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04/26/2013

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Sections

  • NGO Governance in China: Achievements and Dilemmas
  • References
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Contributors
  • Index

NGOs 157–158
assumed responsibilities 34
atrocities 114
Austin Hu 134
authoritarian regimes 7, 76, 131

Bank Information Center 212
‘Beijing Joint Declaration on Poverty
Alleviation by Chinese NGOs’ 134

Belgium 110
benchmarks 90
beneficiaries 191, 196, 199, 207
Berresford, Susan 120
betterment objective, humanitarian
community 184
bias, concern about potential 102–103
bilateral aid 110, 116, 125
BIR (Bureau of Internal Revenue)
Regulation 13-98, Philippines 93,
94, 95, 96
Blitt, Robert Charles 28–29
bogus NGOs 105
Bolton, John 24–25, 37
Bosshard, Peter 217
briefcase NGOs 87
Bujagali Dam, Uganda 212–216, 224,
226
Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR)
Regulation 13-98, Philippines 93,
94, 95, 96

Cambodia 188
Canada 111
CARE International 204, 205
Caucus of Development NGO Networks
(CODE-NGO) 101
CBOs (community-based organizations)
8, 9
Centre for Effective Philanthropy (CEP)
124
certification 96–99, 158
Chapin, Mac 225
charitable foundations 110, 119,
120–121
children 185–186, 208
China 129–145
China Foundation for Poverty
Alleviation 134
China NPO Network 134

China Youth Development Foundation
(CYDF) 129, 140, 141
Christian Aid 200
civic associations 43–57
CIVICUS (World Alliance for Citizen
Participation) 64, 159
Civil Rights Movement of Sri Lanka
(CRM) 67, 72, 74

civil society
associational terrain 46, 51, 55–57
definition 9, 109–110
donors 110, 119–120, 122
global 44
Indonesia 147–149, 159
representation 43–57
rise of 10–11
Uganda 81, 82–83
Civil Society Forum 39
civil society organizations (CSOs) 130,
147–148, 159
coalitions 151, 216–221
code of conduct 90
code of ethics 157–158
CODE-NGO (Caucus of Development
NGO Networks) 101
co-governance 49
Committee on Integrated Fresh Water
and Ugandan Energy for Sustainable
Development 222
Committee on the Rights of the Child
185–186
community-based organizations (CBOs)
8, 9
companies seecorporations
complaints 202, 208
confederations 196
Consortium for the Development of
Civil Society (KPMM) 161
constituent politics 48
constitutionalism 45
Constitution of Uganda 83
consumer choice 198
Convention on the Rights of the Child
185–186
co-option 7
Corporate Responsibility Campaign 199
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 4,
154
corporations

250NGO Accountability

China 133–134
as donors 111, 118–119, 122
Indonesia 154
NGOs 33
transnational 198
corruption 7, 162, 213
Council of the Nile Basin Discourse 222
credibility 7, 53, 73, 89
crisis-affected communities seedisaster-
affected communities
criticism 3, 4, 63, 129, 150, 207, 223
CRM (Civil Rights Movement of Sri
Lanka) 67, 72, 74
CSOs (civil society organizations) 130,
147–148, 159
CSR (corporate social responsibility) 4,
154
Cultural Development Center for Rural
Women 138
Curitiba Declaration 217
CYDF (China Youth Development
Foundation) 129, 140, 141

DAC (Development Assistance
Committee) 124
Dams and Development Project 222
debt crisis 84
decentralization 161, 169
Declaration on the Right and
Responsibility of Individuals,
Groups and Organs of Society to
Promote and Protect Universally
Recognized Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms 37–38
deep lobbying 112
definitions 8–9
accountability 99, 113, 184–185, 201
civil society 9, 109–110
community-based organizations
(CBOs) 8, 9
ill defined terms 75
social movements 9
delegated responsibilities 34
democracy
democratic accountability 114
freedom of association 5
participatory 211–227
representative 44–45
resisting 8

stakeholder 114
democratic accountability 109, 113–116
democratization 141–142, 150–151,
161
Department of Finance (DOF),
Philippines 94, 95
Developing Standards for NGO Laws
62, 64–79
development assistance, international
110, 117
Development Assistance Committee
(DAC) 124
dialogues 39
disaster-affected communities 186–190,
191–192, 193
disaster relief 186
DOF (Department of Finance),
Philippines 94, 95
Dong Yuge 140
donors

accountability 109–126
civil society 110, 119–120, 122
conditions 55
corporations 111, 118–119, 122
foreign 156
funding decisions 103–105, 124
funds 121–126
governments 110, 116–118
individuals 110
Indonesia 154–155
integrity 123
Philippines 94–95
political reasons 125
transparency 12, 123
downward accountability 54–55, 113,
116, 175

Draft Handbook on Good Practices for
Laws Relating to NGOs61–79

Eastern Europe 110
economic dependency 55
Economist24, 223
ECOSOC (UN Economic and Social
Council) 23–24
ECOVIC 222
Edwards, Michael 28, 184
elections 46, 160
Elkington, John 209
emergency humanitarian aid 117, 162

Index251

Encyclical on Capital and Labor (1891)
22
energy development 212–216
environmental degradation 4
Estrada, Joseph 105
Esty, Ben 224
European Court of Human Rights 75
European Foundation Centre 126
European Union (EU) 110
evaluation 97–98, 202, 207
external accountability 33, 130
external stakeholders 201
external supervision 139–141

federations 196
fees, certification 101
Fifty Years is Enough 114
financial assets 122
financial transparency 177
force, use of 116
Ford Foundation 120
foreign donors 156
foreign interests 117
foreign policy 111, 117
foundations 130

see alsoyayasan

freedom of association

Draft Handbook on Good Practices
for Laws Relating to NGOs65, 70,
71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 78
Uganda 86
Free Women’s Association (Serikan
Perumpuan Independen) 160

funding

donors 121–126
NGOs 4, 55, 76–77, 103–105, 124,
156
funding agencies 104
fund managers 122
future-oriented politics 52

GAP (Global Accountability Project)
201–203
Gartchitorena, Victoria 106
Gates Foundation 120
general interest 36
genocide, Rwanda 183
Germany 110
Global Accountability Project (GAP)
201–203

global civil society 44
global corporations seetransnational
corporations
global governance 21–41
globalization 11
global level 195–209
GONGOs (government-organized NGO)
131, 135, 137, 141, 142, 143
good governance 11
good practice, advocacy 35
governance 123, 203–204
government
aid 111
challenge NGO activity 6–7
as donors 110, 116–118
Indonesia 153–154
regulation by 40
representative 46–49
repressive 76, 113–114
government-organized NGOs (GONGO)
131, 135, 137, 141, 142, 143
grassroots organizations 51
growth, NGOs 63, 129, 147, 157

HANet (Humanitarian Accountability
Network) 188
HAP (Humanitarian Accountability
Project International) 183–190
HAP-I (Humanitarian Accountability
Partnership International) 39,
190–194, 208
HAPSARI women’s association
159–160
history, NGO accountability 9–13
Hulme, D. 184
Humanitarian Accountability Network
(HANet) 188
Humanitarian Accountability
Partnership International (HAP-I)
39, 190–194, 208
Humanitarian Accountability Project
International (HAP) 183–190
humanitarian aid, emergency 117, 162
humanitarian community 183–194
Humanitarian Ombudsman Project 184
human rights
freedom of association 5, 78
law 4, 70, 71, 185, 186
organizations 52, 74
Uganda 82

252NGO Accountability

ICC (International Chamber of
Commerce) 204
ICCR (Interfaith Center on Corporate
Responsibility) 122–123
ICDRP (International Committee on
Dams, Rivers and Peoples) 217,
218–219, 226
ICFTU (International Confederation of
Free Trade Unions) 204, 205
ICJ (International Court of Justice) 23
ICNL (International Center for Not-for-
Profit Law) 64
ideas, marketplace of 35, 38–39
IFRC (International Federation of the
Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies) 204, 205
IGOs (intergovernmental organizations)
197–198, 200
illegal activities 31–32, 112
ILO (International Labour Organization)
22–23
IMF (International Monetary Fund) 116
individuals
accountability 30–31
donors 110, 120
freedom of association 75
Indonesia 147–162
Indonesian Legal Aid Foundation
(YLBHI) 156
informal sanctions 53
INGOs (international NGOs) 195–209
integrity, donors 123
interest groups 51
interest intermediation 49
Interfaith Center on Corporate
Responsibility (ICCR) 122–123
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
197–198, 200
interim representation 52
internal accountability 33, 129–130,
135–139
internal governance 54, 155
internal stakeholders 201
international advocacy campaigns
211–227
International Center for Not-for-Profit
Law (ICNL) 64
International Chamber of Commerce
(ICC) 204
International Committee on Dams,

Rivers and Peoples (ICDRP) 217,
218–219, 226
International Confederation of Free
Trade Unions (ICFTU) 204, 205
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 23
international development assistance
110, 117
International Federation of the Red
Cross and Red Crescent Societies
(IFRC) 204, 205
international human rights law 70, 71,
185, 186
International Labour Organization (ILO)
22–23
international law 185
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 116
international NGOs (INGOs) 195–209
international organizations 23–24, 133
International Rivers Network (IRN)
212, 213, 214, 215, 217, 222, 224

internet 140
investments 122
Iraq 117
IRN (International Rivers Network)
212, 213, 214, 215, 217, 222, 224

Israel 117
issues, emerging 84
Italy 110
IUCN (World Conservation Union) 216

Japan 110
Johns, Gary 27
Joint Energy and Environment Project
215
Joint Evaluation of the International
Response to the Genocide in
Rwanda 183
Joint Working Group on Accountability
in International Giving 126

Kanambut, ActionAid International
Uganda 174–177, 182
Kapchorwa Land Rights Centre, Uganda
179, 180–181
Kaplan, Allan 173
Kingsbury, Benedict 28
Klein, N. 117
KPMM (Consortium for the
Development of Civil Society) 161

Index253

Land Act (1998, Uganda) 178, 179
landmine removal 4
land policies, Uganda 177–179
Land Rights Information Centres
178–179
Lasswell, Harold D. 30
laws 63, 78, 84–88, 133, 143
Law on Welfare Donations, China 133
Lawyers Committee for Human Rights
(nowHuman Rights First) 67, 71

leaders 90
learning, ActionAid International
Uganda (AAIU) 174, 175
legal accountability 45–46, 47, 48
legality, challenge to 7
legitimacy 211, 213, 221
Leo XIII, Pope 22
‘Letter of Appeal for Accountability and
Self-Discipline among Chinese
NPOs’ 134–135

liability 86
Lijiang Mothers Association 129, 140
Lindahl, Goran 216
literature, NGO accountability 24–30
lobbying 112
local authorities, Uganda 83
Local Government Act 85
local politicians 88
LP3ES (Agency for Research, Education,
Economic and Social Development)
157

MacNeill, Jim 223–224
Mallaby, Sebastian 222
malpractice 157
management 35
Manibeli Declaration 217
market liberalization 10
marketplace of ideas 35, 38–39
market regulation 198
MBOs (mutual benefit organizations)
66, 70, 74
McCully, Patrick 217, 226
McDougal, Myres S. 30
McNeil Consumer Products 118
MDG (Millennium Development Goals)
118, 124
Mdhavani Group 212
media 140, 141, 151, 221–222
mediation 178

medical ethics 192
Megawati Soekarnoputri 153
membership organizations 51, 153
Mertus, Julie 27
Microsoft 120
Migrant Women’s Club 138
Millennium Declaration 124
Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
118, 124
misconduct 63
mission, NGOs 4
multilateral organizations 110
multinational corporations 133–134
Museveni, Yoweri 221–222
mutual benefit organizations (MBOs)
66, 70, 74

National Association of Professional
Environmentalists (NAPE)
212–213, 214, 215, 221, 222, 224
national NGO council 89
National Resistance Movement (NRM)
82
negative accountability 139
new approaches, accountability 196
New York Times24, 206
NGO Registration Amendment Bill
2000, Uganda 81, 85–88
NGO Registration Board 85, 86
NGO Statute (1988/9) 85, 87
NGO Watch 38
NGO Working Group 68, 78
‘Nine Principles of Self-Discipline for
Chinese NPOs’ 134–135
non-membership organizations 51
non-profit sector, Indonesia 147
non-state actors 185, 186
not-for-profit organizations (NPOs) 130
NRM (National Resistance Movement)
82

OECD 124, 200
One World Trust (OWT) 195, 201–207,
208
operational activities 7, 33, 39
organizational change, ActionAid
International Uganda (AAIU)
171–174
organizational responsibilities 4
outward accountability 175

254NGO Accountability

overseas development assistance 110,
117
OWT (One World Trust) 195, 201–207,
208
Oxfam International 204, 205

Panel of Eminent Persons on United
Nations-Civil Society Relations 29,
38
paralegals 178, 179–181
parallel summits 39
participation 144, 202
participatory democracy 211–227
Participatory Review and Reflection
Processes, ActionAid International
Uganda (AAIU) 175–177
Patkar, Medha 216
PBOs (public benefit organizations) 66,
70–71, 74
PCNC (Philippine Council for NGO
Certification) 93–106, 158
People in Aid 184
performance 35, 38–39, 191
Pergau Dam, Malaysia 111
perkumpulan(associations, Indonesia)
151, 153
Permanent Court of International Justice
(PCIJ) 23
perspectives, sharing 100
phantom aid 111
philanthropy 110, 112–113, 154
Philip Morris 118
Philippine Business for Social Progress
94–95
Philippine Council for NGO
Certification (PCNC) 93–106, 158
PIW (Public Interest Watch) 119
policy-making 119
political accountability 46, 47–48
political context, NGOs 5, 206–207
political power 45–46
portfolios 122
positive accountability 139
Pottinger, Lori 212
poverty 10
Poverty Eradication Action Plan 83
power 113, 115, 116, 125, 197
‘Power without Accountability?’
203–207
press seemedia

pressure groups 51
private non-enterprise entities 130, 131
private philanthropy 110
private sector seecorporations
privatization 10, 88
professional supervisory units 136–137
professional voluntary associations 83
property 116
public benefit organizations (PBOs) 66,
70–71, 74
public goods 132, 141
public interest 52, 66, 71, 111
Public Interest Watch (PIW) 119
public opinion 36
public policy 4, 6
public reputation 53
public sphere 53, 56, 148, 225
public trust 13

quality control 101

redress, GAP model 202
reflection, opportunity for 100
reformasi period, Indonesia 151, 161
registration 137–138
regulation 61–79, 133, 135–139,
151–153
Regulations on the Management of
Foundations, China 133, 136
Regulations on the Registration
Management of Private Non-
Enterprise Units, China 136
Regulations on the Registration
Management of Social
Organizations, China 136
religious organizations 110, 119–120
reporting, NGO activities 66, 71–72
representation 35–37, 44–45, 49–53
representative democracies 44–45
representative government 46–49
repressive governments 76, 113–114
reputation 53
Rerum NovarumEncyclical on Capital
and Labor (1891) 22
research institutes 119
Research Triangle Institute (RTI) 117
responsibilities 4, 6, 34
rights 6, 114
rights-based approach 12–13, 193
roundtables 39

Index255

RTI (Research Triangle Institute) 117
Rwanda 183

SAI (Social Accountability International)
39
Sanger, Sophy 22
Satunama Foundation 158
Saul, Graham 212
Save Bujagali Crusaders (SBC) 212–213
Save the Children UK 207–208
Scholte, Jan Aart 27
Schweitz, Martha L. 26–27
scrutiny 200, 221–227
self-policing 224–225
self-regulation 66, 76, 89–90, 190–191
Serikan Perumpuan Independen (Free
Women’s Association) 160
Sesia, Ado, Jr 224
sexual violence 189
shareholders 118
Shell Foundation 119
Sierra Leone 187
slavery 185
Slim, Hugo 28
social accountability 48, 54, 56
Social Accountability International (SAI)
39
social function 132
social legitimacy 140, 144
social movements 9, 51–52
social organizations 130, 131
social service delivery 4, 10
societal wealth 121
Society for Women’s Health Research
(SWHR) 118–119
Soeharto 150, 152
Sphere project 183–184
spiritual traditions 120
Spiro, Peter J. 27–28
sponsorship 118
stakeholder democracy 114
stakeholders
China 129, 130, 132–134, 144
democratic accountability 114
expectations 132–134
external 201
INGOs 196, 207, 208
internal 201
One World Trust 201

responsibilities to 4
types 53
standards 32–33, 62, 90, 104
state supremacy 12
superior authority 45
sustainable human development 125
SWHR (Society for Women’s Health
Research) 118–119

Tan Ailing 131
tax

law 94, 138
rebates 111–112, 119, 120, 122
revenue 111
Tax Reform Act (1997), Philippines 95
terrorism 106, 112
think tanks 119
Three Freedoms Project 67
tied aid 111, 117
TNC (transnational corporations) 198,
200
Tocqueville, Alexis de 37
trade 84, 111
traditional approaches, accountability
196, 197
transnational corporations (TNCs) 198,
200
transparency
ActionAid International 170, 177
donors 12, 123
financial 177
GAP model 202
HAP-I 18
Indonesia 152
INGOs 205–206
Uganda 87
trust 13, 213
tsunami, Indonesia 162

Uganda 81–91, 167–182, 212–216, 226
Uganda Country Programme Review,
ActionAid International 172–173
Ugandan Debt Network 168
Ugandan Land Alliance (ULA) 168,
177–181
Uganda Participatory Poverty
Assessment Project 169
Uganda Wildlife Society 215
UN Charter 23

256NGO Accountability

UNDP Development Cooperation 124
UN Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC) 23–24
UN General Assembly 37–38
United Nations seeUN
United States seeUS
United Way International (UWI) 134
UN Panel of Eminent Persons on United
Nations-Civil Society Relations 29,
38
unsustainable debt 4
upward accountability 113, 116, 169
US 110, 111, 112
US-China Business Council 134
US Council of Foundations 126
UWI (United Way International) 134

Vadera, Meenu 171
vertical accountability 28
‘Village Women Working Group’ 159
voluntary certification 89–90
voluntary corporate responsibility 122

Wal-Mart 111
war on terror 8, 184
watchdog organizations 150, 161,
167–168, 190, 217

A Watershed in Global Governance? An
Independent Assessment of the
World Commission on Dams

220–221
Watson, Andrew 142
WDM (World Development Movement)
111
wealth 110, 120, 121
wealthy individuals 110, 120
whistle-blowing 140
widows, Uganda 180
Wolfensohn, James 216
women’s groups 84
World Bank
accountability 116
Bujagali Dam 212, 213

Developing Standards for NGO Laws
62, 64–79

Draft Handbook on Good Practices
for Laws Relating to NGOs61–79
Inspection Panel 24
NGO Working Group 68, 78
Philippines 103
scrutiny 200
states’ role in development 12
World Commission on Dams 216
World Bank-NGO Committee 68
World Commission on Dams 216–221
World Conservation Union (IUCN) 216
World Development Movement (WDM)
111
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Agreement on Technical Barriers to
Trade (TBT) 32
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects
of Intellectual Property Rights
(TRIPS) 40
China 142
Consultative Board 29–30
health NGOs 40
political context 206
scrutiny 200
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
204, 205
WTO seeWorld Trade Organization
WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature)
204, 205
Wyeth 119

Xie Lihua 138

YAPPIKA 159
yayasan(foundations, Indonesia)
151–153, 155
YLBHI (Indonesian Legal Aid
Foundation) 156

Zimbabwe 208

Index257

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