated. 29) As Foucault asserts near the beginning of the paper. systems and procedures comprise a discrete realm of discursive practices -.the order of discourse -. 559) This claim may sound entirely implausible. p.Discourse Key Discourse is critical to power James Johnson. lecturer in Psychology at the University of the Witwatersrand. 1997 (POLITICAL THEORY. June. Discursive choices sustain power structures Derek Hook. our `will to knowledge'. to be mad. 29) In a succinct introduction to Foucault's `The Order of Discourse' paper Young (1981) notes that the central focus of the paper is on the rules. These rules." Thus. `but all the discursive rules and categories that were a priori. selected.a conceptual terrain in which knowledge is formed and produced. `in every society the production of discourse is at once controlled. while he is centrally concerned with the functioning of discourses. assumed as a constituent part of discourse and therefore of knowledge' (Young 1981: 48). 2001 (THEORIA. and ensures the reproduction of. systems and procedures which constitute. to be outside of them is. Government discourses are controlling Derek Hook. by definition. has remained the largely linguistic concept of discourse. exclusion and domination. the effects of discursive practices is to make it virtually impossible to think outside of them. 174 . not relations of meaning. Foucault. and are constituted by. In this way. number of procedures.” From the outset then Foucault is involved in a concerted attempt to restore materiality and power to what. 2001 (THEORIA. organized and redistributed by a .

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