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H. PRIVATELY PRINTED.A. J. . H. 1886. (Scot. HEUCHER.S. F.) F. EDINBURGH. C1700. L"i'iViVi'i'.R. J EDITED BY EDMUND GOLDSMID. BEING A TRANSLATION OF A CURIOUS TRACT ENTITLED WRITTEN BY M.S.MUiotfitta €miosa..
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) F. H. J. WRITTEN BY M. (1700. BEING A TRANSLATION OF A CURIOUS TRACT ENTITLED DE YE(}ETALTBTTS MAGICTS.A.S. HEUCHER. EDINBURGH. F. . 1SS6. ^ ^^ ^^ -*- PRIVATELY PRINTED.S. J ' • EDITED BY EDMUND GOLDSMID.BibliDtheca Curios^a. (Scot.R.H.
"j^ large-paper copies./^ -^ This edition is and limited to 27s small-paper copies. ^ \J k) ^ .
The belief in Magic and almost universal in was Ages." by our In our judicial own country. evidently great erudition. YYVVT ik n ^HE curious tract translated in is the following pages those one of strange compositions written in the 17th century. . a to man of endeavours unmask what he considers the his superstition of his age. but. in his attempt. at once exposes Witchcraft own credulity.INTRODUCTION. sorts and conditions of the unreasoning men. wherein the writer. the Middle class and and " aifected all every of Society. as evidenced records.
J. Heucher's pamphlet of 1 itself is a small ^to. I know of no copy besides my own. a translaof three tion from the Official records of the Royal Court of Guernsey. This L. Pitt's translation taken from Mr. interesting and really well edited pam- phlet. as an Appendix. 6 pp. of the trial women for is witchcraft in 1617. EDMUND GOLDSMID. which formed part of the Maidment Library. 1886. I MDCC. . rose to high-water mark. James the First of England and Sixth of Scotland. credulity which swept efforts across the civilised world. apud Paulum Ehrentium. Edinburgh. the Channel Kxvf one interested in the subject should get a copy of this very curious." have given.iv Introduction. The imprint is "Lipsiae. in Witchcraft and Devil -Lore Islands. assisted as it was by the of that wise fool of a King. March 2%th.
riDaaic plants. yea. /^FTEN the dreadful blasphemies of the against the Saviour. I find the great names of Pythagoras. and the false ideas of Theophilus of Alexandria and Eustathius of Antioch about Origen. and also the impious attacks of Plinius and Apuleius against Moses. chiefly Peter and Paul. passing over I. Jamblicus. of glorious reputation and fainous for the greatness of their illustrious deeds. and forcibly does it occur to me to wonder how it has happened that many men. have believed in wicked and unlawful arts. Porphyrins. H. M. J. Platinus. Anselm . For. HEUCHER. Hebrew nation and the insolence of Ilierocles accusing of sorcery both Him and his most holy disciples. in some hidden compact entered upon with the devil. Chicus ^sculanus. and of the Arians about Athanasius .
of Parma. names of and Gregory VII. tricks and manifold deceits. it is clearly confirmed that they stood out from the crowd as and of great celebrity. to defend them by a written apology. Peter of Aponum. Albertus Magnus. the catalogues of renowned MagiII. although not to be compared with the wonderful works of wisdom . Michael Scott. finally the Frischlinus. all And concerning of these. sacred or profane . or of Naudseus Their (if you prefer magic romances) suffice. a careful study of astrology and nature gave them an understanding of all the most abstruse questions. so that it seems to be almost superfluous for any one. the more recent writings of Doctor Faust. Scotus Parvus. the assiduous companion of virtue. after the example of Gabriel Naudseus. Zedechias the Jew. I thought of envy. and nay. Henricus Cornelius Agrippa. as men whom a and intellect separated from the vulgar herd of litej-ati . But I ceased to wonder when vails. There are such very wicked examples of profane deceivers meeting us in every age. that I need not go into ancient history. of Merlinus and Maugis. and even the Popes Sylvester mentioned in cians. even when I when noticed I how much it pre- considered the grounds that may have led to such belief.6 MAGIC PLANTS. Christopherus Wageners. and Roger Bacon. the three Eschelles. and transmitted their illustrious lofty spirit brilliant theories even to posterity.
be it far from me to assent to the opinion of those who. Hornius. has been brought into disrepute by abuse. since all those reasons it is nothing else than that the legitimate use of magic. and unaccustomed effects are produced. owing to the particularly gross ignorance of the ages in which they 2. For such barbarity and want of knowledge existed in their time. and are a too violent and abusive regarding lawful magic. they were also ignorant of real magic.MAGIC PLANTS. People in little general are hardly cautious enough. indeed. lived. carried away by their base ideas. And. and art carried out 7 by the learned men mentioned before. abstruse. however. which embraces in its sphere the highest culminating point of all sciences. and if they do prove anything. a more just or more accurate judgment could scarcely be expected from those men. that every class of learning which was not of the common kind was looked upon with suspicion. . renounce illicit . and men. besides their utter ignorance of literature. rare. as very often happens in other cases. and by the help of which with Thomas and low Erastus and his defender Georgius all magic and condemn it as which they have hitherto brought before the public are open to many objections. made a deep impression. erroneously thought it own had been drawn from the most filthy lake of hell. since. For. but they also left on them an indelible blot of infamy.
3. since some magic may be found. These devils. and as other names. since it can be seen by their writings that they believed in such a thing as beneficent sorcery. and Simplicius do. believe Democritus. Averhoes. Jamblicus.O MAGIC PLANTS. or with Reginald Scott trace back most cases to madness. black bile. or Avicenna and Petrus Pomponatius his pupil. or other disturbances of nature. and a peculiar state of the atmosphere. men They indeed. both these opinionsbeing considered. Porphyrius. that there are no either attribute all results to good angels. deceitful. black. whom by class reason of their superiority they air is full of call spirits. the evil of had repute. it looking upon as it being unlawful and being base. art foul. Proclus and Julian the else they think. accustomed to supernatural. devilish. that all things spring from hidden magnetic properties. to which belong the Platonics. as well to conclude that may be magic is not altogether to be renounced and despised. Therefore. but which even deserves much . call forbidden. Gallidus Gaudanus. John Weir. Robertus Fludd. believe in the power of concentrated will. and argue that our them . I may mention many others as Cornelius Loosens. it. and Marcus Marx. or along with Thomas Campanella. poisonous. and supporting my contention. with Emperor . Bodinus. which is not only free from wickedness.
since by her they specified nature herself. Evatzg. 9 Although I would willingly grant that what is base and devilish. commendation. and that nothing can be done except by the powers of nature. of transporting weights as if by machinery. just as that science in an impure state often advances in the guise of one which is legitimate. Idol. of changing organism itself. and . makes tolerably clear. of gathering things scattered and scattering things gathered. or the Empress of Nature. moving themselves and other bodies separate from them. For they wished to appear to have accomplished every thing they did by the power of Nature.MAGIC PLANTS. is often blended with that blameless and harmless science. of applying actives to passives.. as Lucanus. wherein Hecate says of herself Bearing the threefold ' : ' symbols hinders of a threefold nature. Whence you often read that they invoked Hecate. which fact the passage in Eusebius. pray. of driving forward or backward the elements." Nay. of assuming other bodies. of hiding things seen. Seneca the tragedian. what et me from stating with Vossius de Orig. This the most ancient of the Magi had already done. Statius. of destroying sensations. Pror. if the power they have of For what. of accomplishing this innumerable other things what is all whereby B . in Prapar. that evil spirits accomplish nothing save by natural powers. and adopts methods from nature. and others assert.
as Theophastus very well shows in his Characters. and are therefore simply called differ from these to this depend chiefly extent. since by a long distance they outstrip the usual powers of being duly inquired into. springing from the same Creator. particularly admirable and unusual. owe nevertheless their whole beginning to the motion. And we believe there are some which emanate from superstition. which must be attributed to the Supreme Deity alone. are and thus belong to the removed from God. that they are altogether worthy There are many which we see produced. and proceed solely from. All these things have such a considerable bear- ing on our theme. attributed to the devil. they strive to deceive men. imparted and definitely implanted by fixed laws in the system of the world at its creation. allied to these. some evident natural cause. certain results which we are able to assign to noneof these classes of causesyet enumerated. effects of nature. Others indeed. to this list I would add all those. which although they depend on. Others indeed. natural. Being so far . and on that account you may consistently call them supernatural. Finally. that they tion. Moreover. but making use of of natural forces? 4.lO MAGIC PLANTS. the on our imaginalet stupendous power of which us not treat too lightly. supernatural. they have been distinguished by the name of devilish.
theme. my all. your paper would hardly contain them. if I will devote myself to subject. is their author. these subjects are handled in the writings of most men. at this time.) aware that thereafter. nevertheless. this. if not of failed to enlighten us. in which. discuss all magic. the the vegetable kingdom at industry. far I former writers have recorded in their writings too little about magical plants. but place before myself. so much so that. indeed. although we have a very bountiful supply of authors on this theme. I will not. you will nevertheless be unable to name one who has unfolded and if explained everything. mind is not able to perceive by confusedly. how of and with what degree accuracy. for the present at alone. deserve to called devilish as well as magical. what powerful fair investigation. any rate of many has and since.MAGIC PLANTS. you wished to estimate the number of those who have written on magic. I these little pages would not contain. how small feebly. which indeed. fruitful Poets (since frequent mention of the is subject made in their writings. as least. For. so far as I know. its usefulness must have been would be fully appreciated. the enchanting herbs . pretends that they are his own work and feigns that he 5. who can forget the powerful and noxious herbs of Medea. may use the expression. as was befitting. for. For. because the devil mixes himself II up be with them.
to naught But. the Asphodel. all . I was filled with no me to inconsiderable joy authors praise when who have spoken I read the list of the of magic. the fatal herbs of Claudian. of whom are said to have praised magical plants from promised myself a great solace to all my labour. this I Orpheus. as there is still . the Polion of Hesiod. the plant of the Ethiopians drying up waters. Satyrion and the Amulets of the Syderii charms against witchcraft? Nevertheless it has not yet appeared necessary to any one to explain these mysteries so that the observant reader might rest satisfied with regard to them. Democritus. sweet food of the Manes.12 MAGIC PLANTS. Pythagoras. Museeus. the plant of Juba and Bela arousing the dead. indeed. not without — Hermes. the Juniper and Hypericum putting the demons to flight. impels 6. of Lucan. and lastly those venomous plants. at first. the flourish- ing plants of Maro. confess that. Kiranus. or if any fragments of their writings survive they are of uncertain and slight reliance. I Which fact therefore the more embrace the opportunity. Empedocles. the soothsaying Thelangis. Adianthus. Baccharis. of which abundance was to be found ? in Colchis and Thessally Who is ignorant of the Nepenthe of Homer. the Alyssus. hope immediately came when I found that most of these authors had been destroyed by the injury of time. and others.
Penotus. Suchtenius. plants. they disseminated seeds of magic. —namely. either wittingly or corrupted by have nevertheless inserted in their writings certain things which savour somewhat of magic and supernatural agency. superstition. G. and those who have drawn small streams from Paracelsus. Em. and properly imbued with natural science and learning. from which it that science grew to such a degree that over- . 1 much doubt fragments. nay. Mich.MAGIC PLANTS. as to the real authorship of such Nor do the writers whose works on plants survive satisfy my expectations much more. even with a knowlege of the For when those who first healing art itself. wrote on the subject gave their attention almost solely to meditation about the stars. Burggravius. Wreckerus. these sources — Theophrastus. Jo. Apuleius. Cantipratanus. Turnheuserus. and a few others. Sendigovius. Lemnius. Th. the feigned Great. Alex. Theophrastus Eresius. Plinius. Carrichterus. 7. name of Albert the Bernh. and believed natural philosophy and the healing art to be intimately connected with these heavenly bodies. Leonh. however much they may wish to appear to have founded the healing effects of herbs on natural laws. Porta. These writers on on the wonders of nature and other hidden things. It behoves the mind to approach this subject free from every preconceived notion and super- stition.
Ot fact Pliny is a remarkable witness in his Natural History. fruits and seeds . stems. both in roots. I will much to our argument. but also all that which is coneither to the animal or mineral . and let it be remembered that magic specifies not merely what is devilish." is and are what is Grillus also maintains. that saying that the it Egyptians clearly From which nation. this not flatter work will be so complete as to appear perfect in all parts before the learned world. nothing in this work belongs kingdoms. physicians. and is thus brought into existence.14 MAGIC PLANTS. in short. and it reduces them to one. branches. contributed 8. seeing that it is the only one which embraces three other sciences having power over the human mind. myself that we show. including and embracing in its limits nothing less than all that springs from the soil.. confirming what we have said by these words " No one can doubt that magic : — is the greatest of the sciences. to germinate. be nourished and increase. leaves. twigs. No one doubts that This all has sprung loftier from medicine. I this present work on the so-called vegetable kingdom. stalks. and become something holier than its parent. in so far as goes. fact proved soon the healing art that almost always as flourished shall among and thus. to It is sufficient to it have wished have written make it so. its spread the whole world with this pollution. flowers.
flowers. which are considered to savour of anything superstitious and deceitful. all. I intend to treat of magical herbs. be art. fruits and seeds. 1 and superif Since therefore. however. from this little work of mine. although the Egyptians first principles science ought rightly and deservedly to be attri- buted to the — whose very ancient these records. is possible our knowledge of natural philosophy. but I also believe that many of the deceptions practised it by sorcerers will that be detected. in all. as well as of may greatly be increased. trees. as far as I can. and then. will not far wrong if. he. by which medicine 9. if any one resolved to commence from the beginning. herbs. unna- tural things. for Africa is considered the mother of Different. are far from clear —yet all elements are by no means free from superstition. was the reasoning . and at least those by falsehoods imposes on means of which the great author of men . And. is Wherefore.MAGIC PLANTS. first of he seek the origin of science in the study of old authors on the healing of the Thus. I will specially enumerate not most plants. I will enquire into the causes of the effects attributed to these herbs. sidered supernatural through ignorance stition. my opinion. indeed. leaves. I hope not only that some advantage will accrue to those who long to understand many of the more obscure passages of old authors.
cure. Then they besought heaven and the Gods with hymns. whatever deity first appeared to them in their dream was supposed subdue the to indicate the plant specially attributed to him. used this or that method of simple at As this was a it little too first. Egyptians. to show by means of a dream. as was unworthy of their dignity to go into the couches of sleepers and disturb the weary. Which fact Jamblicus. on the contrary. used to wait for the revelations of the Gods in their dreams. with the selfish imagination of enthusiasts grew to consider them as favours stored up beforehand for themselves. in the temple of Escu- . testifies to in the following words : Thus. to consult destiny regarding the cure of The when they were about any severe duly disease. For he. they. after preparing themselves by prayer to sleep. having and particularly desperate purified their mind before they betook themselves and according rite to the couch. of the Egyptians from that of Aristotle.l6 MAGIC PLANTS. to the dictates of these revelations. referring to the Egyptian mysteries. and more overloaded with ceremonies. as the one divinely destined to disease. when many plants and flowers had come under the notice of the sorcerers. was more For. decided that it no dreams were sent by the Gods to men. dealing with the interpretation of dreams. which plants were the best cure for the disease. so in process of time. then.
but the general process was as familiar to the Greeks and Romans as to the Egyptians. and : lie down in the temple of ^sculapius. " to take place in the temple of the Oropian Amphiarus. And Osiris. For." in the They were accustomed same way in this temple. at the shrines of Isis. with this intention and design." pretty And from these testimonies of authors it is clear. waiting for the appearance of the dream. as in the city of Pergamos in Asia. about which Pausanias says " Sacri: ficing a ram to him." Aristides further confirms this. followed this custom in the same manner as the Greeks and Romans in the temples of Hephcestion or Vulcan. Which temple t^ act rite it Plautus also alluded to in Latin " Therefore happens that this sick procurer lies in the of ^sculapius. the former often used to sleep in the temple of ^sculapius. "wishing to use The same thing used the cures of ^^sculapius. and the healing art arose from holy dreams. whither Herodianus states that Antoninus Caracalla had set out. to which custom Aristophanes refers when he says " Let both you and I go as soon as possible. lapius. diseases are cured I7 by divine dreams. Not that the Egyptians. which was close by the banks of the Nile. and the zealously "watching the gods" ." .MAGIC PLANTS. and spreading out the skin to sleep. how remarkably the "lying down" of the Greeks. and of the Egyptian Aesculapius. 10.
we should lament miseries of these nations estranged from the true worship of the deity. Kircherus in CEdipus jEgyptiacus. considers necessary to confess in his book on the hermetic thinks that art. although this plan of curing afforded diseases. indeed. In very truth. seems to have spoken too strongly about these enchantments of dreamers. the hides of those. who thinks along with us. perverse and idolatrous a worship of the gods prevailed in those times. and that he was chiefly intent on his had embraced this suitable and very convenient opportunity of defiling the natural and healing Science by means of the most wicked superstitions. of of the Latins.1 MAGIC PLANTS. since he thought that. but own profit. his Nevertheless. and what the heathen worshipped and honoured. what class of vulgar dreams these were. and the couches these. For wonderful . but a hidden compact and treaty with demons. those may who know how sort of deities I. these to to results even in lamentable were by no means to be ascribed the natural power and quality of the plants. Which thing even Borrichius in other passages the keenest opponent of Couringuis. and on the account of this. all of to which things have reference for divine revelations to the custom of sleeping in temples and to the rite of lying in wait be obtained by means of judge. sleep. have no doubt that the devil was by no means forgetful of himself. corresponded to one another.
to entreat to whom they used especially show the one readiest cures of diseases. examined the numbers the leaves. lastly. number only. selected from those who had appeared to the devils supplying the actual . power of no one. the plants used in which have been only an outward sign. have displayed a power and efficacy of their own. curing. but advanced even further. To each of these they had given a separate number Supreme Deity and the Cause of Causes. number eight to Ammon. indeed. but earnestly watched the colour to — number the . number five to Isis.MAGIC PLANTS. number seven to Mercury. will hesitate to assert that none of those remedies. number ten to Momphta. and how many joints stems possessed. and afterwards considered them sacred to that god whose number was thus represented. 1 1 And so the Egyptians obtained some fair knowledge of plants. number two to Mephta. the dreamers ten gods. I9 although very often cures have been eftected. number four to Apollo or Horus. and did not remain content with dreams. and they had thus come to conThereafter they nect numbers with the gods. and flowers had. They had. how many pips fruit contained. number three to Minerva. and placed them under Nor did they attend to the his guardianship. plants. nevertheless. acting in a natural way. number nine to Typhon. number six to Osiris.
three-sided deities.20 MAGIC PLANTS. you may them decani . in his which fact the sublime Platonic book concerning sacrifices and magic. adding that in stones and plants is concentrated the essence of divine powers. call with Galenus and M. smooth. besides others. parts. a man lost the health of it any member they persuaded themselves that peculiar to himself. whether god or devil or. confirms. and as regards stalks of they duly inquired whether they were or four-sided. could be recovered. into For. human body . respective deity being invoked by the name and propitiated by the plant . results. the chemical plants. they assigned a separate divinity to each. as and dedicated these stalks as sceptres to the corres- ponding can be further proved from the Bembina Fabula in the writings of Kircherus. so many J. 12. each of after whom was And its the presiding genius who looked the safety of his if own appointed limb or member. that sometimes one plant or one stone has been sufficient for the divine work. and the form plants. Further. in flowers . nevertheless. clearly prove dividing the whole this very thing. Firmicus. They used to believe that they were able to show wonderful Proclus. He adds that by amalgamation of many things they obtained supernatural influence. round. but he thinks. which (if we in believe Origen and Stobseus) were thirty-six number.
or whether. the sun they chose from stones. it was a proper and extremely common custom separate signs their to appoint to —nay. and herbs. because the is. 21 Firmicus. Haephestion the Theban. 1 more comprehensively Mysteriis ^gyptiortun. as it were. . the seven planets. to forms which bore any resemblance minerals. for use as that they chose medicines all forms of nature and grades of beings which possessed any resemblance to. As an example. further superstitions connection of plants with Heavenly sprang from . indeed. De and likewise this in Ficinus. I am content to believe that they were the twelve signs divided according of the possessed of unlimited power over the whole human body. animals. or quality in common all with. moreover. metals. Nay. 3 . there were more under . which things can be read in Jamblichus's Marsilius. the relates Arabian philosopher. to separate constellations own herbs Abenrahman. and were wont to be propitiated by certain plants.MAGIC PLANTS. the sun of a smaller world still . plants. whether there were thirty-six only. Who does not see that later. and turned them heart to use as medicine for the heart. or whether every one of these his had him . own to subordinates and fellow- workers zodiac. three always being given to each sign of the zodiac. dedicated to himself. and Manlius differ among themselves about the Decani and their number.
Kircherus tries to prove that. being a clear constellations. Freitag. proof of harmony with their own Much less do I strive to reject or reproach all plucking of plants at fixed times as being an unnecessary process. particularly at the time of the solstice.). in the work of Gesnerus. amongst these I may specially mention the belief that the efficacy of the plants depended on the hour they were gathered in the meadows. when and the moon in a Keinsius med. the sun crescent is split in the sign Virgo. I am not willing to leave out of of account all motions the heavenly bodies. settings. for this very leaves of the willow. And those will not oppose this base and false custom. we come this not a few examples of plants having been affected in shape by the sun and moon. which hour was fixed by the influence of the stars. lime.) many examples. who still believe that greater powers lie in the stems of Hypericum. Magnet. and olive turn their underside reason.) and QxzSmxs. and positions of the constellations fixing the . and MAGIC PLANTS. medic. ( Arcan. supply noct. state. with Couringius. that the idea of the risings. up at noon. elm. John. Martin. and in the sympathetic ashen wood. desiring merely to prove. led. dug up on the Feast of St. Maxwellus Of this superstition (in var. white poplar. ( Medicin. across besides. in twigs of the wild cherry cut off on the sacred anniversary of St. the to the sky. therefore.22 bodies.
" I Finally. they extended each into three sections. to science of the Egyptians believe that . uncommonly and censures in the following words. making all researches about plants. even he may not have erred who has said that these men surpassed in many ways the carefulness of later writers. 14. "In be some who Do we it not know that the soil has a itself. the was magic although I cannot but greatly approve of the way they judged of the excellence of herbs by the help of their external senses. times of collection. which almost alone you see our botanists employ. He modern books on Medicine there ascribes a great number of diseases to signs of the Zodiac. besides taste and smell. in order. hours. savours altogether of superstition. capacity of raising plants from city. forsooth. says. is and moreover. the planets now known in sufficiently silences the theory.MAGIC PLANTS. need not beg from heaven. is it right. and even minutes. and since the number of these signs was too small. except number of however. concerning the apportionment of plants to the seven planets that the very have nothing to say. and by no from the doctrines of the Egyptians. that the belief that we can determine means differs the very days. ideas Helmontius refutes Which well. Neither. to divide all herbs into thirty six classes. when. which capa- therefore. Nay. they also summoned to . different 23 ridiculous.
of its texture . like the genitals in shape. and lastly. heavy. roughness. of the Anthora to the heart. 15. of the first elements of the eye : they assigned the root of the Dentaria to the teeth. the Cynosorchis. because in them they found something analogy of qualities. truly. they persuaded themselves that . they for came across any plant. But. and touch. and carefully noted the result. or gentle sound. Heiracius. they applied to that limb. therefore. they used to watch for the distinctive Carefully every plant. which it resembled by its Or by a certain supposed it as a remedy Thus the peony flowers yet enclosed in the bud and poppy heads they dedicated to the head. or hardness. sight. dull. from the smoothness. their assistance hearing. ringing. Thus. observed to which it mark of member of the human body corresponded. they were able to infer and learn the effects of plants. harsh. example. afterwards thinking that plant most suitable to that limb own external shape. the more correctly they conducted themselves in this matter the more basely did they devote themselves to superstition. by the eyes they decided from the colours as to the virtues lurking within. by judging carefully from their senses. If. of the consistency of the stem . by the hand. With the help of the ear they judged by the sharp.24 MAGIC PLANTS. and Anthemis they thought beneficial to the eyes. In like manner the Euphrastia. softness. Caltha.
and. the Aphrodisiac. For if the opponents of this theory maintain that it follows as a consequence from that the fruit of the Anacardium. also. as it can be inferred that this science was many (among whom is Couringius) think. the black with the black. and milk and semen with (he juices resembling milk. bile they wished to cure the yellow bile with the saffron-coloured juices of plants. purple or azure phlegm with the white. since very distinct proofs of this are found in the writings of Dioscoris and Pliny. that the famous Cephalic must produce . I rather prefer custhis now to suspend my judg- ment than even it to settle on anything as certain.MAGIC PLANTS. it cleansing of the offending humour. blood with the red. invented in modern times. Hence. they employed the purpose of which in colour resembled the juices for the or humours of the human body. it 25 by most certainly cured the sexual passions. probably. the best plums . on point. Whence not. for example. from the absurd toms of the Egyptians. since its influence they believed that deity could be presided over the genitals. i6. I confess that. as it can be How long is it since Mercury. : . must be the best cordial. summoned who For a juices of plants like reason. they and the juice of the Esula the best milk nevertheless prove nothing from that. at once retorted the best apples . but that it was raised afresh from the records of Eastern people.
. seeds. things. writers contend wish.. many weak and apparently original fibres. Antimony. from which the virtues of plants tree of the belief in the magic grew to such spread its branches so widely that an extent. Cinabar. It is a matter of enquiry even whether the land of the Egyptians supplied itself with ringius did Couits own magic plants. shows that it furnished a few wines.26 MAGIC PLANTS. into not of Divine nature. limits regret that I am pre- vented by the of my parchment from entering into any disquisition concerning the merits of these plants.. the Adianthus. &c. as to it refuses to be embraced in these narrow limits. a sovereign charm lor over- . powerful in routing the demons. that I : their may briefly mention number some of such their names and properties the Salvia. Juniperus. But now. &c. Those are the as it were. &c. Sideritis. Veratrum. from which each can form I own opinion. but Let not abound in medicinal remedies. 17. There are indeed among a nature. to inquire remissly Nothing has ever been discovered or created until after futile efforts. we refer those among themselves as long as they who desire to know more to by Kircher his the books on Egyptian plants published and other writers. Ruta. whose names I have recorded. Coriander excluded from the argues as follows : were list of poisons? Borriclius It is a characteristic of human.
Theom- brotium.MAGIC TLANTS. which enables one to prophesy. .. and to obtain divine apparitions. time and opportunity permitting. the plant of Nectanebus. I shall with care explain. irresistible in calling forth the gloomy deities and the Manes . Gelotophyllis. benevolent reader. Anacampserotis. the Asphodel. which enter into the composition of aphrodisiacs or love-potions. &c. coming witchcraft . ravings and sleep . these I Xaus 2)eo. &c. Theangelis. Strichnon. but meanwhile must bid thee farewell. The Pleiracium. the Osiris.. the Laurus. Cnebison. Mandragora. used in sacrifices. said to have power to rouse from death itself. Catanance. Semasum. Scordotis. the Absinthium. &c... &c. the qualities of and many other plants. Halicaccabi. 2/ Ricinus. Vatica.. Bali. Cemos. which bring on madness. Thallassegle. &c. the Olive. Bellonasia. Juba.
4th.. Before Amice De Carteret. . wife of Pierre Massy and Isabel Becquet. Esq. . 1617. and the JULY CoUette du SENTENCE OF DEATH.APPENDIX. Mont.]. widow of yean Becquet . examined. her daughter. heard. after voluntarily submitting both upon the general inquest of the country. being by common rumour for a and report long time past addicted to the damnable art of Witchcraft. Bailiff. CONFESSIONS OF WITCHES UNDER TORTURE. wife of Jean Le Moygne. I. Jurats. and after having been several times brought up before the Court. Marie. and the same being thereupon seized and apprehended by the Officers of His Majesty [James themselves. and confronted.
and caused women. they shall be put to the question before the Court. children. previous to being executed. it In expiation of which crime has been ordered by the Court that the said women shall shall be presently conducted. and the ashes be scattered . by having not only cast their spells upon inanimate in langour objects. with halters about their necks. and all their goods. and laid. and there be fastened by the Executioner to a gallows. chattels. from which it is clear and evident that for many years past have practised the diabolical art the aforesaid women of Witchcraft. if any such In order exist. flesh shall killed. until their and bones are reduced to ashes. and burnt. to the usual place of punishment. shall be to His their Majesty. but also by having retained through strange diseases. upon a great number of depositions made and produced before the Court by the said Officers . and also cruelly hurt a great number of men. it the death of many animals. many persons and beasts . .30 APPENDIX. and forfeited estates. to make them disclose accomplices. strangled. as recorded in the informations thereupon follows that they are clearly convicted and proved to be Witches. and be hanged.
. he : appeared to her in the aforesaid form and sometimes occurring where they are not required. regards ihese colons. but were elicited by leading questions. . 31 Sentence of Death having been pronounced against CoUette Du Mont. First. in the form of a cat :* appeared to her : in the Parish of Torteval as she was returning from and that he took her cattle. nificance. often accompanied by a . with whom she was then at enmity. and the said question being applied to her. and before leaving the Court. and evidently indicate the successive stages by which the story was wrung from th: wretched They are thus endowed with a sad and ghastly sigvictims. for it must be remembered that the confessions were not made in a connected form.APPENDIX. freely admitted that she was a Witch 5 at the same time. widow of Jean Becquet . to the Torture Chamber. not wishing to specify the crimes which she had committed.'lesh sp. on account of some damage which she had suffered through the cattle of the latter since then . Mr Pitts observes that they corresDond to similar pauses in the original records. she confessed that she was quite young : when the Devil. she was taken. it being still daylight. the said CoUette immediately after the said sentence was pronounced. wife of Pierre Massy Becquet. and Isabel wife of yean as follows Le Moygne : the same have confessed CONFESSION OF COLLETTE DU MONT. Marie. along with the others. occasion to lead her astray by inciting her to avenge herself on one of her neighbours. her daughter. that when she had a quarrel with anyone. * As .il of torture.
however. form of a dog : inducing her to take vengeance : upon those who had angered her persuading her to cause the death of persons and cattle. of Massy.32 in the APPENDIX. : rubbed her back. they had . she went out of her door. one perceiving it : to fetch her that she called for her without anycertain and gave her a black ointment with which she (after having stripped herself). and hares to : which Wizards and Witches she was unable they were all recognise. which was : sometimes near the parochial burial-ground of Rocquaine Castle and at other times near the seashore in the neighbourhood : where. after having worshipped the who used to stand up on his hind legs. upon arrival. and the confessed that on entering the Sabbath Devil wishing to summon them commenced with her sometimes. and those of Fallaise : the Devil summon them she remembered among others Hardie . wife for a similar crime. she met often fifteen or sixteen Wizards and Witches with the Devils who were there in the form of dogs. That the Devil having come might go to the Sabbath. because : blackened and disfigured it was true. belly and stomach and then having again put on her clothes. : and that she took her twice to the Sabbath : with her at the Sabbath. air when at she was immediately carried through the speed : at a great and she found herself in an of instant the place the Sabbath. Admitted that her daughter Marie. cats. now condemned was a Witch Devil. that she had heard by their names.
which she had done several times. With this powder she bewitched the wife of Jean Maugues : but denied that the woman's death was caused by also it : touched on the side.APPENDIX. . which he ordered her to throw upon such persons and cattle as she wished . with this powder she perpetrated did not several wicked acts which she remember : among others : she threw some same she upon Mr Dolbell. and so caused the death of her and her infant deceased —she did not know that the so. And after having danced. connection with 33 . parish minister and was the occa- sion of his death by these means. him under the form of a dog then they danced back to back. her so good also ate which was usually drunk the Sabbath. not know what colour it into a which the Devil poured out of a jug pewter goblet as that . they drank wine (she did was). On leaving various the Sabbath the Devil incited her to evil commit deeds : and to that effect he gave her certain black powders. for Isabel le call. woman had given her any cause for doing Upon give her the refusal of the wife of Collas Totte-vin to some milk : she caused her cow to dry up. as Moygne : when she came to the Sabbath. silver or which wine did not seem to . and threw some of this powder over the deceased wife of minister Mr Perchard. they white bread which he presented to them salt at —she had never seen any Confessed that the Devil had charged her to she passed. she being enceinte at the time. the who succeeded the said Dolbell in the parish.
having been put to the question. and by making eat some some terrestrial herb that the Devil gave her. for her to throw upon those whom he ordered her : she threw cattle : some of them by notably upon the his orders npon persons and . every time that she went to the Sabbath. and it seemed . and that appeared to her : who form of a dog : she gave herself to when she gave herself to : him that him he took her by the hand and had been with his paw that she used to anoint herself with : the same ointment as her mother used to the Sabbath upon the bank near Rocquaine Castle in the aforesaid : with her. as though he transformed her into a female dog said that she the upon the shore. having had connection ate with her. in the form of a dog. where there was no one but the Devil and her as it seemed : form in which she at had seen him several times She was also the Sabbath on one occasion among others in the road near Collas Totte-viti's . which she drank. some of this powder : which cow it she afterwards cured again bran. the Devil came to her. wife of Pierre Massy. after sentence of death had been pronounced against her. CONFESSION OF MARIE BECgUET. Marie. in the Witch. gave her bread and wine. confessed that she was a at the persuasion of the Devil. near the said Rocquaine : Devil. and The Devil gave her certain powders : which powders he put into her hand.34 by throwing upon it APPENDIX.
while child of Leonard le she was Item. upon the wife of Jean enceinte. 35 Item. but she not wishing to comply. Bourgatze. having been put to the question. CONFESSION OF ISABEL BECgUET. Isabel. and he took it : and . of parsnips after j having previously given her a sackful she then took a certain black powder in wrapped in a cloth which he placed it . her sister-in-law the Devil. wife of Jean le Moygne. child of Pierre Brehaut. he next made a request to her to give him some living animal: whereupon she returned to her dwelling and fetched a chicken which she carried to him to the left same place where she had him. who was a hare. which powder she kept by her.APPENDIX. inciting time under the same form in the town her anew to give herself to him. He appeared to her another district. in the form of took occasion to tempt daylight in a appearing to her in broad : road near her house give herself to and persuading and inciting her to : him and that he would help her to . and everybody else to which persuasion she would not : at the moment : condescend to yield very soon he so he at once disappeared to her in : but came again the same road. he went away. avenge herself on the said Girarde. her and and pursuing his previous argument the same terms as above : exhorted her in left that done. upon the Messurier. at once confessed that she was a Witch : and that upon her getting into a quarrel with the : woman her : Girarde.
36 after APPENDIX. with herself again she this (after having stripped herself) she annointed her back and belly. the old woman ColUtte du Mont. help faithful to us ! with a special this compact to be of a dog. God the Son.• God the Father. and God Holy Ghost and then caused her to worship and invoke himself in these terms : Our Great Master. in the neighbourhood of Rocquaine Castle. during the ensuing night. having thanked her he made an appointment for her to be present the next morning before daylight at the Sabbath. no sooner had she to her in the : arrived there than the Devil came form of a dog. with two great horns sticking up and with one of his paws fwhich seemed to her like hands) took her by the hand told her that : and calling her by her name she was welcome : then immediately while he himself the Devil made her kneel down . the Devil poured out of a jug some black wine. : stood up on his hind legs he then made her express detestation of the Eternal in these words the : / renounce . which . but a him . and when was done he had connection with her little in the aforesaid form larger to : then she and the others : danced with him back back after having danced. which she had had from the Devil. the usual place where the Devil kept his Sabbath . and gave her some black ointment. promising that he would send for her according to which promise. came to fetch her. then having dressed went out of her house door : : when she was instantly caught up and carried across hedges and bushes to the bank on the sea shore.
APPENDIX. son her of the the said old in woman (who dancing. terms: Madame the Old Woman Becquette): woman Fallane . and daughter of the Said that after : them : she herself was called by the Devil in these terms The Little Collas [Collasl Becquette: she also heard him call there Becquet. he also called Marie. from which she drank. anointed herself with the ointment as above stated declared. and she . woman Colktte the first. and afterwards the woman call him the old Item. she again had connection with the Devil and danced with him. The the old second time she was at the Sabbath was after woman Collette had been to fetch her. and upon his solicitation to prolong the time. after having danced. but it did not seem to her so good as the wine which is usually drunk : : there was also bread but she did not eat any self confessed that she gave her: to him for a month they returned from the Sabbath in the same manner that they went there. wife of Massy. at the Sabbath the Devil used to summon the Wizards and Witches in regular order (she remembered very well having heard in these then the Hardie. 37 he presented to them in a wooden bowl. held h er by the other hand) there were about six others : there she did not know the said : old woman was some always nearest to the Devil occasionally while were dancing. others were having connection with the . said Collette. held [a by hand she did and someone woman] whom : not know. that on entering the Sabbath. she gave herself to him for three years .
and that no blood had issued part the Devil first she did not : know those in what had marked the others who came for to j the place of the Sabbath. for a pig.38 APPENDIX. and of others. the Devil went away in one direction and they in the other : after he had taken them all by the hand : At the instigation of the Devil she threw some : of the powder over several persons and cattle notably over Jean yehan. not more. over the child of James GalUenne. Devils in the form of dogs they remained at the Sabbath about three or four hours. It was the Devil that was seen at the said GalUenne' . wrapped in a cloth. . and asked them when they would come again he exhorted them always to be true to him and to do evil deeds. waited the others and all the : Wizards and but blackened Witches appeared in their proper forms and disfigured so that they could not be recognised. The at Devil appeared sometimes in the form of a goat . over the cattle of Brouart. when he came to her house to look Item. and to this end he gave them certain black powders. they reported that they had stuck not a small pin deeply into it. While at the Sabbath the Devil : marked her at the upper part of the thigh which mark having been and that she had : examined by the midwives. Item. felt it. for them to throw upon those the Sabbath never saw : their departure he : : whom they wished to bewitch : on leaving the Sabbath. him in other forms on made them kiss him behind. and over others.
she for some more. Edinburgh. 39 house in the form of a rat and a weazle.APPENDIX. which he named. she herself being then in the neighbourhood of Gallienne's house. Whenever she wanted to bewitch anyone and her all powder happened to have been used up. She never went to the Sabbath except when her husband remained all night fishing at sea. . the Devil appeared to her and told her to go to snch a place. and he [the Devil] came to her iti the form of a man. believed And she that the cause of this maltreatment was because she would not go with the Devil to the house of the said Gallienne. &f G. so. : and struck her several blows on the face and head by which she was bruised and torn in the way that she was seen the next day by Thomas Sohier. Goldsmid. and when she it did never failed to find there. Printed by E.
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y COUmWAY LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 1623 I i P5 Hi^8 1886 j RARE BOOKS DEPARTMENT .