Computer Hardware & Networking Notes

M.K.Prasad SRGPTC, Thriprayar
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Operating Systems Overview
An operating system is a software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management of various activities of the computer and the sharing of computer resources. It hosts the several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware. Users and application programs access the services offered by the operating systems, by means of system calls and application programming interfaces. Users interact with operating systems through Command Line Interfaces (CLIs) or Graphical User Interfaces known as GUIs. In short, operating system enables user interaction with computer systems by acting as an interface between users or application programs and the computer hardware. Here is an overview of the different types of operating systems. Real-time Operating System: It is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. The main object of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They either have an event-driven or a timesharing design. An event-driven system switches between tasks based of their priorities while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts. Multi-user and Single-user Operating Systems: The operating systems of this type allow a multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to have multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a Unixlike operating system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system. Multi-tasking and Single-tasking Operating Systems: When a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under a singletasking system, while in case the operating system allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types namely, pre-emptive or co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. MS Windows prior to Windows 95 used to support cooperative multitasking.

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Examples of Operating Systems 1. Disk Operating System (DOS) DOS (Disk Operating System) was the first widely-installed operating system for personal computers. It is a master control program that is automatically run when you start your PC. DOS stays in the computer all the time letting you run a program and manage files. It is a single-user operating system from Microsoft for the PC. It was the first OS for the PC and is the underlying control program for Windows 3.1, 95, 98 and ME. Windows NT, 2000 and XP emulate DOS in order to support existing DOS applications. To use DOS, you must know where your programs and data are stored and how to talk to DOS. 2.UNIX UNIX is Multi-user Operating System. The UNIX environment and the client/server program model were important elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers. UNIX is written in C. Both UNIX and C were developed by AT&T and freely distributed to government and academic institutions. 3. Linux Linux is an operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He began his work in 1991 when he released version 0.02 and worked steadily until 1994 when version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. The kernel, at the heart of all Linux systems, is developed and released under the GNU General Public License and its source code is freely available to everyone. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. 4. WINDOWS Windows is first introduced as a personal computer operating system from Microsoft that, together with some commonly used business applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel, has become a de facto "standard" for individual users in most corporations as well as in most homes. However, Windows 95, 98, ME, NT, 2000 and XP are complicated operating environments. Certain combinations of hardware and software running together can cause problems, and troubleshooting can be daunting. Each new version of Windows has interface changes that constantly confuse users and keep support people busy, and Installing Windows applications is problematic too. Microsoft has worked hard to make Windows 2000 and Windows XP more resilient to installation problems and crashes in general.

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Microcomputers make up the vast majority of computers. because of its bubbling coolant liquids. by function. Mac OS which. Banks. SRGPTC. Examples of users of these computers are governmental agencies. Supercomputers are used for tasks that require mammoth data manipulation. Laptop Emkay. Cray supercomputers. the first of which was invented by Seymour Cray. and airlines are typical users. and/or by processing capacity. We will study the classification of computers by size.personal computers and workstations. mail-order companies. measured in the millions of instructions per second. introduced in 1984 by Apple Computer. Microcomputers Microcomputers can be divided into two groups -. A notebook computer can fit into a briefcase and weigh fewer than two pounds. Super Computers The largest computers are supercomputers. they are used in the making of movies. Often microcomputers are connected to networks of other computers. Thriprayar Page 4 . and the National Defense Agency. The size of computers varies widely from tiny to huge and is usually dictated by computing requirements. They are the most powerful. space exploration. costing millions of dollars in some cases. Mainframes are often ‘servers’-. now maintain 75 percent of the supercomputer market. manufacturers. Also. such as the National Weather Service. Classification of Computers Computers can be classified many different ways -. They are very expensive. yet it can compete with the microcomputer. insurance companies. Workstations are specialized computers that approach the speed of mainframes.by size. They are capable of processing trillions of instructions per second.5. and the design of many other machines. MACINTOSH The Macintosh (often called "the Mac"). in its latest version is called Mac OS X. The Cray supercomputer is nicknamed "Bubbles". Mainframe Computers Large computers are called mainframes. was the first widely-sold personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI). The Macintosh has its own operating system. Mainframe computers process data at very high rates of speed.computers that control the networks of computers for large companies. Notebook Another classification of computer is the notebook computer. The size of a computer often determines its function and processing capacity. Mainframes are designed for multiple users and process vast amounts of data quickly. the most expensive. and the fastest.

for instance. This vital component is in some way responsible for every single thing the PC does. IBM's Power. lighter. It also represents the amount of bits that can be read by one read/write operation. but that does not mean that other sizes are not available. You have probably noticed delivery employees using these. microprocessors and microcontrollers have come in "standard sizes" of 8 bits. It determines. Less common are the extremely powerful processors used in high-end servers.744. 8 bit processors can read/write 1 byte at a time and can directly address 256 bytes 16 bit processors can read/write 2 bytes at a time. PROCESSORS (CPUs) The CPU or Central Processing Unit. or Intel's Itanium.967. 18 bits.536 bytes (64 Kilobytes) • 32 bit processors can read/write 4 bytes at a time.616 bytes (16 Exabytes) • • Emkay.551. Like other computers. Types of Processors The vast majority of microprocessors are embedded microcontrollers. such as Intel's Pentium or AMD's Athlon. Notebooks generally cost more than microcomputers but can run most of the microcomputer software and are more versatile. which operating systems can be used. and how stable the system will be. Some microcontrollers (usually specially designed embedded chips) can come in other "non-standard" sizes such as 4 bits. and can address 65. or 24 bits. and more functional. notebook computers are getting faster. Personal Digital Assistant The smallest computer is the handheld computer called a personal digital assistant or a PDA. many 8 bit microprocessors have an 8 bit data bus and a 16 bit address bus. 32 bits.073. and 64 bits.709. SRGPTC. Historically. In some circumstances.A larger. Thriprayar Page 5 . heavier version is called a laptop computer.295 bytes (4 Gigabytes) • 64 bit processors can read/write 8 bytes at a time. The processor (really a short form for microprocessor and also often called th CPU or central processing unit) is the central component of the PC. PDAs are called pen-based computers because they utilize a pen-like stylus that accepts hand-written input directly on a touch-sensitive screen. such as Sun's SPARC. The second most common type of processors are common desktop processors.446. The number of bits represent how much physical memory can be directly addressed by the CPU. how much energy the PC uses.294. 16 bits. the more expensive the machine will be. and can address 18. among other things. PDAs are used to track appointments and shipments as well as names and addresses. These sizes are common. these are different. 12 bits. and can address 4. The processor is also a major determinant of overall system cost: the newer and more powerful the processor. at least in part. is the core of any computer. which software packages the PC can run.

network interface controllers and integrated circuits. The first Cyrix product for the personal computer market was a x87 compatible FPU coprocessor. Intel Core i7 etc. the most important component in your Computer. Intel Xeon. are the some of the premium processors of Intel. Cyrix merged with National Semiconductor on 11 November 1997. Thriprayar Page 6 . It's a large silicon wafer to which all other computer components connect. A M D K5. USA. and other devices related to communications and computing. and the world's largest semiconductor chip maker. Euronext: INCO) is an American technology company. Intel Atom.Intel Dual Core. The motherboard is. 2 AMD Technology Advanced Micro Devices ( AMD) is a leading global provider of innovative processing solutions in the computing. A M D K6. the processors found in most personal computers. eventually assembling a small but efficient design team of 30 people. 5. Intel 8080. A M D Phenom. Intel also makes motherboard chipsets. then entered the RAM chip business in 1975. Cyrix founder Jerry Rogers aggressively recruited engineers and pushed them. Emkay. AMD Duron. Intel was founded on July 18. in many ways. Intel 80386. based on revenue. 3 4 Cyrix Cyrix Corporation was a microprocessor developer that was founded in 1988 in Richardson. It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors. Intel Core i3. embedded processors. Pentium M M X. AMD Athlon 64. Pentium I. Opteron etc are the some of the processors of AMD. California. The Cyrix FasMath 83D87 and 83S87 were introduced in 1989. as Integrated Electronics Corporation (though a common misconception is that "Intel" is from the word intelligence) and is based in Santa Clara. AMD Athlon. Celeron. graphic chips. Pentium II. 1968. SRGPTC. a 80287-compatible chip was developed from the Cyrix 83D87 and has been available since 1991 5 MOTHERBOARD 6 A motherboard is the hardware component that connects almost all of the other parts together in a computer. Intel 80486. The company was founded by former Texas Instruments (TI) staff members and had a long but troubled relationship with TI throughout its history. SEHK: 4335. Pentium I V. Pentium III. The FasMath was the fastest 386-compatible coprocessor and provided up to 50% more performance than the Intel 80387. choice and industry growth by delivering. The company started as a producer of logic chips in 1969. AMD Sempron. flash memory. AMD is dedicated to driving open innovation. AMD Athelon XP. Intel 8088. Pentium Pro. Cyrix FasMath 82S87. graphics and consumer electronics markets. Intel 4004. Intel Core 2 Duo. Texas as a specialist supplier of high-performance math coprocessors for 286 and 386 microprocessors.Various Manufactures of Processors 1 INTEL Corporation Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC. Intel 80286.

and you. • Peripheral Support:The motherboard determines. VLB. First and foremost. the type of video card your system will use (ISA. a company can make two motherboards that have basically the same functionality but that use a different form factor. and the only real differences will be the physical layout of the board. other PCs. SRGPTC. the position of the components. system buses. memory. the quality of the motherboard circuitry and chipset themselves have an impact on performance. they have for example a baby AT version and an ATX version Emkay.• Organization: In one way or another. what types of peripherals you can use in your PC. Second. in large part. etc. what sorts of cases and power supplies it can use. Motherboard Form Factors The form factor of the motherboard describes its general shape. For example. the user. • Communication:Almost all communication between the PC and its peripherals. everything is eventually connected to the motherboard. The way that the motherboard is designed and laid out dictates how the entire computer is going to be organized. PCI) is dependent on what system buses your motherboard uses. and harddisk interface speed your system can have. for two main reasons. In fact. • Control:The motherboard contains the chipset and BIOS program. and these components dictate directly your system's performance. and its physical organization. many companies do exactly this. For example. • Processor Support:The motherboard dictates directly your choice of processor for use in the system. the motherboard determines what types of processors. Thriprayar Page 7 . which between them control most of the data flow within the computer. goes through the motherboard. • Performance:The motherboard is a major determining factor in your system's performance.

Thriprayar Page 8 . SRGPTC. which are connected over the PCI bus. They are usually marketed as a single product. The chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks.Bridge chips.and South.Illustration 1 : Motherboard Layout Chipset A chipset. and other devices connected to the IDE channels. The chipset consists of two main components. the North. The CPU. Memory and AGP talk to the Emkay. PC chipset or chip set refers to a group of integrated circuit or chips. that are designed to work together.

make sure you buy components that are compatible with the chipsets in your machine. M ajor M otherboard M a nufactures ASRock ASUS BioStar Gigabyte Technology Intel Corporation MSI Transcend FoxConn Microstar International Diagram of a motherboard chipset Emkay. Processors themselves also have different chipsets. Thriprayar Page 9 . including the ISA bus. Therefore.Northbridge and the Southbridge handles all the I/O. whenever you upgrade your computer's hardware. SRGPTC.

Random access memory is volatile memory.Random Access Memory Random access memory or RAM most commonly refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance. There are three main types of RAM: SDRAM. By storing frequently used or active files in random access memory. RAM begins to fill with programs automatically loaded at startup. meaning it loses its contents once power is cut. Thriprayar Page 10 . When a computer shuts down properly. DDR and Rambus DRAM. Emkay. At the next boot-up. and with files opened by the user Different RAM Types and its uses The type of RAM doesn't matter nearly as much as how much of it you've got. the computer can access the data faster than if it to retrieve it from the farlarger hard drive. This is different from non-volatile memory such as hard disks and flash memory which do not require a power source to retain data. but using plain old SDRAM memory today will slow you down. SRGPTC. Random access memory is also used in printers and other devices. all data located in random access memory is committed to permanent storage on the hard drive or flash drive.

Intel RDRAM chipsets require the use of RIMMs in pairs over a dual-channel 32-bit interface. but a higher latency. RIMMs DRAM comes in two major form factors: DIMMs and RIMMS. and PC800. DIMMs for SDRAM and DDR are different. which is the first level of cache. but uses a similar parallel bus. 168-pin SDRAM DIMMs. You have to plan more when upgrading and purchasing RDRAM. or registers. while older fast page mode DRAM and EDO max out at 50 MHz. usually contained in the processor.SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) Almost all systems used to ship with 3. RDRAM designs with multiple channels.3 volts. Emkay. SRGPTC. The cache holds data that was recently used by the processor and saves a trip all the way back to slower main memory. The memory structure of PCs is often thought of as just main memory. Typically.5 volts. SDRAM is not an extension of older EDO DRAM but a new type of DRAM altogether. DDR (Double Data Rate SDRAM) DDR basically doubles the rate of data transfer of standard SDRAM by transferring data on the up and down tick of a clock cycle. if you want to add 512 MB of DIMM memory to your machine.5 volt technology that uses 184 pins in its DIMMs. Intel has given RDRAM it's blessing for the consumer market. and not physically compatible. RIMMs use only a 16-bit interface but run at higher speeds than DDR. are currently at the top of the heap in memory throughput. which is a different technology. DIMMs vs. Thriprayar Page 11 . PC700. SDRAM DIMMs have 168-pins and run at 3.3 volt. SDRAM started out running at 66 MHz. consisting of the processor's small internal memory. making it easier to implement than RDRAM. It is incompatible with SDRAM physically. So far there aren't many DDR chipset that use dual-channels. DDR is a 2. DDR memory operating at 333MHz actually operates at 166MHz * 2 (aka PC333 / PC2700) or 133MHz*2 (PC266 / PC2100). and unofficially up to 180MHz or higher. you just pop in a 512 MB DIMM if you've got an available slot. PC600. As processors get faster. DIMMs are 64-bit components. new generations of memory such as DDR and RDRAM are required to get proper performance. but if used in a motherboard with a dual-channel configuration (like with an Nvidia nForce chipset) you must pair them to get maximum performance. Cache Memory Cache Memory is fast memory that serves as a buffer between the processor and main memory. and it will be the sole choice of memory for Intel's Pentium 4. Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) Despite it's higher price. while DDR DIMMs have 184-pins and run at 2. such as those in Pentium 4 motherboards. PC800 RDRAM has double the maximum throughput of old PC100 SDRAM. and L1 cache. To get maximum performance. especially when paired with PC1066 RDRAM memory. SDRAM is able to scale to 133 MHz (PC133) officially. RDRAM is a serial memory technology that arrived in three flavors. but it's really a five or six level structure: The first two levels of memory are contained in the processor itself.

168-Pin SDRAM PC100 SDRAM PC133 SDRAM 184-Pin DDR DDR-266 DDR-333 240-Pin DDR2 DDR2-533 DDR2-667 DDR2-800 DDR2-1066 240-Pin DDR3 DDR3-1066 DDR3-1333 DDR3-1600 DDR3-1800 DDR3-2000 DDR3-2133 Super Talent Memory DDR-400 DDR & DDR2 Memory Emkay. but now that some processors include L1 and L2 cache on the chip. but if you lose the L2 cache. it becomes L3 cache. However. but some use it in other ways as well. More and more chip makers are planning to put this cache on board the processor itself. The sixth level is a piece of the hard disk used by the Operating System. and cost less to put on the chip than to set up a bus and logic externally from the processor. EDO DRAM EDO DRAM gave people up to 5% system performance increase over DRAM. but faster than main memory. Most operating systems use this when they run out of main memory. the Celeron chip from Intel actually contains 128K of L2 cache within the form factor of the chip. SRGPTC. Early on. some system makers claimed that if you used EDO DRAM you didn't need L2 cache in your computer to get decent performance. This cache used to be the L2 cache on the motherboard. EDO DRAM maxes out at about 50 MHz. is being referred to as L3 cache. EDO DRAM is like FPM DRAM with some cache built into the chip. you lose a lot of speed. usually contained on the motherboard. It turns out that EDO DRAM works along with L2 cache to make things even faster. it runs slower than the processor. The fifth level (or fourth if you have no "L3 cache") of memory is the main memory itself. Thriprayar Page 12 . The fourth level. usually called virtual memory. Usually. The problem with standard DRAM was that it maxes out at about 50 MHz. Like FPM DRAM.The third level of memory is the L2 cache. The benefit is that it will then run at the same speed as the processor. Older Memory Types Fast Page Mode DRAM Fast Page Mode DRAM is plain old DRAM as we once knew it. They were wrong.

Thriprayar Page 13 .Illustration 2: Different types of Memory Modules Power On Self Test (POST) The computer power-on self-test (POST) tests the computer to make sure it meets the necessary system requirements and that all hardware is working properly before starting Emkay. SRGPTC.

the beep codes may vary. The first 64KB of memory must be operational and have the capability to be read and written to and from. computer is ok. Loose Card. and memory module.the remainder of the boot process. If the computer passes the POST the computer will have a single beep (with some computer BIOS manufacturers it may beep twice) as the computer starts and the computer will continue to start normally. meaning that it must be readable. Beep Code No Beeps 1 Short Beep 2 Short Beep Continuous Beep Repeating Short Beep One Long and one Short Beep Description No Power. 8. error code shown on screen No Power. the computer will either not beep at all or will generate a beep code. Emkay. 6. The steps of a POST Each time the computer boots up the computer must past the POST. However. No Power. 5. because of the wide variety of models shipping with this BIOS. if the computer fails the POST. memory bus. or Short. which tells the user the source of the problem. 7. BIOS checksum must be valid. meaning that it must be readable. Below is the common steps a POST performs each time your computer starts. SRGPTC. Test the power supply to ensure that it is turned on and that it releases its reset signal. CPU must be able to read all forms of memory such as the memory controller. or Short. An irregular POST is a beep code that is different from the standard one or two beeps. Motherboard issue. 2. POST error. CPU must exit the reset status mode and thereafter be able to execute instructions. If the computer does not pass any of the above tests. Loose Card. Loose Card. 4. However. and capable of containing the POST code. This could be either no beeps at all or a combination of different beeps indicating what is causing the computer not to past the POST. your computer will receive an irregular POST. I/O bus must be able to write / read from the video subsystem and be able to read all video RAM. Normal POST. I/O bus/ controller must be accessible. or Short. IBM BIOS beep codes Below are IBM BIOS Beep codes that can occur. Thriprayar Page 14 . 1. 3. CMOS checksum must be valid.

SRGPTC. 3 short 1 long. Below are the AMI BIOS Beep codes that can occur. Emkay. Keyboard / Keyboard card error. 8 short Descriptions DRAM refresh failure Parity circuit failure Base 64K RAM failure System timer failure Process failure Keyboard controller Gate A20 error Virtual mode exception error Display memory Read/Write test failure ROM BIOS checksum failure CMOS shutdown Read/Write error Cache Memory error Conventional/Extended memory failure Display/Retrace test failed Document CH000996 CH000607 CH000996 CH000607 CH000607 CH000383 CH000607 CH000607 CH000607 CH000239 CH000607 CH000996 CH000607 AWARD BIOS beep codes Below are Award BIOS Beep codes that can occur. Thriprayar Page 15 .One Long and Two Short Beeps One Long and Three Short Beeps. Three Long Beeps One Beep. Video Display Circuitry. Beep Code 1 short 2 short 3 short 4 short 5 short 6 short 7 short 8 short 9 short 10 short 11 short 1 long. Video (EGA) Display Circuitry. Blank or Incorrect Display AMI BIOS beep codes Video (Mono/CGA Display Circuitry) issue.

Thriprayar Page 16 . the BIOS will display a message. SRGPTC. beep(s) CH000996 If any other correctable hardware issues. 2 cannot initialize the video screen to display any CH000607 short additional information Any other RAM problem.Beep Code Description Document Indicates a video error has occurred and the BIOS 1 long. Identifying external ports and interfacing Objective: To learn about different ports and how to connect devices to them. This diagram shows different ports available on the back panel of the PC Illustration 3: Rearpanel Ports and onnectors Emkay.

Parallel port (LPT parallel port): As shown in the diagram parallel port with 25-pins can be used to connect a parallel port printer. provided serial port mouse is available. Thriprayar Page 17 . PS/2 Port: Two 6-pin PS/2 ports are there. Previously dot matrix. VGA Port: VGA port which has 15-pins is used to connect a monitor. Serial port: As shown in the diagram serial ports with 9-pins protruding outwards can be used to connect modem but it can also be used for connecting mouse. bubble jet printers etc were connected to parallel port. ink jet. Nowadays-parallel port is used to connect Dot-Matrix printers. SRGPTC. one is violet to which keyboard is connected and other is Light green to which mouse is connected Emkay.

Illustration 4: Rear Panel (Back of a PC) Emkay. Ethernet Port: Ethernet port is used to connect a computer on network through RJ-45 connector Game Port: Game Port is used to connect joystick. Thriprayar Page 18 . Green port is used connect speakers. which is usually used in video games Three more ports are available for multimedia connections. Web Cams. Scanners etc. SRGPTC.USB Port: Connecting a USB device to a computer is simple — you find the USB connector on the back of your machine and plug the USB connector into it. USB ports are used to connect to Injket Printers. blue port is used to connect headphones and light Orange is used to connect microphone.

Objective : To identify different PC cards and to learn how to install them.Identifying PC cards and interfacing. which allows computers to output audio signals through speakers and or headphones. Sound card A sound card or audio board. Video card The video card is responsible for creating all that you see on your computer monitor VGA Card Network card This piece of hardware allows your computer to be connected to a network of other computers (known as a LAN or Local Area Network) .

It is installed only on sound cards and motherboards. However for cards that do include this as a feature this allows for the volume to be turned up and . Refer to your sound card owners manual for correct placement. 1. There is only one screw needed to secure each PCI component in place. If you do not remove these. you cannot install any PCI components. you need to connect the CD-ROM to the Sound Card (or motherboard if your sound card is integrated in) using the audio cable as seen below. If you want to hear audio when play a cd in your CD-ROM. 2. Line up component with PCI slot and install. This saves you from possible problems when loading up for the first time. Locate PCI Slots on Motherboard. refer to your motherboard owner’s manual for correct placement 6. Every component is different but as long as its PCI compatible.Procedure to install a sound card In this example we are going to install a sound card. Insert screw. Remove any unnecessary temporary metal plates. Give it CD Sound.) Identifying ports on the cards and interfacing Objective: To identify ports on the PC cards MIDI / Game port is a port which is most commonly used for the game port which will allow you to connect a game paddle and or Joystick to the computer. Your PCI Slots should look similar to the ones in the image below 3. Once you have your operating system installed. turn off the computer and install the other components. Repeat for any other components. additional information on this can be found in the Midi section. it is installed the same way (except for the audio cable. NOTE: It is best not to install all your PCI hardware if you are building from scratch. Line Out connector is the location which the speakers or headphones will be connected to get sound out of the sound card. If you did not purchase a sound card and you have one integrated into your motherboard. Most either unscrew or pop out. Volume control is generally no longer found on sound cards. Line In connector allows you to connect a Cassette Tape. Remember that audio cable from the CD-ROM drive? Now we will connect the other end of it. CD or record player to the computer. 5. This port will also allow you to connect a device such as a MIDI keyboard to the computer. Only remove the metal plates from the slots you are going to use. Simply line up the component with the slot and gently press down on both sides until it slides in place 4. Only install your video card and sound card right now.

they accumulate a large amount dust and chemical buildup within a short time. Preventive maintenance of a PC To learn how to maintain a PC so that it gives longer service without any problems.RW or tape drives. 3) Cleaning motherboards: . Use floppy disks for small data and if data is very large perform backup using CD.down on a non-amplified output such as a set of headphones. Floppy disk drives are vulnerable to dust as they contain a large opening in the system case through which air continuously flows. Therefore. Take the backup of data at regular intervals. 2) System cleaning. Microphone allows you to connect a microphone to the computer and record your own sound files. 1) System backups. Where as cleaning a hard disk requires simply blowing the dust and dirt off from the outside the drive.

Before you defragment your disk use Scandisk to scan your hard disk. To scandisk your hard disk follow the below steps. which will help with system airflow. To clean the boards. clean the dust and debris off the board and then clean any connectors on the board. Also blow any dust out of the power supply. it is usually best to use a vacuum cleaner. clean and big enough place to work with. Steps to Assemble a Desktop Computer Things to get in place before starting: • Anti-static wrist strap • Set of screwdrivers and pliers • Piece of cloth • CPU Thermal compound (recommended) • PC components Tip: CPU Thermal compound is not a necessity but it is recommended to keep your CPU cool under load conditions by helping heat dissipate faster. It is a must if you intend to overclock your PC. Go to programs Accessories System tools Disk Defragmenter 5) Understanding CMOS To know and understand the features available in the CMOS. Step 1: Installing the motherboard Make sure you have all the components in place and a nice. Go to programs Accessories System tools Scandisk To scandisk your hard disk follow the below steps. To enter into CMOS setup continue pressing Delete(Del) or F2 button while system is booting. . To clean the connectors on the board use the cleaning solutions. Use a duster can and blast the compressed air into the supply through the fan exhaust port. especially around the fan intake and exhaust areas. This will blow the dust out of the supply and clean off the fan blades and grill. 4) Hard Disk Maintenance: De-fragmenting files: As you delete and save files to your hard disk they become fragmented ( they are stored on non contiguous areas on the disk).First. Note: You can find the meaning of an abbreviation at the end of this article under the heading Jargon Buster.

Put your antic-static wrist strap on to prevent your components from getting affected. Make sure your hands are clean before starting. First we will be installing the motherboard which is a piece of cake to install. • Open the side doors of the cabinet • Lay the cabinet on its side • Put the motherboard in place • Drive in all the required screws Tip: Most motherboards come with an antistatic bag. It is advisable to put the motherboard on it for some time and then remove it from the antistatic bag before placing it in the cabinet. Step 2: Installing the CPU CPU is the heart of a computer so make sure you handle it properly and do not drop it or mishandle it. Also try not to touch the pins frequently so that they do not get dirty. Get hold of your motherboard and CPU manual. You need to place the CPU on the dotted white patch of the motherboard in a particular fashion for it to fit properly. There is a golden mark on the CPU to help you assist. Consult both your motherboard and CPU manual to see which position it fits exactly or you could also use try all the 4 positions.

Lift the CPU lever on the motherboard • Place the CPU properly on the motherboard • Pull down the lever to secure the CPU in place Warning: Do not try to push the CPU into the motherboard! Got the thermal compound? Now is the time to use it. Take small amount of it and carefully apply it on the top surface of the processor. Be careful not to put it on the neighboring parts of the motherboard. If you do so clean it immediately using the cloth. Tip: Thermal compounds should be changed once every six months for optimal performance. Step 3: Installing the heat sink

After installing the processor we proceed to installing the heat sink. There are different kinds of heat sinks that are bundled with the processor and each has a different way of installation. Look into your CPU manual for instructions on how to install it properly. • Place the heat sink on the processor • Put the jacks in place • Secure the heat sink with the lever After this you will need to connect the cable of the heat sink on the motherboard. Again look into the motherboard manual on where to connect it and then connect it to the right port to get your heat sink in operational mode.

Step 4: Installing the RAM Installing the RAM is also an easy job. The newer RAMs ie. DDR RAMs are easy to install as you don’t have to worry about placing which side where into the slot. The older ones, SDRAMs are plagued by this problem. If you want to use dual channel configuration then consult your manual on which slots to use to achieve that result. • Push down the RAM into the slot • Make sure the both the clips hold the RAM properly

Step 5: Installing the power supply

We will now install the power supply as the components we install after this will require power cables to be connected to them. There is not much to be done to install a PSU. • Place the PSU into the cabinet • Put the screws in place tightly Tip: Some PSU have extra accessories that come bundled with it. Consult your PSU manual to see how to install them. Step 6: Installing the video card

First you will need to find out whether your video card is AGP or PCI-E. AGP graphics cards have become redundant and are being phased out of the market quickly. So if you bought a spanking new card it will certainly be a PCI-E. • Remove the back plate on the cabinet corresponding to the graphics card • Push the card into the slot • Secure the card with a screw • Plug in the power connection from PSU (if required) High-end graphics cards need dedicated power supply and if your graphics card needs one then connect the appropriate wire from PSU into the graphics card.

Step 7: Installing the hard disk Hard disk is another fragile component of the computer and needs to handled carefully. • Place the hard drive into the bay • Secure the drive with screws • Connect the power cable from PSU • Connect the data cable from motherboard into the drive

If your hard disk is PATA type then use the IDE cable instead of the SATA cable. Step 8: Installing optical drive The installation an optical drive is exactly similar to an hard drive. This is not applicable if the drives are SATA drives. • Place the optical drive into the bay • Drive in the screws • Connect the power cable and data cable Tip: When installing multiple optical drives take care of jumper settings. • Connect the large ATX power connector to the power supply port on your motherboard .If your hard drive is a SATA one then connect one end of SATA cable into the motherboard and other into the SATA port on the hard disk. You will need to consult your motherboard manual for finding the appropriate port for connecting various cables at the right places on the motherboard. Step 9: Connecting various cables First we will finish setting up internal components and then get on to the external ones. Tip: If your PSU does not support SATA power supply then you will need to get an converter which will convert your standard IDE power connector to a SATA power connector. Make sure you make one as primary and other slave by using the jumper.

Next get hold of the smaller square power connector which supplies power to the processor and connect it to the appropriate port by taking help from your motherboard manual • Connect the cabinet cables for power. Power on and see your rig boot to glory. Step 10: Installing the OS and drivers We are done with the hardware part.reset button in the appropriate port of the motherboard • Connect the front USB/audio panel cable in the motherboard • Plug the cable of cabinet fans You are done with installing the internal components of the PC. speakers etc. Close the side doors of the cabinet and get it upright and place it on your computer table. keyboard. Now get your favorite OS disks ready and the CD that came with your motherboard. • Connect the VGA cable of the monitor into the VGA port If mouse/keyboard are PS/2 then connect them to PS/2 ports or else use the USB port • Connect the speaker cable in the audio port • Plug in the power cable from PSU into the UPS • Also plug in the power cable of the monitor You are now done with setting up your PC. which we will connect now. • Set the first boot device to CD/DVD drive in BIOS • Pop in the OS disk • Reboot the PC • Install the OS • Install drivers from motherboard CD (applicable only to Windows OS) • • . mouse. Get the rest of the PC components like monitor.

hence use the entire size of the drive. If you wish to do this you can just press enter and Windows will automatically partition and format the drive as one large drive. Step 5 . If you are using a an IDE Hard Drive then you do not need to press F6. Please make sure you have the Raid drivers on a floppy disk. Step 6 . Notice it shows C: Partition 1 followed by the size 6000 MB. Since we are doing a new install we just press Enter to continue.Press S to Specify that you want to install additional device. Normally the drivers are supplied on a CD which you can copy to a floppy disk ready to be installed. We can choose to install Windows in this drive without creating a partition. For example if you have 500GB hard drive you can have two partition of 250GB each.This step is very important. So in the future if anything goes wrong with our Windows install such as virus or spyware we can re-install Windows on C: drive and our data on E: drive will not be touched. However for this demonstration I will create two partition. I will choose 6000MB. Press C to create a partition. The first partition will be 6000MB (C: drive) and second partition would be 2180MB (E: drive). Soon as computer starts booting from the CD your will get the following screen: Step 2 . If you are using a SCSI or SATA Hard drive then you must press F6 otherwise Windows will not detect your Hard Drive during the installation. Repair previous install or quit. Press F8 to accept and continue Step 8 . You have the option to do a new Windows install. Your PC should automatically detect the CD and you will get a message saying "Press any key to boot from CD". Then press C to create . Step 3 .Installation of Windows XP Step 1 . You will then get the screen below. In our case the drive size is 8190MB.You will be asked to insert the floppy disk with the Raid or SCSI drivers.Windows will show the total size of the hard drive and ask you how much you want to allocate for the partition you are about to create. Step 7 . Next highlight the unpartitioned space by pressing down the arrow key. This indicates the partition has been created. If you are not sure how to do this then please read your motherboard manuals for more information. We still have an unpartitioned space of 2189MB.You will be presented with the End User Licensing Agreement. Press enter after you have inserted the disk. Please note you can choose whatever size partition your like.Start your PC and place your Windows XP CD in your CD/DVD-ROM drive.You will then get a Windows XP Professional Setup screen.You will see a list of Raid drivers for your HDD. By creating two partition we can have one which stores Windows and Applications and the other which stores our data. Select the correct driver for your device and press enter.At this stage it will ask you to press F6 if you want to install a third party Raid or SCSI driver. Here we will create the partition where Windows will be installed. If you have a brand new unformatted drive you will get a screen similar to below. Step 8 . Step 4 .

Choose no if you want to activate Windows at a later stage.Will this computer connect to the internet directly. and bigger size files. Step 10 .Choose your region and language. and enter an Administrator password. We chose NTFS because it offers many security features. You might wonder what happened to D: drive.another partition. Step 14. Leave the XP CD in the drive but this time DO NOT press any key when the message "Press any key to boot from CD" is displayed. If the hard drive has been formatted before then you can choose quick NTFS format. Don't forget to write down your Administrator password. Just choose all the space left over. Step 9 .Ready to activate Windows? Choose yes if you wish to active Windows over the internet now. Windows XP Setup wizard will guide you through the setup process of gathering information about your computer. . Step 16 . Step 22 . You will also have 8MB of unpartitioned space. Step 20 .Choose workgroup or domain name. Windows will restart again and adjust the display. Just leave it how its is.Choose format the partition using NTFS file system. Don't worry about that. or through a network? If you are connected to a router or LAN then choose: 'Yes. Step 23 . If you are not a member of a domain then leave the default settings and press next.Now you will see both partition listed. this computer will connect through a local area network or home network'. Windows has automatically allocated D: drive to CD/DVD-ROM. Windows will now start formatting drive C: and start copying setup files as shown on the two images below : Step 11 . Step 21 .Choose 'help protect my PC by turning on automatic updates now' and press next. In few seconds setup will continue. this computer will connect directly to the internet'. Windows normally has some unpartitioned space. Enter your product key.This is the recommended file system. Step 13 . Step 19 .Enter the correct date.For the network setting choose typical and press next. If you have dial up modem choose: 'No. Then click Next. Partition 1 (C: Drive) 6000MB and Partition 2 (E: Drive) 2180MB. supports larger drive size. Step 17 .Finally Windows will start and present you with a Welcome screen. Step 18 .Name the computer. Step 12 . You will see the total space available for the new partition. Select Partition 1 (C: Drive) and press Enter. Click next to continue.Type in your name and organization.After the setup has completed copying the files the computer will restart.Add users that will sign on to this computer and click next. in our case 2180MB. Step 15 . time and choose your time zone.

Hit the F8.Step 24 .04 LTS Desktop ISO image that corresponds to your hardware architecture (i386 or amd64). Log in. Step 26 ..You now need to check the device manager to confirm that all the drivers has been loaded or if there are any conflicts. Installing and Configuring Ubuntu LINUX Requirements: We need the Ubuntu 10. From the start menu select Start -> Settings -> Control Panel. The second option allows you to specify the location of the driver. Click finish. (c) Click on the Driver tab. You need to install these drivers using the automatic setup program provided by the manufacturer or you need to manually install these drivers. Roxio) on a blank CD at 8x speed.You will get a Thank you screen to confirm setup is complete. and that can be downloaded from here. When the download is over. If you don't know the location of the driver choose the automatic search which would find the required driver from the manufacturer supplied CD or Floppy disk. to your PC for the first time. check the manufacturers website to download them.. burn the ISO image with your favorite CD/DVD burning application (Nero. it means that no drivers or incorrect drivers has been loaded for that device. If there are any yellow exclamation mark "!" next to any of the listed device. Click on the System icon and then from the System Properties window select the Hardware tab. To install a driver manually use the following procedure: (a) From the device manager double click on the device containing the exclamation mark. CDBurnerXP. F11 or F12 key (depending on your BIOS) to select the CD/DVDROM as the boot device Wait for the CD to load. Windows would install the required driver and may ask you to restart the system for the changes to take affect. . The Wizard for updating device driver pops up as shown below: You now get two options. Step 25. If you do not have the drivers. Your hardware should come with manufacturer supplied drivers. Use this procedure to install drivers for all the devices that contain an exclamation mark. then click on Device Manager. Windows is completely setup when there are no more exclamation marks in the device manager. In our case we have a Video Controller (VGA card) which has no drivers installed. The first option provides an automatic search for the required driver. (d) Click Update Driver button. Reinsert or leave the CD in your CD/DVD-ROM device and reboot the computer in order to boot from the CD. (b) This would open a device properties window.

.04 LTS" button to continue. If we want to delete our existing operating system..g. Click the "Forward" button when you have finished with the keyboard configuration. Upon the selection of our current location. The second screen will feature a map of the Earth. But the default automatic selection should work for most of us. select the second option. "Use the entire disk. we will be able to choose a desired keyboard layout. choosing between them at each startup.. such as Microsoft Windows.We will see the wallpaper and the installation wizard. select the first option: "Install them side by side. Select your language and click the "Install Ubuntu 10. Remember that. If we have another operating system (e. Windows XP) and we want a dual boot system.. We can also select our current location from the drop-down list situated at the bottom of the window. Test the keyboard On the third screen. Click the "Forward" button after selected your desired location. the Windows boot loader will be overwritten by the Ubuntu boot loader! 2. after the installation. the time for the final system will adjust accordingly. Hard disk partitioning We have four options here: 1. or the hard drive is already empty and we want to let the installer automatically partition the hard drive..." Note: This option will ONLY appear if we have another operating system installed." .

until they're all deleted and you have a single "free space" line. /dev/sda is the first physical hard drive.Select the "Specify partitions manually (advanced) and click the "Forward" button.Let's say that the selected drive is empty (no other operating system or important data on it). click on the "Add" button. The third choice is "Use the largest continuous free space" and it will install Ubuntu 9.000 and 50. type 2000 in the "New partition size in megabytes" field and select the "swap area" option from the "Use as:" drop down list." Click the OK . After a few seconds. click on the "Add" button. 4. in a few seconds. So. In the new window. make sure that we know which is the one we want to format! Otherwise." Do this with the other partitions from the selected hard drive. will lose ALL DATA on that hard drive. to create special partitions or format the hard drive with other filesystems than the default one. select the "Primary" option. But it can also be used to create a /home partition. which is very useful in case you reinstall the whole system.Note: This option is recommended for most users who do not have another operating system installed or who want to erase an existing one. type a value between 10. we can see a "swap" line with the specified size. .000 in the "New partition size in megabytes" field and select / as the "Mount point. . Click the OK button and.Make sure that the selected hard drive is the right one.10 in the unpartitioned space on the selected hard drive. but it has some partitions on it. Select each one of those partitions and click the "Delete" button. Here's how to manual partitioning with /home: . it will say "free space. for example Windows OS. The fourth choice is "Specify partitions manually" and it is recommended ONLY for advanced users. 3. .With the "free space" line selected. /dev/sdb is the second hard drive in our machine. . In the new window.With the "free space" line selected.

click the "Forward" button to continue with the installation. in a few seconds. type a value between 30. If so. ..." If we check the box on this option. Click . In the new window. This is how our partition table should look like." which will be required to log in to the system).. automatically be logged in to the Ubuntu desktop. but can be overwritten). Click the "Forward" button to continue. there's an option called "Log in automatically. the "Install" button to start the installation process..With the "free space" line selected.. select the "Primary" option.. the password and the name of the computer (automatically generated.000 (or whatever space you have left on the drive) in the "New partition size in megabytes" field and select /home as the "Mount point." Click the OK button and.. In the final step of the installation. .. If someone is installing to a USB memory stick. WARNING: Be aware that all the data on the selected hard drive or partition will be ERASED and IRRECOVERABLE. in a few seconds. click the "Advanced" button and select the correct drive (the USB stick in this case). we must do exactly what the title says. we can see an "ext4 /home" line with the specified size. as if it was a USB hard drive. we can select to install the boot loader on another partition or hard drive than the default one. click on the "Add" button.. we can see an "ext4 /" line with the specified size.button and.. Fill in the fields with your real name. but it is only recommended for advanced users. then they should know that the installer will mess with their computer's hard disk drive MBR.000 and 50. the name you want to use to log in on your Ubuntu OS (also known as the "username. Submission of User details On this screen. Click the "Forward" button to continue with the installation.. Therefore. Also at this step.

After approximately 10 to 18 minutes (depending on your computer's specs).... The devices that are installed on the computer are listed in the right pane. a popup window will appear. will see the Ubuntu boot splash.. .. Install Driver Software 1.The Ubuntu 10. 3. The computer will be restarted and. click on the username and input password. Click the "Log In" button or hit Enter. remove it and press the "Enter" key to reboot. and will need to restart the computer in order to use the newly installed Ubuntu operating system. On the desktop. The CD will be ejected.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx) operating system will be installed.. notifying that the installation is complete. Under System Tools. 2. in a few seconds. and then click Manage... Expand the category of the device that you want to configure NOTE: The device may be listed under Other devices. right-click My Computer. Click the "Restart Now" button. At the login screen. click Device Manager.

inf files that you downloaded in Step 2: Obtain the Driver. The Upgrade Device Driver wizard starts. 6. Follow the wizard instructions to install the driver.Right-click the device for which you want to install the driver. . Restart the computer. click Browse. Click Next. Click Have Disk. or as a generic device. and then click Open. and then click Update Driver. and then click Next. 5. locate the . 9. NOTE: The device may be displayed as Unknown device. and then click Properties.inf file. 7. and then click Next. 4. click an . Click the Driver tab. 8. Do one of the following: o Click Search for a suitable driver for my device (recommended). -oro Click Display a list of the known devices for this device so that I can choose a specific driver.

follow the instructions there rather than the ones below. quit PowerPoint and your other programs. Click Start. Settings. Before installing a printer driver. Control Panel. Read over the installation instructions that came with your printer. Double-click "Printers & Faxes" Double-click "Add Printer" to start the Add Printer Wizard • • • • The Add Printer Wizard Welcome screen Click Next Local or Network Printer . When in doubt. not a PowerPoint one.Install a printer driver locally Installing a printer driver is a Windows function.

click "Use the following port" and select the port your printer's attached to." Click Next • • • • Select a Printer Port If your printer is actually attached to the computer. If not.. Click Next .• • • Click "Local Printer" Make sure there's NO checkmark next to "Automatically detect and install . choose LPT1: for now.. choose LPT1: or FILE: (it doesn't really matter. You can change the setting later. if available. since you'll never actually print to the port) If you're installing a local driver but need to print to a network printer. If you're installing a driver only to keep PowerPoint happy. look for the printer's port on the network and choose it.

click "Have Disk" and locate the INF file for the printer (check the printer's documentation for specific instructions). select your printer manufacturer and printer model here. If you have an installation disk or CD that came with the printer. If installing a printer only to keep PowerPoint happy.• • • • Install Printer Software If installing a real printer. choose the HP LaserJet 4V/4MV as we've done here Click Next Name Your Printer .

see Notes below) Click Next Printer Sharing • Click "Do not share this printer" • Click Next • Print Test Page Click No .• • • • Give the printer a name (this is the name you'll use to select it later) If installing a printer just to make PowerPoint happy. you might want to give it a name that indicates it isn't a real physical printer (PPT Pacifier. or the like) Click "Yes" under "Do you want to use this printer as the default printer" (this option may not appear in all Windows versions.

• Click Next Completing the Add Printer Wizard • Review your choices. Click Back if you need to change anything • Click Finish Motherboard Layout Diagram .

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________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Hardware______________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Software_______________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Supercomputer__________________________________________________ _______________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Mainframe_____________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Microcomputer__________________________________________________ _______________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ Notebook Computer______________________________________________________ . 7. 1. 4. 3. Computer______________________________________________________ 2. 5. 6.1 2 3 Exercise 1: Some Excercises Define each of the following terms.

It accepts data from an input device and processes it into useful information. Hardware The physical components of the computer and any equipment connected to it. 4. . 5 5. 3. 4 4. Personal Digital Assistant_______________________________________________________ __ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ 4 Short Answer Give at least 5 examples of how you have recently used a computer in your everyday life: 1. Software The set of instructions that the computer follows in performing a task. 5. Supercomputer Classified by size. the largest classification of computers. Laptop Computer______________________________________________________ _________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________ 9. 2. Mainframe Classified by size. 2 Exercises Key 1. 2 2. the second largest classification of computers.8. 3 3. Computer 1 An electronic device that operates under the control of a set of instructions that is stored in its memory unit. which it makes available on its output device.

and storage. It is a handheld computer. It represents one character . Documentation: Documentation Instructions provided with software that includes steps required for installation and use of the product. output. 8 8. output. Data Raw: Data Raw unprocessed facts to be processed by the computer. 9 9. Central Processing Unit : Central Processing Unit (CPU) is an Electronic circuits that interpret and execute instructions and communicates with the input. Microcomputer Personal computers or desktop computers. and storage devices. digit. Personal Digital Assistant Classified by size. Freeware Software: Freeware Software considered to be in the public domain and may be used or altered without fee or restriction. 3 Short Answer Give at least 5 examples of how you have recently used a computer in your everyday life: These answers will vary. Gigahertz :Gigahertz (GHZ) A billion machine cycles per second. Byte : A byte A unit of storage usually made up of eight bits. . or symbol. heavier version of a notebook computer. Hardcopy :Hardcopy Output produced by a printer. it is responsible for performing four basic functions: input.a letter.6 6. Hardware: The equipment associated with a computer system. the smallest classification of computers. A backup system A way of storing data in more than one location. Notebook Computer A personal computer that can fit into a briefcase. processing. Important Points to Remember Applications software: Software that allows you to perform a task or solve a specific problem. Laptop Computer A larger. 7 7.

4. Megaflop: A megaflop One million floating-point operations per second.Input devices: Hardware devices that accept data in a form that the computer can utilize. Secondary or auxiliary storage: A more permanent form of storage that does not depend on a constant flow of electricity. they send the data or instructions to the processing unit to be processed into useful information. it controls the overall activity of a computer. Softcopy: Monitor output. however. and storage devices. Shareware: A form of free software. Office suite: A package of software that contains pieces of software. output. Memory : Primary storage that works with the CPU to hold instructions and data in order to be processed. Machine Cycle : A machine cycle Four steps performed by the central processing unit in carrying out the instructions of a program. Megahertz: (MHz) One million machine cycles per second. ____ Electronic circuits that interpret and execute instructions and communicate with the input. . It is sold as a single package and is designed to work together. Exercise 2: 1. Random access memory (RAM): Memory that the computer user can access. A hard disk : An internal disk. Output device: A hardware device that displays the processed information to the user. ____ Hardware devices that accept data in a form that the computer can use. the author of shareware hopes you will make a voluntary contribution for using the product. ____ Four steps performed by the central processing unit in carrying out the instructions of a program. Software: A program that consists of instructions used to control hardware and accomplish tasks. ____ Raw unprocessed facts to be processed by the computer. Read only memory (ROM): Memory that contains programs and data that are permanently recorded when the computer is manufactured. Operating Systems: software The set of programs that lie between applications software and the hardware devices. 2. a metal platter coated with magnetic oxide that can be magnetized to represent data. 3.

____ A more permanent form of storage that does not depend on a constant flow of electricity. 24.____ Software that allows you to perform a particular task or solve a specific problem. 18.____ Output displayed on a monitor.____ Instructions provided with software that includes steps required for installation and use of the product. and storage. 4 1. processing. 3. 5. 8. ____ Programs and data that are permanently recorded when the computer is manufactured. ____ Hardware devices that display the processed information to the user.____ A form of free software.____ Output produced by a printer. 22. 2. 17. It is sold as a single package and is designed to work together. Exercise Key Input devices Data CPU Machine cycle ROM Gigahertz Output devices .____ Equipment associated with a computer system. 14. 16. ____ A million machine cycles per second. 9. however.____ A program that consists of instructions used to control hardware.____ A set of programs that lie between applications software and the hardware devices. output. digit. 12. ____ A billion machine cycles per second. 13. 19.____ An internal storage disk. letter.5. 15.____ A package of software that contains several pieces of software. 10.____ A storage unit that is usually made up eight bits and represents one character. 11.____ Software considered to be in the public domain. or symbol. it is a metal platter coated with magnetic oxide that can be magnetized to represent data. 7.____ A way of storing data in more than one location. 7.____ One million floating-point operations per second. 20. 21. it controls the overall activity of a computer. it is responsible for performing four basic functions: input. 23. the author hopes you will make a voluntary contribution for using the product. 25. 6.____ Memory that the computer user can use.____ Primary storage that works with the CPU to hold instructions and data to be processed. it may be used or altered without fee or restriction. 6. 4.

Secondary or auxiliary storage 10. Software 12. The other computers that are connected to the server are called as CLIENTS. RAM 16. Hardware 22. Peer networks are organized into workgroups. Server Based Network : In this type of networks. Central storage and data security 4. Peer-to-peer : This is an example of a simple network where two or more computers are directly connected to each other and share resources. Sharing of hardware resources 2. the computers can take any one of the three functions as detailed below. Office suite 11. Hard disk 13. Local Area Network (LAN) A network consisting of two or more computers that are interconnected by means of cable in a single location is called as Local Area Network. . Documentation 15. Advantages 1. Hardcopy 18. In a LAN. There is no restriction on the number of computers on a peer network. Byte 24. there is a main computer called as the SERVER that controls the networks and provides central storage space for information. Need for an administrator to take care of the network Types of Computer Networks 1. Access to individual resources has to be controlled through a password.8. Memory 19. Easier and faster sharing of information Disadvantages 1. or DUMB TERMINALS. Costly hardware and software 2. Megahertz 9. Softcopy 17. There is no central control over the network. Applications software 21. Sharing of software resources 3. Backup system 25. Megaflop Networking Basics A network is an interconnection of two or more devices in order to enable transfer of data or information from one place to another. or WORKSTATIONS. Freeware 20. Operating systems software 23. Shareware 14.

satellites or radio transceivers. Network media 5. STP cables are shielded . Connector 6. The foam is surrounded by a second conductor. Network Interface Card (NIC) 4. It also provides proper grounding for the central conductor. The twisting reduces external interference. The computers are connected by means of cables. a wire mesh or metallic foil. Coaxial cable transmit data typically at 10 Mbps. Server 2. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) and 2. 2. 1. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP).Hybrid Network : These types of network are a combination of both peer-to-peer network and server network. Components of a Computer Network 1. Connecting devices Types of cables Coaxial cable Coaxial cable has a single strand or multi-strand of copper. The wire mesh protects the central conductor from electro magnetic interference. Twisted-pair cable These cables have one or more pairs of copper wires that are twisted. Workstations 3. Data is transmitted in the form of electric current and are comparatively slower than fiber-optic cables. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A network of computers that are interconnected within a specific geographical area like a university campus or a city is called as Metropolitan Area Network or Campus Area Network (CAN) 3. Wide Area Network (WAN) A network of computers that are interconnected over a large area is called as a Wide Area Network. There are two types of twisted pair cables. The wire is enclosed in plastic foam for insulation. telephone lines.

UTP cables do not have this shielding. When the cables have to be run in the space between the false ceiling and the floor above. . When burned. a special type of cable called as plenum-grade cable has to be used. Fiber-optic cables are capable of transmitting data at a very high speed offering data transfer speeds ranging from 100 Mbps to 2 Gbps and are more expensive. Fiber-optic cable These cables are mainly used as backbone in a WAN. The inner core is enclosed in a layer of glass called as a cladding. so a fire resistant cable such as the plenum-grade cable is used. PVC is used as the outer jacket for insulation. Plenum cable In coaxial cables. A plastic sheath surrounds each fiber. PVC gives off poisonous gases.with aluminium or polyester present in between the outer jacket and the wires. Data is transmitted in the form of light signals. It is more expensive and less flexible than PVC insulated coaxial cables. that reflects light back into the core.

Passive and Intelligent) b) Repeaters c) Switches d) Bridges e) Multiplexers a) Hubs These are the connecting points in a network where UTP and STP cables are used. They cannot amplify or split signals. The following devices can be used to expand a single network without connecting it to other networks. there arises a need for special devices. They can also choose the quickest path for sending the signal. Expansion of a network is of two types. An intelligent hub has the ability to choose the path where the signal has to reach instead of sending the signals along all paths. Active hubs : These hubs provide connection points for cables to be attached from each computer in the network. Hubs are available in configuration of 4/8/16/32 ports for connecting 4/8/16/32 computers respectively. Hubs can be of three types based on their function. Hubs amplify signals and split them so that the signals reach their destination. In such a situation. they are a) Expansion within a network b) Joining two networks More computers can be attached in a network by using additional cables and connectors. This growth creates the need for attaching more computers in the network. Passive hubs : These hubs merely act as junction boxes for extending the network. But once the network architecture is stretched beyond a point. To add more computers to the network cascading of hubs can be done. Intelligent hubs : These hubs have special instructions stored in the ROM that help in signal regeneration and path selection. it reduces the data transmission speeds. The hub in turn is connected to the main computer called as the Server. which can amplify the signals and send them over longer distances. Cascading is nothing but taking the signal from one hub to another hub.Network Connectivity Devices Any network grows over a period. a) Hubs (Active. This is allowed only for Active hubs. Active hubs are mainly used in Star Topology. .

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By monitoring which station acknowledged receipt of the address. Bridges with more than two ports (multiport bridges) perform a switching function. which may be of similar or dissimilar types. a repeater is used to boost the signal allowing it to travel over longer cable distances. they learn which nodes belong to the segment. This results in loss of signals. they are demultiplexed to reach the appropriate destination. Switches are available in configuration of 8/16/24/32 ports for connecting computers.b) Repeaters The signals that pass in the network media (cables) are prone to weakening called as attenuation. In order to prevent this. A bridge is inserted into a network to segment it and keep traffic contained within the segments to improve performance. Bridges are faster than routers because they do not have to read the protocol to glean routing information. c) Switches Switches operate at the data link layer and are responsible for receiving and transmitting frames. routers are protocol dependent. Bridges learn from experience and build and maintain address tables of the nodes on the network. The transmission signals of cable TV is an example of multiplexing where multiple channels are send in a single coaxial cable and the demultiplexer present in the TV recognizes the appropriate signal. Today's LAN switches are really multiport bridges that can switch at full wire speed. Bridges are protocol independent. Switches work in full-duplex mode (100 Mbps) where the signals can be transmitted and received between the switch and the computer simultaneously. channel or element over to another. . Switches use MAC (Message Authentication Code) address from the host’s NIC cards to filter the network. e) Multiplexers These devices use a technique called as multiplexing where many different signals are combined and transmitted and at the receiving end. d) Bridges Bridges are used to cross from one circuit. such as Ethernet and Token Ring. It is a device that connects two LAN segments together.

Inter-network Connectivity Any network consisting of two or more networks is called as an inter-network. An inter-network may have different types of networks . The Internet is an example of this.

a) Routers A device that forwards data packets from one local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) to another. bad lines. Routers work at layer 3 in the protocol stack. Routers are also used at the edge of the network to connect remote offices. speed.). Based on routing tables and routing protocols. Token ring. The following devices can be used to expand an inter-network by connecting it to other network. routers read the network address in each transmitted frame and make a decision on how to send it based on the most expedient route (traffic load.like Ethernet. and ATM. . line costs. etc. whereas bridges and switches work at the layer 2. Routers are used to segment LANs in order to balance traffic within workgroups and to filter traffic for security purposes and policy management.

b) Brouters Brouters are a combination of a router and a bridge. .

These are the three major topologies used in networks. refers to the arrangements or physical layout of computers. Patch Chord Patch Chord is just an UTP cable with RJ-45 connectors connected at both the ends. Each topology has its strengths and weakness. The three popular topologies are bus. Apart from sending signals CSU/DSU also shield your network from voltage currents that come through the telephone network. d) CSU/DSU Channel Service Unit/Digital Service Unit help in using the existing telephone line for transmitting signals. The patch chord may be straight cable or cross over cable depending upon the application where it is used. or more specifically. and other components on the network. Token Ring uses ring and switch. Ethernet uses bus. star and ring.c) Gateways These are sophisticated devices combining both hardware and software. . They take care of protocol conversion so that data received from any network can be interpreted in your network and used. network topology. Network Topology The term topology. Gateway helps in connecting disparate networks. hub and switch topologies. cables.

If you require a cable to connect two Ethernet devices directly together without a hub or when you connect two hubs together. . you will need to use a Crossover cable instead.RJ 45 Jack RJ45 Colors and Wiring Standards 5 T-568B Straight-Through Ethernet Cable Both the T-568A and the T-568B standard Straight-Through cables are used most often as patch cords for your Ethernet connections.

check that the crimped connection is not about to come apart. • • • • . Test the Ethernet cable. untwist the pairs. 2. Carefully hold the wire and firmly crimp the RJ-45 with the crimp tool. Be extra careful not to nick the wires. 3. even numbered pins are always solid colored. 4. Check that the jacket is fitted right against the stop of the plug. Check the color orientation. Trim the ends of the wires so they are even with one another. A crossover is used to connect two Ethernet devices without a hub or for connecting two hubs. 5. leaving only 1/2" in wire length. you will have to start over. Spread. and check to see if the wires are flat against the front of the plug. Inspect each wire is flat even at the front of the plug. The total length of wire segments between a PC and a switch or between two PC's cannot exceed 100 Meters (328 feet) for 100BASE-TX and 300 Meters for 10BASE-T. 1. • Odd numbered pins are always striped. otherwise you will need to start over. and arrange the wires in the order of the desired cable end. If even one of these are incorrect. Hold the RJ-45 plug with the clip facing down or away from you. • A crossover has one end with the Orange set of wires switched with the Green set. Check the order of the wires. Ethernet Cable Tips: A straight-thru cable has identical ends. If it is longer than 1/2" it will be out-of-spec and susceptible to crosstalk. Start on one end and strip the cable jacket off (about 1") using a wire stripper or a knife. If you are pulling cables through holes. Push the wires firmly into the plug.6 RJ-45 Crossover Ethernet Cable How to Build an Ethernet Cable Instructions: Pull the cable off the reel to the desired length and cut using wire cutters or scissors. A straight-thru is used as a patch cord in Ethernet connections. A crossover cable has different ends. Flatten the end between your thumb and forefinger. Double check again. Flatten and insure there are no spaces between wires. it's easier to attach the RJ-45 plugs after the cable is pulled.

you are assigned (by your service provider) specific classes of IP address. do not run parallel with power cables. and do not run Ethernet cables near noise inducing components.39. . C.Looking at the RJ-45 with the clip facing away from you. They are five classes of IP addresses: A. • Do not deform. All hosts on an inter-network require unique addresses.00111000 Hexadecimal 82. These addresses use the first byte to specify the network and the last three bytes to specify the host. do not staple. Part of an IP address identifies a particular network. do not stretch.57. B. Now it is a widely used networking protocol.38 Logically an IP address contains two parts. This is because each node using the TCP/IP protocol suite has at least one unique 32 bit Internet Protocol (IP) address. They can also be represented in binary or hex. IP address can be represented as a group of four decimal number (in the range 0 to 255). the IP address is classified for different types of networks like large. do not bend.00011110. Brown is always on the right. TCP and IP are the two best known protocols in the suite. Class A addresses are assigned to system in a small number of networks and a large number of hosts. Each IP address identifies a hosts within the inter-network. separated by decimal points. A router “reads” the destination address in an IP packet and makes a routing decision based on this address. IP Address Classes Depending on your networking requirements.56 Binary 10000010. Class A: Address range from 1 to 126. Host ID In order to provide a method for assigning addresses in simple and easy manner. and pin 1 is on the left. medium and small networks. It was developed for the US Department of Defense to allow communication between different types of computer and networks. An IP address can be represented in dotted decimal notation or binary or hexadecimal notation. • No more than 1/2" of the Ethernet cable should be untwisted otherwise it will be susceptible to crosstalk. IP Addressing In a TCP/IP environment communication between hosts and servers on the internetwork is transparent. D and E. Network ID 2. part identifies a subnet and part identifies a specific host within that sub-network. This is known as dotted decimal notation. • TCP/IP TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.30. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides reliable sequence delivery of packets between clients.00111001. They are 1.IE. The Internet Protocol (IP) provides packet delivery between hosts. For example : Dotted decimal 130.

This is known as subnetting. Class E: Address range from 240 to 255. These addresses are used for broadcasting messages over an inter-network. Class C: Address range from 192 to 223. Class D: Address range from 224 to 239.Network ID Students name . Class B addresses are assigned to systems in universities and commercial organizations. These addresses are also used for multicasting. These addresses are reserved for research purposes and future use. Each host on a TCP/IP network requires a subnet mask number Default subnet masks – used when a network is not divided into subnets Custom subnet masks – used when a network is divided into subnets . These addresses use the first two bytes to specify the network and next two bytes to specify the host. Subnet Mask Subnet is a physical segment in a TCP/IP environment that uses IP addresses derived from a single network ID.Class B: Address range from 128 to 191.Subnet Students .Host ID Subnet mask is a 32b bit address and is used to (1) block out a portion of the IP address to distinguish the network ID from the host ID (2) specify whether the destination host IP address is located on a local network or remote network. Example Class room Students in the class Here Class room . These addresses use the first three bytes to specify the network and the last byte to specify the host. Class C addresses are assigned to systems in a network with small number of hosts. Subnetting: One part is used to identify the segment as a unique network other part used to identify the hosts.

In IP terminology routers are referred to as gateways. Internet Service ProviderProvides the server computer and the software required (ISP) for you to connect to the Internet. Software on the user’s computer that allows the user to access the Internet via the service provider.Default gateway IP routing is the process of sending data from a host on one network to a remote host on another network through a router or routers. The ability to send messages directly from one computer to another. A device that repeats signals and connects a group of computers to a network. The router uses a path to deliver packets.simply. Browser Data communicationsComputer systems that transmit data over systems communications lines such as telephone lines or cables. . Important Points to Remember: Bridge A combination of hardware and software that recognizes the messages on a network and passes on those addressed to nodes in other networks. A rapidly growing web of networks from around the world -. Routing table contains the IP address of router interfaces that connect one router with other. a network of networks. Download files E-mail File Transfer (FTP) Host computer Hub Internet Protocol Retrieve from another computer and store them. The mainframe computer in a WAN. using a graphical interface. which is defined in its routing table. A standard way to transfer copies of files on the Internet.

An informal network of computers that allows the posting and reading of messages in newsgroups that focuses on specific topics. and data in small geographic area. graphics. Software that enhances the value of a browser by increasing its features.Listserv Widely used automatic mailing manager. it is the graphical part of the Internet. and/or video and have built-in connections called hyperlinks. Modem Newsgroups A device that converts a digital signal to an analog signal and vice versa. 3. 1. ____________________is a technology that is capable of moving data at 128.000 bps over any modem. software. A network . It is short for modulate/demodulate. 4. sound. A special computer that directs communications traffic when several networks are connected together. ResourceA unique address on the WWW. Computer systems that transmit data over communications lines such as telephone lines or cables are called _____________________________. A ___________________________ is a device that converts a digital signal to an analog signal and vice versa. A related collection of Web pages. of geographically distant computers and terminals is a __________________________________. Documents that contain text. Area NetworkA network of geographically distant computers and terminals. Local Area Network (LAN) A network of computers that share hardware. Exercise 3: Complete each of the statements below by filling in the blanks with terms found in the Computer Network Concepts module. Plug-ins Router Uniform Locator (URL) Web pages Web site Wide (WAN) World Wide Web (WWW) The largest and most popular part of the Internet. 2.

5. 8. 5. 12. To ___________________ files means to retrieve files from another computer and store them. This program is called _________________________________. A network of computers that covers a small geographical area is a ___________________________________. 7. 17. 11. 2.___________________ are documents that contain text. Sending messages __________________. popular part of the Internet is the 13. A __________________________ is the software on the user’s computer that allows the user to access the Internet via the service provider using a graphical interface. 18. 4. The __________________________ provides the server computer and the software required for you to connect to the Internet. 9. 15. 18. 14. The largest and most _____________________. sound. Data Communications Systems Modem Integrated Services Digital network. A __________________________ is an automatic mailing manager. 13. 16.a network of networks. A unique address on _______________________________. 14. 3. and/or video and have built-in connections called ________________________. the Web WWW pages is is called a a 15. AOL is an example. A related collection of _________________________________. 16. A special computer that directs communications traffic when several networks are connected together is a _____________________________. directly from one computer to another is 6. It is the graphical part of the Internet. 11. The ______________________ is a rapidly growing web of networks from around the world . 17. ISDN Wide Area Network (WAN) Download . Computers on the Internet have a standard way to transfer copies of files. Exercise Key 1. 10. To ___________________ files means to send files to another computer. graphics. 12.

6. Try different peripherals on different machines and see if the same problem occurs. memory modules. It is often the best opportunity to learn. Make one change at a time. The most powerful troubleshooting technique is to isolate the problem to a specific component by trial-anderror. Upload 7. Local Area Network (LAN) 8. . (3) Don't be frustrated! Don't be afraid of computer problems.Listserv 11. Router 9.World Wide Web (WWW) 13. (2) "It's the cable.Browser 17. Ensure all cables are connected firmly. Trouble-shooting is part of the fun of owning a computer. and adapters such as video card and sound card are inserted correctly and didn't "pop-up" during transportation.Web site 15." More than 70% of all computer problems are related to cabling and connections. s-----. IDE and SATA cables and power cables can often go loose.File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Some Troubleshootung Tips and Techniques Common Troubleshooting Strategies Here are five common-sense techniques and strategies to solve common computer hardware problems. E-mail 10.Uniform Resource Locator (URL) 16. Ensure microprocessor. Swap compatible components and see if the system still works.Internet Service Provider (ISP) 18.Web pages 14.Internet 12. Imagine the satisfaction you could get by solving a problem yourself. (1) Trial-and-error Personal computers are highly modular by design.

If your computer does not turn on after you turn on the power switch. microprocessor. There are two situations when a new power supply may appear dead on arrival (DOA) when they are actually working as described below: Most cases and power supplies these days are made and tested in China and other Asian countries where 220V electricity is used. . You must examine all these components to isolate the problem. ATX power supplies are soft-switched on and off by the motherboard and BIOS. that message may point to the right direction in getting the problem solved quickly. Therefore. Unfortunately. the power supply would appear DEAD if you use on a 110V-outlet. Of course. In many situations. (5) Take a look? It's OK to open a computer case and take a look inside. Therefore. There is only 5V and 12V DC voltage supplied to the components outside the power supply. The problem might be with the motherboard. it's also the part that has most of the problems for a case.  The most effective technique to tell if a power supply is causing any problem is to use a different one to see if it solves the problem. You may need to use them later. For instance. copy the entire message onto a piece of paper. Desktop computer power supplies do not switch the power voltage automatically. still always power down and unplug the power cord first. 1 Troubleshooting Tips for Cases and Power Supplies The most important part of a computer case is its power supply. always check the voltage setting on the back of a new power supply FIRST if it appears dead. when you see an unusual blue screen with an error message. memory and video card to work. it's time to leave it for a while and go back with some new ideas or call someone who can help. you must plug it to a working motherboard with a working microprocessor. you can plug the old power supply to an existing. If the factory forgets to turn the manual switch back to 110V for the North American market after testing. If you feel frustrated. Do not expect an ATX power supply to work by simply plugging the power and turning on the switch. Alternatively. (4) Take notes! Take notes of what you have done and all the error messages. Rule of thumb: You shouldn't spend more than three hours on the same problem at one time.Of course the fun could ran out quickly once you are frustrated and have spent too much time on the same problem. memory or video card instead. working computer to see if it works there. it may not necessarily mean a dead power supply.

memory modules. and indicator light on keyboard does not turn on. and adapters such as video card are inserted correctly and didn't "pop-up" due to vibration. Ensure microprocessor. 2 Troubleshooting Tips for a New Motherboard More than 70% of all computer problems are related to cabling and connections. If your case feels warmer than room temperature. replace fuse. another cable. Power cable and wall socket are OK. More than 70% of all computer problems are related to cabling and connections. . DIAGNOSIS Visually cable. but system Contact technical support is still dead. inspect SOLUTION power Make sure power cable is securely plugged in. Defective power cable. Clean the fan if necessary. try Replace cable. Ensure that you all the power plugs are connected firmly. Reach out to feel the fan behind your case often. know to work and test. Use different socket. Power light does not illuminate. Visual inspection. reset circuit breaker or breaker or fuse blown.circuit Plug device into socket outlet. IDE and floppy ribbon cables and power cables can often go loose. including power connections to your motherboard and all the drives. repair Faulty wall outlet. PROBABLE CAUSE Power cable is unplugged. Ensure all cables are connected and connected firmly. fan inside the power supply does not turn on. System has no power at all. check the power supply fan first.  Make sure the cooling fan inside the power supply is working all the time. Power supply failure.

System inoperative. All Hard is scrambled. Defective expansion card. Controller. INVALID DRIVE Standard CMOS Setup (in SPECIFICATION. check the drive type in the message. Fformat the hard drive(See Backing up the hard drive is Hard Disk directory or FAT HARD DRIVE section of extremely important. Take Using even pressure on both Expansion card is partially cover off system unit. ends of the expansion card. and hard drive is spinning. power indicator lights are lit. the manual you get a unplugged. manual). dislodged from expansion Check all expansion cards press down firmly on slot on the motherboard. System does not boot from hard disk drive. Copy your backup Disks are capable of data back onto hard drive. seated in slots. Format hard disk. Make sure both ends the HARD DISK section of drive and system board are securely plugged in. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Turn off computer. . card. your motherboard manual). to ensure they are securely expansion card. if unable Damaged Hard Disk or Disk to do so. Keyboard lights are on. be defective. breaking down at any time. can be booted from floppy disk drive. the hard disk may Contact Technical Support. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Check cable running form When attempting to run the disk to disk controller on the FDISK utility described in Connector between hard board. Make sure expansion card is Remove an expansion secure in expansion socket. Turn computer off.

) the system no longer works properly. See the may be inoperable. partition. program. Replace any Make sure correct configuration (setup) incorrect information. many not work.Error message reading "SECTOR NOT FOUND" or other error messages indication certain data is not allowed to be retrieved. information is in setup. . see Hard Disk section of your to backup the Hard Disk. etc. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION No power to monitor. manual for instructions). Change the interrupt or RAM address on the new All or part of the system expansion card. Reinstall all saved data when completed. Then do a low level format." PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Incorrect information Check the configuration Review system's equipment. entered into the program. Screen message says "Invalid Configuration" or "CMOS Failure. expansion devices come with proprietary software that will assist you in doing this. tape drive card. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Back up any salvageable data. and high Use a file by file backup A number of causes could level format of the hard drive( instead of an image backup be behind this. After install an expansion card (network card. The documentation that came new card may work but a with the new card in order to mouse or COM port may change pin settings.

Computer virus. connected to display card. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION No power to monitor. Network card I/O address conflict. Monitor not connected to computer. Memory problem. make sure that all memory modules are installed in correct sockets. Use anti-virus programs (McAfee/PC-cillin. change I/O address on network card if applicable. E-port. Check the power connectors to monitor and to system. Power connectors may be Make sure monitor is loose or not plugged in. Check jumper and switch settings on display card.Screen is blank. . See instructions above. See instructions above. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Reboot computer. Re-install memory. etc) to detect and clean viruses. display card jumpers not set correctly. See display card section for information of settings.

If no color. CMOS incorrectly set up. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION If possible. PROBABLE CAUSE DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Reconnect keyboard. Check Hard drive cable. PROBABLE CAUSE Screen saver is enabled. connect monitor to another system. Keyboard is disconnected. Keyboard failure.Screen goes blank periodically. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Disable screen saver. C: drive failure. replace keyboard. Check keys again. PROBABLE CAUSE SETUP program does not have correct information. Call technical support. . Input correct information to SETUP program. PROBABLE CAUSE Faulty Monitor. No color on screen. replace monitor. Hard Drive cable connected properly. if no improvement. not DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Boot from drive A: using DOS system disk.

DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Unlock keyboard 7 8 The purpose of the Boot. PROBABLE CAUSE Keys jammed or defective.ini file to determine which operating system options to display when the Startup program is running. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Replace keyboard.ini is not flagged as a read-only system file and generally does not require any manual modification. use the System tool in Control Panel: 1. PROBABLE CAUSE Master/Slave jumpers not set correctly. no keys function. Certain keys do not function.Cannot boot system after installing second hard drive. and then double-click System. click Control Panel.Click Start button. Hard Drives not compatible / different manufacturers. . PROBABLE CAUSE Keyboard is locked.ini file in Windows XP Windows (specifically Ntldr) uses the Boot. has been DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Run setup and select correct drive type. Run SETUP program and select correct drive types. Boot. Keyboard is locked. By default. PROBABLE CAUSE CMOS setup changed. Call drive manufactures for compatibility with other drives. Missing operating system on hard drive. DIAGNOSIS SOLUTION Set master /Slave jumpers correctly. If you must change the contents of this file.

• "/NODEBUG" specifies that no debugging information is being monitored. the Boot. • The term "rdisk(0)" refers to physical disk 1. • "Previous Operating System on C:\" implies that the "previous operating system" is MS-DOS. the OS Loader screen only shows progress dots. but most SCSI setups have only one LUN for each SCSI ID. If there are two partitions. partition C is partition(1) and partition D is partition(2). • The term "partition(1)" is the partition on the first drive in the computer. enhanced IDE (EIDE). or if the system uses a SCSI adapter that does not have a built-in BIOS. 9 10 Typically.ini file: • The "timeout" variable specifies how long Windows waits before choosing the default operating system. and the disk is associated with the second controller. If there are two SCSI controllers. and then click Settings under Startup and Recovery. replace "scsi" with "multi". Edited By Graison Varghese . Click the Advanced tab..ini file contains the following data: [boot loader] timeout=30 default=scsi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\winnt [operating systems] scsi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\winnt = "Windows NT" /NODEBUG C:\ = "Previous Operating System on C:\" 11 The following list describes the meaning of the data in the Boot. • A multi-boot parameter calls for checking the Winnt folder to start from a specified SCSI controller's disk and partition. • You can add the /SOS option to display driver names while the drivers are being loaded. • The term "disk(0)" refers to the SCSI logical unit (LUN) to use. because "C:\" is an MS-DOS path. the controller is named "scsi(1)". If the system uses IDE. By default. • The term "scsi(0)" means that the primary controller (that is frequently the only controller) is responsible for the device. • The "default" variable specifies the default operating system. or Enhanced Small Device Interface (ESDI) drives. Debugging information is useful only for developers. This may be a separate disk.

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